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Research India Publications

http://www.ripublication.com/iraer.htm

Modes of Vibrations

Mili J. Hota and D.P. Vakharia

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present a practical understanding of

terminology and behavior based in visualizing how a shaft vibrates,

and examining issues that affect vibration. The paper also presents the

synchronous critical speeds of rotor-bearing systems. The majority of

attention is on the unbalance excitation of natural frequencies with

whirling and spinning in same direction. Most rotor dynamic analyses

typically ignore the potential for critical speeds to be created by

traversing a backward processional whirl mode. While not commonly

recognized, a backward mode can be excited using unbalance as the

driving force. One of the major areas of interest in the modern-day

condition monitoring of rotating machinery is that of vibration. If a

fault develops and goes undetected, then, at best, the problem will not

be too serious and can be remedied quickly and cheaply; at worst, it

may result in expensive damage and down-time, injury, or even loss of

life. By measurement and analysis of the vibration of rotating

machinery, it is possible to detect and locate important faults such as

mass unbalance, shaft alignment, rub and cracked shafts vibration. This

paper helps to learn the basic modes of vibrations and predicting

critical speed by practical approach and also concludes some important

practical recommendations on rotor-bearing design so that unique

critical speed situation may be avoided.

Index Terms: Critical speed, Gyroscopic, high-speed, natural

Frequency, resonances, stiffness, vibration mode.

1. Introduction

The unique characteristics of rotating machinery vibration, the terminology and

behavior of a machine are been discussed. Like most specialty areas, there are a

242

number of excellent texts, but it can be difficult to quickly pull out the practical insight

needed. At the other end of the spectrum, there is also a large number of

troubleshooting resources that focus on identification of problems and characteristics,

but only offer limited insight. Discussion of recent combined experimental and

analytical effort raised the possibility of an article that would attempt to provide a

deeper insight into some of the basic characteristics of rotating machinery vibration

from a less mathematical perspective.

Thus in this article several issues that are basic to an understanding of rotating

machinery vibration are been discussed:

What are critical speeds?

How do critical speeds relate to resonances and natural frequencies?

How do natural frequencies change as the shaft rotational speed changes?

How are shaft rotational natural frequencies different from more familiar

natural frequencies and modes in structures?

What effects do bearing characteristics have?

2. Vibration Intuition

2.1 A Brief Review of Structural Vibration

As engineers, we learn that vibration characteristics are determined by a structures

mass and stiffness values, with damping (ability to dissipate vibrational energy)

playing an integral role by controlling amplitudes. This education generally starts with

the simplest possible system a rigid mass attached to a spring as shown in Fig. 1[1].

With this simple system, we quantify our intuition about vibrational frequency (heavier

objects result in lower frequency, stiffer springs yield higher frequency). After some

work, we reach the conclusion that the free vibration frequency is controlled by the

square root of the ratio of stiffness to mass as shown in Fig. 1. We could then add a

viscous damper parallel with the spring, and provide a sinusoidal force as shown in

Fig. 2[3]. By carefully applying a constant amplitude sinusoidal force that slowly

increases in frequency and recording the amplitude of the motion, we could then

generate the classic normalized frequency responses of a spring-mass-damper system.

By repeating the test with a variety of dampers, the classic frequency response shown

in Fig. 3 can be developed. Assuming we knew the mass, stiffness and damping of our

system, this response is also predicted quite well by the standard frequency domain

solution to the differential equation of motion for this system shown in Equation 1[2].

Amplitude =

F0

k

2

m 2 c

1

+

(1)

There are several noteworthy points about these frequency responses. The first is

that at low excitation frequencies, the response amplitude is roughly constant and

greater than zero. The amplitude is governed by the ratio of the applied force to the

243

s

is thhat the respo

onse increases to a peaak, then rap

pidly

decrreases in the low and mediuum dampin

ng cases. This peakk frequency

y is

apprroximately the dampedd natural freequency, (m

more techniccally correcct, it is the peak

p

respponse frequuency, whicch moves down in frequency

f

f

from

the ddamped nattural

freqquency as damping

d

inccreases). Thhe system iss said to bee in resonaance when

n the

exciitation frequuency matchhes the dam

mped naturall frequency.. Very largee amplitudess are

posssible when the excitattion frequenncy is closee to this freequency. Thhe amplitud

de is

conttrolled by the

t magnituude of the damping

d

(more dampinng reduces tthe amplitud

des).

