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UNIT- 1

Page. No.

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Introduction to rehabilitation and repairs

1.3

Site selection and site development errors

1.4

Design errors .....1

1.5

Construction errors

1.6

Material deficiencies

1.7

Operational errors

1.8

Principles of rehabilitation ....2


1.8.1

Elimination

1.8.2

Separation

1.8.3

Ventilation

1.9

General areas of repair/rehabilitation work ...2

1.10

Major types of repair

1.11

Brick walls

1.11.1

Problems with brick (structural problems)

1.11.2

A couple of don'ts for brick

1.11.3

Repair work

1.11.4

Removal of organic growth

1.12

1.13

...3

Plaster walls

1.12.1

Should you repair or replace? .....4

1.12.2

Plaster damage

RCC repairs

1.13.1

Problems in RCC structures

1.13.2

Form and pump technique

...5

1.13.3

Surface repair of vertical location (column)

1.13.4

Surface repair of overhead location (beam)

1.13.5

Advantages of form and pump technique

1.14

Conclusion

1.15

Condition assessment of buildings for repair

1.16

Objective of Assessment

1.17

Factors causing building distress

1.18

Rehabilitation and seismic retrofitting of buildings .7

1.19

Condition assessment of buildings

1.19.1

Main objective of condition assessment

1.19.2

Main steps of condition assessment

1.19.3

Typical visible detrimental to the safety of buildings

1.19.4

Main causes of such distress in buildings

1.20

1.21

1.22

Methodology of condition assessment ....9


1.20.1

Rapid (visual) investigation

1.20.2

Information needed for rapid investigation

1.20.3

Details in visual investigation

10

1.20.4

Observation of settlement or differential settlement of buildings

Detailed investigations .11


1.21.1

Need and actions

11

1.21.2

Tests for assessment of in-situ quality of reinforced concrete11

1.21.3

Test of concrete strength

12

1.21.4

Rebound hammer test

13

1.21.5

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) technique

14

1.21.6

Core tests

15

Partially destructive tests ..15


1.22.1

Penetration resistance

16

1.22.2

Pull-out testing

17

1.22.3

Pull-off method

17

1.22.4

Interpretation about corrosion based on chemical analysis 18

1.22.5

Location od steel reinforcement in RC structures by NDT

1.22.6

Samples of steel reinforcement for determining the strength 19

1.22.7

Corrosion of reinforcement in RC structures.

19
19

1.23

Soil profiles at the site ...19

1.24

Concluding remarks

20

UNIT 2
2.1

Durability

21

2.2

Material related failures

21

2.3

Environmental related causes of concrete durability problems

21

2.4

Thermal shrinkage

22

2.5

Factors affecting thermal stresses .23


2.5.1

Degree of restraint (kr )

23

2.5.2

Temperature change

24

2.6

Thermal properties of concrete

24

2.7

Extensibility and cracking ....26


2.7.1

Modulus of elasticity

26

2.7.2

Creep

26

2.7.3

Tensile strength

26

2.8

Environmental-related causes of concrete durability problems .26

2.9

Temperature

27

2.10

Environmental-related problems of temperature

28

2.10.1

Daily changes in temperature

28

2.10.2

Seasonal changes in temperature

28

2.11

Moisture

29

2.12

Environmental-related problem of moisture ....29


2.12.1

Carbonation

29

2.12.2

Moisture cycles

30

2.12.3

Contaminants

31

2.13

Physical factors

31

2.14

Environmental-related physical problems ...32

2.15

Cavitation

32

2.16

Fire

32

2.17

Biological factors

34

2.18

Masses on concrete.

34

2.19

Seaweed on concrete

34

2.20

Environmental-related biological problems

2.21

Classification of exposure conditions

35

2.22

Lack of durability

36

2.23

Factors affecting the duraility of concrete

2.24

Permeability of concrete

37

2.25

Chemical factors

38

2.26

35

36

2.25.1

Chemical corrosion

38

2.25.2

Chemical attack

40

Alkali aggregate reaction in concrete (AAR)

