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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

PRESSURE PART DETAILS.................................................................................................... 1


DESIGN DATA.......................................................................................................................... 1
MATERIAL DATA.................................................................................................................... 2
UTILITIES.................................................................................................................................. 3
FUEL SPECIFICATIONS.......................................................................................................... 5
AUXILIARIES ........................................................................................................................... 6
FAN............................................................................................................................................. 6
FEED WATER PUMP (CENTRIFUGAL PUMP) .................................................................... 7
TRANSFER PUMP .................................................................................................................... 7
ROTARY AIRLOCK VALVE (RAV) for APH Hopper ........................................................... 8
TRAVAGRATE ......................................................................................................................... 9
FUEL FEEDING SYSTEM...................................................................................................... 10
SCREW FEEDER FOR BAGGASE ........................................................................................ 10
AIR MODULATING DAMPER DRIVE................................................................................. 10
CYCLO TRANSMISSION ...................................................................................................... 10
TWIN DRUM FEEDER FOR BAGASSE ............................................................................... 11
SOOT BLOWER ...................................................................................................................... 11
DOSING SYSTEM................................................................................................................... 12
LEVEL GAUGES..................................................................................................................... 13
DEAERATOR .......................................................................................................................... 13
FEED WATER TANK ............................................................................................................. 13
CBD TANK .............................................................................................................................. 14
IBD TANK................................................................................................................................ 14
ESP............................................................................................................................................ 15
SAFETY VALVE..................................................................................................................... 16
SAFETY RELIEF VALVE ...................................................................................................... 16

Section A

Page i

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

PRESSURE PART DETAILS


For more details please refer pressure part drawing enclosed in the O& M Vol. - 2
DESIGN DATA
Design & construction code
Max. working pressure ( design pressure )
Hydraulic test pressure ( at site )
Main Fuel

Evaporation capacity
Super heater steam outlet pressure
Super heater steam outlet temp.
Steam temperature control range
Feed water Eco inlet temperature
Design metal temperatures
Steam drum, water drum, riser, saturated supply tubes,
downcomer and furnace panels
Economizer coil
Economizer header: Top / Bottom
Attemperator 1 header
Attemperator 2 header
Primary Super heater 1 header : Inlet / Outlet
Primary Super heater 2 header : Inlet / Outlet
Secondary Super heater header1: Inlet / Outlet
Primary SH coil : I to J / J to K / E to F / F to G /G to H
Secondary SH coil : A to B / B to C / C to D /

Commercial Heating surface Area:


Boiler (Furnace panels + steam & water drum +
convection bank)
Economizer coils
Total heating surface (Generating)

Section A

I.B.R.
102 Kgf/cm2(g)
153 Kgf/cm2(g)
100% Bagasse /80 %
Imported /65 % Indian
coal
125 TPH
87 Kgf/cm2(g)
515 5 C
60 100 % MCR ( for Bagasse
only)
165C
C
339.5
285
285 /165
476
492
338/436
383/492
450 / 520
450 / 412/512/486/433
492/542/559

2467.5 m2
2568.5 m2
5036 m2

Page 1

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

MATERIAL DATA
S.N.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

DESCRIPTION
STEAM DRUM
DISHED END
WATER DRUM
DISHED END
FURNACE HEADERS:
FRONT PANEL BOTTOM HEADER
REAR PANEL BOTTOM HEADER
LH & RH SIDE WALL BOTTOM
HEADERS
L.H & RH SIDE WALL TOP
HEADERS

6.

CONVECTION BANK

7.
8.

FURNACE TUBES
RISER TUBES
ASSLY. OF PRI SH 1 COILS
LEG 1 TO 3
LEG 4 TO 5
LEG 6 TO 14

ASSLY. OF PRI SH 2 COILS

9.

LEG 1 TO 3
LEG 4 TO 9
LEG 10 TO 14

ASSLY. OF SEC SH COILS


LEG 1 TO 2
LEG 3 TO 5
LEG 6

10.

11.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

SUPER HEATER HEADERS


PRIMARY S H 1 INLET
PRIMARY S H 1 OUTLET
PRIMARY S H 2 IN LET
PRIMARY S H 2 OUTLET
SECONDARY SH INLET
SECONDARY SH OUTLET
ATTEMPERATOR 1
ATTEMPERATOR 2
MAIN STAEM LINE
FEED WATER LINE
ECONOMISER COIL
ECONOMISER TOP & BOTTOM
HEADER
FURNACE DRAIN HEADER

Section A

1375
1375
960
960

SIZE
ID X 100 THK
ID X 80 THK
ID X 63 THK
ID X 63 THK

SA
SA
SA
SA

MATERIAL
516 GR 70
516 GR 70
516 GR 70
516 GR 70

273.1 OD X 35 THK
219.1 OD X 23.01THK

SA 106 GR B
SA 106 GR B

219.1 OD X 23.01THK

SA 106 GR B

219.1 OD X 23.01THK

SA 106 GR B

63.5 X 4.06 THK


76.2 OD X 4.5 THK
63.5 OD X 4.06 THK
101.6 OD X 5.60 THK
50.8
50.8
38.1
50.8
50.8
50.8

OD
OD
OD
OD
OD
OD

X
X
X
X
X
X

4.06 THK
4.06 THK
4.5 THK
5.0 THK
4.06THK
4.06THK

SA 210 GR A1
SA 210 GR A1
SA 210 GR A1
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA

213
213
210
213
213
210

T 11
T 11
Gr A1
T 22
T 11
Gr A1

50.8 OD X 4.06 THK


50.8 OD X 5.00 THK
50.8 OD X 7.11 THK

SA 213 T22
SA 213 T22
SA 213 T22

219.1 OD X 18.26 THK


273.1 OD X 28.58THK
219.1 OD X 18.26THK
273.1 OD X 28.58THK
273.1 OD X 18.26THK
323.8 OD X 40 THK
273.1 OD X 18.26 THK
273.1 OD X 18.26 THK
273.1 OD X 25.4 THK
168.3 OD X 14.27 THK
38.1 OD X 4.06 THK

SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA
SA

219.1 OD X 18.26 THK

SA 106 Gr B

150 OD X 7.62 THK

SA 106 Gr B

106
335
106
335
335
335
335
335
335
106
210

Gr B
P 11
GR B
P 22
P 22
P 22
P 11
P 22
P 22
Gr B
GR A1

Page 2

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

UTILITIES
SNO.
1

PARAMETERS
Feed water :
TDS (Max)
Oil (Max)
Total Suspended solids (Max)
Silica (Max)
Turbidity
Total Hardness
PH value at 25 Deg. C
Oxygen (Max)
Iron (Max)
Copper (Max)
Drum water
Quality
Total Hardness (Max)
PH value at 25 Deg. C
Silica (Max)
TDS (Max)
Residual Hydrazine (Max)
Residual Phosphate (Max) as PO4
Oil (Max)
Electric Power
LT Electric supply (For all motors)
LT supply Voltage
Frequency
Phase
Total combined variation
Electric power for instruments
Frequency
Volts
Phase
Cooling water for sample coolers
Quality
pH Valve
Supply / return Temperature
Supply / return Pressure
Instrument air
Pressure
Quality
Dew point
Environment

Section A

UNIT
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm

ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm

VALUE
0.1
Nil
Nil
< 0.02
Nil
Nil
8.5 9.5
0.007
0.01
0.005
Pure
Nil
10.2 10.7
1.33
100
0.02
15 to 30
Nil

V
Hz

415 +/- 6 %
50 +/- 5%
3 PH
10 %

Hz
V

50
230 AC / 24 DC
1
Soft
7.5-8.5

Deg C
Kg/cm2(g)

35 / 45
3/2

Kg/cm2(g)

5
Clean, oil & moisture free
-40
Non corrosive, Hot, humid and
dusty

Page 3

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

SR.
NO.
7

8
9
10

PARAMETERS
Site conditions
Site location
Temperatures
For Mechanical design
For Performance
For Electrical design
Relative Humidity
For Performance
Maximum
Minimum
Rainfall (Annual Average)
Altitude above MSL
Wind velocity
Basic seismic co-efficient
Design Basis
No. of Boilers
Type of installation

Section A

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

UNIT

VALUE

Mudhol Taluka,dist: Bagalkot,KA


0

C
0
C
0
C
0
C
%
%
%
%
mm
mts

45
30
50
69
90
46
250
150
As per IS 875 part 3
As per IS 1893 Zone IV,part 1
IBR 1950 with latest amendments.
Ones
Outdoor.

Page 4

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

FUEL SPECIFICATIONS
FUEL:

1. FUEL B: BAGASSE
2. FUEL C: IMPORTED COAL
3. FUEL D: INDIAN COAL

ULTIMATE ANALYSIS

FUEL B

FUEL C

FUEL D

MOISTURE

50.00

10

8.3

ASH

1.50

14.36

39.90

CARBON
HYDROGEN
SULPHER

%
%
%

23.50
3.40
0.00

62.14
4.73
0.96

40.00
2.8
0.38

NITROGEN

0.00

1.01

0.60

OXYGEN
TOTAL

%
%

21.55
100.00

6.80
100.00

8.02
100.00

Kcal/Kg

2270

6300

3800

GCV
SIZING:
For Bagasse

As received

For Imported/Indian coal:


Passing through 30 mm: 100 %
Passing through 25 mm: 95 %
Passing through 20 mm: 88 %
Passing through 15 mm: 70 %
Passing through 10 mm: 60 %
Passing through 06 mm: 40 %
Passing through 03 mm: 20 %

Section A

Page 5

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

AUXILIARIES
FAN
MAKE: FLAKTWOODS,

SR.
NO.

DESCRIPTION

1.

Fan model

HABB-7-180-244-06-6-8

HABB-7-125-163-041-1

HABB-7-80-17002-1-1

2.

G.A. drg. no.

KF-107016 a

KF-107017 b

KF-107018 c

3.

Flow

45 kg/s

32.97 kg/s

4.

Static pressure

-250 mmwc at inlet

175 mmwc at outlet

13.19 kg/s
675
mmwc
outlet

200 Deg. C

60 Deg.C

250 Deg.C

185 Deg. C

50 Deg. C

205 Deg. C

0.7240 Kg/m3

1.054 Kg/m3

0.7160 Kg/m3

3800 Kg-m 2

1631 Kg-m 2

640 Kg-m 2

735

965

1480

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Design
temperature
Operating
temperature
Gas density @
operating temp.
GD2 Value
Fan speed
( RPM)

ID FAN

FD FAN

SA FAN

at

10.

Lubrication

GREASE,Servogem:EP2

GREASE Servoge EP 2

11.
12.

Lub .interval
Fan Bearing

1400 hr.

1400 hr.

GREASE
servogem, EP 2
1400 hr.

22228 EK / C3
Brg. HousingSNA 528
22228 EK / C3
Brg. HousingSNA 528

22220 EK (SKF) +
H320 + SNA520 +
FRB 12/180P
22220 EK (SKF) +
H320 + SNA520

22224 CK (SKF) +
H3124 + FRB
14/215P ,SNA 524
22224 EK (SKF) +
H3124 + SNA 524

MAKE : SIEMENS
220 KW / 8 Pole
HC 22 BHI MAKE
RESILLIENT COUPLING

MAKE : SIEMENS
96 KW/ 4 Pole
HC 17 BHI MAKE
RESILLIENT
COUPLING

MAKE : SIEMENS
143 KW/ 4 Pole
HC 17 BHI MAKE
RESILLIENT
COUPLING

Fixed end

Free end
13.

Motor Rating KW
/ Pole
Coupling

14.

Section A

Page 6

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

FEED WATER PUMP (CENTRIFUGAL PUMP)


DESCRIPTION
MAKE
MODEL
QUANTITY
FLUID
PUMP SPEED
CAPACITY
DESIGN HEAD
FLUID TEMP.
COUPLING MAKE

UNIT

NO
RPM
m3/hr
M
C

MODEL & TYPE


LUBRICATION
MOTOR

OIL
kW/RPM

KSB PUMPS LTD.


HGC 3 / 14
3(2W/1 SB)
FEED WATER
2980
89
1230
115
RATHI.
LFG 103-210
GEAR SPACER TYPE
SERVO SYSTEM / ENKLO- 46
354 KW/2980

TRANSFER PUMP

DESCRIPTION
MAKE
TYPE & SIZE
QUANTITY
RATED FLOW
RATED HEAD
NOMINAL/ EFF. SPEED
COUPLING MAKE
TYPE & SIZE
LUBRICATION
MOTOR

Section A

UNIT

NO
m3/hr
M
RPM

OIL
Make/kW

KSB PUMPS LTD.


CPK EC / 100-315(s)
2(1 W/ 1SB)
147.5+26
85
2970
RATHI.
SWQ 226/140
SERVO SYSTEM / ENKLO- 46
Siemens/75 KW

Page 7

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

ROTARY AIRLOCK VALVE (RAV) for APH Hopper


Description
Quantity
Tag No.

Unit
No.

Capacity
RPM of Rotor

Kg/Hr
RPM

MAKE
Material Handled
Material Size
Bulk Density
Vane filling Efficiency
Motor Rating
Rotor Speed
Design Temperature

Section A

KW/RPM
RPM
0
C

Remark
2
RAV-01, RAV-02
Design
Maximum
1717
400
3.5
3.5
ROSMIC INDIA ENGINEERING
CORPORATION
Hot ash of bagasse ash + coal ash
100% below 500 micron, fines
400 Kg/m3 - For volume calculation
800 Kg/m3 - For Power
65%
1.5 / 9.5
3.5
300 Max

Page 8

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

TRAVAGRATE

TRAVAGRATE
Number of grate
Shaft center to center distance
Grate width
Number of bearings/shaft
Number of links/chain assembly
Number of chain assembly
Anchor bearing location
Grate castings 298 mm/Grate bar assly.
Grate castings 229 mm/Grate bar assly
Skid shoe /Grate bar assly.
Fabricated grate ba / Grate
Lubrication
Grate shaft bearings
Frequency
HYDRAULIC DRIVE
Model
Cylinder stoke length (available)
Cylinder stoke length (required)
Hydraulic oil

Dual Grate
6100 mm
8640 mm
04 Nos.
94 Nos.
08 Nos.
Second from drive end
22 Nos.
08 Nos.
16 Nos.
94 Nos.
POLY- ISOBUTENE (PIB128)
Twice in 8 Hrs.(110 grams/bearings/day)
HD III
196 mm
134 mm
ENKLO 46/68 OR SERVOSYSTEM 46/57 OR
BHARAT HYDROL 68

Oil quantity
200 ltr
Drive motor
5
HP
Relief valve set pressure
29 kg/cm2
REFERENCE DRAWINGS
Travagrate assembly with hydraulic drive
Hydraulic drive assembly for RH unit ( model HD-III)
Hydraulic drive assembly for LH unit ( model HD-III)

S1-12-0858
0LB-03604
0LB-03605

HYDRAULIC DRIVE OIL COOLER:


OIL FLOW
OIL ORESSURE
INLET OIL TEMP.
OUTLET OIL TEMP.
COOLING WATER INLET PRESSURE
COOLING WATER INLET TEMP.
WATER FLOW RATE
WATER OUTLET TEMP
DESIGN PRESSURE SHELL SIDE
TUBE SIDE
Section A

25 ltr/min
2
55 kg/cm (MAX).
75 0C
60 0C
3 kg/cm2
35 TO 40 0C
2000 Kg/hr
40 T0 45 0C
40 kg/cm2
4 kg/cm2
Page 9

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

FUEL FEEDING SYSTEM


SCREW FEEDER FOR BAGGASE
MAKE
KWALITY CONVEYING SYSTEMS (P) LTD
DRG NO
KCS/SC/161
MATERIAL TO BE HANDLED
Baggase
FEEDER CAPACITY
FOR 100%
15800/12700/1580
BAGASSE /Max/Normal/Minium
FEEDER OUTPUT SPEED FOR 100%
22.3 / 18.34/2.23
BAGASSE / Max/Normal/Minium (RPM)
FLIGHTS THK
8 mm
SCREW DIA
750 mm
250mm TO 400mm VARIABLE ON FEEDING, BALANCE
PITCH
500mm
MOTOR
MAKE
ABB
POWER
5.5 K.W. / 1440 RPM
GEAR BOX
MAKE
PBEGL
TYPE
INLINE HELICAL REDUCER
SPEED RATIO
64.34:1
COUPLING ( INPUT)
SIZE/ TYPE
GC-01 / FULL GEARED COUPLING
COUPLING ( OUTPUT)
SIZE/ TYPE
GC-03 / FULL GEARED COUPLING
AIR MODULATING DAMPER DRIVE
MAKE
TYPE
MODEL
MOTOR
REDUCTION RATIO
INPUT SPEED
OUTPUT SPEED

CYCLO TRANSMISSION
Double stage foot mounted geared motor
SP 2-4 (M)
5 hp/3.7kW
493:1
1440 rpm
2.9 rpm

LUBRICATION
QUANTITY

Grease Servogem EP2


2 nos. (1 Running & 1 standby)

Section A

Page 10

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

TWIN DRUM FEEDER FOR BAGASSE


MAKE
THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX LTD.
DISCHARGE CAPACITY
10000 kg/Hr
MATERIAL TO BE HANDLED
BAGASSE
SPEED VARIATION
5.2 to 0.52 RPM
MOTOR
MAKE
Siemens
POWER
10 HP / 960 RPM
GEAR BOX
MAKE
POWER BUILD
MODEL
113 P II
SPEED RATIO
92.24:1
BEARING UNIT (AT FIXED / DRIVE END)
BEARING
22220 CK
HOUSING
SNE 520
BEARING UNIT (AT FREE END)
BEARING
22220 CK
HOUSING
SNE 520
COUPLING
FULL GEAR COUPLING
TYPE
ED 2200
SOOT BLOWER
Make: BHATAR HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD.
SL.
NO

DESCRIPTION

1.

SB numbers

2.

Travel in mm

3.

Dead travel in mm

4.

Quantity

5.

Location

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Blowing pressure
Kg/cm2(g)
Blowing angle
Degrees
Steam
consumption/cyc
in kg
Nozzle size(mm)
Blowing
time/Blower(min)

Section A

TYPE OF SOOT BLOWER


Rotary SB

Retractable SB
SB 01,02,03 &
04
4500

SB 05 to 12

SB 13 & 14

SB 15 to
18
-

375

1 Each

1 Each.

1 Each.

1Each

PSH

Convection bank

Economiser

10.5

10.5

10.5

10.5

360

360

180

360

620

424

82

328

19

3.37

0.8

0.4

0.4

Secondary SH

Page 11

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

DOSING SYSTEM
Make: METAPOW INDUSTRIES
SN
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

DESCRIPTION
TANK
SIZE
VOLUME
MATERIAL
PUMP CAPACITY
PRESSURE ( MAX )
PUMP MAKE / MODEL
TYPE
NO OF PUMPS
MOTOR
MOTORISED AGITATOR

9.

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE


SET PRESSURE
COUPLING & PLUG

10.

LUBRICATION

8.

Section A

LP DOSING

HP DOSING

715 ID X 1000 HT X 3 THK


300 LTR
SS 304
0-10 LPH
5.5 kg/cm2 (g)
METACHEM / MC-1
RECIPROCATING PLUNGER
2 Sets
0.5 HP, 1500 RPM, 415 V,
50Hz, Crompton Greaves
1HP, 1000 RPM, 415 V,
50Hz, Crompton Greaves

880 ID X 1000 HT X 3 THK


480 LTR
SS 304
0-20 LPH
113 kg/cm2 (g)
METACHEM / MC-2
RECIPROCATING PLUNGER
2 Sets
1HP, 1500 RPM, 415 V,
50Hz, Crompton Greaves
1HP, 1000 RPM, 415 V,
50Hz, Siemens/CGL

6 kg/cm2 (g)

124 kg/cm2 (g)

NPT, CL 3000 & 15NB


SERVOMESH
460
OR
ENKLO 460 OR HYDROL
460

NPT, CL 3000 & 15NB


SERVOMESH
460
OR
ENKLO 460 OR HYDROL
460

Page 12

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

LEVEL GAUGES
DEAERATOR
A) GENERAL
a) Location of LG
b) Quantity
c) Type & Mounting
d) Installation
e) C to C distance from top & bottom
connections of LG
f) Visible Length (Min)
g) Tag No.
B) DESIGN PARAMETERS
a) Design Pressure
b) Hydraulic Test Pressure
c) Design Temperature
C) END CONNECTIONS
Size / Type
D) OTHER REQUIREMENT
a) Design code
b) Isolation Valves
c) Vent / Drain Connection with valve

Deaerator Tank
3 No.
Tubular (Vertical)
Outdoor
1000 mm
860 mm
LG 05, LG 06, LG 07
3 Kg/cm2 (g)
4.5 Kg/cm2 (g)
150 0C
25 NB / SW
Non IBR
Offset screwed bonnet
Vent plug/needle valve

FEED WATER TANK


A) GENERAL
a) Location of LG
b) Quantity
c) Type & Mounting
d) Installation
e) C to C distance from top & bottom
connections of LG
f) Visible Length (Min)
g) Tag No.
B) DESIGN PARAMETERS
a) Design Pressure
b) Hydraulic Test Pressure
c) Design Temperature
C) END CONNECTIONS
Size / Type
D) OTHER REQUIREMENT
a) Design code
b) Isolation Valves
c) Vent / Drain Connection with valve
Section A

Feed Water Tank


3 No.
Tubular (Vertical)
Outdoor
1000 mm
860 mm
LG 008, LG 009, LG 10
1.5 Kg/cm2 (g)
3 Kg/cm2 (g)
150 0C
25 NB / SW
Non IBR
Offset screwed bonnet
Vent plug/needle valve
Page 13

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

CBD TANK
A) GENERAL
a) Location of LG
b) Quantity
c) Type & Mounting
d) Installation
e) C to C distance from top & bottom
connections of LG
f) Visible Length (Min)
g) Tag No.
B) DESIGN PARAMETERS
a) Design Pressure
b) Hydraulic Test Pressure
c) Design Temperature
C) END CONNECTIONS
Size / Type
D) OTHER REQUIREMENT
a) Design code
b) Isolation Valves
c) Vent / Drain Connection with valve

CBD Tank
1 No.
Tubular (Vertical)
Outdoor
500 mm
360 mm
LG 003
3 Kg/cm2 (g)
4.5 Kg/cm2 (g)
150 0C
25 NB / SW
IBR
Offset screwed bonnet
Vent plug/needle valve

IBD TANK
A) GENERAL
a) Location of LG
b) Quantity
c) Type & Mounting
d) Installation
e) C to C distance from top & bottom
connections of LG
f) Visible Length (Min)
g) Tag No.
B) DESIGN PARAMETERS
a) Design Pressure
b) Hydraulic Test Pressure
c) Design Temperature
C) END CONNECTIONS
Size / Type
D) OTHER REQUIREMENT
a) Design code
b) Isolation Valves
c) Vent / Drain Connection with valve

Section A

IBD Tank
1 No.
Tubular (Vertical)
Outdoor
500 mm
360 mm
LG 004
1.5 Kg/cm2 (g)
3 Kg/cm2 (g)
150 0C
25 NB / SW
Non IBR
Offset screwed bonnet
Vent plug/needle valve

Page 14

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

ESP
Make
Quantity
Model
G.A. Drawing No.

Thermax limiited.
1 No.
SC-25-16-33-(3+1 X 10.625)-2.4P
7E521-145-10 Rev. 02

DESIGN DATA
SR.
NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

DESIGN PARAMETER
Design Gas Volume
Temperature (Operating)
Max. Inlet Dust Loading(wet
basis)
Outlet Emission From ESP
Moisture in Gas
Unburnt Carbon in Fly Ash
Collection area
Specific collection Rates
No. of Gas Passages
Velocity through ESP
Treatment Time
No. of Fields in Series
Migration velocity
Design Pressure
Flange to Flange Pressure Drop

Section A

387000
150

80%
IPORTED
COAL
194400
140

65%
INDIAN
COAL
163800
140

4.5

26

UNIT

100%
BAGASSE

am3/h
C
Gm/ Nm3
Mg/ Nm3
% w/w
% v/v
m2
m2/m3/sec
No.
m/sec
s
No.
cm/sec
mmWC
mmWG

150
150
150
26.82
9.83
10.03
30-40
45-60
20-30
4886.1
4886.1
4886.1
45.45
90.48
107.39
25
25
25
1.05
0.53
0.45
9.2
18.4
21.8
3 Mechanical & 3 Electrical
8.11
4.39
4.8
+ / - 250
25 30

Page 15

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

SAFETY VALVE
MAKE: TYCO SANMAR LIMITED
SL
NO

LOCATION/
TAG NUMBER

01

DRUM (PSV 001)

02

DRUM (PSV 002)

03

SUPER HEATER OUTLET


(PSV 003)

MODEL / SIZE
HCI-R-56W-IBR-SPL
2.5 x k2 x 6
HCI-R-56W-IBR-SPL
2.5 x k2 x 6
HCI-68-W-IBR
2 x J2 x 4

SET
PRESSURE

RELIEVING
CAPACITY
RATED/REQD.

102 kg/cm2( g)

79580/55000 kg/hr

103 kg/cm2( g)

80352/55000 kg/hr

94 kg/cm2( g)

32864/27500 kg/hr

SAFETY RELIEF VALVE


MAKE: TYCO SANMAR LIMITED
SL
NO

LOCATION/
TAG NUMBER

SOOT BLOWER STEAM


LINE (PSV 005)

CBD TANK (PSV 004)

DEAERATOR (PSV 07)

DEAERATOR (PSV 08)

STEAM TO DEAERATOR
(PSV 010)

Section A

MODEL / SIZE
JOS-H-E-45-C-IBR-SPL
2.0 x H x 3.0
JOS-H-E-15-C-IBR
2.0 x J x 3.0
JOS-H-E-15-C-IBRSPL.
3.0 x K x 4.0
JOS-H-E-15-C-IBR8.0 x T x10
JOS-H-E-15-C-IBR
6.0 x Q x 8.0

SET
PRESSURE

RELIEVING
CAPACITY
RATED/REQD.

