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CE 366 SETTLEMENT (Problems & Solutions)

P. 1) LOAD UNDER A RECTANGULAR AREA (1)


Question:
The footing shown in the figure below exerts a uniform pressure of 300 kN/m2 to the soil.
Determine vertical stress increase due to uniform pressure, at a point of 4 m directly
under; (a) point A, (b) point B.
2m

2m

2m

2m
A

L Shaped Footing (Plan view)


Solution:
a) Point A;
2m
a

b
c

4m

1
2

z = q.Ir
By the use of Figure 1.6 in Lecture Notes, page 10;

For area 1 : A(abcfg)

z=4m

mz = 4

m = 4/4 = 1

nz = 2

n = 2/4 = 0.5

Ir = 0.12

For area 2 : A(cdef)

z=4m

mz = 2

m = 2/4 = 0.5

nz = 2

n = 2/4 = 0.5

Ir = 0.085

z = 300 (0.12 + 0.085) = 61.5 kPa


the stress at 4 m depth under point A due to 300 kN/m2 uniform pressure
b) Point B;
2m

2m

Area 1 = Area 2 = Area 3


mz = nz = 2

m = n = 2/4 = 0.5

Ir = 0.085

z = 300 (3 x 0.085)
= 76.5 kPa
the additional stress at 4 m depth under point B due to 300 kPa uniform
pressure

P. 2) LOAD UNDER A RECTANGULAR AREA (2)


Question:
A rectangular footing as shown in figure below exerts a uniform pressure of 420 kN/m2.
Determine the vertical stress due to uniform pressure at point A for a depth of 3 m.
6m

A uniform pressure of
420 kN/m2

2m
2

5m

Composite footing

Plan View
Solution:
2m

2m

2m
b

a
1.5 m

2m
h
1.5

d
e

For area (abkh) :


z=3m

mz = 4
nz = 3.5

m = 4 / 3 = 1.33
n = 3.5 / 3 = 1.17

Ir = 0.195

m = 3.5 / 3 = 1.17
n = 2 / 3 = 0.67

Ir = 0.151

m = 2 / 3 = 0.67
n = 1.5 / 3 = 0.5

Ir = 0.105

For area (bcdk) :


mz = 3.5
nz = 2
For area (defk) :
mz = 2
nz = 1.5

For area (fghk) :


mz = 4
nz = 1.5

m = 4 / 3 = 1.33
n = 1.5 / 3 = 0.5

Ir = 0.133

For area (ijkm) :


mz = nz = 2

m = n = 2 / 3 = 0.67

Ir = 0.117

z = I r
= 420 [ Ir 1 + Ir 2 + Ir 3 + Ir 4 - Ir 5 ]
= 420 [ 0.195 + 0.151 + 0.105 + 0.133 0.117 ]
z = 196.14 kPa
Note: Where do we use the vertical stress increase, z , values?
For example, in a consolidation settlement problem, stress increase, z, values are
needed to calculate settlement under a foundation loading. We make the following
calculations for a point located under the foundation at a certain depth (for example, at
the mid-depth of the compressible layer):
(1) First, calculate the initial effective vertical stress, v,o , before the building was
constructed,
(2) Then, find the vertical stress increase z at that depth, by using Boussinesq stress
distribution or by approximate methods (for example 2V: 1H approximation)
(3) Find the final effective vertical stress, v,f = v,o + z , after the building is
constructed.
(4) Use these values in calculating the settlement under the foundation.

P. 3) IMMEDIATE SETTLEMENT
Question:
A foundation 4

2 m, carrying a net uniform pressure of 200 kN/m2, is located at a

depth of 1.5 m in a layer of clay 5 m thick for which the value of Eu is 45 MN/m2. The
layer is underlain by a second layer, 10 m thick, for which the value of Eu is 80 MN/m2.
A hard stratum lies below the second layer. Ground water table is at the depth of
foundation. Determine the average immediate settlement under the foundation.
Hint: Since soil is SATURATED CLAY,

=0.5. So the following equation can be used:

S i 0 1

Solution:

qB
Eu

q = 200 kN/m2

1.5 m
2m
Eu = 45 MN/m2

3.5 m

Eu = 80 MN/m2
10 m

Hard stratum

S i 0 1

qB
Eu

q
B is the smaller dimension !