Thee high dampping case haas no real peak,

p

and is said to be overdampeed. Finally

y, the

ampplitude continues to deccrease for alll higher freequencies. These

T

characcteristics wiill be

conttrasted withh the response of a rootating systeem to unbaalance excittation in a later

secttion. Movinng from the simple singgle mass system to muultimass systtems, the baasics

do not

n change. Natural freqquencies aree still primaarily relatedd to mass and stiffness, with

som

me changes due to daamping. Exxcitation freequency eqqual to a ddamped nattural

freqquency is a resonance.. Excitationn near a ressonance cann result in llarge ampliitude

respponses. Respponse amplitudes are controlled

c

by

y damping. With enouggh damping

g, the

respponse peak can be com

mpletely elim

minated. The biggest chhange is thaat there are now

mulltiple naturaal frequenccies and that each nattural frequeency has a correspon

nding

uniqque mode-shape wiith differennt parts off the structture vibratinng at diffeerent

ampplitudes andd differing phases

p

relative to one an

nother.

F 1: Simpple spring-m

Fig.

mass- system

m

with annd without damper.

d

Fig. 3:

3 Frequencyy response oof spring mass

dampeer system to constant am

mplitude forrce.

S

sprinng- Fig. 4: Basic macchine modell cross sectiion.

m

masssystem

m

2444

haria

R

M

Machine

Thee rotating machinery

m

e

equivalent

to the sing

gle spring-m

mass dampper system is a

lum

mped mass on

o a massless, elastic shaft. Thiss model, hiistorically rreferred to as a

Jefffcott or Laval model, is a singlee degree of freedom syystem that iss generally used

u

to inntroduce rottor dynamicc characteriistics. This model, shoown in crosss-section in Fig.

4[5]], consists of

o a rigid ceentral disk, a shaft (witth stiffness and mass) and two rig

gidly

mouunted bearinngs.

Non

nrotating Dynamics

D

Supppose that ouur simple machine

m

is not

n spinning

g, that the bearings havve essentiallly no

dam

mping, and that

t the bearrings have equal

e

radial stiffness inn the verticaal and horizo

ontal

direections (all typical charracteristics of ball beaarings). Let us also supppose that there

t

are three versioons of this machine,

m

onne each with

h soft, interrmediate and stiff beariings.

Through eitheer analysis or a moodal test, we wouldd find a set of nattural

freqquencies/moodes. At eaach frequenncy, the mo

otion is plaanar (just liike the pin

nnedpinnned beam). This behaviior is what we

w would expect

e

from a static struucture. Fig. 5[3]

show

ws the first three modee shapes andd frequenciees for the thhree bearingg stiffnessess. As

withh the beam

m, the thickk line show

ws the shafft centerlinne shape at the maxim

mum

dispplacement. As

A it vibrattes, it movees from thiss position too the same location on

n the

oppposite side of

o the dispplaced centeerline, and back. Notee that the rratio of beaaring

stifffness to shafft stiffness has

h a signifi

ficant impacct on the moode-shapes. For the softt and

inteermediate beearings, thee shaft doess not bend very muchh in the low

wer two mo

odes.

Thuus, these aree generally referred to as rigid rotor

r

modees. As the bbearing stifffness

incrreases (or ass shaft stiffn

fness decreaases), the am

mount of shhaft bendingg increases. One

inteeresting featuure of the mode

m

shapess is how thee central disk moves. Inn the first mode,

m

the disk translaates withouut rocking. In

I the secon

nd mode, itt rocks withhout translaation.

Thiss general chharacteristicc repeats ass the frequeency increaases. If we m

moved the disk

off-center, we would findd that the motion

m

is a mix of trannslation andd rocking. This

charracteristic will

w give rise to some interesting

i

behavior

b

onnce the shaft

ft starts rotaating.

If we

w repeatedd the constant amplituude excitatiion frequenncy sweep eexperiment,, we

wouuld get veryy similar beehavior as with

w the spring-mass-ddamper systtem plot sh

hown

prevviously. Theere would be

b a spring-ccontrolled deflection

d

att low frequeencies, a peaak in

ampplitude, and adecay in amplitude

a

w further increases

with

i

inn frequency.

stiffness,, shaft not rootating.

sh

hape and freequencies inn rpm.