50 kg/cm2(g)

12057 / 10500 kg/hr

2.5 kg/cm2(g )

2227/1600 kg/hr

1.2 kg/cm2(g )

1408 / 1000 kg/hr

2.0 kg/cm2(g )

27036 / 17250 kg/hr

3.5 kg/cm2(g )

42892 / 3210 kg/hr

Page 16

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT ............................................................................................ 1


BOILER PRESSURE PART DESCRIPTION...................................................................... 1
STEAM DRUM............................................................................................................... 1
Steam Drum Internals ....................................................................................................2
WATER DRUM ..................................................................................................................3
DOWN COMER TUBES .......................................................................................................3
FURNACE .........................................................................................................................3
RISER TUBES ...................................................................................................................5
SATURATED STEAM SUPPLY TUBES ...................................................................................5
SUPERHEATER..................................................................................................................5
CONVECTION BANK ..........................................................................................................6
ECONOMISER ...................................................................................................................6
FEED WATER SYSTEM .................................................................................................. 8
DEAERATOR ................................................................................................................. 9
PURPOSE OF DEAERATION................................................................................................9
CHEMICAL DOSING IN THE DEAERATOR ............................................................................9
CONTROLS, MOUNTINGS AND ACCESSORIES .....................................................................9
FEED WATER PUMP .................................................................................................... 11
FEED WATER CONTROL STATION .............................................................................. 13
MAIN STEAM PIPING ................................................................................................. 13
BOILER BLOW DOWN SYSTEM................................................................................... 14
AIR AND GAS SYSTEM................................................................................................ 16
AIR SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 16
FLUE GAS SYSTEM .......................................................................................................... 18
FUEL FIRING SYSTEM ................................................................................................ 20
ROTARY BAGASSE FEEDER WITH SCREW FFEDER............................................................. 20
PNEUMATIC SPREADER ................................................................................................... 20
TRAVAGRATE ................................................................................................................. 21
Hydraulic Drive ............................................................................................................ 22
Oil Coolers................................................................................................................... 22
CHEMICAL DOSING SYSTEM ...................................................................................... 24
LP DOSING SYSTEM ........................................................................................................ 24
H.P. DOSING SYSTEM ..................................................................................................... 24

Section B

Page i

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
BOILER PRESSURE PART DESCRIPTION
This boiler is a Bi-drum, natural circulation, top supported, and membrane wall construction.
Various pressure parts are grouped as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Steam drum.
Water drum
Down comer Tubes.
Furnace membrane water walls
Riser Tubes
Saturated steam supply tubes
Super heater
Convection bank
Economizer

STEAM DRUM
(Refer Drg no : P21-OTB-06564)
Steam drum (1375 I.D. X 10500 mm long.) is a all welded cylindrical vessel made of SA
516 Gr.70 material. The cylindrical portion of the vessel is made of 100-mm thick plates and
the two Torispherical dish ends are 80 mm. thick. Two elliptical manholes at either end of the
drum provide access inside the drum. These manholes are closed tight at either end by 63-mm
thick plates, bolted against the manhole rim by two holding bars. A gasket is fitted between the
cover plate and the mating machined surfaces in the end shield. The cover plate swing inside
the drum, for convenience during opening.
Steam drum is supported from the super structure of the boiler through 4 nos. U slings (2 at
LHS & 2 at RHS of the shell) and rocker washers.
Steam drum is fitted with several components to perform important functions, which are listed
below:

Direct water level gauge LG 001 & 002 that shows the water level inside the steam drum.
DWLG`S are provided at both ends of the drum.
Two nos. Level transmitters are provided LT 703A & 703B which transmit the actual water
level to the remote indicators i.e. at control room and provide drum level signal to the drum
level controller.
Drum safety valves PSV 001 & 002 which protects the boiler and the personnel against the
consequences of abnormal pressure increase because of sudden load decrease, mal
functioning of firing system, steam stop valve etc.
Remote level gauge RLG 778C: this gauge is mounted at the firing floor, so as the firing
floor attendant can view the drum level.
H.P dosing connection: To dose phosphate in to the steam drum to maintain the boiler
water quality.

Section B

Page 1

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Continuous blow down (CBD): To drain the boiler water during operation to maintain the
water concentration. Also the water sample is taken from this blow down. It is connected to
the IBD tank through CBD tank.
Two air vent with isolation valves DM 032, 033 & DM 037, 038 that will be closed at 2
Kg/cm2 (g) during pressure rising and open at 2 kg/cm2 (g) during cooling.
Local Pressure gauge 703 B shows the drum pressure near steam drum, and gauge PG
703 A is mounted at the firing floor.
A pressure transmitter PT 708 is provided to view the drum pressure in the control room.
N2 filling connection with isolation valves DM 034.

STEAM DRUM INTERNALS


(Refer Drg .no. P21-0TB-06060/0)
Steam drum internals are provided to supply moisture free steam to S.H coils.
Steam drum receives water/steam mixture from the water wall panels through the raiser tubes in
the baffles of the boiler drum. From the drum internal pocket, water-steam mixture flows
tangentially through the Cyclone steam separators. (RH type - 27 nos. LH type - 15 Nos.) In
this tangential flow water which is heavier is separated from steam and trickle down to mix with
water in the drum. Steam raises upward to flow through the two rows of scrubbers, Primary
scrubbers (25Nos. Type MK-21) (Mounted above the cyclone) and Secondary scrubbers
(19Nos. Type MK-5) and finally through perforated sheets to steam outlet of steam drum.
Feed water pipe 1 No. 150 NB perforated pipe is installed in the drum with holes positioned
at 9 O clock position while looking from RH Side (i.e. towards boiler front). This will ensure the
uniform distribution of feed water in the entire length of the steam drum.
Pipe is made in two pieces for installation ease and provided with flanged joint.
Continuous blow down pipe (CBD) 1 no 25NB perforated pipe is installed in the drum with
holes at 12 O clock position. CBD pipe is provided to drain the boiler water to maintain the
boiler water concentration at the specified limit.
Pipe is made in two pieces for installation ease and provided with a drain hole to drain the water
during shut down.
HP dosing pipe 1 no 25NB perforated pipe is installed in the drum with holes at 3 O clock
position while looking from RH Side (i.e. opposite to boiler front). As the pipe is of perforated
type the chemical is uniformly distributed across the length of the drum. Chemical dosing at
steam drum is, to maintain boiler water concentration as per the specified limit.
Pipe is made in two pieces for installation ease and provided with a drain hole to drain the water
during shut down.

Section B

Page 2

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

WATER DRUM
(Refer Drg no. P31-0TB 06565)
Water drum is a (960 I.D x 9950 long.) all welded cylindrical vessel made of SA 516 Gr. 70
material. The cylindrical portion of the vessel is made of 63 mm. thick plates and the two semi
ellipsoidal dish ends are 63 mm thick. Two elliptical manholes at either end of the drum provide
access to the drum. These manholes are closed tight at either end by 63 thick plates, bolted
against the manhole rim by two holding bars. A gasket 1.5 mm thick is fitted between the cover
plate and the end shield. The cover plate swing inside the drum for convenience during opening.
Water drum is fitted with intermittent blow down connection (IBD) with isolation valve IBD
001,002 & 003 (connected to IBD tank) through which the water can be removed during
emergency situations like high water level and high concentration situation occurs.
Total 18 no, 101.6DX 5.6 thk stubs are provided for downcomer supply pipes.5 no at the
either ends of the drum for sidewall and front wall. For rear wall, 8 no stubs are provided
lengthwise.
Rear wall is terminated in to the water drum by expanding tube ends. Baffle plates form a
separate closed section so those two rows of bank tubes will serve as risers solely for rear wall
tubes. Baffle plates are full welded at corners so as to avoid any mixing of water in mud drum &
saturated steam in rear wall tubes.
DOWN COMER TUBES
(Refer Drg no. P73-1TB 33454 & 27480)
Down comer tubes are of 101 OD x 5.6 thk, which supplies water to furnace wall headers from
water drum.
Seven down comer tubes (DC 1 TO DC 7) i.e. Seven pipes from water drum are connected to
front header.
Ten down comer tubes (DC 8 to 12 & DC 21 to 25) i.e. from waterdurum is connected to side
wall bottom header.
Eight down comer tubes /stand pipe (DC 13 to DC 20 ) from water drum are connected to rear
Water wall header.
FURNACE
Furnace is the part of the boiler where the chemical energy in the fuel is converted into thermal
energy by absorbing the heat produced through combustion of fuel. The furnace is designed for
efficient and complete combustion, with due consideration to the factors that effect, combustion
efficiency like fuel residence time inside the furnace, temperature and the turbulence required
for complete mixing of fuel and air.

Section B

Page 3

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Following are the distinct advantages of the furnace design:


Heat transfer is facilitated inside the furnace in addition to combustion.
Practically no maintenance for refractory is required in case of membrane wall furnace.
Due to heat transfer inside the furnace, higher loading is possible, as part of heat generated,
is already absorbed by the furnace tubes leaving the flue gas temperature out of furnace
within acceptable limits into super heater zone.
Furnace is constructed with membrane (water wall) construction. It comprises of Front panel,
Rear panel, L.H panel and R.H panel.
Front wall: (Refer Drg no. P42-1TB 33005)
Front wall is formed with front header (250 NB x 35 THK) and 63.5 O.D x 4.06 Thick tubes
(85 P x 102 tubes). One end is connected to the header and the other end is terminated to
the steam drum (by expanding). Front wall tubes receive water from water drum through 7 nos.
downcomers, one 150 NB supply pipes (DC 7) and 6 nos 101.6 O.D x 5.6 mm THK supply
tubes (DC 1 TO DC 7). To strengthen the wall tubes, buck stay beams are provided all around
the furnace. Front wall is supported with 4 no Buckstays. Front wall tubes are supported through
rod slings with rocker washer from the super structure. Secondary air connections are provided
at 2 elevations on front wall. Front wall header is provided with a 25 N.B. drain connection,
which normally remains closed during operation of the boiler. It is to be used to drain the boiler
during shut down and start-up. Three openings are provided for pneumatic spreader.
Rear wall: (Refer Drg no. P45-1TB 32897)
Rear wall is formed with rear bottom header (200 NB x SCH 160) and 63.5 OD x 4.06 thick
tubes (85 P x 102 tubes). One end is welded to the header and the other end is terminated to
the water drum (by expanding). Rear wall tubes receive water from water drum through 8 nos.
101.6 O.D x 5.6 mm thick supply tubes (DC 13 to DC 20). Secondary air ducting is located at
four elevations on the rear wall. To strengthen the wall tubes buck stay beams have been
provided at 4 elevations, 3 in straight portion and 1 in nose portion. Rear wall header is
provided with a 25 N.B. drain connection which normally remain closed during operation of the
boiler. It is to be used to drain the boiler during shut down and start-up.
R.H & L.H Side wall: (Refer Drg no. P41-1TB 32959 & p41-1TB-32990)
L.H & R.H Side wall is formed with top & bottom headers (200 NB x SCH 160) and 63.5 O.D x
4.06 thick tubes. Both ends of furnace are terminated at bottom and top headers. Sidewall
bottom headers receive water from the water drum through 10 nos. 101.6 O.D x 5.6 thick
supply pipes (DC 8 TO DC12 & DC 21 TO DC 25 ). Sidewall panels are connected to steam
drum through 16 nos. 101.6 O.D x 5.6 thick riser tubes (8 from either sidewall). Both the wall
assemblies are supported through sling rods with rocker washers from the super structure of the
boiler. To strengthen the wall tubes buck stay beams have been provided at 5 elevations.
Sidewall headers are provided with a 25 N.B. drain connection, which normally remain closed
during operation of the boiler. It is to be used to drain the boiler during shut down and start-up.
On each side wall 2 manholes (1 at firing floor for wood firing &1 in between Pry. SH and Sec.
SH) are provided. Soot blowers are mounted on both the sidewalls.

Section B

Page 4

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

RISER TUBES
(Refer Drg no. P71-2TB - 27019)
The purpose of these tubes is to carry the saturated steam from side wall panels to steam
drum. Sidewall panels are connected to steam drum through 18nos. 101.6 O.D x 5.6 thick riser
tubes (8 from either sidewall).
SATURATED STEAM SUPPLY TUBES
(Refer Drg no. P72-3TB - 16255)
The purpose of these tubes is to carry the saturated steam coming out from the steam drum to
the primary super heater inlet. They are 8 (101.6 OD x 5.6 Thick) in number provided from the
top of steam drum.
SUPERHEATER
(Refer Drg no. PA1-1TB 33477)
Super-heaters are provided to raise the steam temperature above the saturation temperature by
absorbing heat from the flue gas. By increasing the temperature of the steam, the useful energy
that can be recovered increases, thereby increasing efficiency of the cycle also. Superheated
steam also eliminates the formation of condensate in steam piping which is harmful to the
turbine blades and pipelines.
From the drum steam flows to primary super heater 1 inlet header (200 NB x SCH 120)
through 8 nos. 101.6 O.D x 5.6 thick supply tubes. From the primary super heater1inlet header
steam flows to primary super heater1outlet header through 50.8 OD x 4.06 thick coils. From
the primary super heater 2 inlet header steam flows to primary super heater2 outlet header
through 50.8 OD x 4.06 /5.0 thick coils.

Primary Super heater 2 outlet header is connected to Secondary Super heater inlet header
through attemperator. Secondary inlet and outlet headers are connected through 38.1 OD X
4.06/5.0/7.11 thick coils. Superheated steam is then taken out from Sec SH outlet header
through main steam piping.
Following connection is attached to primary S.H. inlet header:

25 N.B. sampling line with two valves Tag No. SAM-007 and SAM-008 ,which is used to
take saturated steam sample.
Temperature elemnt TE 708 for remote indication.

Following connection is attached to primary S.H. outlet header:


25 N.B. locally mounted pressure gauge connection with two valves Tag No. SH-001 and
SH-002.

Section B

Page 5

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Following are the connections attached to Inlet & Outlet pipes of spary type
Attemperator 1 & 2:
25 N.B. air vent with one valve Tag No. SH-009 which is used during hydro-test to vent the
air.
A 25 NB N2 filling connection before attemperator with isolation valves SH-008
Thermocouple (TE-725A ) at I/L TE 725B at O/L for attemperator 1 and TE 725C at
I/L and TE 725D at O/L of attemperator 2 is provided for remote temp. indication.
Attemperator 1 outlet is connected to attemperator 2 inlet through 273.1 OD pipe with SS
liner and attemperator 2 outlet is connected to secondary SH inlet header through 250 OD
X SCH 100pipe with SS liner inside.
88.9 OD connection for soot blower steam with isolation valves SB-001(Motorised).
Following connection is attached to secondary super heater inlet & outlet header:
TE 725 D for remote indication on secondary super heater I/L header.
For local indication of pressure pressure gauge PG 733Bon SSH I/L header.
PG 732 A & PG 732B (Firing Floor) for local indication on SSH O/L header.
Safet valve PSV-003is mounted on SSH O/L header.
CONVECTION BANK
(Refer Drg no. P61-1TB 30365 & P61-2TB 26195)
The name itself indicates that heat transfer in this area is by convection mode. This is a Bi-drum
boiler, the steam drum (Top drum) and the water drum (mud drum) is connected by a set of
tubes called convection bank tubes.
Convection bank tubes are constructed with 23 rows of 63.5 O.D X 4.06 thick tubes and 2 rows
of 76.2 OD x 4.06 THK. Both ends of the tubes are swaged to 50.8 OD and are terminated at
water / steam drum, and the ends are fixed to drums by expansion of the tubes.
2 nos. motorized rotary soot blowers SB 9 &11 on R.H. side & 2 nos. motorized rotary soot
blowers SB 10 & 12 on L.H. side are provided to clean the external deposits on convection bank
tubes.
Bank sides were covered with refractory tiles followed with insulation and outer MS casing. Also
the tubes are strengthened by buck stay arrangement at one elevations.
ECONOMISER
(Refer Drg no PL1-2TB-26280/01)
The function of an Economiser in a steam-generating unit is to absorb heat from flue gases &
add this as a sensible heat to the feed water, before the water enters to the steam drum.

Section B

Page 6

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Provision of this additional heating surface, increases the efficiency of the steam-generating unit
and saving in fuel consumption is achieved. Economiser is located in between boiler bank outlet
and Air Pre-heater.
Economiser assembly is constructed with 51 rows of 38.1 O.D x 4.06 thick tubes, in Three
banks and two headers. Both the ends of the coil were terminated to the top and bottom
headers by welding.
Feed water flows from the bottom header to the top headers through these coils. Heated water
flows out from the top header to steam drum through the connecting pipe.
Economiser is provided with, 6 nos. motorised soot blowers SB13 to SB18 to clean the external
deposits.
Economiser top header is provided with the following attachments:

25 NB air vent with two valves (Tag No. EC-001 and EC-002) which will be kept open
during initial filling to remove the air trapped between the coil. Closed after free flow of
water from the vent.
25 NB drain connection with three valves (Tag no. EC-005, 006, & 007) and terminated to
furnace drain header. Which will be kept closed during normal operation and to be operated
to drain the assembly during shut down.

Economiser bottom header is provided with the following attachments:

25 NB drain connection with three valves (Tag no. EC-008, 009 & 010) and terminated to
furnace drain header, which will be kept closed during normal operation and to be operated
to drain the assembly during shut down.
Feed water piping from Economiser to steam drum is provided with the following
attachments:

Pressure gauge (Tag no. PG-730) with twin isolation valves (Tag no. EC-003 and EC004).
Local Temperature gauge Tag no. TG-002.
Thermocouple TE 717C for feed water temperature outlet of economiser at control room
panel.

Section B

Page 7

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

FEED WATER SYSTEM


(Ref. P&I Diagram D12-1TB-57304P)
Feed water system consist of the following:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

Feed water Staorage tank


Transfer pump
Deaerator vapor tank / feed water storage tank .
Feed water pump.
Feed water control station.

FEED WATER TANK


To collect the water from different sources like D.M plant and condensate return from
process, a storage tank is provided in the feed water system, is called as feed water storage
tank.

Feed water tank is of 150 M3 At normal water storage capacity, made of steel plates and
supported on a steel structure. Following are the attachments welded to the storage tank:
Feed water tank is provided with baffle type cascade condenser to avoid splashing of
condensate from sugar plant.
Direct water level indicators (LG-, 008 & 009,010), which shows the water level in the
storage tank.
Low-level switch (LAL 720) with isolation valve (FWT 013 & FWT 014).
High-level switch (LAH 720) with isolation valve (FWT 015 & FWT 016).
212.70 OD X 6.35 THK Deaerator Over flow connection.
273.1 OD X 6.35 THK tank outlet piping with isolation valve (FWT-019)
168.3 OD X 7.11 THK inlet connection from DM makeup water.
168.3 OD X 7.11 THK inlet connection from exhaust condensate.
Feed water transfer pumps minimum flow water piping 60.3 OD X 3.91 THK is connected
to the storage tank with isolation valves & NRV (FWT-30,FWT-31 & FWT-32,FWT-33).
114.3 OD X 6.02 THK tank drain piping to open drain.
88.9 OD X 5.49 THK tank drain to trench with isolation valve (FWT-18).

FEED WATER TRANSFER PUMP :


This system consists of 2 x 100 % capacity pumps. One working and one stand by.
Water from feed water tank is connected to the 323.9 OD X 6.35 THK common suction
header, through a 273.1 OD X 6.35 THK pipe with an isolation valve (FWT-19).
From the common header, it is connected to the pumps with 273.1 OD X 6.35 THK line
isolation valves (FWT 20, FWT -21). and suction filters (FWT- 21,FWT- 22).
Pressure gauge downstream of suction filter is provided for each pump suction line ( PG 720 A
& 720 B)

Section B

Page 8

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Transfer pumps outlet is connected to the 273.1 OD X 6.35 THK common discharge
header, through Non Return Valves (FWT 28 & FWT 29) and with manual isolation valves
(FWT 34 & FWT 35). Pump is provided with a minimum flow line, connected backs to the
feed water storage tank with NRV and isolation valves (FWT 30 , FWT 31 & FWT 32 ,FWT
33). Pressure gauges (PG 721 A & PG 721 B) are provided at both the pump outlets
before the NRV.

From the common discharge header, water flows to the deaerator through the deaerator level
control station. (Ref. Deaerator level control for details of control station)
From the DM water to feed water storage tank piping a 88.9 OD x 5.49 THK tapping is taken
for filling the boiler during start-up. From the 88.9 OD x 5.49 THK piping 1 x 48.3 OD X 3.68
THK tapping is taken for HP & LP dosing system.

DEAERATOR
The following is the general description, its principle of operation, accessories, mountings,
controls etc. of the Deaerator.
PURPOSE OF DEAERATION
Deaeration removes corrosive gases such as dissolved oxygen and free carbon dioxide from the
boiler feed water by heating feed water to the operating temperature by steam, and vigorously
scrubbing the water with this steam, so that the last traces of non-condensable gases are
removed from the feed water. This ensures protection of the feed water lines, economizer coils,
steam lines, boiler tubes and other pressure parts of the boiler against corrosion and pitting,
saves costly boiler re-tubing and expensive plant shutdowns. Further as the temperature of feed
water is raised to deaerator design temperature and then fed to boiler, the overall boiler
efficiency also boosts up.
CHEMICAL DOSING IN THE DEAERATOR
To ensure the total removal of the traces of dissolved oxygen, scavenging chemicals such as
sodium sulfite (catalyzed or un-catalyzed) or Hydrazine is carried out in the storage section of
the deaerator. The dosing of the particular chemicals should dose in predetermined quantity and
concentration.
CONTROLS, MOUNTINGS AND ACCESSORIES
DEAERATOR LEVEL CONTROL
The level of the water in the storage tank is maintained at normal operating limit, The storage
tank receives water from Feed water storage tank.
DEAERATOR PRESSURE CONTROL
Steam from following sources is available to the deaerator.

Steam from CLIENT


Flash Steam from CBD Tank.

Section B

Page 9

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

STEAM FROM CLIENT


Steam at required pressure and temperature is available from client and is fed to the steam
chamber inside the storage tank with control station. The control station consist of deaeartor
pressure control valve PV 707A with isolation valve (DA 08 & 09). A bypass is provided for the
control station globe valve DA 011. A NRV DA 13 is provided after the control to the tank.

PEGGING STEAM LINE


A 168 OD x 7.11THK tapping is taken before the deaerator pressure control station & the line is
connected to Stem to Deaerator line with an NRV DA-014.

FLASH STEAM FROM CBD TANK


Flash steam from CBD tank with NRV (DA -002).

RELIEF VALVE
A relief valve (Tag No. PSV-007) is mounted on the deaerator vapor tank to relieve the steam,
when there is excessive pressure build-up inside the vessel.

VACUUM BREAKER
The vacuum breaker assembly, a 88.9 ODX5.49 THK line with non return valve (Tag No. DA-18)
is mounted on the vapour tank, to prevent deaerator from going to vacuum. Incase, when the
deaerator happens to go under vacuum, this NRV will open and atmospheric air will be sucked
in, thus the vacuum will be broken. A vacuum condition inside the deaerator would mean that
the deaerator is not being supplied with enough steam with respect to the water flow or sudden
stop of steam supply to the deaearaor.

DEAERATOR WATER OVERFLOW


A 219.1 OD X 6.35 THK overflow line is provided from the storage tank to control the level of
water in the storage tank. So automatically if there is a level increase the excess water drains
through overflow pipe into the feed water storage tank.

AIR VENT
A 60.3 OD X 5.54 THK air vent with isolation valve (DA-56) is provided on the vapour tank,
through which the evaporated gases from the Deaerator vented out during initial charging until
the operating / set pressure is reached.

DIRECT WATER LEVEL GAUGE


Deaerator is provided with three nos. tubular level indictors (LG 05,06, & 07), with isolation and
drain valves, which indicates the water level inside tank locally.

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

LEVEL TRANSMITTER
A level transmitters (LT 701) is provided with isolation valves. These transmitter are used to
maintain the deaertor water level reliably

PRESSURE INDICATOR
A Local Pressure gauge (Tag No. PG-724) with isolation valve, to read the steam pressure inside
vessel is provided. A pressure transmitters (PT 707 A) are provided with isolation valves to
control the Pressure Control Valve according to the pressure set point given.

OUTLET CONNECTIONS

114.3 OD drain piping with a isolation valve Tag No. DA-036 that is connected to overflow
line from deaerator to feed wtaer storage tank.
273.1 OD X 6.35 THK Feed pump inlet header piping with an isolation valve Tag No. DA-037.
A temperature elemnt TE 702 is mounted on the line to measure the deaerator outlet water
temperature.

INLET CONNECTIONS

25 NB chemical dosing piping with isolation valves Tag No. DA 050 and NRV Tag No. DA 049
3 x 60.3 OD piping from feed water pump balancing leak off line, with the isolation and nonreturn vales Tag No. BFW-02,05,08 and BFW-03,06,09 respectively.
3 x 88.9 OD minimum flow line from the feed water pumps with the isolation and non-return
vales Tag No. and FW-016, 018, 020 and BFW- 017,019 ,021
250 NB steam piping with pegging steam.
Condensate from CEP discharge 150 NB.
100 NB flash steam from CBD tank.

FEED WATER PUMP


Feed pump station divided as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Pump suction piping.


Feed pump
Cooling water system.
Minimum flow and balancing leak off line.
Pump discharge piping.

1. PUMP SUCTION PIPING:


Deaerated water from the deaerator is connected to the suction of the feed water pump through
this piping. To avoid the entry of foreign particle suction filters are provided before the inlet of
each pump. All the pumps suction piping is provided with Differential Pressure Switch (DA 42,
43, 44).