D
H

We obtain,
0 from D / B
1 from H / B and L / B

Hard stratum
D / B = 1.5 / 2 = 0.75 0 = 0.95 (Figure 3.3, p.62 Lecture Notes)
(1) Consider the upper layer with Eu = 45 MPa.
D
Eu = 45 MPa

H / B = 3.5 / 2 = 1.75
L/B=4/2=2

H = 3.5 m
Hard stratum

S i 1 0 1

1 = 0.65

qB
(200) 2
(0.95) (0.65)
5.49mm
Eu
45

(2) Consider the two layers combined with Eu = 80 MPa.


D

H / B = (3.5 + 10) / 2 = 6.75


L/B=4/2=2

1 = 0.9

Eu = 80 MPa

S i 2 0 1

H = 13.5 m

qB
(200) 2
(0.95) (0.9)
4.28mm
Eu
80

Hard stratum

(3) Consider the upper layer with Eu = 80 MPa.


D

H / B = 3.5 / 2 = 1.75
L/B=4/2=2

Eu = 80 MPa

H = 3.5 m

S i 3 0 1

Hard stratum

1 = 0.65

qB
(200) 2
(0.95) (0.65)
3.08mm
Eu
80

Using the principle of superposition, the settlement of the foundation is given by;
Si = Si 1 + Si 2 - Si 3
Si = 5.49 + 4.28 3.08

Si = 6.69 mm
P. 4) SCHMERTMAN
Question:
A soil profile consists of deep, loose to medium dense sand (dry = 16 kN/m3 , sat = 18
kN/m3). The ground water level is at 4 m depth. A 3.5 m x 3.5 m square footing rests at 3
m depth. The total (gross) load acting at the foundation level (footing weight + column
load + weight of soil or footing) is 2000 kN. Estimate the elastic settlement of the footing
6 years after the construction using influence factor method (Schmertman, 1978).
End resistance values obtained from static cone penetration tests are;
Depth (m)

qc (kN/m2)

0.00 2.00

8000

2.00 - 4.75

10000

4.75 - 6.50

8000

6.50 12.00

12000

12.00 15.00

10000

Note that;
for square footing; z (depth)(from foundation level)
0
B/2
2B
Where; B : width of footing

Es = 2.0 qc

Iz (strain factors)
0.1
0.5
0.0

Solution:
Si = C1 C2 qnet

Iz
z
E

qnet = net foundation pressure

C1 1 0.5

'o

correction factor for footing depth

qnet

'o = effective overburden pressure at foundation level

C 2 1 0.2 log

t
0.1

correction factor for creep

t = time at which the settlement is required (in years)

qgross = 2000 kN
4m

dry = 16 kN/m3

3m

deep loose to medium dense sand


sat = 18 kN/m3

q net

2000
3 x16 115.26 kPa
3 .5 x 3 .5

gross pressure. initial effective overburden pressure


o = 3x16 = 48 kPa

C1 1 0.5

48
0.792
115.26

C 2 1 0.2 log

6
1.356
0.1

ground surface qc (kN/m2)


0.0 m
8000
2
0.1

0.2

0.3 0.4

0.5
Iz

10000
4

Layer 1

z1

Layer 2

z2

4.75

0.5B = 1.75m

8000
6
6.5

Layer 3

z3

4
5

enter from mid-height


of each layer

12000

Layer 4

z4

10

7
2B=2x3.5 = 7m

Width of foundation,
B = 3.5 m

12
10000
14
15
Es = 2.0 qc
Layer No

Depth(m) z(m)

qc(kPa)