Fig. 7:

7 Whirl sennse.

245

Fig. 8:

8 Effect of operating

o

sppeed on 1st

m

modes.

ndrical Mo

odes

Sincce rotating machinery

m

has to rotatte to do useeful work, leets consideer what happ

pens

to thhe first modde of our rootor once itt is spinning

g. Again, we

w will havee three diffeerent

verssions with increasing

i

b

bearing

stifffness, and we will asssume our suupport bearrings

have equal stifffness in alll radial direections. Lets repeat ouur analysis/m

modal test with

the shaft spinniing at 10 rppm, and loook at the frequency andd mode shappe of the low

west

b

show

ws the frequ

uencies and mode shapees or the low

west

natuural frequenncy. Fig. 6 below

modde of the thhree machines. Note that

t

the shaape of the motion hass changed. The

freqquencies, thoough, are quuite close too the nonrottating first mode.

m

As in the nonrotaating

casee, the beariing stiffnesss to shaft stiffness

s

ratiio has a strrong impacct on the modem

shappe. Again, the case wiith almost no

n shaft beending is reeferred to as a rigid mode.

m

Theese modes look very much

m

like the non ro

otation moddes, but theey now inv

volve

circcular motionn rather thann planar mottion.

To visualizze how the rotor

r

is movving, first im

magine swinging a jum

mp rope aro

ound.

Thee rope tracees the outliine of a buulging cylin

nder. Thus, this modee is sometiimes

refeerred to as a cylindriccal mode. Viewed fro

om the fronnt, the ropee appears to

o be

bouuncing up and

a down. Thus, this mode is also

a

sometimes called a bouncee or

trannslatory mode. The whhirling motiion of the ro

otor (the juumprope m

motion) can be

b in

the same directtion as the shafts

s

rotattion or in the opposite direction.

d

This gives risse to

the labels forw

ward whirl and backkward whirl.. Fig. 7[8] shows rotoor cross secttions

overr the coursse of time for both syynchronous forward annd synchroonous backw

ward

whiirl. Note thhat for forw

ward whirl, a point on the surfacee of the rotoor moves in

n the

sam

me direction as the whirl.

Thus, for syynchronous forward whhirl (unbalan

nce excitation, for exam

mple), a poiint at

the outside of the rotor reemains to the

t outside of the whirrl orbit[9]. With backw

ward

whiirl, on the other

o

hand, a point at the surface of the rootor moves in the oppo

osite

direection as thee whirl to the inside of the

t whirl orrbit during thhe whirl.

To see how

w a wider raange of shafft speeds ch

hanges the situation,

s

wee could perfform

the analysis/moodal test wiith a range of

o shaft speeeds from non

n spinningg to high sp

peed.

We could thenn follow the forward annd backward

d frequencies associateed with the first

modde. Fig. 8 plots

p

the foorward (red line) and backward

b

(

(black

dasheed line) natural

246

frequencies over a wide shaft speed range. This plot is often referred to as a Campbell

Diagram. From this figure, we can see that the frequencies of this cylindrical mode do

not change very much over the speed range. The backward whirl mode drops slightly,

and the forward whirl mode increases slightly (most noticeably in the high stiffness

case). The reason for this change will be explored in the next section.

Now that we have explored the cylindrical mode, lets look at the second set of modes.

Fig. 9 shows the next frequencies and mode-shapes for the three machines. The

frequencies are close to the nonrotating modes where the disk was rocking without

translating. The modes look a lot like the nonrotating modes, but again involve circular

motion rather than planar motion. To visualize how the rotor is moving, imagine

holding a rod stationary in the center, and moving it so that the ends trace out two

circles. The rod traces the outline of two bulging cones pointed at the center of the rod.

Thus, this mode is sometimes referred to as a conical mode. Viewed from the side,

the rod appears to be rocking up and down around the center, with the left side being

out-of-phase from that on the right. Thus, this mode is also sometimes called a rock

mode or a pitch mode.

As with the first mode and the nonrotating modes, the low bearing stiffness mode

is generally referred to as a rigid mode, and a high bearing stiffness pulls in the rotor

ends. As with the cylindrical mode, the whirl can be in the same direction as the rotors

spin (forward whirl), or the opposite direction (backward whirl).