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

2. FEED PUMP:
Three motor driven pumps of 60% capacity are provided. Two are working while other one is
standby. These KSB make pumps are a multistage pump .
3. COOLING WATER SYSTEM:
To protect the pump glands from overheating cooling water system is provided. Cooling chamber
is provided itself on the pump and Cooling water inlet, outlet piping will be connected through
isolation valves. Cooling water exit is terminated to the nearest cooling water outlet piping.
4. MINIMUM FLOW AND BALANCING LEAK OFF LINE:
During start of the pump discharge valve is kept closed to minimise the starting current of the
feed pump drive. If certain amount of flow through the pump is not allowed in this period results
in heat generation and hence pump ceasing. Therefore minimum flow line is provided through
Auto re-circulation valve. Initially discharge port of the valve will be closed by a spring and
minimum flow line port will be open. After attaining the full speed, pressure generated by the
pump is sufficient to open the discharge port. Minimum flow line port gets closed as the stems of
both the valves are interconnected. Minimum flow line is routed back to the deaerator with
isolation valve and a NRV. Balancing line is provided to balance the thrust towards suction side
of the pump. As there is a large difference between suction and discharge pressures, pump shaft
tends to move towards suction side. Two discs; balancing and counterbalancing are provided in
the mechanism at the discharge end of the pump. There is a small gap between rotating balancing disc and stationary - counterbalancing disc. High-pressure water tends to pass
through this gap. Pressure drop in the gap results in opposite thrust on the disc. Low-pressure
water that comes out of the gap is taken out of the pump through balancing leak off line.
Balancing line is also routed back to the deaerator. Balancing leak off line is provided with a
pressure indicator (Tag no. PG- 726 A, 726 B, 726 C. )
5. DISCHARGE PIPING:
All four pumps are separately connected to the common discharge header with auto recirculation cum NRV valves and isolation valves. Pump discharge piping is provided with a
pressure gauge (Tag no. PG-741 A, 741 B, 741 C). Also to start other pump in auto incase
the pump discharge pressure goes low pressure has been provided. From the common discharge
header two tappings have been taken, one goes to boiler and other goes to PRDS. In the line
which is going to boiler pressure gauge(Tag no. PG 722 E) for local indication and presssure
trnasmitter (Tag no. PT 722 ) for remote indication has been provided.

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

FEED WATER CONTROL STATION


Feed water control station regulates the water flow to the steam drum to maintain the steady &
required water level.
Feed water control station consists of the following:
One 100 %, and one 30 % Pneumatic operated flow control valve (Tag no. FY-702A & B)
with isolation valves, (Tag no.BFW- 046,047 &050,051), motorised operated bypass valve
(BFW-054) Each Manual valve has got integral pressure equlising valve.
Prior to feed water control station, feed water flow measuring device i.e. flow orifice (Tag no.
FE-702) is installed and connected to the flow transmitter (FT-702) through the impulse piping
with isolation valves (Tag no. BFW- 040, 041,042, 043 ).
Control valve is operated through the Flow indicating controller (Tag no. FI 702). Input signals
are given to FIC-702 by Level indicating controller (Tag no. LIC-702) steam flow transmitter
(Tag no. FT-704) and feed water flow transmitter (Tag no. FT-702). Ref. three element control
for detail operation of drum level controller.
From the control station feed water flows to economiser inlet header (bottom) through a 150
NB non return valve (Tag no. BFW-057). Thermocouple TE-723 is located before the Eco.
inlet header to measure the feed water temperature after to Eco. Pressure gauge Tag no. PG729 B is provided with isolation valves (Tag no. BFW-055 & 056)to measure the FW pressure
at Eco. inlet.
From the economiser bottom header, water flows to the outlet (top) header through coils.
Heated water flows from Eco. top header to steam drum, through feed water Eco. outlet piping.
Eco. outlet piping is provided with a Thermocouple (tag no. TE-102) is provided to measure the
feed water temperature at Eco. outlet. Pressure gauge (Local) Tag no. PG-730 is provided with
isolation valve (Tag no. ECO-003 & 004) to measure the FW pressure at Eco. outlet.

MAIN STEAM PIPING


Super heated steam from secondary super heater outlet header is connected to common steam
distribution header by the main steam piping.
Main steam piping is of 250 N.B. pipe with the following attachments:

Start up vent:
Start up vent, with motorised control valve (SH-021) and manual isolation valve (SH-020)
is used to vent the steam to atmosphere during boiler start up, as the l main steam stop
valve & by-pass valve (Tag no. SH-027 & SH-028) remains closed till the boiler reaches
the operating pressure. This also protects the SH coils from over heating during start up. To
reduce the noise level from the steam venting to atmosphere, a silencer is provided to
the start up vent line.
250 NB main steam stop valve Tag No. SH-027, along with a bypass/equalising valve Tag
No. SH 028. Both the valves are motorised valves.

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Thermocouple (Tag No. TE-727) is provided for main steam temperature control loop and
for local indicaton temperature gauge (Tag. No. 727) is provided.
Drain connection with twin valves SH-034 & SH-035 before the main steam stop valve.
Drain is terminated to S.H common drain header.
Drain connection with twin valve SH-036 & SH-037 manual operated after the main steam
stop valve. NRV (Tag. No. SH-038) is provided in the line for avoiding the steam charging
before opening the MSSV.Drain is terminated to S.H common drain header.
250 NB Non Return Valve Tag No .SH- 029 is located after the main steam stop valve.
Steam flow-measuring device, i.e. flow nozzle Tag No. FE-704 along with flow transmitter
Tag no. FT-704 with impulse piping and isolation valves (Tag No. SH-30 to 33)

BOILER BLOW DOWN SYSTEM


AIM
This chapter describes the Boiler Blow down system for safe draining of high pressure and
temperature steam and water from the boiler using the Blow down tank.
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
P & I Diagram for 125 TPH bagasse pith with Indian/Imported coal fired boiler, Drg. No. D120TB-2621P/3 (Steam and Water system) shows the various drains from the boiler, main
steam lines, etc. Large quantities of steam of high pressure / temperature water are not drained
through open canals for the following reasons:
a) Such draining will cause splashing of high volumes of steam, which can be a nuisance by the
noise it creates, and also it affects the visibility around the draining area.
b) High temperatures of these drains can cause scalding injuries to workmen who may come in
contact with it.
c) The force and temperature of these drains will erode the linings of the drain canals.
d) Low-pressure steam, which can be recovered, if required, is wasted.
Table shown below is a summary of such drains.

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

HIGH PRESSURE / HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM AND WATER DRAINS

SOURCE

VALVE TAG NOS.

Continuous Blow
down from Drum

CBD 001, 002, 003, 004,

Intermittent Blow
down

IBD-001, 002, 027

NRV CBD-005

NRV IBD-003

TEMP. OF
DRAIN 0C

FREQUENCY OF USAGE

316

Continuous (depending on
quality of Boiler water)

316

Occasional during high levels


in drum

Boiler water sample


cooler

SAM-005 & 006

~ 60

Small quantity continuous

Saturated steam
sample cooler.

SAM-007 & 008

~ 70

Small quantity continuous

S.H steam sample


cooler.

SAM-001 & 002

~ 70

Small quantity continuous

~280

During warm up & soot


blowing

Soot blower drain /


steam trap

SB-031,032,034,035,037

S.H steam drain


header &
attemprator

SH-034, 035, 036, 037.

Furnace drain
header
Feed water Sample

SB 031,033,036

NRV SH-038
EC-005 TO 010,
FD-001 TO 018,IBD 004

Varying
from
70 to 280
~70 - 150

During boiler startup and


shutdown.

~ 70

Small quantity continuous

NRV IBD-005
SAM-003 & 004

Draining of condensate during


startup and after a shut
down.

The drains indicated in the above Table are connected to the existing intermittent blow down
(IBD) tank except CBD water and various samples. CBD tank is connected to IBD tank while
samples to the nearest drain trench.
Following connections are connected to the IBD tank.
A gauge glass LG-004 with isolation valves IBD-014 & 015 has been fitted on the tank to
verify water level in the tank.
Tank is provided with a 100 NB drain pipe with a valve (Tag no. IBD-018) for flushing
purpose.
IBD tank outlet piping is connected to CBD tank with NRV ( Tag no.-IBD 019)
It can be seen from the P&I drg. that various connections with separate NRV connected to
IBD tank through common header are, the furnace drain header outlet (Tag no IBD-005),

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PROJECT NO-PB0751

the super heater drain header out let (Tag no IBD-008), CBD line directly (Tag no CBD010), IBD piping (Tag no IBD-003).

AIR AND GAS SYSTEM


( P&I DIAGRAM D12-0TB-2622P/03)
AIR SYSTEM
This chapter describes supply of primary and secondary air to the boiler.
System description:
PRIMARY AIR
Boiler is provided with 2 x 60 %. F.D fans A & B driven by electric motor. Fan inlet dampers
are operated through a pneumatic power cylinder (Tag no. ad 001 & 002) according to the
combustion air requirement from the control room. Also two manual field operated dampers (Tag
no AD-003 & 004) are provided at each fan outlet duct and at plenum hopper inlet duct. To
minimise the force due to possible movement of the discharge duct on the fan, as well as to
isolate fan vibrations being passed on to the duct, the fans are connected to the discharge duct
through bellows type expansion joints.
Common fan outlet is connected to air pre-heater through a ducting. A Pressure transmitter
(Tag no. PT-201) is provided with a isolation valve (Tag no. AIR-001) at the outlet duct. Also
an Airfoil to measure the air flow is provided (Tag no. FE-706). Flow transmitter (FT-706 )
gives input to a controller( FIC-706), which also get inputs from combustion control & O2
analyzer and ultimately it controls suction air by power cylinder. The fan is driven by variable
frequency drive.
APH can be bypassed partially so as to maintain the back end temperature. To facilitate this, an
interconnecting duct with isolation damper (AD-006) in between APH inlet and outlet duct is
provided.
AIR PRE HEATER
Air heater provided is of tubular type and the purpose is to recover a portion of the sensible heat
from flue gases by all incoming combustion air, thereby improving combustion efficiency. The
flue gas passes through the tubes to heat air while the air from F.D & S.A. fans passes from out
side of the tubes for heating.
Air pre-heater (Drg no: A33-1TB-34229/01) is assembled on a steel structure enclosed with
a 5 mm thick steel casing. Bottom plate is 32-mm thick plate and the top plate is of 12 mm
thick.
This air pre-heater is double flue gas pass and single primary & secondary air pass.
Air pre heater tubes are of 63.5 mm OD. Every tube is expanded in top and bottom sheet. To
make separate compartments for primary & secondary air, air heater is proportionately splited by
partition plate (6 mm thick). APH_II & APH-I. Due to change in direction and sudden pressure
drop in APH hopper, fly ash gets collected in the hopper. To remove the ash periodically,
isolation gate is provided.

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Ambient air from FD & SA fans passes through respective compartments of pass-I & II of APH
to absorbs sensible heat from flue gases. Hot primary air is then connected to plenum hopper
below Travagrate from rear side bottom & hot secondary air to SA duct to furnace at various
levels. To avoid cold end corrosion 6 rows of corten steel are provided at air inlet of pass-I.
Air pre heater is a non-mixing type heat exchanger in which flue gases pass through the tubes
and air out side the tubes. Flues enter in air heater from top of pass-II, turn at bottom, enter in
to pass-I & leave the air heater from top of pass-I. APH is provided with common hopper for
Following are the attachments of flue gas inlet duct to APH:

Pressure transmitter PT-715 for remote indication in panel


Thermocouple TE-734 for remote indication in panel
O2 analyser AT-722.
Local Draft gauge

Following are the attachments of flue gas outlet duct to APH:


Pressure transmitter PT-716 for remote indication in panel
Thermocouple TE-735 for remote indication in panel
Local Draft gauge
Following are the attachments of Air to APH inlet duct:
Aerofoil FE-706 for total air flow measurement.
Thermocouple TE-730 for remote indication in panel and for temperature compensation to
Aerofoil.

Following are the attachments of APH to Plenum Air duct:


Thermocouple TE-731 for remote indication in panel.
Pressure tranamsitter PT- 702.
PLENUM HOPPER
FD Fan Air from APH is passed to the plenum hopper. From plenum hopper hot primary air
passes across the Travagrate in to the furnace. Plenum hopper accommodates catanery of
Travagrate. Sliding gate at hopper end is used to clean the ash that gets collected in hopper.
SECONDARY AIR SYSTEM
Boiler is provided with 2 x 60 %. S.A. fans A & B driven by electric motor. Fan inlet dampers
are operated through a pneumatic power cylinder, (Tag no. AD-09 & 10) according to the
secondary air requirement from the control room. Also two manual field operated dampers (Tag
no AD-11 & 12) are provided at each fan outlet duct.

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

To minimise the forces due to possible movement of the discharge ducts on the fan, as well as
to isolate fan vibrations being passed on to the duct, the fans are connected to the discharge
duct through bellow type expansion joints.
The fan outlet duct is connected to APH & from APH outlet, SA duct five nos. branch ductings
are tapped at boiler front side and four at the rear. SA duct is having bypass to APH to control
flue gas temperature at furnace outlet & SH steam. Detail of the branch ducts are as explained
below:
Boiler front side:
Upper duct nozzles are located at +11851 mm elevation, having 7 nozzles of 60.3 O.D
pipe inclined downward. Ducting is provided with common damper to adjust the air pressure.
Upper Middle duct nozzles are located at +10855 mm elevation, with 7 nozzles of 60.3
O.D pipe inclined downward. Ducting is provided with common damper to adjust the air
pressure
Pneumatic spreader (At elevation +9100): Secondary air duct is connected to all the
three pneumatic spreaders through 5 isolation dampers and 5 rotating dampers driven by
a cyclo geared motor. Common ducting is provided before dampers.
Travagrate top panel duct nozzles are provided .Main purpose of these nozzles is to cool
the front plate.
Boiler Rear side:
Upper duct nozzles are located at +11851 mm elevation, having 7 nozzles of 60.3 O.D
pipe positioned inclined downward. Ducting is provided with common damper to adjust the
air pressure.
Middle Upper duct nozzles are located at +10855 mm elevation, having 7 nozzles of
60.3 O.D pipe positioned horizontally. Ducting is provided with common damper to adjust the
air pressure.
Middle lower duct nozzles are located at +9905 mm elevation, having 12nozzles of 60.3
O.D pipe positioned horizontally. Ducting is provided with common damper to adjust the air
pressure.
Lower duct nozzles are located at +8529 mm elevation, having 18 nozzles of 60.3 O.D
pipe positioned horizontally. Ducting is provided with common damper to adjust the air
pressure.
FLUE GAS SYSTEM
Flue gas from the furnace passes through S.H coils, Convection bank tubes, Economiser coils,
Air Pre-heater tubes and ESP to I.D Fans. From the I.D fan gas is blown through chimney to
atmosphere.
System description:
The combustion products of gases exits from the furnace and passed to S.H zone. Furnace is
provided with the following attachments in the flue path.
Furnace pressure transmitter, Tag no PT-714 with isolation valve Tag no GAS-001 to
measure the furnace pressure.

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PROJECT NO-PB0751

Pressure switches, Tag no. PSHH-702 & PSLL-703 with isolation valves Tag no. GAS-002
& 004 to indicate the furnace pressure, high and low at control room.
One no temperature elemnt Tag no. TE- 732 is provided.
From the furnace, flue gases pass through the super heater zone. First it enters to secondary
S.H and then to primary S.H coil assembly. From the super heater zone the gases further passes
through the convection bank tubes and enters to economiser assembly.
A Pressure transmitter PT-750 with isolation valve Tag no. GAS-005 for remote indication in
panel, thermocouple Tag no TE-733 is provided to measure the gas pressure and temperature
at economiser inlet.
From the economiser the flues pass to air pre heater assembly. Pressure transmitter PT-715
with isolation valve Tag no. GAS-007 for remote indication in panel, Thermocouple/ Draft gauge
for remote indication in panel, Local temperature gauge TG-014 and probe connection to
measure the O2 % by O2 Analyzer-Tag no AT-722 in the gas are provided.
Further the gas from APH outlet pass through the ESP and to I.D fans. From the fans it is
discharged to atmosphere through the chimney.
A Pressure transmitter PT-716 with isolation valve Tag no. GAS-008 for remote indication in
panel, thermocouple Tag no TE-735 & draft gauge are provided to measure the gas pressure
and temperature at ESP inlet.
A thermocouple Tag no TE-736 is provided to measure the gas temperature and pressure at
ESP outlet.
Boiler is provided with 2 x 60 %. I.D fans A & B driven by electric motor. The fan is driven by
variable frequency drive. Fan inlet dampers are operated on input signals of furnace pressure
transmitter (Tag no. PIC-714) through a pneumatic power cylinder (Tag no. PV-714A &
714B) to maintain the required furnace draft. Also two manual field operated dampers (Tag no
GD-002 & 004) are provided at each fan outlet duct. To minimise the force due to possible
movement of the discharge duct on the fan, as well as to isolate fan vibrations being passed on
to the duct, the fans are connected to the duct through bellows type expansion joints.
I.D. fan outlet ducts are connected separately to chimney.

Section B

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

FUEL FIRING SYSTEM


The system consists of:
i. Rotary Baggase Feeder with Screw FEEDER
ii. Pneumatic spreader
iii.Travagrate

- For baggase feeding


- For bagasse feeding

ROTARY BAGASSE FEEDER WITH SCREW FFEDER


This is the continuous bagasse feeding system consist of bagasse silos, twin drum rotary feeder
and screw feeder.
Two separate slot conveyors (one running and one stand-by) are provided for conveying fuel
from bagasse yard and mill. Also separate silos and drum feeders connected to these slot
conveyors. How ever single screw feeders are provided for single rotary feeder. Silos are
designed to have storage capacity such that boiler can be run for 10 min in case of any failure of
conveyors.
Rotary feeders receive bagasse from the silo. Rotary feeder is driven by motor through a double
stage reduction gearbox. Gearbox shaft and drum feeder shafts are coaxial and coupled with
rigid coupling. Both the drum shafts were connected through geared wheel.
Extracted bagasse is then fed to the VFD driven screw feeder. Screw feeder is driven by motor
and a gearbox. The gearbox shaft is coupled to the screw feeder shaft through a flexible
coupling. Screw has a toothed profile, which gives positive conveying of the bagasse. Bagasse
from the feeder is conveyed to pneumatic spreader through the connecting chute.
There are 5 fuel-feeding assemblies in this boiler.
PNEUMATIC SPREADER
This is stationary equipment made out of cast iron and mounted on the furnace front plate. It
receives bagasse from the screw feeder and distributes the same into the furnace uniformly.
The throw and the distribution of bagasse is partly controlled by the adjustable trajectory plate
provided in the spreader and partly by the pneumatic air pressure.
Moving the trajectory plate upward and increasing the pneumatic air pressure causes the
bagasse to be thrown towards the rear end of the furnace. Reversing the above will make
bagasse to fall in front of the furnace.
This boiler is provided with 5 nos. pneumatic spreaders.
Note: Whenever the moisture % in bagasse exceeds the design limit, the pneumatic air
pressure required to be increased to avoid chute jamming and mouth feeding.

Section B

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

SPREADER AIR SYSTEM:


This system consists of high-pressure SA fan, ducting and dampers. The air to the pneumatic
spreader is taken through a branch duct from the front side common duct. A sectional damper
controls flow and pressure. The air pressure should be adjusted in such a way that the bagasse
is spread through out the length of the furnace and never allowed to form a heap on the grate.
To obtain a fine tune of bagasse spreading, each pneumatic spreader is provided with a
modulating damper at the inlet to the spreader, which help to spread the Bagasse uniformly
through out the length of the furnace. Modulating damper is driven by a geared motor
arrangement through a common shaft.
When more number of pneumatic spreaders are in the system, the flaps of the modulating
dampers are to be positioned in such a way that they are at different opening positions to avoid
puffing.
TRAVAGRATE
CONSTRUCTION
This boiler is provided with a Dual grate driven by 2 hydraulic drive on each side.
The TRAVAGRATE is a continuous ash discharge and an over feed type stoker. The fuel is burnt
in suspension as well as grate surface.
The grate is designed and manufactured for years of continuous operation, every effort is made
to provide a stoker that will perform as it is designed with minimum of maintenance problem.
The various components are arranged for maximum efficiency. All sections directly exposed to
the furnace are constructed of best quality, heavy-duty, heat-resisting cast iron alloy for long life.
Adequate access to all areas and external grease fittings simplify maintenance. Individual parts,
such as grate sections, can be replaced without a major overhaul.
TRAVAGRATE DESIGN FEATURES: 1. CATENARY DESIGN provides for automatic take up or tensioning of grate chains to prevent
jamming. Effective catenary is maintained by gravity, thus making external shaft adjustments
unnecessary.
2. GRATE SURFACE consists of a series of grates specifically designed for spreader stoker
firing.
3. To reduce maintenance cost, grate surface is made in short sections (298 mm & 229) with
uniformly spaced tapered self- cleaning air- metering openings and with close fitting
overlapping edges to prevent air leakage at the joints.
4. GRATE CURVATURE design keeps the grate closed without the aid of auxiliary weights
when making the turn around the sprockets. With this design, no gaps appear between the
grates, thereby directing all foreign materials in to the ash hopper and not into the driven
shaft mechanism.

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PROJECT NO-PB0751

5. GRATE ACCESS is provided by a grate removal door. Design is such that any grate section
can be replaced without taking
the stoker out of service .simply remove a single bolt,
nut
and washer and slide the grate off the grate bar (carrier bar)
6. GRATE SUPPORT within the furnace is provided by a series of skids and skid rails, each
constructed of chill hardened cast iron for maximum life.
7. FRONT AND REAR SHAFT carry the grate chains on hardened sprockets. Bearings and
sprockets are strategically located along the shafts for maximum load - bearing efficiency.
8. A FORCED LUBRICATION SYSTEM for the drive and idle shafts is mounted outside on the
stoker frame for each access.
9. GRATE ALARM SYSTEM, built into the rear end of the grate assembly, is designed so that
any foreign material or obstruction in the grates will come in contact with the pull cord wire,
which trips drive motor and immediately stop the grate. And it is indicated in the
annunciation panel in the control room to alert the operator.
10. THE GRATE CHAIN are forged steel thereby eliminating breakage and grate shutdown.
11. FRONT AIR SEAL reduce air by-passing to the ash discharge end. These front seals are
constructed for long service and to maintain continuous close sealing contact.
12. UNDER-GRATE ACCESS DOORS located on each side of the stoker frame provide
inspection of and access to grate catenary.
13. HEAVY DUTY GEARED COUPLING connecting hydraulic drive and main drive shaft.
HYDRAULIC DRIVE
The Hydraulic Drive is a powerful and effective self-contained unit in a single heavy requiring no
external piping or equipment. It is constructed of heavy-duty casting and high strength steel
parts. To control the speed of Travagrate hydraulic drive is equipped with flow control valve,
flow directional valve, and pressure relief valve.
The capacity of the flow control valve and hydraulic system as such that the rotation of drive
shaft can be adjusted in terms of grate speed up to - 45' per hour.
Pressure relief valve is factory tested and set at 28 Kg/Cm2 (g) pressure and should never be
tempered with to increase the pressure. Heavy-duty geared coupling connects the hydraulic
driveshaft and drive shaft of the Travagrate.
OIL COOLERS
With pneumatic spreader and agro waste fuel, the combustion is at the combination of bed and
suspension. Since the combustion is in split mode there will be very little ash generation on the
grate bed, hence travagrate needs to be operated at a very low speed.

Section B

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

While operating the hydraulic drive at slow speed, lot of oil will be directed to sump through the
pressure relief valve, which increases the temperature of the oil due to churning. Oil cooler is
provided to maintain the oil temperature to the safe limit.
From the pressure relief valve, oil is pass to a tubular heat exchanger, through a three-way valve
and is returned to the drive sump. If the temperature is within the limit, oil can be returned to
sump directly (bypassing the cooler) by changing the oil flow direction through the three-way
valve.

Section B

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

CHEMICAL DOSING SYSTEM


Chemical dosing system consists of chemical dosing tank with two pumps with motorised agitator
interconnecting piping, valves and mountings. The complete assembly is mounted on the skid.
Chemical dosing system are required to maintain feed & boiler water quality at desirable levels.
LP DOSING SYSTEM
Removal of dissolved oxygen/gases from boiler feed water is essential. Presence of dissolve
gases can cause corrosion and pitting of feed water lines, steam line or condensate lines, boiler
tubes and other pressure parts resulting in pre-matured failure of pressure parts or other
expensive plant shut down.
Sodium sulphite (catalised or un-catalised) or hydrazine is to be used for oxygen removal from
boiler feed water. The major amount of dissolved oxygen is removed in deaerator by mechanical
deaeration. The remaining traces of oxygen are removed by reacting with chemical (sodium
sulfite or hydrazine).
H.P. DOSING SYSTEM
During the boiler operation the impurities in the boiler water keep on getting concentrated. If
the boiler feed water is hard the concentration of such chemicals may cause formation &
deposition of scales on boiler heat transfer surfaces, which is dangerous. The chemicals dosed,
react and form insoluble compounds, which prevent scale formation and aid in removal of
existing scales. The quantity of such chemicals should to be calculated and depending on the
analysis of boiler water.

Description of HP dosing system


Schematic diagram shows detail of HP dosing.
Total system is mounted on a Base frame. Chemical-mixing tank made of M.S. with rubber lined
is provided, where the chemical is mixed with water for 8/24 hrs dosing. Following are the
attachments of the tank - A level gauge, One mixing water connection, one drain, one over flow
connection with isolation valves, one motorized agitator for proper mixing of the solution and a
perforated screen at the inlet to avoid foreign material entry.
Two pumps with motors are mounted on the base frame. One pump is operating while another is
stand by.
Pump details are:
Pump suction line is tapped of from the bottom of the tank. It is connected to the pump through
an isolation valve and a strainer. A direct connection of the DM water is given in between
strainer and isolation valve for flushing of the discharge piping & strainer. Pumps are high
precision positive displacement type in which feeding volume can be controlled. In the discharge
line a pulsation dampener is given to dampen intermittent discharge from the pump. After that

Section B

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

one NRV, a pressure gauge and isolation valve is provided. One relief valve to maintain the
pressure in the system is given. In HP dosing, relief valve set pressure is to be adjusted by
closing the main isolation valve in the discharge line.
Discharge of the relief valve is connected to the tank. Pressure gauge is provided with a Snubber
and a Diaphragm, snubber helps to dampen the fluctuating pressure and diaphragm avoids direct
contact of chemicals and the gauge internals. One drain after the pressure gauge is used to
release pressure while adjusting the relief valve setting, also it can be used to check the flow.
According to the system, discharge line of the H.P dosing is connected to Steam Drum. Supports
at required elevations are given. All the piping in the system is to withstand corrosive chemical
solution.
FLUSHING LINE:
In the system, the chemical mixing water line is connected to the pump suction line also, called
as flushing line. This is provided to clear the line whenever there is no need for dosing.
Whenever the dosing is stopped, always there is a chemically concentrate water is stagnant
inside the piping. If this liquid is not evacuated, it may tend to solidify and settle inside the
piping, which will create a problem for free flow of chemical whenever the dosing is re-started.
Whenever the dosing is stopped, first close the mixing tank outlet valve and open the flushing
line valve, operate the pump for 2 hrs. In this process, the chemically concentrated water is
replaced with the clear water; thus choking of piping can be avoided.