2.27 Sources of alkalis in concrete

..41
42

2.27.1

Cement

42

2.27.2

Pozzolans

42

2.27.3

Aggregate

43

2.27.4

Admixtures

43

2.27.5

Water

43

2.27.6

Alkalis from outside the concrete

..43

2.28

Alkali content and AAR

43

2.29

General types of AAR

44

2.30

Tests for aggregate reactivity

44

2.31

Deterioration of concrete due to aggressive agencies ...45

2.32

Chemical process

46

2.33

Main factors affecting sulphate attack

47

2.33.1

Cement type and content

47

2.33.2

Fly ash addition

48

2.33.3

Sulphate type and concentration ....48

2.33.4

Chloride Ions

48

2.33.5
2.34

2.35

Control of sulphate attack

48

Acid, carbonation, chloride attack & freeze-thaw effect ..49


2.34.1

Acid attack

49

2.34.2

Carbonation

50

2.34.3

Carbonation of concrete

50

2.34.4

Chloride attack

51

2.34.5

Freeze & thaw attack

52

2.34.6

Prevention

53

Cracks in concrete

53

2.35.1

Plastic shrinkage cracks

2.35.2

Measures to reduce-eliminate plastic shrinkage cracks 54

2.35.3

Plastic settlement cracks

54

2.35.4

Thermal shrinkage cracks

54

2.35.5

TSC in mass concrete due to heat of hydration

55

2.35.6

Thermal expansion and shrinkage

55

2.35.7

Early cracking mitigation strategies

56

2.36

Factors contributing for cracks in concrete

2.37

Fire and concrete structures

53

56

....57

2.37.1

Introduction

57

2.37.2

Effect of fire on building materials

58

2.37.3

Concrete

59

2.37.4

Steel

60

2.38

Fire resistance rating

..61

2.39

Fire endurance of structures

61

2.40

ASTM e119 standard fire test

61

2.41

Advanced analytical models

63

2.42

ACI 216 method

2.43

...63

Thickness requirements

65

2.44

Conclusion

64

UNIT - 3
3.1

Cracking in bricks and brickwork

66

3.2

Structural cracking of brickwork

66

3.3

Cracks in brick faces / Fire cracks

66

3.4

Cracking in concrete walls

3.5

Causes of cracks

67

3.6

Types of cracks

67

3.7

When should you be concerned?

68

3.8

Houses have cracks

68

3.9

Shrinkage cracks

68

3.10

Horizontal cracks in a basement foundation wall ..69

3.11

Settlement cracks

69

3.11.1

Settlement crack size

69

3.11.2

Direction of movement

70

3.11.3

Repaired and re-cracked

70

....67

3.12

Concrete slab surface defects: Causes, Prevention, Repair

.70

3.13

Blisters

70

3.14

Cracking

73

3.15

Cracking in concrete

74

3.16

Crazing

75

3.17

Curling

76

3.18

Delamination

...77

3.19

Discoloration

78

3.20

Dusting

81

3.21

Efflorescence

82

3.22

Low spots

83

3.23

Popouts

84

3.24

Scaling and mortar flaking

87

3.25

Spalling

89

3.26

Thin toppings and underlayments ..92

3.27

Analysis of surface defects

92

3.28

Structural and Non structural Cracks Introduction

93

3.29

Shrinkage cracking

93

3.29.1

Cracking due to reinforcement corrosion

93

3.29.2

Cracking due to drying during the curing

93

3.29.3

Types and location of structural cracks

94

3.29.4

The cracks in other parts of the building

94

3.29.5

Crack positions

95

3.29.6

Crack states

96

3.29.7

Crack port in a horseshoe 96

3.30

Crack study and discussion

97

3.31

Conclusion

98

3.32

Cracking in concrete walls

99

3.33

Causes of cracks

3.34

Types of cracks

99

3.35

Minimizing the problem

99

3.36

When should you be concerned

100

.99

UNIT 4
4.1

Repair of Concrete

103

4.1.1

Maintenance of Concrete

103

4.1.2

General Requirements for Quality Repair .104

4.1.3

Workmanship

104

4.1.4

Procedure

105

4.1.5
4.2

4.3

4.4

Materials

105

Concrete Repair System

106

4.2.1

Determine the Cause(s) of Damage

4.2.2

Evaluate the Extent of Damage

109

4.2.3

Evaluate the Need to Repair

109

4.2.4

Select the Repair Method

109

4.2.5

Prepare the Old Concrete for Repair

4.2.6

Concrete Removal

111

4.2.7

Reinforcing steel Preparation

112

4.2.8

Maintenance of Prepared area

112

4.2.9

Apply the Repair Method

113

4.3.10 Cure the Repair Properly

113

Causes of Damage to Concrete

107

110

..114

4.3.1

Excess Concrete Mix Water

114

4.3.2

Faulty Design

115

4.3.3

Construction Defects

116

4.3.4

Sulfate Deterioration

117

4.3.5

Alkali-Aggregate Reaction

118

4.3.6

Deterioration Caused by Cyclic Freezing and Thawing ..119

4.3.7

Abrasion-Erosion Damage

120

4.3.8

Cavitation Damage

120

4.3.9

Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel

121

4.3.10

Acid Exposure

4.3.11

Cracking

133

4.3.12

Structural Overloads

124

4.3.13

Multiple Causes of Damage

125

...122

Standard Methods of Concrete Repair


4.4.1

Surface Grinding

.125
126

4.4.2

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

Portland Cement Mortar

126

4.4.2.1

Preparation

127

4.4.2.2

Materials

127

4.4.2.3

Application

127

4.4.2.4

Curing

127

Dry Pack and Epoxy-Bonded Dry Pack .128


4.5.1

Preparation

128

4.5.2

Materials

129

4.5.3

Application

130

4.5.4.