Es(kPa)

Iz

(Iz /Es)z

3.00-4.75

1.75

10.000

20.000

0.3

2.65x10-5

4.75-6.50

1.75

8.000

16.000

0.416

4.55x10-5

6.50-8.25

1.75

12.000

24.000

0.249

1.82x10-5

8.25-10.00

1.75

12.000

24.000

0.083

0.605x10-5

x
Si = (0.792) (1.356) (115.26) (9.625x10-5)
= 0.01191 m

Si = 11.91 mm

P5. CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT

Question:

Ignore the immediate settlement, and calculate total consolidation settlement of soil
profile composed of two different types of clay, i.e. Clay 1 and Clay 2 due to 150 kPa net
foundation loading. Take unit weight of water as 10 kN/m3 and assume that SkemptonBjerrum Correction Factor is

0.7 for both clay layers. Note that c (or sometimes

shown as p) is the preconsolidation pressure.


10 m x 10 m
qnet = 150 kPa
CLAY 1

CLAY 1

CLAY 2

2m

dry = 19 kN/m3
sat= 20 kN/m3
Cr = 0.05; Cc = 0.15
eo = 0.80; c = 80 kPa

6m

sat = 20 kN/m3
Cr = 0.03; Cc = 0.10
eo = 0.60; c = 200 kPa

6m

INCOMPRESSIBLE

Solution:

Settlement will take place due to loading (qnet = 150 kPa) applied at a depth of 2 m. Thus,
all (consolidation) settlement calculations will be performed for clayey soil beneath the
foundation (z > 2 m).
Reminder: General equation of 1D consolidation settlement (one dimensional vertical
consolidation) for an overconsolidated clay is;
,

log

10

log

Note that, all calculations are done for the mid-depth of the compressible layers under
the loading.

Consolidation settlement in Clay 1:


Initial effective overburden stress, v,o = (2*19) + (3*(20-10)) = 68 kPa
Stress increment due to foundation loading, = [150*(10*10)] / [(10+3)*(10+3)] = 88.8
kPa
Final stress, v,f = 68 + 88.8 = 156.8 kPa
This is an overconsolidated clay (overconsolidation ratio OCR = c / v,o = 80 / 68 >
1.0) ; and the final stress, v,f is greater than c ( v,f > c ) therefore we should use both
Cr and Cc in consolidation settlement calculation (see figure below).
Recompression curve: Cr = e / log

e (void ratio)

Compression curve (virgin


line): Cc = e / log

log

c = 80 kPa

v,0 = 68 kPa

0.05
80
6 log
1 0.80
68

v,f = 156.8 kPa


0.15
156.8
6 log
1 0.80
80

0.158

15.8

Consolidation settlement in Clay 2:


Initial effective overburden stress, v,0 = (2*19) + (6*(20-10)) + (3*(20-10)) = 128 kPa
Stress increment due to foundation loading, = [150*(10*10)] / [(10+9)*(10+9)] = 41.6
kPa

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Final stress, v,f = 128 + 41.6 = 169.6 kPa


This is an overconsolidated clay (overconsolidation ratio OCR = c / v,o = 200 / 128 >
1.0) ; and the final stress, v,f is less than c ( v,f < c ) therefore we should use only Cr
in consolidation settlement calculation (see figure below).
[Note: If a soil would be a normally consolidated clay (OCR = c / v,o = 1.0), we would
use only Cc in consolidation settlement calculation.]
e (void ratio)

Recompression curve
1
Compression curve (virgin
Line)

v,0 = 128 kPa

log

= 200 kPa

v,f = 169.6 kPa

0.03
169.6
6 log
1 0.60
128

0.014

1.4

Total Consolidation Settlement (1D):


15.9

1.4

17.3

Corrected Settlement for 3D Consolidation (Skempton-Bjerrum Factor):


,

17.3 0.7

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