Section B

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

OPERATION .................................................................................................................. 3
OPERATOR'S RESPONSIBILITY .................................................................................... 3
PERSONNEL SAFETY ..................................................................................................... 4
START UP PROCEDURE ................................................................................................. 5
INPUTS ...................................................................................................................................... 5
WALKDOWN CHECKS ................................................................................................................ 5
SYSTEM LINE UP ....................................................................................................................... 5

WATER FILLING............................................................................................................ 8
LIGHT-UP...................................................................................................................... 9
BAGASSE FIRING .................................................................................................................... 10

PRESSURE RISING...................................................................................................... 13
PRESSURE RISING CURVE .......................................................................................... 15
SUPER HEATER COIL PROTECTION DURING PRESSURE RISING ............................... 16
OPERATION ................................................................................................................ 16
FUELS DISTRIBUTION............................................................................................................. 16
GRATE SPEED .......................................................................................................................... 16
COMBUSTION AIR ................................................................................................................... 17
SECONDARY AIR PRESSURE SETTING .................................................................................... 17

TRAVAGRATE .............................................................................................................. 20
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................. 20
SPEED CONTROL ..................................................................................................................... 20

ESP.............................................................................................................................. 21
STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL................................................................................ 21
CHEMICAL DOSING SYSTEM ....................................................................................... 21
BLOW-DOWN SYSTEM ................................................................................................ 22
INTERMITTENT BLOW-DOWN (IBD)....................................................................................... 22
CONTINUOS BLOW-DOWN (CBD) ........................................................................................... 22

AIR PRE-HEATER ........................................................................................................ 23


SOURCES OF TROUBLES AND PREVENTION ........................................................................... 23
FOULING ................................................................................................................................................ 23
CORROSION ........................................................................................................................................... 23
FIRES...................................................................................................................................................... 23

Section C

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

DEAERATOR ................................................................................................................ 24
START UP................................................................................................................................. 24
OPERATION ............................................................................................................................. 24
SHUTTING DOWN.................................................................................................................... 25

SOOT BLOWER ............................................................................................................ 25


STEAM WATER ANALYSIS SYSTEM (SWAS) ................................................................ 26
ANTICIPATED BOILER PERFORMANCE DATA SHEET .................................................. 27
FLUE GAS ................................................................................................................................. 27

DOS AND DONT S FOR BOILER ................................................................................. 28


DOS......................................................................................................................................... 28
DONTS .................................................................................................................................... 30

OPERATING INSTRUCTION FOR IMPORTANT VALVES ............................................... 31


WALK DOWN CHECK LIST DURING OPERATION ........................................................ 32
NORMAL SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE............................................................................. 33
SHUT DOWN PROCEDURES - LONG DURATION .......................................................... 33
SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES - SHORT DURATION ......................................................... 34
EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES.................................................................... 34
BOILER START UP FLOW CHART................................................................................. 36

Section C

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

OPERATION
This section describes the startup and shutdown procedures of the boiler along with the
operation, troubleshooting and safety points.

Procedures explained in this section apply for start up of a boiler already commissioned.
Commissioning a new boiler call for several additional requirements, which are not explained
here.

It is assumed that the boiler operators are fully familiar with the design and construction
feature described in section A.

It is assumed that operators are trained in operation of similar Travagrate boilers and have
been licensed to operate boilers by the concerned authorities.

The owner is encouraged to evolve standard operating procedures (SOP) based on the
framework and recommendations that are explained in the subsections below. The SOPs have
to be well understood by the utility managers and operators for safe and reliable operation.

OPERATOR'S RESPONSIBILITY
Boiler operator is responsible not only for the successful operation of the boiler and its related
equipment, but also for the safety of all personnel involved. The operator must be aware of any
operating conditions affecting the boiler or related equipment. Should be able to recognize
hazardous conditions and to act properly to avoid injury.
Even though operating procedures are normally given for each piece of equipment, a complete
knowledge of all components their design, purpose, limitations and relationship with other
components is must for the operators.

Section C

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

PERSONNEL SAFETY
Operating instructions usually deal primarily with the protection of equipment. Rules and devices
for personnel protection are also essential. The items listed here are based on actual operating
experience and point out some personnel safety considerations.
1. When viewing flames or furnace conditions always wear tinted goggles or a tinted shield to
protect the eyes from harmful light intensity and flying ash or slag particles.
2. Do not stand in front of open ports or doors, especially when they are being opened. Furnace
pulsations caused by firing conditions, soot blower operation, or tube failure can blow hot
furnace gases out of open doors, even on suction-fired units. Aspirating air is used on
inspection doors and ports of pressure-fired units to prevent the escape of hot furnace gases.
The aspirating jets can become blocked, or the aspirating air supply can fail. In some cases,
the entire observation port or door can be covered with slag, causing the aspirating air to
blast slag and ash out into the boiler room.
3. Do not use open ended pipes for rodding observation ports or slag on furnace walls. Hot
gases can be discharged through the open ended pipe directly onto its handler. The pipe can
also become excessively hot.
4. When handling any type of rod or probe in the furnace especially in coal-fired furnaces be
prepared for falling slag striking the rod or probe. The fulcrum action can inflict severe
injuries.
5. Be prepared for slag leaks. Iron oxides in coal can be reduced to molten iron or iron sulfides
in a reducing atmosphere in the furnace resulting from combustion with insufficient air. This
molten iron can wash away refractory, seals and tube and leak out onto equipment or
personnel.
6. Never enter a vessel, especially a boiler drum, until all stem and water valves, including drain
and blow down valves, have been closed and locked or tagged. It is possible for steam and
hot water to back up through drain and blow down piping, especially when more than one
boiler or vessel is connected to the same drain or blow down tank.
7. Be prepared for hot water in drums and headers when removing manhole plates and manhole
covers.
8. Do not enter a confined space until it has been cooled, purged of combustible and dangerous
gases and properly ventilated with precautions taken to keep the entrance open. Station a
worker at the entrance, notify a responsible person, or run an extension cord through the
entrance.
9. Be prepared for falling slag and dust when entering the boiler setting or ash pit.
10. Use low voltage extension cords, or cords with ground fault interrupters. Bulbs on extension
cords and flashlights should be explosion proof.
11. Never step into flyash. It can be cold on the surface yet remain hot and smoldering
underneath for weeks.
12. Never use toxic or volatile fluids in confined spaces.
13. Never open or enter rotating equipment until it has come to a complete stop and its circuit
breaker is locked open. Some types of rotating equipment can be set into motion with very
little force. This type should be locked with a brake or other suitable device to prevent
rotation.

Section C

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

14. Always secure the drive mechanism of dampers, gates and doors before passing through
them.

START UP PROCEDURE
Prior to start the boiler, following input requirements to be satisfied.
INPUTS
Inputs required for startup are as follows:












Fuel
Feed water.
Uninterrupted electric power supply for auxiliary equipments.
Lighting for equipments, walk ways and field instruments.
Instrument air.
Plant air.
Cooling water.
Lubricant for the rotary equipments.
Chemical for feed and boiler water treatment.
Readiness of drainage and ash disposal system.
Fire fighting system.

WALKDOWN CHECKS
 Verify that the Nitrogen capping is removed and the unit is purged properly so as it is safe for
man entry for inspection.
 Steam and water drums are clean and manholes are closed properly.
 Verify that the furnace S.H and convection bank are clear
 Verify that all access and inspection doors of furnace are tightly closed.
 Verify that the air duct to furnace and flue up to stack is clear and the manhole doors closed
properly.
 Ensure the walkways are clear with out any obstruction.
SYSTEM LINE UP
A. Process valve position during start-up
Following valves to be kept in open position:
 Air vent on steam drum.
 Start-up vent at S.H. steam outlet.
 Air vent on economiser outlet header
 Instrument air connections to all the instruments.
 Isolation valve for drum level gauge
 Steam and water system pressure gauges/transmitters

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Following valves are to be kept in closed position:


 Main steam stop valve & by-pass valve
 SH header vents and drains
 Furnace bottom header drains
 Furnace Top header vents
 Steam to soot blower root valve.
 Economiser drain
 IBD/CBD
 Drum level Gauge drain valves
 Steam and water sample lines
 Spray water line
B. Field dampers are to be kept open/close as per the following instruction:
 Keep the I.D fan in/outlet dampers in open position.
 Verify the plenum, APH & ESP hopper, ash outlet gates are kept in open position.
 Verify the main ash hopper outlet gates are in open position and the by pass chute gates
are in closed position.
 Submerged ash conveyor is filled with water so as the ash outlet chutes are immersed in
water.
 Open the I.D fan inlet box drain plug during slow firing, due to low heating there is a
possibility of condensation of flue gases, which can be drained through this drain plug.
 Close the FD Fan to APH inlet duct damper and open the APH by-pass duct damper.
 Open the APH to plenum duct isolation dampers.
 Ensure the chimney manhole is kept closed.
C. Verify the readiness of following equipments:

I.D., FD and S.A. fans.


Feed water transfer pump.
Feed water pump.
Travagrate with drive.
Twin drum feeders for bagasse
Screw feeders for bagasse
Rotary airlock valves.
Fuel handling system.
Ash handling system.
Chemical dosing system.
Soot blowers.

Section C

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

D. Verify the readiness of following instruments:

Control panel/DCS
Control valves
Motorized valves
All the field and panel instruments.
Damper actuators
Sensors

E. Switch over the following controls in manual mode;











Deaerator level and pressure.


Furnace pressure
Drum level
Steam Temperature.
Air flow
Fuel flow
CBD tank level
Soot blower pressure control

F. ESP







Switch on the ash handling system one hour prior to light up.
Open the isolation gate above the RAV and switch on the rotary airlock valves.
Incase of pneumatic evacuation, open the isolation gate above the vessel.
Switch on the rapping mechanism one-hour before the light up.
Switch on the hopper and insulator heater four hours prior to light up.
Check and ensure all the safety interlocks are tested prior to startup.

G.

Others
Verify all the soot blowers are in rest position.
Ensure the test gags of safety valves are removed.
Verify all the safety interlocks are working as per the desired logic/values.
Ensure the availability of cooling water/seal air to the system.

Section C

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

H. Cold start-up:
During cold startup at most care to be taken to ensure trouble free start-up and smooth operation
of the boiler plant.
 After completing the above pre start checks, ensure all the manholes in furnace, flues and
ducting are closed and locked properly, except the wood-firing door.
 Fill-up the fuel-bunker/silo with specified fuel.
 Open the cooling water to boiler feed water pump, sample coolers and hydraulic drive oil
cooler.
 Fill up boiler with feed water, 50 mm below normal water level.

WATER FILLING
Caution: Feed water should be confirm to the specification.
Prior to fill the water, keep the following valves in open position:
Air vent at economiser outlet header
Air vent on steam drum
Start up vent
Economiser drain
Keep the following valves in closed position:
Furnace drain header outlet
Furnace bottom headers drain
Water drum drain/blowdown
CBD piping
H.P Dosing piping
Steam sampling line
Main steam isolation and by-pass valve
Attemperator spray water isolation
Feed water control valve isolation
Steam to soot blower
Start the feed water transfer pump and admit the water through the filling line.
OR
Start the feed water pump as per the pump start up procedure, open the feed water flow control
station by-pass valve gradually and feed the water to the boiler through the regular system. Feed
water flow to be controlled in such a way that the electrical load on the pump motor is with in the
operating limit also the pump outlet pressure is maintained. In this case keep the economiser
drain in closed position wile line up the valves for water filling.
Whenever the water flow from the economiser vent is free from air, close the vent valve.
Continue water filling till the level in steam drum reaches 50mm below the normal operating limit
and stop the pump.
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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

LIGHT-UP
Stack around 200Kgs of firewood on the travagrate, light up the wood by kerosene soaked torch
from out side the furnace through the wood firing door. (Firewood should be of small size- 2" x
500 mm long, without nail or packing metal strips, which may damage grate components).
Maintain low and moderate fire initially and do not operate the fans at this stage, which may
increase the furnace temperature rapidly.
Whenever the fire is well spread over the grate, start the I.D fan as per the Fan start up
procedure. Continue the firing with the I.D fan in operation, at one stage the temperature will be
stagnant, then start the F.D fan and increase the rate of fuel feeding.
Maintain furnace pressure between (-) 2 to (-) 5 mmwc by adjusting the fan speed or fan
suction damper opening.
Close the drum vent valve whenever the pressure reaches to 2kg/cm2 (g). Do not close the
start up vent.
Whenever the drum pressure reaches 5kg/cm2 (g), stop the firing and reduce the boiler
pressure to 2kg/cm2 (g), quickly operate the I.B.D. and furnace bottom header drain valves,
individually for 1min. In this operation, the sediments from the pressure part internals if any, may
be removed. It also helps to reconfirm the drain pipe/valves are clear with out any
obstruction/blockages. Maintain drum water level while doing the above operation.
After completion of hot draining operation re start the firing and increase the pressure.
Open the continuous blow down valve (CBD) around 25% at this stage.
At times, it may be require poking the fire during start up. Care should be taken while poking by
ensuring sufficient negative draft inside the furnace.

Section C

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PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

BAGASSE FIRING
Whenever the boiler is ready for bagasse firing, start the S.A fan as per the fan startup procedure
and maintain 200 to 300mmwc pressure at the pneumatic spreader air ducting. Then start the
air-modulating damper.
Keep the pneumatic spreader trajectory plate in horizontal position.
Bagasse should be loose with moisture <50 %, and free from foreign materials like steel, stone,
bricks, binding wire and wood etc. Presence of foreign material may jam the fuel feeders and
damage the Travagrate grate and fuel feeder components. Start the bagasse carrier and fill up
the silo.
Prior to start the bagasse feeder, ensure the furnace temperature is adequate for the combustion
of bagasse, otherwise there will be un-burnt in the flue gas, which may create problem of choking
the cinder re-firing system, APH tubes and ESP hoppers. Hence it is recommended to start the
feeders whenever the furnace temperature is achieved >500 C.
Whenever the required furnace temperature is achieved, start the screw feeders and run at
minimum speed then start the twin drum feeder one by one and run at minimum speed, however
it may require to operate the feeders intermittently depends on furnace conditions. Watch the
furnace for fuel throw/spreading pattern and combustion. If the fuel is falling close to the front
plate, increase the SA pressure at the spreader duct. Initially there will be heaps in the furnace,
during such conditions, stop the feeder of the section where the fuel pile up on the travagrate
and wait for the heaps to burn. Pocking may also require in such condition to disturb the heap for
quick burning. Feeder can be started once the heaps are cleared.
While viewing the furnace utmost care to be taken, as in the event of fuel feeding
interruption there will be a possibility of furnace puffing. View the furnace condition
through the peep hole in the access door at the travagrate front panel, it also advised
to use safety goggle while viewing to avoid accident.
During start-up, there will be mouth feeding and un-burnt in the bottom ash, due to low furnace
temperature, which will be gradually reduced when the furnace temperature/load is increased.
Furnace pressure is to be maintained between (-) 2 to (-) 5 mmwc, if the furnace pressure is
too negative fine bagasse particles will either fire close to S.H. zone or fly as unburned. Firing at
free board is to be avoided for the protection of S.H. coils from over heating.

Section C

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Coal firing can be started in two methods;


Start-up with firewood - Using firewood for initial heating
Start-up with coal- Directly firing coal by adding kerosene/diesel oil.
Start-up with fire wood:
Stack around 200Kgs of firewood on the grate and spray kerosene/diesel oil over the firewood,
light up the wood by kerosene/diesel oil soaked torch through the wood-firing door. (Firewood
should be of small size- 2" x 500 mm long, without nail or packing metal strips, which may
damage grate components).
Maintain low and moderate fire inside the furnace by charging less amount of wood. Do not
operate the fans at this stage, which would rapidly increase the furnace temperature.
When the fire is well spread over the grate, start the I.D. fan. Prior to start the fan, keep the
suction damper 100% close, through the furnace pressure controller and switch on the fan.
Immediately after the fan started up, there will be a sudden and temporary temperature raise,
because of more air entry due to suction effect.
Continue the manual firing with the I.D fan in operation, at one stage the temperature will be
stagnant, then start the F.D fan by keeping the fan suction damper close fully through the
damper controller and increase the fuel feeding to increase the furnace temperature. Remember
to close the drain plug at ID fan suction and impeller casing which was kept open during light up,
prior to start the fan.
During start up Travagrate may be required to operate intermittently also manual poking may be
done to assist the wood firing.
Once the wood fire is well spread over the grate, start the coal spreaders and drag chain feeders.
Operate the drag chain feeder at the minimum speed and spray coal on the fire bed. During initial
period, coal spray may be done intermittently, till the coal firing is stabilized. As soon the coal
firing is established stop the wood charging and close the wood-charging door.
When the fires intensity has increased sufficiently and a layer of coal ash begins to form on the
grate surface, increase the fuel feed rate through the speed controllers and F.D fan suction
damper opening to supply required amount of air to the plenum. Also adjust the hydraulic drive
speed through the oil flow control valve mounted on the hydraulic drive according to the furnace
condition.
At this time the secondary air to be started by keeping the suction damper fully closed through
the damper operating controller and maintain the fan discharge pressure at pressure (200
mmWC) by adjusting the fan suction damper.

Section C

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

While starting coal firing care should be taken that, initially the green coal bed thickness should
not be increased more than 50 mm at any location. Also the fire should start close to the rear
wall (50 to 75mm), if the fire moves away from the rear wall it will cause fire slippage and we
have to do the start up almost fresh. Operate the Travagrate intermittently at lower speed to
maintain the above. It is also required charging of wood chips, kerosene soaked cotton waste and
jerking of bed with poking rod, to assist for establishing the coal fire through out the grate.
Increase the coal feed rate progressively along with the under-great and over fire air.
Once the fire is well spread and across the grate area, run the coal feeders and Travagrate
continuously.
Maintain furnace pressure between -2 to -5 mmWC through the furnace pressure controller
Start-up with coal:
In this method,
Start the ID fan, Prior to start the fan, and keep the suction damper 100% close, through the
furnace pressure controller and switch on the fan
Then start the FD fan by keeping the fan suction damper close fully through the damper
controller and Keep the FD fan suction damper in closed position.
Operate the I.D fan suction damper to maintain the furnace pressure to 3 to -5 mmWC through
the controller.
Switch on the coal spreaders and drag chain feeders (DCF), operate the DCF at the lowest speed
through the speed controller and spray a thin layer (40-mm) of coal over the grate. Stop the DCF
but keep the spreaders in running.
Cover the coal, sprayed over the grate surface with wood chips and cotton waste and spray
kerosene over the coal and wood chips. Light up the fuel bed from the wood-firing door with the
kerosene soaked torch.
As the fire begins to build up start the DCF and feed light shower of coal to the furnace
intermittently. Do not feed the fuel continuously at this stage also do not operate Travagrate.
When the fires intensity has increased sufficiently and a layer of ash begins to form on the grate
surface, open the F.D fan suction damper and supply required amount of air to the plenum. Also
start the hydraulic drive and operate at the lowest speed through the oil flow controller mounted
on the hydraulic drive.
At this time the secondary air fan to be started can be started by keeping the suction damper
fully closed through the fan suction damper operating controller and maintain the fan discharge
pressure at pressure (200 mmWC) by adjusting the fan suction damper.

Section C

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

While starting coal firing care should be taken that, initially the green coal bed thickness should
not be increased more than 50 mm at any location. Also the fire should start close to the rear
wall (50 to 75mm), if the fire moves away from the rear wall it will cause fire slippage and we
have to do the start up almost fresh. Operate the grate intermittently at lower speed to maintain
the above. It is also required charging of wood chips, kerosene soaked cotton waste and jerking
of bed with poking rod, to assist for establishing the coal fire through out the grate.
Increase the coal feed rate progressively along with the under-great and over fire air.
Once the fire is well spread and across the grate area, run the coal feeders and Travagrate
continuously. Also close the wood-charging door once the continuous coal feeding is initiated.
Maintain furnace pressure between - 2 to - 5 mmWC through the furnace pressure controller and
switch over the controller into auto mode immediately after the continuous coal firing is
established.

PRESSURE RISING
Close the drum vent valve when the pressure reaches to 2-kg/cm2 (g). Keep the start up vent
and SSH drain valves in open position.
As the pressure increases, carefully watch the pressure part for free expansion/movements.
Increase the boiler pressure as per the cold start up curve, rate of firing is to be varied as per the
requirement, at times it may require to stop the feeders, but ensure that the feeding is not
discontinued for a long time so as to maintain the furnace temperature.
During pressure raising, keep the drum water level controller in manual or single element control
mode, however furnace pressure control can be switched over to auto mode.
Whenever the boiler pressure reaches close to the operating range make preparation for charging
the main steam piping viz. opening the drain valves in the steam line. Open the by-pass valve of
the main steam stop valve (MSSV) to warm up the steam line. Whenever the steam line is warm
and condensate (if any) is removed, open the main steam stop valve (MSSV). Close the MSSV bypass valve after the stop valve is opened fully.
On confirming steady steam flow, take the drum level controller in to automatic control mode. It
is advisable to keep a watch on the performance of the controller whenever it is put in to
automatic control mode at least for one hour. If the steam flow varies more than 20% better to
keep it in manual mode till steady steam flow is ensured.
Start up vent to be closed once the steam flow from the boiler is above 30% and the demand is
steady with out any disturbance.

Section C

Page 13

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

As the steam flow demand increases, required quantity of the fuel and airflow to be increased to
maintain the boiler outlet steam pressure. During initial firing and load up to 60%MCR, both the
fuel and airflow to be controlled manually through the respective controller.
Whenever the steam flow from the boiler is increased more than 60% of MCR switch over the
fuel flow controller in to auto mode along with the main steam pressure controller. Initially the
airflow to be controlled manually for a period of two hrs, after taking the steam pressure
controller into auto mode. On confirmation of satisfactory working of controller switch over the air
flow controller into automatic control mode along with the O2 trimming controller
While loading the boiler care to be taken that the feed and boiler water parameters to
be brought to the recommended limit before increasing the load beyond 50% of the
MCR.

Section C

Page 14

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

PRESSURE RISING CURVE

Pressurising Curve
100.0
325
90.0

300
275

80.0

250
70.0

175

50.0

150
40.0
125
30.0

100
75

20.0

50
10.0

25
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

0.0
350

Time in min
Saturated Steam Temperature

Section C

Drum Pressure

Page 15

60.0

200

Pressure (kg/cm g)

Sat Temp. (deg C)

225

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

SUPER HEATER COIL PROTECTION DURING PRESSURE RISING


During boiler startup, rate of fuel firing and furnace conditions changes frequently which may
resulting to vide variation in super heater steam temperature. During such situations if the super
heater temperature is not controlled with in the safe limit, it may leads to the premature failure of
the coil due to over heating. Hence, care to be taken while pressure rising to maintain the super
heater steam temperature with in the safe limit by adjusting the fuel feed rate and sufficient flow
through the super heater coil.
To ensure cooling of super heater coil, it is mandatory to keep the start up vent valve full open till
steady steam flow from the boiler is established. If required, firing may be reduced to maintain
the temperature under control range.
Also fuel sizing and moisture to be analysed prior to start the boiler as the quality of fuel plays an
important role in super heater performance during startup and operation. If fines are more in fuel
it may burn in free board and increase the super heater temperature. Hence, it is recommended
to maintain fuel quality as per the specification for smooth and trouble free startup and operation.

OPERATION
Fuels distribution
During first few days of operation, adjustment of Travagrate speed and spreader air pressure
may require to bring the firing system to its fullest efficiency.
For fuel spreading adjustment, system is provided with trajectory plate, air pressure control
dampers along with air modulating dampers.
Position of trajectory plate and air pressures setting depends on the fuel quality and firing
conditions. To throw the fuel towards the rear wall, trajectory plate is to be kept horizontal and
the air pressure to be adjusted so as the fuel spreading is beyond the grate centerline. Larger
particle and high moisture fuels require high pressure air for spreading, however the air pressure
to be reduced if the fuel is with low moisture and small size fiber.
During start up, there will be mouth feeding of fuel close to the front wall, as the furnace
temperature will be less during this period. Hence the fuel falling close to the front wall burning
will be slow and looks like mouth feeding, this pile will be burnt and cleared as the boiler load
increases, at times it may require to assist the fire by manual poking to clear the pile.

GRATE SPEED
Oil flow control valve located at the front of the hydraulic drive unit controls speed of the grate.
By tuning the control knob, counter clockwise from 0 setting, the speed can be increased from 0
to 13.7mtrs/ hour maximum,

Section C

Page 16

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Quantity of fuel burnt and ash content of the fuel being fired determine the speed of the grate.
Travagrate under high loads, burning fuel with a high ash content will require an accelerated
grate speed to keep the ash bed level at an optimum height. Travagrate under lower loads,
burning fuel with low ash content will require slow grate speed.
Operator should adjust the drive speed accordingly, any adjustments should not be radical or
made in rapid succession. The time between changing a setting and the effects could be several
hours.
COMBUSTION AIR
For the complete combustion of fuel being fired, air is fed into the furnace from various sections.
Primary air from FD fan through the Air per heater (APH), helps the combustion of fuel on the
grate. Air flow to be adjusted according to the quantity of fuel feeding and bed ash thickness.
The exact quantity of air requirements can be adjusted as per the excess air from the O2
measurement in flue gas and furnace conditions.
During start-up Air Pre Heater (APH) is by-passed from airside, to avoid gas condensation
because low gas temperature and tube corrosion. To maintain the APH tube metal temp. airflow
through the APH is to controlled by adjusting the dampers provided in the F.D fan to APH and
APH by-pass ducts. These dampers are to be adjusted to maintain the gas temperature at APH
outlet at 140C.
Over fire from SA fan is fed to furnace at various elevations, provides turbulence, which
thoroughly mixes with volatile gases and fine fuels, thus assuring complete combustion. Dampers
at the individual elevation ducts are to be adjusted to maintain the required air pressure to create
good penetration into the furnace and vigorous air turbulence above the grate.
Cinder re-firing system is also connected with the secondary air system and the required air
pressure (250 to 350mmwc) to be maintained all the time i.e. after stabilising the coal firing and
prior to run the coal feeding continuously. It is also required to keep the system clean and
through always to ensure re-injection of cinder from flue gas.
SECONDARY AIR PRESSURE SETTING
Whenever the plant is stabilised and boiler loaded is around 60% MCR, adjust the secondary air
pressure at various levels, as per the enclosed chart and record the same for future reference.
Note that the air pressure at pneumatic spreader inlet is to adjusted according to the quality of
bagasse viz. moisture and fibber size. Spreading of bagasse depends on the pressure at the
spreader inlet and the position of trajectory plate. During plant commissioning the quality of
bagasse varies frequently, under such condition there is always a possibility of chute jamming
and mouth feeding of bagasse happens. To overcome such situations it is advisable to keep little
high pressure at pneumatic spreader inlet.