To see the effects of changing shaft speeds, we could again perform the

analysis/modal test from non spinning to a high spin speed and follow the two

frequencies associated with the conical mode. Fig. 10 plots the forward (red line) and

backward (black dashed line) natural frequencies over a wide speed range. From this

figure, we can see that the frequencies of the conical modes do change over the speed

range. The backward mode drops in frequency, while the forward mode increases.

The explanation for this surprising behavior is a gyroscopic effect that occurs

whenever the mode shape has an angular (conical/rocking) component. First consider

forward whirl. As shaft speed increases, the gyroscopic effects essentially act like an

increasingly stiff spring on the central disk for the rocking motion. Increasing stiffness

acts to increase the natural frequency. For backward whirl, the effect is reversed.

Increasing rotor spin speed acts to reduce the effective stiffness, thus reducing the

natural frequency (as a side note, the gyroscopic terms are generally written as a skewsymmetric matrix added to the damping matrix the net result, though, is a stiffening/

softening effect). In the case of the cylindrical modes, very little effect of the

gyroscopic terms was noted, since the center disk was whirling without any conical

motion. Without the conical motion, the gyroscopic effects do not appear. Thus, for the

soft bearing case, which has a very cylindrical motion, no effect was observed, while

for the stiff bearing case, which has a bulging cylinder (and thus conical type motion

near the bearings), a slight effect was noted.

247

r

at 10

1 rpm,2nd mode Fig

g. 10: Effectt of opperatting speed on

o

shapes and

a frequenncies in rpm

m

2nd naatural frequeencies

F

o different disk

d

properties, center diskk configuration

Fig

g. 11: Compparison of ddifferent dissk

properties, overhung

o

coonfiguration

Now

w that we have seen how gyroscopic effeccts act to change the rotating natural

freqquency wheenever theree is motion with some conical com

mponent, leets look at two

sets of single disk rotors. In

I each casee, there will be a nominnal rotor, a hheavy disk ro

otor,

d

loonger disk rotor.

r

The heavy

h

disk differs

d

from

m the nominal in

and a smaller diameter,

thatt a fictitiouss mass equaal to the diskk mass is atttached (i.e., mass incrreases, but mass

m

mom

ment of ineertia is unchhanged). Thhe smaller, longer dissk is the saame weight,, but

smaaller in diam

meter and greater

g

in length.

l

This smaller disk

d

has redduced the mass

m

mom

ment of ineertia about the

t spin axxis (polar moment Ipp) by a facttor of 0.53, and

reduuces the mass

m

momennt of inertiia about th

he disk diam

meter (Id) by a facto

or of

0.655[11].

For the firsst case, letss use a symm

metric, centter disk rotoor again. Figg. 12 showss the

threee models, and

a the threee sets of natural

n

freq

quencies verrsus speed. Comparing

g the

nom

minal modell to the two modified veersions, notee that:

The inccreased masss lowers thhe first mode frequenccies (mass is at a poin

nt of

large whirling

w

motiion).

The inccreased masss leaves thee second mo

ode unchanged (increased mass iss at a

point off little whirlling motion)).

248

The reduced mass moment of inertia version does not change the first mode

(disk center of gravity has very little conical motion).

The reduced mass moment of inertia increases the frequency of the second

mode, and decreases the strength of the gyroscopic effect (disk center of

gravity has substantial conical motion).

For the second case, lets move the disk to the end, and move the bearing inboard

to result in an overhung rotor with the same mass and overall length. Fig. 14 shows the

three models and the three sets of natural frequencies versus speed. Comparing the

nominal model to the two modified versions, the important things to note are:

The increased mass lowers the first mode frequencies and very slightly lowers the

second mode frequencies.

The reduced mass moment of inertia version increases the frequency of both the

first and second modes, and decreases the strength of the gyroscopic effect.

If we looked at the mode shapes and these plots, we would again see that the

reasons are the same as for the center disk rotor. Changes in affect the natural

frequency of that mode but have little effect if it is at a node. Changes to mass moment

of inertia at a location of large whirl orbit, on the other hand, have little effect.