Curing and Protection

130

Preplaced Aggregate Concrete

..130

4.6.1

Preparation

131

4.6.2

Materials

131

4.6.3

Application

131

4.6.4

Curing

131

Shotcrete

.133

4.7.1

Preparation

134

4.7.2

Materials

134

4.7.3

Application

135

4.7.4

Curing

135

Replacement Concrete

135

4.8.1

Preparation

136

4.8.2

Materials

137

4.8.3

Application

138

4.8.4

Curing and Protection

139

Epoxy-Bonded Epoxy Mortar

..140

4.9.1

Preparation

140

4.9.2

Materials

141

4.10

4.11

4.9.3

Mixing

141

4.9.4

Application

142

4.9.5

Curing

143

4.9.6

Safety

144

Epoxy-Bonded Replacement Concrete

.144

4.10.1

Preparation

144

4.10.2

Materials

144

4.10.3

Application

145

4.10.4

Curing

145

4.10.5

Safety

146

Polymer Concrete

..146

4.11.1

Preparation

147

4.11.2

Materials

147

4.11.3

Application

147

4.11.4

Curing

148

4.11.5

Safety

148

4.11.6

Storage

148

4.11.7

Mixing and Handling

148

4.11.8

Personal protective equipment

148

4.12 Thin Polymer Concrete Overlay

.149

4.12.1

Preparation

149

4.12.2

Materials

149

4.12.3

Mixing Sequence

150

4.12.4

Application

150

4.12.5

Curing and Protection

4.12.6

Safety

150

4.12.7

Storage

150

4.12.8

Mixing and Handling

151

.150

4.12.9

Personal protective equipment

151

4.13

Resin Injection

151

4.14

Epoxy Resins

151

4.15

Polyurethane Resins

152

4.15.1

Preparation

152

4.15.2

Materials

152

4.15.3

Injection Equipment

153

4.15.4

Application

153

4.16

Application of Epoxy Resin by Pressure Injection

154

4.17

Application of Polyurethane Resin by Pressure Injection .154

4.18

Cleanup

155

4.19

High Molecular Weight Metacrylic Sealing Compound

155

4.19.1

Preparation

156

4.19.2

Materials

156

4.19.3

Application

157

4.19.4

Curing and Protection

157

4.19.5

Safety

158

4.20

Polymer Surface Impregnation

4.21

Silica Fume Concrete

158

4.21.1

Preparation

159

4.21.2

Materials

159

4.21.3

4.21

Application

..158

160

4.21.4

Curing

160

4.21.5

Safety

160

Alkyl-Alkoxy Siloxane Sealing Compound .161


4.21.1

Preparation

161

4.21.2

Materials

161

4.21.3

Application

161

4.23

4.21.4

Curing

162

4.21.5

Safety

162

Use of Nonstandard Repair Methods

162

UNIT-5
5.1

Mechanism of Corrosion

163

5.2

Mechanisms in Concrete Deterioration by Corrosion of Embedded Steel 163

5.3

Carbonation

165

5.4

Chloride attack

165

5.5

Corrosion of Steel in Concrete

165

5.6

Reinforced Concrete in Dry conditions 167

5.7

Cathodic Protection Fundamentals

169

5.8

Waterproofing of Water Retaining Structures

172

5.9

Design Consideration & Precautions

172

5.10

Expansion and Contraction Joints

173

5.11

Polysulphides (PS) Sealant at Expansion and Contraction Joints 173

5.12

Construction Joints

174

5.13

Treatment at Fixtures like Pipes & Conduits

174

5.14

Waterbar

176

5.15

Waterproofing System - General Features

177

5.16

Selection of Waterproofng Material

178

5.16

Application on Raft Slab and External Walls 179

5.17

5.16.1

Surface Preparation

179

5.16.2

Priming

179

Application on PCC Below Raft Slab

5.18

Application on Retaining Wall

5.19

Conclusion

179
.179
180