Section C

Page 17

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

SECONDARY AIR PRESSURE SETTING CHART FOR BAGASSE PITH


DAMPER OPENING %
250 to 350mmwc

250 to 350mmwc

250 to 350mmwc

250 to 350mmwc
TO CINDER
RECOVERY
SYSTEM

300 to 350 mmwc

150 to 300mmwc

200 to 250mmwc

300 to 350 mmwc

200 to 250mmwc

100-125mmwc

150 to 175mmwc

O/L PRESSURE =

mmWC

S.A
FAN

Damper OP% or Speed =

Section C

Page 18

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

TYPICAL SECONDARY AIR PRESSURE


SETTING FOR COAL FIRING

Boiler front
TOP DUCT
200 to 250mmwc
TOP DUCT
200 to 250mmwc

CINDER FIRING
300 to 350mmwc

LOWER DUCT
100 to 150mmwc
FINE THROW NOZZLE
200 to 400mmwc

Pressure to be adjusted at site depends upon the fuel quality. When the fines are more in the
fuel, fine through air nozzle pressure is to be increased to throw the fuel far from front plate.
Pressure provided is for reference only, actual setting will be carried out at site depends on the
performance of fuel throw and firing performance.

Section C

Page 19

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

TRAVAGRATE
Operation
In stoker firing, part of the fuel is burned in suspension and remaining on the grate. Fuel is
sprayed across the furnace by the series of fuel feeders with a uniform spreading action,
permitting suspension burning of the fine particles during travel. The larger pieces fall on the
grate for combustion, forming a thin fast burning fuel bed. This method of firing fuel provides for
extreme load fluctuation as ignition is almost instantaneous on increase of firing rate and the thin
fuel bed can be burned out rapidly when required. Specifically designed air - metering grates for
under grate air, over fire air system, to reduce carbon loss. Combustion controls are furnished to
coordinate fuel and air supply with load demand. The traveling grate has an extraordinary ability
to burn any type of fuel with a wide range of burning characteristics with no limit on the ash
content. An over fire air system is provided for successful suspension burning. This air mixes
with the furnace gases and creates the turbulence required to complete combustion. To
compensate for variation of the ash content in the fuel, the grate speed can be adjusted up to
13.7mtrs/ hour. The ash is continuously discharged over the front end of the grate into an ash
hopper.
Travagrate is extremely sensitive to load fluctuations since ignition is almost instantaneous on
increase of firing rate and burn out of the thin fuel bed can be rapidly effected when desired. The
grates employ the basic design concepts of high resistance with air metering to avoid blowholes
through the thin bagasse pith bed. With pneumatic distribution feeding, fresh bagasse pith is
distributed uniformly over the surface of the burning fuel bed. It is ignited from the fire bed
beneath and burns upward. Thus the grates are always protected from high temperature by a
layer of ash.
Control of both the quantity and the distribution of combustion air are important and are
generally done with the help of the damper at the fan inlet or by varying the speed.

Speed control
To control the speed of the grate, it is equipped with a flow control valve, which is located at the
front of the drive. Turning its control knob anti clock wise increase the quantity of fluid flowing
into the cylinder, thus making the piston travel at the faster rate. Increasing the rate of piston
travel in turn increases speed of the grate. Turning the control knob clockwise will decrease the
oil-flow and speed of the grate
Capacity of the flow control valve and hydraulic system is such that the rotation of the drive shaft
can be adjusted up to 45 foot per hour. The speed at which the drive should operate will depend
on the amount of fuel being burned and its ash content.

Section C

Page 20

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

ESP
Following care to be taken in ESP operation.

Monitor the gas inlet temperature during start up and low load operation, as the ESP to be
charged once the gas temperature is increased above 125C.
During start up, ESP to be charged 4hrs after the flue gas temperature is reached 125C,
this is to avoid mild explosions due to the presence of CO in flue gas, as CO generation is
common during start up because of transient conditions.
If the boiler operation is not stable, it is advised to switch off the transformer, but keep the
heater and rapping mechanism in operation.
It is recommended to switch off the ESP Transformer, if the ESP ash handling system is not in
service.
Ensure proper functioning of insulator heater, presence of moisture can cause cracking of
Insulator.
Check and confirm the healthiness safety interlocks.
Monitor the ESP gas outlet temperature.
Verify the normal operation of purge air fan and cleanliness of the suction filter.

STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL


As the steam flow demand increases, the firing rate also increases which in turn rise the
temperature of flue gas at super heater inlet. With the higher firing rate, the super heater steam
temperature also increases considerably. To maintain the steam temperature to the desired limit,
boiler is provided with a spray type attemperator between the outlet of primary super heater and
inlet of secondary super heater headers. Water spray requirement is controlled through the
controller and the control valve.
Steam temperature controller to be switched over to auto mode when the steam flow increased
to 60% of MCR.

CHEMICAL DOSING SYSTEM


To maintain the feed and boiler water concentration, boiler is provided with HP & LP dosing
system.
Dosing system should be started as soon as the boiler operation is stable, so as the
recommended water limits can be achieved prior to load the boiler >50%MCR.
Dosing requirement to be decided as per the analysis of the samples collected from
the sources.
At times the dosing may be stopped, during such situations, close the mixing tank
outlet valve and open the flushing line valve, operate the pump for 2 hrs. In this
process, the chemically concentrated water is replaced with the clear water; thus
choking of piping can be avoided.

Section C

Page 21

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

BLOW-DOWN SYSTEM
Dissolved and suspended solids entering into the boiler through feed water system remain in the
boiler, as steam is generated continuously. During steaming process the solids retain the boiler
which increase the concentration of boiler water gradually. There is a limit for the concentration
level of solids in the boiler water depends on the operating pressure, exceeding the limit of Total
Dissolved Solids (TDS) may produce undesirable foaming and carryover.
To control the concentration limit, part of the water is to be drained off, and replaced with fresh
water keeps the TDS level under control.
Blow down rate is determined by the TDS of the boiler water, blow-down may be controlled
either intermittently (IBD) or continuously (CBD).
Intermittent Blow-down (IBD)
Through this system blow-down is carried out intermittently to control the water concentration,
whenever the drum level increase above the safe limit, to control the level water can be drained
though this system.
IBD is tapped from water drum

Continuos Blow-down (CBD)


Through this system a small portion was water is drained from boiler continuously, depends on
the TDS level. Apart from maintain the concentration level, the heat from the drain is recovered
as the flash steam from CBC tank is connected to the deaerator. Along with heat a portion of
water also saved from CBD.

Section C

Page 22

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

AIR PRE-HEATER
Air pre heater provided is of tubular type and the purpose is to recover a portion of the sensible
heat from flue gases thereby improving combustion efficiency. The arrangement consists of tubes
set vertically in a surrounding ductwork. The ends of the tubes are expanded into the supporting
tube sheets. The flue gas passes through the tubes while the incoming air for heating passes
from the out side of the tubes.
SOURCES OF TROUBLES AND PREVENTION
Fouling
Tubular heater elements are susceptible to fouling due to fly ash accumulation, particularly at the
air inlet to the heater and near the exit of gas from Air Pre Heater.
Dust build up on the gas side of the tubes can be detected by observing the following conditions.
Increased draft loss across the heater.
Increased gas temperature leaving the heater.
Decreased air temperature at the APH outlet can often be prevented or minimized.
Fouling can be prevented or minimized by proper operation of firing equipment and maintaining
APH tube metal temperature above the gas dew point limit. To minimise the dust deposit, APH is
provided with air By-pass arrangement. As there will be gas condensation inside the tubes, during
boiler start up due to low back-end gas temperature. Hence during start up the by pass damper
to be kept open 100% open and the inlet damper to be kept closed. Opening of these dampers
to be adjusted in such a way to maintain the gas outlet of APH at 140C
Corrosion
When fly ash deposited in the gas path of cold end tubes, they often form a hard bonded material
that acts as insulation. This insulation lowers the tube metal temperature until it approaches the
incoming air temperature. This temperature is usually below the dew point of the flue gas, acid
constituents within the ash, which become corrosive in the presence of moisture. Conditions
causing corrosion can be minimized by keeping the tube surface free of deposits through proper
combustion and by maintaining safe flue gas temp. i.e. 145C at APH exit.
Fires
Tubular air-heater can be damaged or go out of shape by fires occurring in the gas passes.
Generally these fires are caused by the deposition of large quantities of unburned combustible
materials within tubes and on the tube sheets. Unbound fly ash may be deposited on the tube
surface during initial start up and on abrupt changes of firing rate, may ignite this deposits
leading to damage of the tubes.

Section C

Page 23

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

APH fire is indicated by a very rapid increase in temperature of gas or air flowing from the APH. If
this occurs, following steps should be taken.
Discontinue firing immediately.
Shut down all fans & dampers.
Floor area of fire with CO2 or suitable fire extinguisher.
Ensuring complete combustion of fuel can prevent APH fires.

DEAERATOR
START UP
It is recommended to charge the steam to the deaerator as soon the LP steam is made available,
if the steam charging is done at boiler load conditions may cause thermal shock and water
hammering due to imbalance in steam and water flow till the stabilisation of deaerator.
Procedure for placing the deaerator in to service is as below:

Open the vent valve on the vapor tank (DA-019).


Open the deaerator level control valve and fill up the deaerator up to normal operating level.
Check and ensure the water level indication is matching with the direct level gauge.
Open the drains in the steam to deaerator pipeline and ensure the removal of condensate if
any.
Open the pegging steam pipeline valve gradually and admit steam to the deaeraor. Whenever
the water temperature rise above 60C, open the deaerator pressure control valve (PV-707A)
dually, till steam starts flow out from the vapor tank. Adjust the valve opening to maintain the
steam pressure as per the requirement.
During initial steam admission, it is recommended to control the feed water entry to
deaerator, so as to maintain the balance in steam and water flow to avoid condensation and
water hammering.
Steam and water flow to be increased simultaneously and appropriately to avoid thermal
shock.
It also recommended to switch over the pressure and level control to auto mode as soon the
deaerator pressure is achieved.

OPERATION
During the normal operation, vent valve (DA-056) should be closed as the required volume of
steam will be vented out through the by-pass line with orifice. Also the pegging line isolation
valve is kept in closed position whenever the deaerator pressure is stable. It also recommended
to monitor the steam supply pressure and deaerator operating pressure to maintain required
outlet water temperature.

Section C

Page 24

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

SHUTTING DOWN
To isolate the deaerator from service;

Close the steam to the deaerator.


Open the vapor tank vent valve.
Open the drain valves in the steam pipeline.
Maintain water level as required.

SOOT BLOWER
Soot blower operation is depend on fuel type, steam flow, steam temperature and boiler
arrangement. In general, frequency of cleaning may be determined by observing flue gas exit
temperatures raised from the boiler, economiser, air heaters, draft loss across the flue gas system
and steam outlet temperature. It may be more economical on the other hand to operate soot
blowers as required rather than to adopt a fixed blowing schedule.
This boiler is provided with, 4 nos. motorised long retractable and 14 nos. of motorised multi-jet
rotary soot blowers.

Superheater Zone

Super heater & B.B zone 4 (SB- 05, 06, 07 & 08)

Boiler Bank Zone

4 (SB- 09 , 10, 11 & 12)

Economiser Zone

6 (SB- 13 TO 18)

4 (SB- 01, 02, 03 & 04)

Soot blowing system is provided with a manual start up arrangement. Hence, during start up and
normal/ operation, the soot blower control should be kept off or in manual mode along with the
steam pressure control. Soot blower panel to be switched on and put into auto timer operation
mode along with the steam pressure controller in auto mode, during soot blowing. It is
recommended to operate soot blowers, whenever the steam flow from the boiler crosses 60%.
While operating the soot blower, Prior to start up, furnace draft should be increased considerably
to ensure sufficient draft to carry soot through the boiler. Secondly, open soot blower steam
piping drain valve and steam trap valves. Keep the steam pressure control valve in auto mode
and open the main steam valve & keep the drain open till all the condensed water is removed
from the piping. Once the steam temperature reaches to the specified limit operate the blowers
as per the order specified. On completion of blowing cycle main valve to be closed and the drain
valve to be kept open to remove the condensate. Also the furnace pressure control to be made
normal.

Section C

Page 25

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

STEAM WATER ANALYSIS SYSTEM (SWAS)


To monitor the steam, boiler water and feed water parameters like pH, conductivity, TDS, and
silica system id provided with a SWA. Based on the analysis corrective action like chemical dosing
and blowdown quantity can be decided.
Start-up: Open the cooling water to sample cooler. Keep the drain valve in open position. Open
the sample isolation valves gradually and flush the piping till the dirt and sediments if any are
removed so as to ensure a clean sample with out any contamination.
After flushing, adjust the required sample flow rate and observe the temperature of the sample.
On confirming temperature of the sample, collect the sample for analysis.
During operation, periodically check the sample quantity and temperature. Also the quality of the
cooling water to be monitored so as to avoid fouling and damages to the cooler coil.
Shutdown: Whenever the system needs to be shutdown, stop the sample first and run the
cooling water for 30 minutes to cool the coil and keep the drain valve in open position to drain
the sample trapped in between the system.

Section C

Page 26

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

ANTICIPATED BOILER PERFORMANCE DATA SHEET


SR.
No

Description
STEAM
Evaporation
Steam Temperature @ Boiler Outlet
Drum operating pressure
Steam Pressure @ Boiler Outlet
Primary SH Steam Inlet
Sec. SH inlet
Sec. SH outlet
FEED WATER
Eco inlet pressure
Eco outlet pressure
Eco inlet temperature
Eco outlet temperature
FLUE GAS
Flue Gas Temp. Leaving Furnace
Flue Gas Temp. Leaving
Superheater Section
Flue Gas Temp. Leaving Convection
Section
Flue Gas Temp. Leaving Economizer
Flue Gas at APH Out let
Temperature
Flue gas at furnace outlet
Flue gas at Boiler outlet
Flue gas at Economiser outlet
Flue gas at APH outlet
Flue gas at ESP outlet
Flue gas at I.D. inlet
AIR
APH inlet
APH outlet
FD Fan outlet
APH outlet
Under grate
SA Fan outlet
O2

Section C

unit
TPH
o
C
Kg/Cm2
Kg/Cm2
o
C
o
C
o
C
Kg/Cm2
Kg/Cm2
o
C
o
C
o

mmwc
mmwc
mmwc
mmwc
mmwc
mmwc
o

C
C
mmwc
mmwc
mmwc
mmwc
%
o

Page 27

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

DOS AND DONT S FOR BOILER


DOS

Clean the internals before closing the manholes of pressure parts furnace and ducting.

Maintain all instruments in good working condition.

Equipment safety interlocks should be always in line.

Maintain normal water level in boiler.

Maintain water quality as per the recommended limits.

All the control and isolation dampers must be in smooth operating condition.

Maintain hydraulic drive oil pump pressure as per the recommended set pressure.

Pressure raising from cold start must be done as per the cold start up curve.

Use proper lubricants recommended by the manufacturer schedule.

Start the equipment as per start-up sequence

Carry out regular soot blowing for boiler and economiser.

Operate the boiler within the recommended operation limits.

Boiler, Piping, Ducts, Feed water and Oil tank must be properly insulated.

Equipments maintenance should be done as per the manufacturers schedule.

Maintain operation log sheets regularly.

Maintain the instrument air free from moisture and oil matters and the pressure as
recommended.

Use proper valve gland packing to avoid leakage.

Use proper gaskets for flange joints.

Boiler surroundings and equipments must be properly illuminated.

In case of power failure close the steam stop valve and stop the fire immediately.

Section C

Page 28

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Use genuine spares.

Before starting rotary equipments ensure the following.


Transfer pump
Ensure the pump suction valve is wide open.
Verify the suction pressure.
Verify the cleanliness of the suction filter.
Verify the bearing lubrication level.
Free rotation of pump.
Minimum flow line vale wide open.
Keep the pump discharge valve in close position.
Feed water pump
Ensure the pump suction valve is wide open.
Verify the suction pressure.
Verify the cleanliness of the suction filter.
Ensure the availability of cooling water.
Verify the bearing lubrication level.
Free rotation of pump.
Minimum flow and balancing leak off line vales are wide open.
Keep the pump discharge valve in close position.
ID Fan
Ensure flue path duct and hopper manholes are closed.
Close the fan suction and discharge damper fully.
Verify bearing lubrication.
FD Fan

ID Fan in running condition


Close the fan suction damper
Verify bearing lubrication.

SA Fan

ID, FD Fan in running condition


Close the fan suction damper
Verify bearing lubrication.

Section C

Page 29

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

DONTS

Dont by pass any instruments and safety interlocks.

Dont use raw water as Boiler feed water.

Dont throw big size wooden logs inside the furnace for slow firing.

Dont run the Boiler with furnace in pressurized condition.

Dont increase the set pressure of the TRAVAGRATE hydraulic oil pressure beyond the
recommended limit.

Dont allow super heater steam temp. to go beyond the designed limits.

Dont operate the furnace wall header drain valves while the Boiler is in operation.

Dont operate the boiler beyond the operation limits.

Dont leave the furnace door open while the boiler is in operation.

Dont mix up different lubricants.

Dont by pass compressed air, dryer, if any problem attend to it at the earliest.

Dont throw water inside the hot furnace.

Avoid continuous operation of boiler at low loads (low back-end temperature) to protect
Economiser, ESP and Air Pre-Heater corrosion.

Do not dose chemicals into the boiler in batch wise, they should be done on a continuous
basis.

Do not open any of the ESP manholes, while the I.D. Fans in operation.

Do not charge the ESP at lower flue gas temperature (>120 C)

Section C

Page 30

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

OPERATING INSTRUCTION FOR IMPORTANT VALVES


LOCATION
Economiser air
vent
Steam
drum
vent.

OPEN
During boiler filling.

During water filling &


Start up.
When
the
drum
pressure drops 2kg/cm2
during shut down/boxup.
Start up vent
During start up and also
when
SH
steam
temperature shoots up.
S.H. Header drain During start up
valve.
Main steam by
pass valve.

Before charging the main


steam line.

Main
steam
stop valve.

After
ensuring
100%
removal of condensate from
the steam piping.
Also
ensure the pipeline is
heated up to the working
temperature.
Open for emergency drum
level control and for sludge
removal.
Open for draining the boiler
after
killing
the
fire
completely.
Adjust the opening to
maintain the TDS of the
boiler water.
Open
before
and
completion of blowing cycle.

IBD valve

Water
drains.

wall

CBD valve

Soot
blower
steam line drain
valve.

Section C

CLOSE
After ensuring free water flow from
the vent.
When the drum pressure
reaches to 2 kg/cm2 during start
up.

After the boiler is connected to


load after ensuring 30% of MCR.
after the boiler is connected to
the load
After the stop valve is opened
fully. (After pipeline is heated
up.)
Whenever the boiler is to be
isolated from the range.

After the drum level is brought


to normal level.
Valve should be kept closed
always when fire inside the
boiler.
Close the valve if TDS of the
boiler water is maintained within
limits.
Close after ensuring moisture
free steam flow from the drain.

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

WALK DOWN CHECK LIST DURING OPERATION

Check for unusual noises from steam/water leakage.


Check for unusual traces of water on floor, buck stay or leakage from casing joints.
Look for valve and gland leakage.
Discoloration, hot spots and bulging etc. on casing, ducts and hoppers.
Check for steam and water leaks from connections and fittings to the drum.
Watch the furnace for any clinker formation and bagasse pile up. If possible inspect the
slagging condition of furnace walls and super heater coils through the observation ports.
Walk around the furnace exterior and observe for any hot spots or gas leaks.
Listen for any unusual noise around economiser which may indicate economiser leak (i.e.
hissing noise)
Inspect penthouse for gas leakage.
Inspect wind-box/plenum hopper for any air leakage, signs of overheating that may
indicate wind-box fires or hot gas re-circulation within the wind-box.
Inspect all ash hoppers to make sure they are being emptied properly,
Check around all air/flue ducts for signs of leakage.
Check position of fan and field dampers.
Check for any gas leakage from refractory sealing.
Check for leakage from safety valves at normal operating pressure. Also note the safety
valve blow off and shut off pressure. Check that the drain lines and drip pans are not
plugged.

 Make note of any leaky valves and prepare maintenance schedule to repair them.
 Check to see that proper water level is being shown by the direct water level gauge. Check
for water or steam leaks from ports or drain connections, which will cause a false water level
in the gauge glass. Inspect the glass for discoloration or fouling.
 While doing routine operation of soot blowing, inspect for condensate, steam and leaks
from the soot blowers.

Section C

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

NORMAL SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE


For known reasons if the boiler is to be stopped for few hours or few days, it is suggested to
follow the following procedures.
If the shut down is only for few hours, it is not recommended to cool the furnace.
If the shut down is for few days, it is recommended to cool the furnace.

SHUT DOWN PROCEDURES - LONG DURATION


 Reduce boiler load at the rate established by the turbine or as per process requirements
until the minimum load point.
 Reduce the steam flow by reducing the fuel feed rate and combustion airflow (primary).
 In either manual or automatic operation, the airflow follows the fuel flow on decreasing
load.
 On confirming the zero demand of steam from boiler stop the fuel feeders, and close the
main steam stop valve. Open the start-up vent valve till the boiler pressure drops to 85%
of the operating pressure. And keep the boiler in hot banking for natural cooling.
 Stop the boiler by shutting off the fuel feed systems as follows:
Close the gate below coal bunker outlet above each feeder.
Empty out the fuel feeders and stop the same.
Keep the airflow to furnace till the all the remains over the great is cleared off.
Continuously run the travagrate to dump all the remains over the grate surface.
 When the flue gas temperature drops below 125C remove the ESP from the service but
keep the raping and heating system into service. Also the ash handling system into
service for 4 to 6 hrs after switching of the I.D. fan.
 Keep the cooling water flow to the water cooled equipment till the body temperature
drops to <50C.
 Once the drum pressure drops to 2Kg/cm2(g) open the drum air vent valve.
 If the unit is to be shut for a short period, NO PERSONNEL WILL BE ADMITTED TO
THE BOILER. If the operating personnel need to enter the unit, the boiler, economiser,
air heater hoppers, and the ash collection equipment hoppers (ESP) must be emptied of
any solids and the enclosure temperature cooled below 50c.
Section C

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

 All ash must be removed completely from the boiler and hopper and the boiler
temperature must be below 50c before personal are allowed to enter for maintenance or
inspection.
 Shut down all the auxiliary equipment at this time.
system, make-up system, ash removal systems, etc.

This will include the feed water

 It is recommended that a positive pressure of nitrogen be maintained in the drainable


components anytime the unit is out of service, whether the boiler is filled with or without
water, for longer than two weeks. A nitrogen blanket should be maintained through a T
fitting on the drum vent.

SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES - SHORT DURATION


There may be situations the boiler may be kept under shutdown for small durations for some
work outside the boiler plant or may be due to the failure of some auxiliary equipments.
During such situations the following procedure may be followed,
 Reduce the steam flow gradually and stop the steam outlet to the downstream
equipments.
 Stop the fuel feeding also stop the travagrate so as to keep some heat inventory to
restart.
 Stop the S.A, F.D and I.D fans.
 Maintain the drum water level.
 Boiler can be restarted with out any external assistance if it is restarted with in 4hrs time
from shutdown, otherwise to retain the furnace temperature, firewood may be charged at
regular intervals. The quantity wood firing may be controlled so as to avoid considerable
amount of pressure raise.
 If the boiler needs to be kept under shut for overnight it can be kept hot by intermittent
firing of coal or by manual charging of firewood.

EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES


TYPES OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
The critical emergency situation in boiler plant is, low water situations, which directly affect the
boiler pressure parts.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE ACTIONS AND PRIORITIES


Following are the required actions to be taken in response to the above emergency situations to
ensure protection of the boiler pressure parts.

Section C

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Loss of feed water supply.


Start the stand-by boiler feed pump to restore the feed water supply to the boiler. If the feed water
pump could not be started immediately, the following actions should be taken:
 Fuel feeder, F.D and S.A fan will trip automatically though the drum level very low interlock
(level switch/transmitter). It is mandatory to shut the unit down completely till BFP system is
available.
 Stop all the steam and water outlet from the boiler.
 If loss of feedwater is due to a power failure, start the emergency generator or switch over
to alternate power source to restore the drum level. While supplying water to drum during
such situation the rate of flow should be controlled to avoid quenching.
Failure of draft system
When the draft system fails, the boiler unit comes to a forced shut down, during such emergencies,
the fuel feeder will trip through the F.D fan running interlock to start the DCF.
During such situations maintain water level in the drum as the feed water pumping system is
available.
As soon the draft system is ready for operation, switch the fan controls to manual mode and start
the ID fan. Followed with F.D and S.A fan.

Section C

Page 35

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

BOILER START UP FLOW CHART


1. Input

2. Walk down checks

3. Equipment lineup

Section C

 Fuel
 Feed water.
 Uninterrupted electric power supply
for auxiliary equipments.
 Lighting for equipments, walk ways
and field instruments.
 Instrument air.
 Plant air.
 Cooling water.
 Lubricant for the rotary equipments.
 Chemical for feed and boiler water
treatment.
 Readiness of drainage and ash
disposal system.
 Fire fighting system.
 Nitrogen capping is removed and the
unit is purged properly so as it is safe
for man entry for inspection.
 Steam and water drums manholes
are closed properly.
 furnace S.H and convection bank are
clear and all access / inspection
doors are tightly closed.
 air duct to furnace and flue up to
stack is clear and the manhole doors
closed properly.
 walkways are clear with out any
obstruction.

