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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

189

Form

(a) Dat. s. all end in - (whether subscript or not).


(b) Dat. pls. all end in - or -() (but note the exceptions: , .)
(c) Type 3 nouns:
(i)

those with stems ending in -- have dat. pl. in -(), e.g. participles
like - with stem - produce the dat. pl. ().*
(ii) those in -- have dat. pl. in -().
(iii) those with a single consonant at the end of the stem either drop it in the
dat. pl. (, stem -, dat. pl. ) or let it coalesce with the
of the ending (, stem -, dat. pl. [= -]).
See also 359.

* Ouch! For the form () can be either 3rd pl. pres. indic. they stop or a m./n. dat. pl. of
the pres. participle! Only context will tell you which.

E X E RC IS E S
Select from the list according to need.
9AE: 1. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
1ac type nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9AE: 2. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following 1d
type nouns:
1.
2.

3.
4.

9AE: 3. Give the meaning and (where possible) dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of
the following 3d type nouns:
1.
2.

3.

9AE: 4. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
2ab type nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9AE: 5. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. in all genders of the following type
2-1-2 adjectives:
1.
2.

3.
4.

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Grammar for Section 9AE

5.
6.
7.
8.

179

9.
10. (N.B. irregular stem)
11. (N.B. irregular stem)
12.

9AE: 6. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
type 3c nouns:
1.
2.

3.

9AE: 7. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
3ab type nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

9AE: 8. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. in all genders of the following 3rd
declension and 3-1-3 adjectives/participles:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

9AE: 9. Give the meaning and (where possible) dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of
the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

9AE: 10. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Usage

190. The most common uses of the dat. are as follows:


(a) To express an indirect object. Indirect objects are most often found after
verbs of giving or saying: they are the person or thing to whom something is
given or said (or for whom something is done). In English, indirect objects are
regularly introduced by to, e.g.

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

190

speak to the spectators


he offers this to me

[N.B. In English if the indirect object is sandwiched between the verb and
direct object the word to is omitted: for example, the last sentence could
also be translated he offers me this.]
(b) To express the idea of possession with the verb to be, e.g.

(lit.) there is to me a father, i.e. I have a father

(c) To show the means by which or instrument with which something is


achieved, usually expressed in English with by, by means of or with, e.g.
we guard the old man with
the nets
(d) To show the way in which something is done (rather like an adverb), again
usually expressed by the English with, e.g.

with much enthusiasm, enthusiastically

(e) Certain verbs take the dat., e.g.

()

I use, have to do with, treat


I obey, trust in
I fall on, attack
I meet with
I follow
it seems a good idea (to me)

(f) Certain adjectives take the dat., e.g.

resembling, like, the same as

(g) With prepositions, e.g.

in
on, for the purpose of
with, near
near, in addition to
with (the help of)

Note that , and have different meanings depending on the case


they take. See 390.
(h) Note the two expressions:
(a)
(b)

baggage and all


in theory but in fact , i.e. outwardly something appears to be the
case, but the reality is very different.

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Grammar for Section 9AE

181

EX E RCIS E
9AE: 11. Translate into Greek:
1. It seems to Socrates
2. I follow you (pl.)
3. I meet with the king
4. In the ships
5. It seems to us
6. In addition to the spectators

7. With our help (with the help of us)


8. I use you (s.)
9. I follow them
10. In the crowd
11. For the purpose of victory
12. In word/theory but in fact

TIME PHRASES

191. Greek can express the idea of time by the use of case alone:
Accusative (throughout)

The acc. case expresses a length of time, the time throughout which something happens (often expressed in English by for), e.g.
o he stayed in the house for 10 days
he sleeps (for) the whole night
Genitive (within)

The gen. case expresses time within which something happens (generally
expressed in English by during, in the course of, within or simply in), e.g.
he judges during the night/in (the course of) the
night
I shall return within/in ten days
Dative (on)

The dat. case expresses the point of time at which something happens
(English at, on), e.g.
he left on the following day
he returned on the third day, i.e. two days
later
A visual representation may help:
he acc. case (length of time)
may be considered
he gen. case
he dat. case (point at which)

as a line
as a circle (the action is taking
place somewhere within the circle but
one doesnt know where.)
as a dot .

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