Changes to mass moment of inertia at a node with large conical motions have a strong

effect on the corresponding mode. Although not entirely obvious from the plots

presented, changes in the ratio of polar mass moment of inertia to diametric mass

moment of inertia change the strength of the gyroscopic effect. Indeed, for a very thin

disk (a large ratio), the forward conical mode increases in speed so rapidly that the

frequency will always be greater than the running speed. Indeed, there will be no

conical critical speed as defined below.

2.4 Critical Speeds

With some insight into rotating machinery modes, we can move on to critical speeds.

The American Petroleum Institute(API), in API publication 684 (First Edition, 1996),

defines critical speeds and resonances as follows:

Critical Speed A shaft rotational speed that corresponds to the peak of a

noncritically damped (amplification factor > 2.5) rotor system resonance

frequency. The frequency location of the critical speed is defined as the

frequency of the peak vibration response as defined by a Bod plot (for

unbalance excitation).

Resonance The manner in which a rotor vibrates when the frequency of a

harmonic (periodic) forcing function coincides with a natural frequency of the

rotor system.

Thus, whenever the rotor speed passes through a speed where a rotor with the

appropriate unbalance distribution excites a corresponding damped natural frequency,

and the output of a properly placed sensor displays a distinct peak in response versus

speed, the machine has passed through a critical speed. Critical speeds could also be

referred to as peak response speeds.

249

a distinct from critiical speedss as defineed by the API

speccification.

As a criticaal speed exaample, we will

w use thee medium sttiffness, cennter disk mo

odel,

and add an unbbalance distrribution thaat excites thee first three modes. Wee will also add

a a

smaall amount of dampinng at the bearings.

b

Fig.

F

13 shoows the reesulting verrtical

dispplacement reesponse duee to the unbbalance forcces at the leeft bearing aas a functio

on of

speeed. The dam

mped naturaal frequencyy versus speeed plot (Caampbell Diaagram) is drrawn

beloow for referrence.

mparison bettween naturral Fig. 14:

1 Phase reelationship oof center off

frequenciees and criticcal speeds.

orbit veersus center of mass thrrough critical

s

speed.

3.1 Characteriistics of Un

nbalance Exxcitation

A careful compparison of thhe previouss set of unbalance response plot inn Figures 13

3 for

the center diskk machine, and

a the freqquency resp

ponse plot for

fo the sprinng-mass-dam

mper

struucture in Figg. 3 reveals two

t significcant differen

nces. At low

w frequenciees, the structural

plott shows a reesponse equaal to the staatic responsee, whereas the

t unbalancce response plot

startts out with no responsse. Likewisse, at higheer frequenciies, the struuctural response

decaays, while thhe unbalancce response tends to a constant

c

valuue at higherr speeds.

These two differences are the ressult of the frequency

f

d

dependency

of the consstant

ampplitude sinussoidal forcee versus unbbalance exciitation.

The struuctural exciitation was assumed to be a constaant force at all frequen

ncies,

while unbalance

u

exxcitation haas a speed-squared. At zero rpm, thhere is no force

f

from unnbalance exccitation, whhich explain

ns the first diifference nooted.

The seccond differrence thaat the unbaalance respoonse amplitude goes to a

constannt value abovve the criticcal speed has

h a more interesting

i

eexplanation.

We can seee what occuurs by referring to Fig. 14. This Figg. plots the relative ang

gular

relaationship beetween the unbalance

u

location and

d rotor response as rotor speed paasses

throough a criticcal speed. Below

B

the critical

c

speeed, the unbaalance acts to pull the disk

out into an orbbit that grow

ws increasingly large with speed. At the criitical speed, the

rotoor response lags the unbalance by approxiimately 90. Howeveer after passsing

250

through the critical speed, the phase between the unbalance force and the response

direction has changed by 180. As a result, the disk now rotates around the mass center

of the disk/unbalance. Once the disk achieves this state, further increases in speed do

not change the amplitude until the effects of the next mode are observed.

5. Conclusions

It was shown that cylindrical rotor modes are not influenced by gyroscopic effects and

remain at a fairly constant frequency versus rotor speed. Conversely, conical rotor

modes are indeed influenced and caused to split into forward and backward whirl

components that respectively increase and decrease in frequency with increased rotor

speed.

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[5]

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[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

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[14]

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