Valves to be kept in open position:


 Air vent on steam drum.
 Start-up vent at S.H. steam outlet.
 Air vent on economiser outlet header
 Instrument air connections to all the
instruments.
 Isolation valve for drum level gauge
 Steam and water system pressure
gauges/transmitters

Page 36

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

Equipment lineup

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Valves to be kept in open position:


 Air vent on steam drum.
 Start-up vent at S.H. steam outlet.
 Air vent on economiser outlet header
 Instrument air connections to all the
instruments.
 Isolation valve for drum level gauge
 Steam and water system pressure
gauges/transmitters

Field dampers open/close position


during startup
 I.D fan in/outlet dampers in open
position.
 Plenum, APH & ESP hopper, ash
outlet gates in open position.
 Main ash hopper outlet gates are
in open position and the by pass
chute gates are in closed position.
 Submerged ash conveyor is filled
with water.
 Close the FD Fan to APH inlet
duct damper and open the APH
by-pass duct damper.
 Open the APH to plenum duct
isolation dampers.
 chimney manhole is kept closed.
Readiness of following equipments:
I.D., FD and S.A. fans.
Feed water transfer pump.
Feed water pump.
Travagrate with drive.
Twin drum feeders for bagasse
Screw feeders for bagasse
Rotary airlock valves.
Fuel handling system.
Ash handling system.
Chemical dosing system.
Soot blowers.

Section C

Page 37

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

Equipment lineup

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Verify the readiness of following


instruments:
Control panel/DCS
Control valves
Motorized valves
All the field and panel instruments.
Damper actuators
Sensors

Switch over the controls to manual


mode;
 Deaerator level and pressure.
 Furnace pressure
 Drum level
 Steam pressure
 Steam Temperature.
 Air flow
 Fuel flow
 CBD tank level
 Soot blower pressure control

ESP
 Switch on the ash handling system
one hour prior to light up.
 Open the isolation gate above the
RAV and switch on the rotary airlock
valves.
 Incase of pneumatic evacuation,
open the isolation gate above the
vessel.
 Switch on the rapping mechanism
one-hour before the light up.
 Switch on the hopper and insulator
heater four hours prior to light up.
 Safety interlocks are tested prior to
startup.

Section C

Page 38

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

3. Equipment lineup

4. Water filling

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Others
Verify all the soot blowers are in rest
position.
Ensure the test gags of safety valves
are removed.
Verify all the safety interlocks are
working
as
per
the
desired
logic/values.
Ensure the availability of cooling
water/seal air to the system.
Switch on the RAV below ash
hoppers and ash conveyors.
Valves to be kept in open position:
Air vent at economiser outlet header
Air vent on steam drum
Start up vent
Economiser inlet header drain

Valves to be kept in closed position:


Furnace drain header outlet
Furnace bottom headers drain
Water drum drain/blowdown
CBD piping
H.P Dosing piping
Steam sampling line
Main steam isolation and by-pass valve
Attemperator spray water isolation
Feed water control valve isolation
Steam to soot blower
Economiser outlet header drain

Start feed water transfer pump

Section C

Ensure suction valve in open


position.
Verify the suction pressure.
Verify cleanliness of the suction filter.
Verify the bearing lubrication
Verify free rotation of pump.
Minimum flow line vale wide open.
Pump discharge valve in close
position.
Start the pump.

Page 39

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Admit the water through the


common drain
header, which is
connected to economiser drain
header.
Close the economiser outlet vent
valve once the air is removed.
Fill the water up to 50mm below the
normal water level.

or

Start feed water pump

Section C

Ensure suction valve in open


position.
Verify suction pressure.
Verify cleanliness of suction filter.
Verify bearing lubrication.
Confirm cooling water to shaft
seal/gland.
Verify free rotation of pump.
Minimum flow & balancing line
valve wide open.
Pump discharge valve in close
position.
Start the pump.

Close the economiser inlet header


drain valve.
Admit the water through the feed
water control station by-pass valve.
Close the economiser outlet vent
valve once the air is removed.
Fill the water up to 50mm below the
normal water level.

Page 40

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

4. Startup

Start ID Fan

Start FD Fan

Start SA Fan

Start air modulating damper

Section C

Stack around 200kgs of specified


size firewood over the grate.
Light up the firewood.
Increase the firing rate gradually.

Close the fan suction and


discharge damper fully.
Verify bearing lubrication.
Confirm suction damper operation.
Start the fan

Verify drum level.


Verify ID Fan running
Close the fan suction and
discharge damper fully.
Verify bearing lubrication.
Confirm suction damper operation.
Start the fan

Verify FD Fan running


Close the fan suction and
discharge damper fully.
Verify bearing lubrication.
Confirm suction damper operation.
Start the fan.
Furnace temperature >550C

Verify SA Fan running


Close the fan suction and
discharge damper fully.
Verify bearing lubrication.
Confirm suction damper operation.
Start the drive.

Page 41

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Start screw feeder

Start twin drum feeder

5. Pressure rising

Section C

Verify air modulating damper


running.
Ensure the air pressure at
pneumatic
spreader
@
250mmwc.
Verify bearing lubrication.
Set the speed control at minimum
position.
Start the drive.
Verify screw feeder running.
Fill up the silo with loose bagasse
Ensure the air pressure at
pneumatic
spreader
@
250mmwc.
Set the speed control at minimum
position.
Start the required feeder and adjust
the speed as per requirement

Increase the fuel feed rate as per the


furnace condition.
Follow the cold pressure rising curve.
Close the drum air vent whenever
the pressure rise to 2kg/cm2 (g)
Keep the startup vent 100% open.
Operate the travagrate as per
requirements. Depends on furnace
conditions intermittent operation may
be required,
Maintain furnace pressure.
Maintain normal water level.
Monitor the pressure part expansion
when the pressure raising in progress
Adjust the fuel spreading by
manipulating the air pressure and
spreader trajectory plate position.
Manual poking of fire may be
required to assist the fire to burn fast

Page 42

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

6. Super heater protection

7. Charging steam line

Section C

Follow the cold pressure rising curve.


Close the drum air vent whenever
the pressure rise to 2kg/cm2 (g)
Keep the startup vent 100% open.
Adjust the firing rate depends on the
super heater outlet temperature.
If required switch off the feeders as
per the operating condition.
Maintain furnace pressure.
Maintain fuel quality as per
specification.
Verify the temperature indication for
correctness.
Maintain normal water in steam drum

Steam pressure should be close to


the operating pressure.
Open the drains in the steam line
and CSDH header.
Open the main steam valve bypass
valve.
Open the main steam valve once the
line is warm and condensate is
removed.
Close the MSSV bypass valve.
Isolate the drain valve but keep the
steam trap in service.

Page 43

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

WATER CHEMISTRY ..........................................................................................................1


INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................1
UN DISSOLVED AND SUSPENDED SOLID MATERIALS ......................................................1
DISSOLVED SALTS AND MINERALS ..................................................................................2
DISSOLVED GASES............................................................................................................3
OTHER MATERIALS ...........................................................................................................3
pH VALUE OF THE WATER AND ITS IMPORTANCE ............................................................4
THE ROLE OF pH IN CORROSION......................................................................................4
EFFECTS OF IMPURITIES ..................................................................................................4
SCALE FORMATION ........................................................................................................4
CORROSION ...................................................................................................................5
CAUSTIC EMBRITTLEMENT ............................................................................................6
FEED & BOILER WATER CONDITIONING ..........................................................................7
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................7
NEED FOR WATER TREATMENT ......................................................................................7
CORROSION CONTROL................................................................................................7
OXYGEN CORROSION INHIBITOR ..............................................................................8
SCALE / DEPOSIT CONTROL........................................................................................8
FOULING CONTROL ...................................................................................................10
TURBINE / SUPERHEATER DEPOSITION CONTROL ..................................................10
SILICA DEPOSIT CONTROL .......................................................................................11
CONDENSATE CORROSION CONTROL .......................................................................11
MAINTENANCE OF PEAK EFFICIENCY .......................................................................12

Section D

Page i

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

WATER CHEMISTRY

INTRODUCTION
The natural water contains solid, liquid and gaseous impurities and therefore, this
cannot be used for the generation of steam in the boilers. The impurities present in the
water should be removed before its use for steam generation. The necessity for
reducing the corrosive nature and quantity of dissolved and suspended solids in feed
water has become increasingly important with the advent of high pressure, critical and
supercritical boilers.
The impurities present in the feed water are classified as given below
1.
2.
3.
4.

Un dissolved and suspended solid materials.


Dissolved salts and minerals.
Dissolved gases.
Other materials (soil, acid) either in mixed and unmixed forms.

UN DISSOLVED AND SUSPENDED SOLID MATERIALS


A) TURBIDITY AND SEDIMENT:
Turbidity in the water is suspended insoluble matter including coarse particles (mud,
sediment sand etc,) that settle rapidly. Amounts ranges from almost zero in most
ground waters and 60,000 ppm. in muddy and turbulent river water. The turbidity of
feed water should not exceed 5 ppm. These materials can be removed by settling
coagulation and filtration. Their presence is undesirable because heating or evaporation
produces hard stony scale deposits on the heating surface and clog fluid system. Both
are objectionable as they cause damage to the boiler system. A standard of
measurement of hardness is taken as being the amount of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in
the water and is referred to in part per million (ppm) or grains per gallon (grain/gallon)
X 17.1 = ppm.
B) SODIUM AND POTASSIUM SALTS:
These are extremely soluble in water and do not deposit unless highly concentrated.
Their presence is troublesome as they are alkaline in nature and accelerate the
corrosion.
C) CHLORIDES:
Majority of the chloride causes increased corrosive action of water.

Section D

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

D) IRON :
Most common soluble iron in water is ferrous bicarbonate. The water containing ferrous
bicarbonate deposits becomes yellowish and reddish sediment of ferric hydroxide if exposed to air.
Majority of ground surface water contains less than 5 ppm but 0.3 ppm, can create trouble in the
feed water system by soft scale formation and accelerating the corrosion.
E) MANGANESE:
It also occurs in similar form as iron and it is also equally troublesome.
F)

SILICA:

Most natural water contains silica ranging from 1 to 100 ppm. Its presence is highly
objectionable as it forms very hard scale in boilers and forms insoluble deposits on
turbine blades. In modern high-pressure boilers its presence is reduced as low as 10-50
ppm.
G) MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTHS:
Various growths occur in surface water (lake and river). The microorganisms include
diatons, molds, bacterial slimes, algae; manganese and sulfate reducing bacteria and
many others. These can cause coating on heat exchanger and clog the flow passages
and reduce the heat transfer rates.
H) COLOUR:
Surface waters from swampy areas become highly colored due to decaying vegetation. Color of
feed water is objectionable as it causes foaming in boilers and may interfere by chlorinating of
absorption by activated carbon.

DISSOLVED SALTS AND MINERALS


A) CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM SALTS:
The calcium and magnesium salts present in the water in the form of carbonates,
bicarbonates, sulfates and chlorides. The presence of these salts is recognized by the
hardness of the water (hardness of water is tested by soap test). The hardness of water
is classified as temporary and permanent hardness. The temporary hardness is caused
by the bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium and can be removed by boiling. The
boiling converts the soluble bicarbonates into less soluble carbonates, which can be
removed by simple blow-down method. The permanent hardness of the water is caused
by the presence of chlorides, sulfates and nitrates of calcium and magnesium and they
cannot be removed just by boiling because they form a hard scale on heating surfaces.

Section D

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

DISSOLVED GASES
A) OXYGEN:
It is present in surface water in dissolved form with variable percentage depending upon the water
temperature and other solid contents in water. Its presence is highly objectionable, as it is corrosive
to iron, zinc, brass and other metals. It causes corrosion and pitting of water lines, boilers and heat
exchangers. Its effect is further accelerated at high temperature.
B) CARBON DIOXIDE:
The river water contains 50 ppm & well water contains 2-50 ppm of CO2. It also helps to accelerate
the corrosive action of oxygen.
The other gases are H2S, CH4, N2 and many others but their percentage are negligible Therefore
their effects are not discussed here.

OTHER MATERIALS
A] FREE MINERAL ACID:
Usually present as sulfuric or hydrochloric acid and causes corrosion. The presence is required by
neutralization with alkalis.
B] OIL:
Generally the lubricating oil is carried with steam into the condenser & thorough the feed system to
the boiler. It causes sludge, scale & foaming in boilers. Strainers and baffle separators generally
remove it.
The effects of all the impurities present in the water are the scale formation on the different parts of
the boiler system and corrosion. The scale formation reduces the heat transfer rates and clogs the
flow passage and endangers the life of the equipment by increasing the temp above the safe limit.
The corrosion phenomenon reduces the life of the plant rapidly. Therefore it is absolutely necessary
to reduce the impurities below a safe limit for the proper working of the power plant.

Section D

Page 3

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

pH VALUE OF THE WATER AND ITS IMPORTANCE


The pH value of the feed water plays very important roll in controlling the corrosion. pH
is a number denoting the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance. It does not
indicate the quantity of acid or alkali in a solution as found by filtration method. It is
derived by measuring the amount of hydrogen ion (H+) in grams per liter of solution.
The greater the amount of hydrogen ions present in solution its acid reaction becomes
stronger. Therefore, pure water is being neutral solution, any solution producing more
hydrogen ion than pure water will be acidic and degree is governed by difference and
other solution producing less hydrogen ions than pure water will be alkaline and the
degree is also governed by the difference.

THE ROLE OF pH IN CORROSION


The role of pH in corrosion of metals is extremely important. The corrosion rate of iron in the
absence of oxygen is proportional to pH up to a value of 9.6. At this point, hydrogen gas formation
and dissolving of iron practically stops. This is the came pH produced by a saturated solution of
ferrous hydroxide Fe (OH)2.
The Oxygen in the water unites with ferrous hydroxide to form ferric hydroxide.
lowers pH of the solution and levels to stimulate corrosion.

This reaction

Alkalinity adjustment and film formation are closely related. The pH value of feed water
should be maintained greater than 9.6 to reduce the corrosion effects caused by the
reason mentioned above. The required alkalinity of feed water is adjusted by adding
soda ash caustic soda or trisodium phosphate. The calcium hardness, alkalinity and pH
are inter-related variables in scale control. Calcium carbonate is one of the most
troublesome deposits responsible for scale formation.

EFFECTS OF IMPURITIES
The major troubles caused by the feeding of water of undesirable quality are scale formation,
corrosion, foaming, caustic embrittlement, carry-over and priming. The details described below: SCALE FORMATION
Feed water containing a group of impurities in dissolved and suspended form flows into the Boiler
for continuos generation of Steam. With conversion of water into steam in Boiler, solids are left
behind to concentrate the remaining water. The scale formation tendency increases with the
increase in temperature of feed water. Because, the solubility of some salts (as calcium sulphite)
decreases with the increase in feed water temperature. Calcium sulphite has solubility of 3200 ppm.
at 15 Deg. C and it reduces to 55 ppm. at 230 Deg. C and 27 ppm. At 320 Deg. C.
Scale formation takes place mainly due to salts of calcium and magnesium. Sometimes, it is
cemented into a hard mass by Silica. Among all, calcium is the principal offender and particularly,
Section D

Page 4

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Calcium sulphate, magnesium sulphate and other Chlorides are sufficiently soluble in water and are
not much troublesome. Sodium salts are highly soluble in water and are non-scale forming.
The scale formation takes place mainly in feed water piping and Boiler Tubes. Its first effect on the
piping system is to choke the flow of water by reducing the flow area and increases the pressure
required to maintain the water delivery. Another effect of scale formation is to reduce the transfer
of heat form the hot gases to water. Real dangers of the scale formation exist in radiant heat zone
where boiler tubes are directly exposed to the combustion. The scale formation retards the flow of
heat and metal temperature increases. Even a thin layer of scale in high heat zone can over-heat
the metal enough to rupture the tubes. The metal tubes weakened due to over-heating yield to
pressure providing a protrusion known as bag. Such bag provides a pocket for the accumulation of
sludge and scale, which eventually causes failure. The over-heating of metal causes layer of metal
to separate and form a blister.
CORROSION
The corrosion is eating away process of boiler metal. It causes deterioration & failure of the
equipment, eventually this cause for major repairs or expensive shut -downs or replacements.
The corrosion of boilers, economizers, feed water heaters & piping is caused by an acid or low PH in
addition to the presence of dissolved oxygen & carbon dioxide in the boiler feed water. The
presence of oxygen is mostly responsible for corrosion among all other factors. The permissible limit
of oxygen content varies with the acidity of water. Generally it should not exceed 0.5 cc per liter
.O2 generally enters into closed system through make up condenser leakage and condensate pump
packing.
CO2 is next to O2, which is responsible for corrosion. The CO2 comes out of bicarbonates on heating
and combines with water to form weak acids known as carbonic acid. This acid slowly reacts with
iron and other metals to form their bicarbonates. The newly formed bicarbonates of metals
decompose by heat once more and CO2 is again liberated. This gas again unites with water to form
carbonic acid and the cycle is repeated. Adding alkali solution to neutralize acids in water and raise
the PH value can minimize the corrosion. The effect of CO2 is minimized by the addition of ammonia
or neutralizing the amines in water. This is necessary because CO2 lowers the PH of the boiler feed
water and dissolved solids to leave the boiler.
The priming is a violent discharge of water with steam from the boiler. It can be compared to the
pumping of water that frequently accompanies rapid heating in a open vessel. In priming the water
level in the boiler undergoes rapid and great changes and there are violent discharges of bursting
bubbles. Therefore sludge of boiler water is thrown over with the steam.
The priming is caused due to improper boiler design, improper method of firing, overloading,
sudden load changing or a combination of these factors. The priming effect is reduced by installing
steam purifier, lowering water level in the boiler and maintains constant load on boilers.

Section D

Page 5

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

The foaming is the formation of small and stable bubbles throughout the boiler water. The high
percentage of dissolved solids, excessive alkalinity and presence of oil in water are responsible for
foaming.
Boiler water solids are also carried over in the moisture mixed with steam even when there is no
indication of either priming or foaming. This is known as carry-over. The carry-over of boiler
water solids is partly a mechanical and partly a chemical problem. The amount of suspended solids
and alkalinity in the boiler water is also important in addition to other reasons like boiler design,
high water level, and overloading and fluctuating loads on boiler.
CAUSTIC EMBRITTLEMENT
The caustic embrittlement is the weakening of boiler Steel as a result of inner crystalline cracks.
This is caused by long exposure of boiler steel to combination of stress and highly alkaline water.
The course of embrittlement takes place under following condition:
a) When boiler water contains free hydroxide, alkalinity and some silica. It has been always found
that the feed water was high in sodium bicarbonate, which broke down into sodium carbonate in
the boiler and partially hydralized as shown by the following reaction in case of embrittlement.
Na2CO3

+ HOH

= CO2

+ 2 NaOH

b) Slow leakage of boiler water through a joint or seam.


c) Boiler metal is highly stressed at the point of leakage. This may be caused by faulty design and
expansion etc.
The prevention of caustic embrittlement consists of reducing the causticity or adding inhibiting
agents to the feed water. The most practical method of preventing caustic embrittlement is to
regulate the chemical composition of the boiler water. The obvious solution to embrittlement is to
eliminate all free NaOH from feed water by addition of Phosphates.

Section D

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

FEED & BOILER WATER CONDITIONING


INTRODUCTION
The successful use of boiler is dependent on proper water conditioning and treatment. The quality
of water must have accurate for trouble free operation of boiler.
The water as available to industry is not suitable for boiler use. A complete pre-treatment and
internal chemical treatment is necessary to make raw water suitable for boiler feed.
The objective of the water treatment is:
 Eliminate scaling - deposition in boiler which cause tube over heating leading to accidents.
 Control corrosion of boiler system, which cause failure of boiler tubes, leading to unscheduled
shutdowns.
 Reduce carry over of water with steam, which is the cause of deposition on super heater/turbine
blades, leading to the expensive failures.
 To maintain peak boiler efficiency by keeping complete boiler water system clean.
In order to meet above objectives, it is necessary to maintain certain chemical conditions in boiler,
condensate and feed water systems. A brief review of important factors is given in this section to
assist those taking charges of new boiler equipment. It is not possible to cover the subject fully,
there fore, it is recommended that the care and control of water quality be entrusted to water
treatment specialist.
NEED FOR WATER TREATMENT
CORROSION CONTROL
Water is corrosive to boiler metal. Typically corrosion due to water will reduce thickness of tube @ 1
mm/year. Thus the life and safety of boiler entirely depends on the rate of corrosion of boiler metal.
In order to protect boiler from corrosion, pre-treatment is done to remove excessive corrosion ions
like chloride, sulphate etc. However, further chemical conditioning is required to protect boiler and
auxiliary systems from corrosion.
Tri sodium phosphate, caustic, ammonia and amines are used as corrosion inhibitors. These
chemicals form a protective film over metal surface and reduce corrosion. It is necessary to maintain
prescribed concentration of these chemicals in boiler water systems continuously.
The recommended dose of such chemicals is given in Table 1

Section D

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Table 1
Boiler Pressure
Kgs/Cm2
00-20
20-40
40-60
Above 60

Residual in ppm as PO4 in boiler


water
35-50
25-35
15-25
05-15

pH
10.5
10.5
09.5
08.5

11.5
11.5
10.5
9.5

OXYGEN CORROSION INHIBITOR


Oxygen is present in dissolved form in water. At high temperature, oxygen reacts with metal to
cause pitting corrosion. Thus presence of oxygen lead to pin holes in economizer, steam drums and
steam tubes.
Most of the oxygen is removed externally by deaeration and preheating of feed water. However,
traces of residual oxygen must be removed by chemical conditioning.
Sodium sulfite, hydrazine and amines are recommended for oxygen removal. These chemicals react
with residual oxygen making it inactive and protect metal against pitting corrosion. Catalyzed oxygen
scavengers are used for quick reaction.
The recommended dose of such chemicals is given in Table 2
Table 2
Boiler Pressure
Sodium sulfite as
Na2SO4
Hydrazine as N2H4

0 -20

20-40

40-60

Above 60

30-40

20-30

5-10

---

0.1 - 0.2

0.1 0.2

0.1 - 0.2

0.1 - 0.2

SCALE / DEPOSIT CONTROL


Raw water contains dissolved solids, hardness salts and suspended matters.
External treatment to be used to remove such impurities.

Clarification
- To remove suspended matters.
Filtration
- To remove residual turbidity
Softening
- To remove hardness salts
Dealkaliser
- To remove hardness salts and excessive alkalinity
Demineralization
- To remove residual salts and silica
Mixed bed
- To remove residual salts and silica from DM water.
combination of above equipment can be used to remove undesirable impurities in raw water.

Section D

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

SCALE CONTROL
Hardness salts in feed water cause formation in boiler. Under temperature and pressure inside the
boiler and due to concentration, hardness salts precipitate in tubes as calcium carbonate, calcium
sulphate and Ca/Mg silicate scales.
External treatment like softening, demineralization or de-alkalization removes most of
the hardness salts from boiler feed water. However, malfunctioning of this equipment,
occasional bypassing of the softener/DM plant or contamination of condensate or feed
water with raw water often led to ingress of hardness in the boiler.
All hardness salt precipitate inside boiler leading to hard scale formation on tubes. Such scale has
lower conductivity causing increase in metal temperature, leading to bursting of tubes in extreme
conditions.
Therefore, inspire of elaborate external treatment, internal chemical conditioning is always
recommended as additional safety. Following chemical methods are used for internal treatment.
PHOSPHATE CONDITIONING
Trisodium phosphate is commonly used. Hardness salts react with trisodium phosphate to form
calcium phosphate precipitate. This precipitate above pH of 9.5 colloidal in nature and therefore do
not allow to form hard scale of carbonate and silicates. The precipitated hardness salts are then
removed through blow down as sludge and boiler tubes are kept scale free.
Trisodium phosphate, apart from acting as hardness conditioning agent, also is a good corrosion
inhibitor. The recommended concentration in boiler water is given in Table -1
Note 1: TSP will act as hardness conditioner, only when boiler pH is above 9.5, below 9.5 pH TSP
may cause hard scale formation of Ca3 (PO)2. Therefore, coordinated or congruent phosphate
treatment is recommended. The water treatment experts can advise you right treatment after
studying your water quality and operation conditions.

Thermax Chemicals can provide services for arriving at right chemical treatment for your boiler.
Chelant- Polymer treatment:
Hardness scales do not precipitate in presence of chelant like NTA/EDTA. The chelant treatment is
recommended when hardness ingress in boiler is experienced regularly.
Caution: Excessive chelant dosing cause corrosion of boiler. Hence balanced chelant program as
recommended by experts should be used.

Section D

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Organic polymer conditioners are used to prevent hardness scales. Such organic polymer disperse
scale forming compounds like CaCO3 & Ca(PO4)2 in colloidal form facilitating their removal through
blow down. Polymer and copolymer of acrylic, methacrylic, styrene maleic acrylics are commonly
used. Most of the polymers are proprietary in nature and therefore dosage is best recommended by
manufacturer.
FOULING CONTROL
Suspended matter, oil/grease /oxygen & iron salts commonly cause fouling inside the boiler. Most of
the suspended matter and iron salts are removed by external treatment. However due to mfg. of
these equipment, contamination through condensate and concentration in boiler cause fouling of
boiler tubes.
Similar to hardness scales, such foulants are poor conductor of heat. Thus fouling causes
overheating of tubes.
Fouling can best be avoided by maintaining quality of feed water as per norms. In case of upsets or
occasional contamination, polymeric disersent help to prevent fouling due to turbidity and organic
matter. Iron is picked up mostly in condensate system due to corrosion of condensate line. In such
case, condensate corrosion inhibitor like ammonia cyclohexylamine and filming amine is
recommended.
TURBINE / SUPERHEATER DEPOSITION CONTROL
The solids in boiler feed water get concentrated in boiler. The concentration of solids in boiler is
decided blowdown and feed water quality. The carryover of boiler water with steam depends on;
Mechanical Factors:
Boiler load
- Higher the load, lower is the steam purity
Water level in boiler
- Higher the water level in drum, lower is steam purity.
Load Variation
- Sudden increase in load reduce steam purity for short time.
Separation efficiency - Higher efficiency, better is steam purity.
Chemical Factors:

TDS
Total Alkalinity
Organics
Foaming

Higher TDS in boiler, lower is steam purity.


Higher alkalinity as % of TDS lower is steam purity.
Higher the organic contamination, lower is steam purity.
Higher the foaming character of water,
Lower is steam purity.

The water carried over with steam due to above reasons is exactly similar in quality to blow-down or
boiler water. In superheater or in turbines, water evaporates, leaving dissolved and suspended
matter as scales or deposits.

Section D

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PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Thus severity of scaling and fouling of superheater and turbine depends on boiler water quality and
steam purity.
Maintaining boiler water quality as per norms and maximum steam purity is the only way to prevent
deposition due to carryover of water with steam. Antifoam agents help to some extend to improve
steam purity in case of excessive in boiler.
SILICA DEPOSIT CONTROL
Silica is volatile under high temperature and pressure inside boiler. In turbines, the evaporated
silica precipitates during pressure and temperature reduction and form hard scales.
One way to control silica deposition is by maintaining silica concentrate within the limit as
recommended in Table-3
Table - 3
Max silica in boiler water as SiO2 *
150
40
15
2.45

Boiler Pressure
0-20
20-40
40-60
Above 60

* Maximum allowable concentration of silica depends on water analysis. Expert's best decide the
maximum permissible concentration after striding the operating parameters.
CONDENSATE CORROSION CONTROL
The carbon dioxide is present in boiler feed water in dissolved and combined from as carbonate.
Under boiler pressure and temperature it is liberated and carried over with steam as CO2 gas. This
gas redissolves in steam condensate to form carbonic acid.
CO2 + H2O

= H2CO3

The carbonic acid is highly corrosive to condensate lines and steam using equipment cause in failure
of such equipment. The corrosion products are carried with condensate as iron and copper salts in
the boiler causing severe fouling and copper induced corrosion.
Ammonia, cyclohexyl amine, filming amine is commonly used in neutrally carbonic acid and prevents
condensate corrosion. The dose and dosing point depends on boiler system and is best
recommended by experts after system study. Table 4 gives recommended condensate quality to
prevent condensate corrosion.

Section D

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PROJECT NO-PB0751

Table 4
Pressure/Parameters
pH
Hardness(max) as
CaCO3
Iron + Copper
TDS

0-20
8 - 8.5

20-40
8 - 8.5

30-60
8 - 8.5

>60
8.5 - 9.5

0.2

ND

ND

0.15
8.0

0.05
4.0

0.03
1.0

0.015
0.1

MAINTENANCE OF PEAK EFFICIENCY


Corrosion, scaling, fouling carryover and condensate corrosion can cause unscheduled shutdown,
accidents and deterioration of system efficiency. Therefore for trouble free operation and
maintenance peak operation efficiency, a combination of various internal chemical treatments is
essential along with a good control over boiler water quality.
Maintaining boiler water quality by using commodity chemicals likes TSP, Hydrazine, and Sodium
sulfite. However, it is recommended that the care and control of water chemistry be entrusted to
specialist.
Thermax Chemical Division can provide such expertise.

S.N
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

FEED AND BOILER WATER QUALITY NORMS


FEED
PARAMETERS
UNIT
WATER
TOTAL HARDNESS
PPM
0
0
pH AT 25 C
8.5 9.5
DISSOLVED O2
PPM
0.007
TOTAL IRON as Fe
PPM
0.01
TOTAL COPPER (Cu)
PPM
0.005
SILICA (Max)
PPM
<0.02
TOTAL CO2 (Max)
PPM
0
HARDNESS as Ca CO3
PPM
NIL
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
PPM
0.1
( MAX)
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS
PPM
0
(MAX)
OIL / DETERGENT / ORGANIC
PPM
0
INORGANIC SOLUTIONS
PPM
RESIDUAL HYDRAZINE
PPM
RESIDUAL PHOSPHATE
PPM
-

Section D

BOILER
WATER
0
10.2 10.7
------------1.33
0
NIL
100
0
0
0.02
15-30

Page 12

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE PRACTICES .........................................................1


PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE .................................................................................2
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM FOR FANS ............................................2
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM FOR VALVES.........................................3
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM FOR SPARES ........................................3
CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE .......................................................................5
DAILY CHECKS ....................................................................................................6
MONTHLY CHECKS ..............................................................................................8
BOILER ANNUAL MAINTENANCE AND OVERHAUL ..............................................8
ANNUAL OVERHAUL .........................................................................................9
SHUTDOWN AND COOLING THE BOILER .........................................................9
INSPECTION AFTER COOLING .........................................................................9
TUBE FAILURES .................................................................................................. 33
TUBE FAILURE INVESTIGATION / ANLAYSIS METHOD ...................................... 34
OBJECTIVES OF FAILURE INVESTIGATION...................................................... 34
STAGES OF FAILURE ANALYSIS ....................................................................... 34
COLLECTION OF BACKGROUND DATA MUCH ESSENTIAL ................................ 34
ON REPORTING OF TUBE FAILURE IN A BOILER ............................................. 35
HOW TO REMOVE THE FAILED TUBE SAMPLE FOR FAILURE INVESTIGATIONS35
TUBE FAILURE ANALYSIS ................................................................................... 37
DATA COLLECTION ON WATER CHEMISTRY ....................................................... 39
WINDOW PATCH WELDING ................................................................................ 40
FABRICATION AND WELDING OF TUBE WINDOW PATCHES ........................... 40
GENERAL PRINCIPAL OF WELD REPAIRS ........................................................... 43
TUBE LEAKS IN BOILER BANK TUBES ................................................................. 45
BOILER PRESERVATION PROCEDURE................................................................. 46
DRY STORAGE .................................................................................................. 47
WET STORAGE.................................................................................................. 49
NITROGEN BLANKET........................................................................................... 51
WATER WASHING PROCEDURE OF ECONOMISER .............................................. 53

Section E

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE PRACTICES


Systematic maintenance is essential to keep the boiler and its auxiliaries in good condition
to obtain reliable operation of the boiler with high availability and plant load factor.
Effective maintenance aims at timely inspection of parts to repair or replace defective
components and to prevent their failure when the boiler is in service.
Maintenance can be classified as:
A) Preventive maintenance - mostly condition based.
B) Annual boiler overhaul to clean and inspect pressure parts and to comply with IBR
requirements.
The shutdown period of the overhaul is also utilized to attend to systems and parts which
cannot be attended during short shutdowns or when the boiler is in operation.
The vendor manuals prescribe certain minimum maintenance requirements, which are
carried out in one of the above two maintenance categories.
It is suggested to maintain a defect Register in the control room to register all the items,
which need maintenance.
This section covers the following
Preventive maintenance programs.
Maintenance check list for daily, weekly, Monthly and Annual inspection.
Tube thickness survey.
Back flushing.

Section E

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
The objective of the preventive maintenance program is to obtain trouble free service
from the component till the next maintenance.
Vendor manuals enclosed in the respective volumes suggest the inspection periods,
checks to be done and recommended spares to be changed. The true objective of the
maintenance program can only be realized if a detailed plan of maintenance of all the
components is prepared as per vendor instructions.
Full benefits of maintenance can be obtained only if proper genuine parts are used.
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM FOR FANS
Equipment such as a fan is said to be under preventive maintenance, when it is stopped
after some period of operation &,

De-coupled from its drive,


Bearing housing oil is drained,
Top cover of the housing is opened and a visual examination of the bearing is done.
The access door of the impeller housing is opened and the impeller blades are
cleaned and examined for wear.
Defective or worn parts noticed are repaired or replaced.
Oil seals 'O' rings if any, are replaced.
The tightness of the bolts and nuts, which fix the fan casing to the foundation, are
checked with a torque wrench.
The fan bearing housing cover is assembled and recommended lubricant is filled to
the correct level.

The expansion joints at the discharge end are checked to see that they are not
compressed or expanded.
Damages if any to the bellows are corrected by patch up. Discharge duct supports are
checked and adjusted to their design value.
The suction damper bearings/ bushings are checked for wear and repaired or replaced
as necessary. The travel of the damper is checked and corrected where required.
The end shields of the drive motor are opened.
The stator-rotor spaces are cleaned blowing a jet of warm air.
The bearings are cleaned and re-lubricated.
The insulation resistance of the stator coils is measure and compared to their
previous values.
The end shields are assembled,
The motor coupling is aligned to the fan coupling.
Trial run of the fan is taken.

Section E

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

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PROJECT NO-PB0751

Bearing vibrations, temperatures, noise levels are measured and compared to


previous values.

Adjustment if any required (alignment, bearing clearances etc. ) are done.


The maintenance exercise is successful, if the observed values are better than the
values before the shutdown.
Another variant of the maintenance can be disassembling the fan to its components
level, taking out the bearing, impeller etc.
Check the trueness of the shaft, checking bearings etc. before re-assembly. In the drive
motor also, the rotor is taken out and the rotor and stator coils are examined for
tightness.
The coils are cleaned by air blowing and re-varnished.
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM FOR VALVES
A preventive maintenance program for valves once in two years can be done with one or
more of the following works:






Dismantle the bonnet, clean the trim and valve seat, lapping them if necessary.
Cleaning the valve stem and re-lubrication of the operating threads.
Renewing the bonnet joint, and assembling the trim on the valve seat.
Renewing the gland packing.
Renewing the valve flange joint, if necessary.

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM FOR SPARES


Mandatory spare part list given in this volume covers most of the spares required. It
may be found that in the first two years of operation due to variations of site conditions,
some additional spares not included are also required. Action has to initiate to procure
such spares.

The prepared master plan for maintenance should be periodically reviewed during the
first three years of the boiler operation.
It may be found that due to varying site conditions, the frequencies and quantum of
work scheduled as per vendor manuals are either too much or too less. Based on site
experience, the frequencies and work schedules can be modified.
A scientific method of preparation of the preventive maintenance schedule is to make
them condition based.

Section E

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

In condition based maintenance, the equipment and components of the plant are
inspected daily, weekly, monthly etc. as per suggested schedule by the local operators
and the deteriorating conditions if any observed are reported. Suggested inspection
program is given in this chapter. Based on operator reports of such inspection,
maintenance works are planned for the next available planned shutdown. Mandatory
inspections prescribed by the vendors are also taken care of, irrespective of the
equipment condition.

Section E

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
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PROJECT NO-PB0751

CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE


The schedule of daily, weekly and monthly inspections given in the following pages do
not require a boiler shutdown and in fact can only be done when the boiler is in service.
Objective of these inspections is to ensure that
-

The components are in trouble free condition.

To carry out any minor repairs or adjustments which can be done with the boiler in
service.

To plan for repair of such items, which cannot be attended when the boiler is in
service, during the next available shutdown.

To collect a database to determine optimum service life of the systems and


components before maintenance if required.

The schedule can be expanded, curtailed or modified based on experience in the first
two years of operation.

Section E

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PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

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PROJECT NO-PB0751

DAILY CHECKS
To be done once a day by the operator as a routine job. Checks are to be done in each
shift by the local operators. Only those operational checks, which require maintenance
work for correction, have been included.

EQUIPMENT
CHECK
Local level gauges Check
illumination
is
on steam drum
proper.
Leaking
valve
glands,
leaking ports

Blurred level
2

Comparison of levels
indicated by local
level gauge with
that of remote level
indicators in the
control room
Traces of water, oil
spots on boiler floor,
buck-stay
beams,
boiler cladding etc.

Compare the levels after


verifying there are no leaks
from valves, glands etc. of
the level gauge and
indicators.
Report
discrepancies.
Such spots are indicative
of valve leaks, instrument
tapping leaks etc. trace
the source of leak.

Hydraulic drive

Check pump oil pressure

Fans, BFW pumps Check

WORK TO BE DONE
Replace fused bulbs.
Isolate local level gauges and
tighten leaking glands. Replace
leaking ports.
Steam wash mica as suggested
by vendor. (not to be done too
frequently)
If
there
are
serious
discrepancies calibration of the
remote level indicators has to be
planned immediately.

Maintenance to be planned to
eliminate the source either
immediately or during next
planned shut down (depending
on the source and quantity of
leak) and accessibility for
maintenance.
Lubricating oil levels Check adequacy of oil level Top up if required (immediately)
of Fans, & feed
If leakage through oil seals,
pumps
bearings,
gaskets drain plugs etc. is
dosing pump gear
noticed plan for maintenance
box etc.
during next planned shutdown.
Oil level in
Check adequacy of oil Top up if required (immediately)
Travagrate hydraulic level.
Check for leakage.
drive

Section E

Oil pressure should be with in


specified limit in case of increase
in pressure check grate for fuel
pile up or jamming of moving
part with stationary one & make
free.
If necessary take immediate
shut down.

bearing If higher than normal bearing

Page 6

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

dosing pumps

PROJECT NO-PB0751

temperatures

Drum and super Check for passing of safety


heater safety valves, valves (noise or wisp of
steam through silencer)

Purity of instrument Check


by
visual
air
observation
that
the
instrument air is oil and
moisture free.
(Oil and moisture content
can also be checked by
laboratory examination as
per standards)

10

Fan suction damper Check for


linkages and their operation
power cylinders

11

Boiler cladding, air Check for hot spots


duct or flue gas
duct.

Section E

their

proper

temperatures are noticed check


for cause proper oil level, correct
grade and quality of oil,
abnormal sound or vibration.
If bearing temperatures are very
high,
start
the
reserve
equipment and plan for a
maintenance checks
Hand pop the affected safety
valve one or two times to clear
any dirt sticking to the valve
seats.
Lightly tap on the stem of the
safety valves.
If these measures do not
succeed, check thoroughly the
safety valve during next planned
shutdown.
Oil and moisture in the
instrument air is likely to clog
the positioners of pneumatic
controllers/ solenoids and make
their operation sluggish or
unreliable.
Open drain valves of air
receivers for short time to drain
condensate if any.
If these measures are not
successful,
inform
the
Maintenance group.
Sluggish operation of fan suction
damper may be due to stuck
linkage, stuck damper, faulty
power cylinder and faulty
positioner. Maintenance works
have to be planned.
Hot spots may be due to
leakage of flue gas or hot air.
Source of leakage has to be
located after selective removal
of insulation (to be planned for
the next planned shutdown)

Page 7

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
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PROJECT NO-PB0751

MONTHLY CHECKS
Fans,
dosing
pumps,
BFW
pumps

With the vibration analyser


record vibration, sound levels
and
measure
bearing
temperature
Note
the
pressure, flow of air, suction
damper opening, (Capacity of
the FD Fan) pressure (seal air
blowers, HP dosing pump)

By monthly recording of data, establish a


database for deciding the overhaul time of the
equipment. An overhaul once in two or three
years may be adequate. Database will help in
deciding the time frame. Sharp increase in
vibration levels bearing temperatures or sound
levels may call of early scheduling of overhauls.

BOILER ANNUAL MAINTENANCE AND OVERHAUL


In addition to the check and inspections listed under preventive maintenance, the boiler
requires an annual shutdown of about 15 to 20 days for cleaning, inspection ad overhaul
of boiler pressure parts. IBR requirements are also met during this shutdown. The
shutdown period is restricted to a minimum by deploying adequate resources. The field
engineering dept. of TBW can assist you in carrying out the boiler overhaul.
The annual shutdown is utilised for cleaning and inspection of the pressure parts and to
collect data on the wear pattern of boiler, superheater and economiser pressure parts.
The shut down opportunity is also utilised for overhaul of safety valves, regulating and
isolating valves and components which cannot be attended when the boiler is in service.
(The valve overhauls need to be done every year as explained later)

Section E

Page 8

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

ANNUAL OVERHAUL
PLANNING BEFORE OVERHAUL
-

Prepare a list of jobs to be done during the overhaul based on earlier inspection
reports and the jobs listed below.
Ensure availability of spares required for the proposed jobs.
Ensure tools, tackles, scaffolding materials required for the job.
Ensure availability of manpower required for the job (Own sources, contract labour
etc) services of TBW are also available for carrying out annual overhauls and
inspections.

SHUTDOWN AND COOLING THE BOILER


Shutdown the boiler in a planned manner. Force cooling of the boiler. Open all access
and inspection doors.
INSPECTION AFTER COOLING
-

Carry out a preliminary inspection after cooling to determine the following

1. STEAM DRUM
Operational Checks:
Check for steam and water leaks from connections and fittings to the drum.
Prior to Annual Shutdown:
Check drums pressure gauges, safety valves water level gauges for accuracy &
reliability.
Annually:


Inspect the drum internally for evidence of the following:


Surface cracks or grooving
Carryover
Any sign of oil or other substances that may have entered the boiler.
Signs of pitting
Sludge or scale accumulation
Corrosion

 Clean out any debris that has accumulated inside the drum. Remove any scale and
sediment.

Section E

Page 9

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

 Inspect for a noticeable and smooth water level.


 Inspect the drum shell between tube openings (ligaments) for pitting or cracking.


Check for and clean any scale or sludge in the following areas:
Primary scrubber elements
Feed water line
Continuous blow-down line
Chemical feed line

 Openings to safety valves must be free of obstructions, such as mud or scale.


 Repair the following if any trace of leaks or obstruction have been found during
operation:

Connections
Connections
Connections
Connections

to
to
to
to

blow-down
water columns and level gauges.
pressure gauges
transmitters

 Inspect the drum internals to ensure that joints in the following areas are tight:

Steam cyclone separators.


All baffles.
Steam scrubbers.
Chemical feed and blow-down lines.

 If chemical cleaning has been performed, inspect for proper fit of internals.
 Ensure all flanges and corrugated plate sections are seated properly.
 Match marks all adjusted internals for future removal and reinstallation.
 Inspect and replace manhole gaskets if damaged or deteriorated.
 Check for evidence of corrosion on the exterior of the drum.
 Removes all drum internals and inspect for wear corrosion & erosion.

Section E

Page 10

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

2. HEADERS
Annually:
 Visually inspect headers for any cracks.
 Inspect header caps/flange joints for signs of leaks or cracking.
 Internal deposits or plugging
Every Five Years:
 Check headers for the following:
Corrosion
Inspect for cracking of welds in the areas listed below using non-destructive testing
method.
 Tube to header welds.
 Header shell between tubes (ligaments).
 Nozzle to header welds.
 Thermo-wells.
 Lug and hanger connections.
 Hand-hole fittings.
 Longitudinal and circumferential welds.
 Drain connections.
 Cracking in safety valve opening.
3. FURNACE
Operational Checks:
If possible, inspect the slagging condition of furnace walls through ports. Use extreme
caution when doing so. Always wear tinted goggles or shield to protect eyes
from harmful light rays, slag or ash particles. Do not stand directly in front of
open ports.
Walk around the exterior and observe for any hot spots or gas leaks.
Prior to Annual Shutdown:
Check for gas leaks at observation ports, as well as manhole and access doors.
Note or mark any such areas in which leakage is occurring (for ease of location during
shutdown).
Annually:
 Inspect the tube surfaces for signs of leaking, corrosion, overheating (blistering and
bulging), warping, misalignment, pitting, or cracking.

Section E

Page 11

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

 Inspect all wall tubes in the vicinity of soot-blowers for erosion. Pad-welded and
correct position of blower nozzle in relation to eroded wall tubes if any.
 Inspect furnace side wall at junction of furnace and convection pass for cracking
 due to differential expansion.
 Inspect furnace rear wall to arch junction for casing leaks.
 Ensure baffles are in place and healthy condition.
 Inspect for cracking of membrane bar at field panel splits.
 Check the condition of all refractory.
 Locate any deposits of ash or slag not removed by soot blowing, which may effect
heat transfer or block gas passage through the unit. Such deposits may indicate a
problem with operation or blowing pressure of soot-blowers.
 Clean and reset manholes. Inspect condition of gaskets.
 Inspect the condition of seal around doors and openings.
 Inspect the inner surfaces of furnace wall tubes for deposits and scale.
Every 5 years:
Take random ultrasonic tube thickness measurements in critical locations, such as:
 At furnace rear wall headers.
 Lower furnace wall tubes.
 Around soot-blower wall openings.
 Around burner openings.
 In furnace corners.

Section E

Page 12

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

4. SUPERHEATER
Annually:
Externally inspect tubes for signs of:

overheating (swelling or blistering)


warping
misalignment
corrosion
fouling
erosion
gouges (due to tube leaks in surrounding areas)

 If internal deposits are suspected, tube sections should be removed for inspection,
the cause determined and corrected prior to returning to service.
 Inspect support system.
 Check attachment to tube welds for cracking or wear.
 Inspect the condition of superheater seals where the tubes penetrate the furnace
roof.
5. ECONOMISER
Operational Checks:
 Listen for any unusual noise around the economiser section, which may be indicative
of an economiser leak (i.e. hissing).
 Inspect hoppers to make sure they are emptying properly.
Prior to Annual Shutdown:
Perform soot blowing in the vicinity of economiser tubing.
Annually:
 Visually inspect economiser to locate any deposits not removed by soot blowing that
may interfere with heat transfer or block gas paths. The presence of such deposits is
an indication that operation and blowing pressure of soot-blowers should be
checked.

Section E

Page 13

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

 After visual inspection, determine if cleaning is necessary. Cleaning of economizers is


the same as for air heaters. Perform a water wash directly after shutdown using a
warm alkaline solution with a pH level between 10.5 and 11.0


Externally inspect tubes for signs of :


Overheating (swelling or blistering)
Warping
Misalignment
Corrosion / erosion
Fouling

 If pitting has been found in the steam drum, take economiser tube samples and
inspect them internally for pitting.
 If internal deposits are suspected, tube sections should be removed for inspection,
the cause determined and corrected prior to returning to service.
 Inspect support system. Check for erosion around spacer bars and lugs.
 Check attachment to tube welds for cracking or wear.
 Inspect economiser hopper trusses and gusset plates for erosion and corrosion
damage.

6. PENTHOUSE
Operational Checks: Visually inspects for gas leaks.
Prior to Annual Shutdown:
Externally inspect penthouse area for any gas leaks and mark or make note of their
location for ease of finding during shutdown.
Annually:
 Inspect for cracks or tears of penthouse corners and bottom plate.
 Inspect for corrosion around corners, attachments to furnace and behind insulation.
 Replace access door gaskets.
 Inspect all support systems (hanger rods) for corrosion or other damage.
 Inspect condition of penthouse and piping insulation.

Section E

Page 14

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

 Inspect for damaged or missing refractory around furnace roof, screen and
superheater penetrations, steam drum and baffle plates.
 Inspect penthouse casing for gas leaks or air infiltration.
 Inspect condition of roof to wall seals.
 Inspect condition of any roof penetration seals (i.e. superheater).
7. PLENUM HOPPER
Operational Checks:
Inspect for air leaks around the plenum hopper.
 Inspect for signs of overheating that may indicate hot gas re-circulation within the
plenum hopper.
 Monitor the plenum hopper for excessive vibration or possible fluctuations.
Investigate the source of the problem immediately.
 Review the pressure drop between the plenum hopper and furnace regularly.
 Changes in this pressure for a given load condition may indicate flow restriction
problems within the plenum hopper.
Annually:
 Inspect plenum hopper for accumulated build up of bagasse pith / ash.
 Inspect all internal baffles, tie-bars and trusses to ensure they are in good condition.
 Inspect for bowed tie-bars and trusses caused by overheating or over pressure.
 Excess tension, slackness or deflection of these components should be reviewed for
potential expansion problems.
 Check to ensure that the register louvers are cleans and free to move. Lubricate all
moving parts with a high temperature anti-seize compound.
 Inspect plenum hopper corners and expansion joints for signs of cracking or tears.

Section E

Page 15

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

8. FLUES, DUCTS AND DAMPERS


Operational Checks:
 Check around all ducts and flues for signs of leakage.
 Check position of fan dampers.
 Inspect for water leaks indicative of economiser leaks.
Annually:
FLUES
 Check flues for the following,

Gas tightness
Disengagement or misalignment of support hangers and supporting rods
Tightness of the mounting hardware
Corrosion and erosion on inner surfaces
Excessive deposits of dust and ash

 Inspect all refractory surfaces exposed to flue gases.


DUCTS
 Check ducts for the following:
Air tightness.
Disengagement or misalignment of support hangers and supporting rods
Tears and cracks at wind box corners.
DAMPERS
 Check air dampers for the following:
Air leakage through damper spindle bearings
Sticking operation of control dampers over the control range
Tightness of shut off dampers
 Inspect flue gas dampers for the following
Dust leakage on damper shaft packing
Warpage
Overheating
Section E

glands

Page 16

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

Any sticking
operation of
Tightness of shutoff dampers

PROJECT NO-PB0751

control dampers over the control range

 Lubricate all drives.


 Examine damper assemblies for wear of blades and blade spindles. Ensure vanes are
free to operate. Grease all joints and bearings.
EXPANSION JOINTS
 Inspect the internal and external condition of all expansion joints (especially nonmetallic types). Determine if any unusual wear or pluggage has occurred.
 Inspect for warpage or cracks.
 Clean expansion joints of excessive dust collection to allow proper flexibility during
operation.

9. SUPPORTS
Prior to Annual Shutdown:
Inspect external areas of boiler for damaged support equipment. By taking a walk
around piping systems, an indication of support and supported equipment condition can
be obtained. This will aid in the formation of a shutdown maintenance schedule.
Annually:
 Inspect boiler for alignment, noting any abnormal movement.
 Check condition of header guides and supports to ensure alignment yet permit
expansion of tubes without excessive strain.
 Check that main steam piping and connected equipment are properly aligned and
have proper clearance for expansion.
 Inspect for signs of support failure such as insulation damage and changes in scale
readings on flexible type supports.
 On spring type hangers, check for broken springs. Measure and record spring
lengths.
 Inspect support system of tubes compression supports, compression support burnback, support lug failure, and lower tube sag.

Section E

Page 17

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

 Check piping supports and hangers for disengagement or misalignment. Verify each
hanger is carrying load.
 Inspect hanger rods for tightness.
 Check for corrosion of hanger components, including tube spacers and support
saddles. If corrosion is found, apply a rust inhibitor.
 Look for broken or cracked hanger rods, pins, lugs, ties or saddles. Tighten any
loose nuts.
 For constant support hangers, inspect levers and remove any fly ash deposits found.
Re-pack with grease.
 Inspect drum and down-comer hydraulic shock arrestors for damage. Check the fluid
level and look for fluid leakage.
Every 2 Years:
Inspect buck-stays for straightness and their attachment to furnace walls.
Every 5 Years:
Perform visual and magnetic particle inspection of support ties, saddles and attachment
welds.
10. REFRACTORY AND INSULATION
Operational Checks:
 Inspect around all air and gas passages for possible air or gas leaks.
 Inspect around the boiler casing for gas leaks or hot spots.
Annually:
 Inspect the condition of the refractory around spreader throats and surrounding wall
area. Repair or replace as necessary.
 Inspect the condition of refractories on furnace walls, front plate and around corner
sections. Visually check if cracks have formed and if the cracks have crossed one
another enough to cause a section to fall off.
 Inspect the refractory in the ash hoppers for damage.
 Inspect the condition of the refractory around access doors and observation ports.
Section E

Page 18

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

 Inspect the refractory seal around soot blower wall-boxes.


 Inspect roof to wall seals and ensure retainer plates have not worn to the point of
exposing refractory.
 Inspect the condition of refractory seals wherever tubes penetrate the furnace roof.
 Inspect for wear or loss of retainer plates around tube through roof penetrations.
 Inspect the condition of refractory seals wherever tubes penetrate walls.
 Inspect the condition of baffle wall seals.
 Inspect the condition of refractory surfaces exposed to flue gases.
11. SAFETY VALVES
Operational Checks:
 Check for leakage at valves by audio-visual inspection, at normal operating pressure.
 Check the clearance of the lifting lever on the leaking valve. Note and log the
severity of leakage.
 Check that drain lines and drip pans are not plugged.
 When safety valves do operate, note the opening and resetting pressures as
accurately as possible. After normal operating pressure has resumed, check for
leakage at valve. Incorrect settings will require adjustment.
 Note the severity of any leaky safety valve.
 Assess leakage rate from weekly checklist if a noticeable increase has occurred. Plan
for an early shutdown to repair. Early shutdowns can reduce damage to valves.

Annually:
 Clean internal parts. There should be no accumulation of rust, scale or other foreign
substances, which will interfere with their free operation.
 Clean exterior of fly ash, bagasse, dust, etc.
 Recondition valve seats (laps).
REFER MANUFACTURERS MANUAL FOR DETAIL

Section E

Page 19

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

12. BOILER VALVES


Operational Checks:
Make note of any leaky valves and prepare a report.
Annually:
 Check seating surfaces of body and disc for flaws or cracks. Re-lap if repairable.
 Examine the back seat for erosion and corrosion. Replace if erosion is too deep.
 Inspect the gasket between body and bonnet for dents, friction flaws, erosion and
corrosion. Repair gasket seat by sand papering or lapping. If a flaw still exists in the
radial direction, discard and replace.
 Check the stem for cracks, wear, flaws deflection, deformation and erosion of
packing contact section. If cracked, replace. Minor defects can be repaired by sand
papering.
 Check the stuffing box for erosion and corrosion. Repair by lapping if flaw is not too
deep.
 Check, guide sections of body and disc for erosion and corrosion.
 Check bonnet bolts, hinge bolts and nuts for erosion, corrosion and elongation of
screw pitch. Replace if deformed.
 Replace gasket and gland packing.
 Check the gap of fitted in parts for wear and cracks.
REFER MANUFACTURERS MANUAL FOR DETAIL

Section E

Page 20

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

13. WATER LEVEL INDICATORS


Operational Checks:
 Check to see if the gauge or indicator is showing the proper water level. On water
gauges this can be done by opening the drain slightly, then quickly closing the drain
to avoid damage to the mica. Watch for the water level to return to its normal
position.
 Check for water or steam leaks from ports or from the connections to the drum.
Leakage at the water column or drain connections will cause a false water level in
the gauge glass.
 Replace any burnt out indicator lights.
 Inspect glass for discoloration or fouling. If glass appears dirty (fouled), blow down
to clean it, or remove it from service and replace. Install new glass if it is discolored,
etched or chipped. If for any reason the glass and cushion gaskets are removed,
replace them.
 Perform a wash down (cleaning) of gauge. Blow down the dirt leg of remote level
indicator to remove suspended matter from the lines. Remove two to three cups
only. Make sure to close instrument valves first.
Every 6 Months:
 Replace mica, gasket and glass assembly.
 Perform a total rebuild as a preventative measure, since ports tend to fail in
succession. Follow proper torquing procedure.
Annually:
 Inspect low and high level alarms (probes or floats).
 Check that all connecting piping to the column and glass is clear and unobstructed.
 Repair any leaks of steam or water coming from piping or valves observed during
operation.
REFER MANUFACTURERS MANUAL FOR DETAIL

Section E

Page 21

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

14. LONG RETRACTABLE SOOT-BLOWERS


Operational Checks:
While doing a routine inspection of the boiler, inspect for condensate, steam or oil leaks
from the soot blowers.
Weekly:
During routine soot blowing, check and verify blowing pressures at the header as well as
critical locations such as super heater.
Monthly:
 Perform a visual inspection of blowers at rest and during normal operation to check
for proper extension and retraction.
 Check for proper direction of rotation.
Annually:
 Inspect the condition of the nozzle or element.
 Check the extended or blowing position of the nozzle or element to ensure that it will
give good cleaning results without damaging the walls, cavity or lanes, which it is,
designed to clean.
 Check the start and finish-blowing arcs on corner mounted blowers and those, which
are mounted adjacent to division walls, etc., to ensure that the blowing medium is
being directed in the proper area for best cleaning results and to avoid damaging
tubes.
 Check the wall-box sleeve alignment to boiler wall to ensure it is perpendicular
(plumb) with the vertical plane of the wall in all directions.
 Check for condensate or slag in wall-boxes. Condensate in a wall-box can indicate a
leaky puppet valve, while slag can reveal the need for seal air.
 Ensure that the wall-box seal plate is free to float.
 Inspect wall-box and sleeve for damage. A damaged wall-box sleeve can result in
deteriorated wall-boxes and damaged boiler wall refractory or insulation. This in turn
can result in support problems and casing leaks.
 Ensure the proper operation of all moving and mechanical parts.

Section E

Page 22

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

 Check the condition of the expand cable.


 Inspect tubes in the vicinity of soot blower paths for possible metal loss due to fly
ash erosion, steam cutting, rubbing or soot-blowers or corrosion.
 Check condition of the feed tube and valve stem packing. Replace if hard and dry
.Add more packing rings to the feed tube gland as necessary. Do not over tighten.
 Check puppet valves condition. If the valve shows signs of leakage, re-lap and
inspect internals for corrosion or damage.
 Ensure the valve spring, spring retainer, yoke and trigger are intact, and that the
portion of the trigger that makes contact with the valve stem does not show
excessive wear.
 Ensure that the rollers are making contact with the lance tube and that the lance
tube is not riding on the wallbox seal.
 Test forward limit switch actuator for proper spring action and check for broken or
distorted parts.
 Check front stop blocks for broken or cracked welds.
 Check for excessive rack wear at reversal point.
 Check for corrosion of front blower beam.
 Inspect the mid blower beam for the following :

Wear or lower track angle, behind or


Buildup of debris.
Excessive wear or cheapened teeth on
Gear rack.
Sagging and insulation breakdown of
Electrical cables.
Tension on expand cable support rod
Steam turn-on assembly for proper
Actuation by trip stud.

 Lubricate steam turn-on cam and linkage through fittings provided.


 Check auxiliary lance and feed tube support for the following :
Proper orientation of lance roller bracket
Assembly.
Section E

Page 23

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

Roller orientation.
Distorted or bent trip fork
Sheared trip fork stop pin
Proper lubrication of rollers, trip linkage
And pillow blocks.

 Lubricate front and rear hub bearings through fittings provided.


REFER MANUFACTURERS MANUAL FOR DETAIL

Section E

Page 24

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

15. ROTARY SOOT-BLOWERS


Operational Checks:
While doing a routine inspection of the boiler, inspect for condensate, steam or oil leaks
from the blowers.
Weekly:
During routine soot blowing, check and verify blowing pressures at the header as well as
critical locations such as super heater and economiser.
Monthly:
Perform a visual inspection of blowers at rest and during normal operation,
to ensure proper direction of rotation and re-set.
Annually:
 Check the extended or blowing position of the nozzle or element to ensure that it will
give good cleaning results without damaging the walls, cavity or lanes, which it is,
designed to clean.
 Check the start and finish blowing arcs of blowers to ensure that the blowing
medium is being directed in the proper area for best cleaning results and to avoid
damaging tubes.
 Check the wall-box sleeve alignment to boiler wall to ensure it is perpendicular
(plumb) with the vertical plane of the wall in all directions.
 Check for condensate or slag in wall-boxes. Condensate in a wall-box can indicate a
leaky puppet valve, while slag can reveal the need for seal air.
 Ensure that the wall-box seal plate is free to float.
 Inspect wall-box and sleeve for damage. A damaged wall-box sleeve can result in
deteriorated wall boxes and damaged boiler wall refractory or insulation. This in turn
can result in support problems and casing leaks.
 Ensure the proper operation of all moving and mechanical parts. Inspect for main
bearing breakdown and worn-out drive pins.
 Inspect tubes in the vicinity of soot blower paths for possible metal loss due to fly
ash erosion, steam cutting, rubbing of soot blowers or corrosion.

Section E

Page 25

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

 Check condition of the feed tube and valve stem packing. Replace if hard and dry.
Add more packing rings to the feed tube gland as necessary. Do not over tighten.
 Check puppet valves condition. If the valve shows signs of leakage, re-lap and
inspect internals for corrosion or damage.
 Ensure the valve spring, spring retainer, yoke and trigger are intact, and that the
portion of the trigger that makes contact with the valve stem does not show
excessive wear.
 Inspect for the following on the cam and trigger :
Excessive wear
Distorted valve trigger, restricting opening of the valve.
Proper engagement and depression of the valve lift pin (located on the large gear
wheel) is intact and making contact with gear on the valve trigger when the trigger
rides off the cam.
 Lubricate the following areas :
Worm gear housing
Worm thrust bearings
REFER MANUFACTURER,S MANUAL FOR DETAIL

Section E

Page 26

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

16. FANS
Operational Checks:
 Inspect bearing lubrication and check for proper oil level.
 If ring-oiled, check for free revolution and adequately distributed oil.
 Check bearing temperatures. If hot, determine cause and remedy the situation. Oil
temperature should not exceed 82 degrees Celsius (180 degrees Fahrenheit). White
metal temperature should not exceed 88 degrees C (190 degrees F).
 Ensure a flow of water is getting to the bearings and that the water out temperature
is not excessively warm.
 Ensure that the seals are intact and functional.
 Feel and inspect for vibration.
 Listen for unusual motor or fan noises.
 Look for any loose material, which may get sucked into the fan.
 Visually inspect bearing seals.
 Lubricate drive assembly linkages.
Prior to Annual Shutdown:
 Take vibration readings.
 Check control room records of fan for :

Bearing vibration over the past few months


Bearing temperature over the past few months
Oil usage, if any
Check damper operation and indication.

Section E

Page 27

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

Annually:







Change bearing oil. Analyze a sample from each bearing.


Flush cooling water jackets.
Check motor-fan alignment.
Inspect fan shaft seals for wear.
Inspect expansion joints for wear or cracking.
Check foundation for cracking, sagging or any other deterioration to concrete or
steel works.
 Grease linkage connections.

FAN HOUSING





Check for signs of wear or corrosion.


Damage
Check tightness of foundation bolts
Visually inspect for cracks

INLET CONE
 Check for signs of wear or corrosion
 Damage
 Check clearance and fit up and ensure it is correct
ROTOR WHEEL
 Check for signs of corrosion
 Check for abrasive wears on blades.
 Check that the wheel is completely clean, and that the blades and the shroud are
Free of any build up.
 Check that the wheel is tight on the shaft
 Check that the shaft is straight
 Check for mechanical damage indicating an object has entered the wheel during
operation
 Visually inspect for weld cracks, if in doubt, perform a liquid dye penetrate test
ROLLER BEARINGS
 Drain bearings, take oil sample
 Disassemble, clean and check clearance between rollers and the inside diameter of
the bearing outer ring.
 Inspect the oil seals.
 Check bearing gaps in housing.
 Inspect rollers for flat spots.
 Check bearing hold-down bolts for tightness
 Clean top and bottom half of bearing housing split line
Section E

Page 28

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

 Apply new sealant, reassemble and re-torque bolts.


SLEEVE BEARINGS














Drain bearings, take oil sample.


Disassemble and clean bearings.
Inspect bearing liners for wear and condition, take pinch test if needed.
Inspect condition of rotor shaft.
Inspect bearing thrust pads and shaft thrust collar.
Inspect oil seals.
Check screw tightness on oil slinkier rings.
Check bearing thrust pad gaps and liner alignment.
Check bearing hold-down bolts for tightness.
Reassemble bearings and re-torque bolts.
Re-torque plunger screw.
Check cooling water flow is clear.
Check oil instrumentation operations.

LUBE OIL SETS








Take oil samples from all units.


Clean unit, replace oil and filters.
Check pressure and flow settings.
Inspect all hoses and pipes for leaks.
Check instrumentation and standby pump operation.

COUPLING
 Clean and inspect for internal wear.
 Renew all worn sealing devices.
 Renew all lubricants.
 Re-torque all bolts.
 Check for proper gap setting.
 Check alignment and realign if required.
DRIVE MOTOR AND BELTS





Check condition of belt for cracks and wear.


Check belts tension, and ensure they are a matched set.
Inspect belt sheaves.
Check motor hold-down bolts for tightness lubricate motor.

SHAFT SEALS
 Disassemble and check for wear.
 Inspect rotor shaft for wear in seal area.

Section E

Page 29

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

SILENCERS (if applicable)


 Visually inspect for loose material.
 Check condition of screens.
REFER MANUFACTURER,S MANUAL FOR DETAIL

Section E

Page 30

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

17. TRAVAGRATE
Travagrate is the heart of Boiler firing equipment. Hence it is essential that it to be
maintained as per the following instruction, to ensure 100% availability during
operation.
OPERATIONAL CHECKS:
 Check the hydraulic drive oil pressure, it should not be more than 28 Kg/cm2.
 Maintain the oil level in the drive unit.
 Lubricate the grate bearings once in a shift (once in 8 Hrs) with the specified
lubricant.
 Check the tightness of the drive coupling.
 Check the working of alarm system once in week.
 Ensure all the moving parts of the hydraulic drive are lubricated.
 Ensure the pressure gauges on the hydraulic drive is indicting properly.
 Check for any oil leakage from the fittings and piping.
 Ensure, drive inspection window glass is properly fastened, so as to avoid dust entry
to sump.
 Keep the drive unit clean from dust and fine fuel/ash particles.
DURING SHORT SHUT DOWN FOLLOWING INSPECTION CAN BE CARRIED
OUT:
Prior to entering the furnace ensure it is sufficiently cool and free from ash.
 Check the grate lock pins are in place and ensure its tightness.
 Check the grate catenary, for any damaged components and loose fasteners.
 Replace the damaged side and rear seal refractory if any.
 Check for any burn out middle/side seal casting and replace if any.
 Check the hydraulic drive oil filter for cleanliness. If the filter unit is defective replace
the same.
ANNUAL MAINTENANCE:
 Prior to dismantling, check the distance between the catenary bottom to top frame.
If the distance is increased by 100 mm remove one chain link. Refer the erection
protocol for initial reading.
 Check the chain for hole oblong if the hole size is increased by more than 2mm,
replace the chain link.
 Check the alignment of the travagrate frame, shaft and coupling alignment.
 Clean the grease piping.
 Clean the bearing and refill with new grease.
 Replace the defective bearing if any.
 Replace damaged grate bars and grate castings if any.
 Replace the worn out skid shoe/rail.
 Replace worn out/deformed coking plate.
 Check the side seal for looseness & damage. Replace the damaged casings and tight
the loose fasteners.
 Check the floating seal for alignment and expansion clearance.
 Repair the defective side and rear refractory castings, if any.
 Replace the hydraulic drive oil once in six months.

Section E

Page 31

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

CAUTION
PROTECT THE GRATE COMPONENTS FROM MOISTURE AND RUST DURING
OFF-SEASON AND IDEAL PERIOD OF THE BOILER.
RAINWATER CAN ENTER THE FURNACE THROUGH THE RETURN BAGASSE
CARRIER OPENINGS. THIS HAS TO BE AVOIDED; OTHERWISE IT WILL
DAMAGE THE FRONT PLATE REFRACTORY AND GRATE COMPONENTS.
NEVER KEEP THE GRATE UN OPERATED FOR LONG PERIOD OF TIME DURING
OFF-SEASON, THIS MAY LEADS TO CHAIN RUSTING AND JAMMING OF THE
GRATE MOVEMENT.

Section E

Page 32

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

TUBE FAILURES
Operating a boiler with a known tube leak is not recommended. Steam or water
escaping from a small leak can cut other tubes by impingement and set up a chain
reaction of tube failures. Large leaks can be dangerous. The boiler water may be lost,
the ignition may be lost, and the boiler casing may be damaged.
Small leaks can some times be detected by the loss of water in the cycle or system, a
loss in boiler water chemicals or by the noise made by the leak. If a leak is suspected
the boiler should be shut down as soon as possible by following normal shut down
procedures (If situation permits).
After the exact locations of the leak or leaks are identified, the leaks may be repaired by
replacing the failed tube or by splicing in a new section of tube, confirming to IBR code.
CAUTION:

IT SHOULD BE ENSURED THAT, WHEN EVER A SPOOL PIECE IS INSERTED IN THE


FAILED ZONE,
THE WELD JOINT NEEDS TO BE OF PROPER WELD QUALITY.
FREE FROM EXCESS WELD PENETRATION TO AVOID ANY OBSTRUCTION IN THE
WATER / STEAM MIXTURE FLOW INSIDE THE TUBE.
IT IS SUGESSTED TO HAVE ALL THE JOINTS ARE X-RAYED AND INTERPRTED BY
QUALIFIED / EXPERIENCED RADIOGRAPHER.

WARNING;
EXCESS WELD PENETRATION EVEN CAUSE INTERNAL TUBE EROSION AND RESULTS IN
TUBE FAILURES.
INTERNAL OBSTRUCTION (in water / steam mixture side) WILL AGGREVATE THE
CAUSTIC GOUGING PROCESS AND LEADS TO TUBE FAILURES.
An investigation of tube failure is very important so that the condition causing the tube
failure can be eliminated and future failures can be prevented. This investigation should
include a careful visual inspection of the failed tube and in some cases a laboratory
analysis.
It is recommended that every effort be made to find the cause of tube failures before
operation is resumed.

Section E

Page 33

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

TUBE FAILURE INVESTIGATION / ANLAYSIS METHOD


INVESTIGATION / ANALYSI METHODOLOGY IS LISTED AS FOLLOWS, WHICH NEEDS
TO BE FOLLOWED TO FIND THE ACTUAL ROOT CAUSE OF THE PROBLEMS.
PLEASE FILLUP THE ENLCOSED FORM DULY FILLED AND THE SAME MAY BE
SENT TO TBW ALONG WITH TUBE SAMPLE FOR ANALYSIS.

OBJECTIVES OF FAILURE INVESTIGATION


Boiler tube failures are the largest cause of forced outages experienced by a utility. To
avoid or minimize outages and the associated economic penalties, it is important to
identify the mechanism and root cause of tube failures. Informed visual inspection is
often adequate for this purpose, however failure analysis involving detailed metallurgical
investigation is necessary. Tube failures may be due to overheating, corrosion, erosion,
fatigue, hydrogen damage etc. A failure investigation and subsequent analysis should
determine the primary cause of a failure, and based on determination, corrective action
should be initiated that will prevent similar failures.

STAGES OF FAILURE ANALYSIS


Although the sequence is subject to variation, depending upon the nature of a specific
failure, the principal stages that comprise the investigation & analysis of a failure are:

Collection of background & selection of samples


Preliminary examination of the failed part (visual examination & record keeping)
Non destructive testing
Mechanical testing (including hardness & toughness testing)
Selection, identification, preservation, and/or cleaning of all specimens.
Macroscopic examination and analysis(fracture surfaces, secondary cracks, & other
surface phenomena)
Microscopic examination and analysis
Selection & preparation of metallographic sections
Examination and analysis of metallographic sections

COLLECTION OF BACKGROUND DATA MUCH ESSENTIAL


Boiler operating data just before & at the time of a tube failure is very important, as it
will give information of the service conditions faced by the tube at the time of failure.
This operating data should also be co-related with the past operation data &
abnormalities if any should be taken care off. Water chemistry analysis, fuel analysis
should also form an important part of this data.
This data & the metallurgical analysis will help us in true sense to arrive at the exact
cause of a tube failure.
Section E

Page 34

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

ON REPORTING OF TUBE FAILURE IN A BOILER


1. Study the boiler log sheet & water chemistry record prior to tube failure and after tube
failure. Preserve the copies of these log sheets. Record, if any abnormality noticed, such
as mal operation, malfunction, very high or low temp. / loads, fluctuating loads, sudden
increase in load or temp., poor water chemistry, start up vent crack open / close etc. etc.
(if possible collect and send the water samples, internal scale from drum & tubes, external
scale samples).
2. After entering in boiler and before proceeding to tube failure location inspect & record the
condition of boiler and pressure parts without disturbing the evidence i.e. distortion of
pressure parts/coils, bulging of pressure parts, scaling / lump formation on pressure parts,
blockage of flue gas path, other / secondary failures etc. etc. In such case taking
photographs will help in great extent in analyzing of the tube failure, boiler problem. The
failed pressure part tube should not be hammered, any mechanical impact should be
avoided.
3. Inspect the failed tube and record all findings on the same as well as its adjacent tubes.
Carry out dimensional measurement of failed tube and affected adjacent tubes.
4. Number mark the failed tube for its location, flue gas flow, steam flow with oil paint.
After completion of inspection, recording and photography, cut the failed tube and
affected adjacent tube, if any, with the help of HACKSAW only. Gas cutting of the tubes
should be avoided as much as possible. The failed tube, keeping the failed portion in
middle should be cut for total length of minimum 350 mm. Immediately after cutting the
tube sample both the ends should be covered with plastic caps. While doing this, internal
or external scale of tube should not fall down.
The failed tube samples nicely packed in plastic bag / wooden case accompanying duly
filled format with water chemistry of boiler log sheets should be sent to H.O Pune.
HOW TO REMOVE THE FAILED TUBE SAMPLE FOR FAILURE INVESTIGATIONS
1. The tube sample should be cut with a hacksaw blade. Gas cutting should be
avoided.
2. The sample should be cut approx. 8-10 inches above & below the affected area.
3. The exact location & elevation should be marked on the tube sample.
4. The direction of the fluid flow should be marked on the tube sample.
5. Immediately after cutting the tube sample both the ends should be covered with
plastic caps. While doing this the internal or external scale of tube should not fall
down.
Section E

Page 35

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

6. The failed tube sample nicely packed in plastic bag / wooden case accompanying
duly filled format as given below with water chemistry of boiler log sheets should be
sent to TBW H.O for metallurgical investigations .

Section E

Page 36

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

TUBE FAILURE ANALYSIS


SR.NO :

DATE:

NAME OF THE CUSTOMER


BOILER SPECIFICATIONS
CAPACITY
STEAM PRESSURE
STEAM TEMPERATURE
FUEL FIRED
LOCATION OF TUBE SAMPLE
DURATION OF SERVICE OF BOILER
DURATION OF SERVICE OF TUBE SAMPLE
DATE OF FAILURE
SAMPLE RECEIVED ON
NO. OF SAMPLES HANDED OVER TO LAB ON (With
identification Mark/No) Nos. / Dt
VISUAL INSPECTION REPORT
WITH SKETCH / NATURE OF FAILURE
TUBE MATERIAL ( Specified)
TUBE OD x THK (Specified)
ORIENTATION OF TUBE
FLUID FLOW DIRECTION
(With marking)
BOILER OPERATING CONDITION
AT THE TIME OF FAILURE (Water
Chemistry & boiler operation log sheets)
 ANY OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE FAILURE

Section E

Page 37

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

TESTS TO BE CARRIED OUT AT LAB


(To be filled in by H.O)

PROJECT NO-PB0751

(Please  mark)

1. VISUAL INSPECTION WITH PHOTOGRAPHS AS RECEIVED

2. DIMENSIONAL MEASUREMENT

3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (UTS, YS, % ELONGATION)

4. HARDNESS TESTING

5. MICRO ANALYSIS / FAILURE ANALYSIS

6. INTERNAL / EXTERNAL SCALE ANALYSIS

7. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS / MATERIAL VERIFICATION

8. ANY OTHER TEST - TO BE SPECIFIED

(Please attach extra sheets if required)

Section E

Page 38

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

DATA COLLECTION ON WATER CHEMISTRY


A. Average Water consumption per day as per shift - TPH
B. Source of water to deaerator or boiler - D.M. Plant / condensate return / softener /
other
&
C. Approx. Qty (ratios) if more than one source is feeding to deaerator.
D. Any condensate treatment process adopted, if yes, what process?
E. Qty and type of chemical dosing per shift / per day
to steam drum
to deaerator
to condensate tank
Is the dosing continuous or intermittent

D.M.
Water

Condensate

F.W. to
Boiler

Drum
water

pH
TDS PPM
Conductivity m/s
SiO2 - PPM
Fe2O3 - PPM
CHLORIDES AS CL PPM
M-ALKALITY OF CaCO3 PPM
P-ALKALITY AS CaCO3 PPM
HYDRAZINE OR SO3 PPM
(The above are the minimum required data. More are welcome)

Section E

Page 39

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

WINDOW PATCH WELDING


SCOPE:
FABRICATION AND WELDING OF TUBE WINDOW PATCHES
PURPOSE:
THE PURPOSE OF THE WINDOW PATCHING METHOD IS TO ALLOW THE WELDING OF
TUBES THAT COULD NOT OTHERWISE BE WELDED BECAUSE OF LIMITED ACCESS TO
PART OF THE TUBE DIAMETER. THIS PROCEDURE IS RESTRICTED TO THAT USE.
PREPARATION:
1. THE AREA TO BE PATCHED SHALL BE CLEANED TO BARE METAL.
2. THE PATCH SHALL BE MADE FROM TUBE MATERIAL OF SAME TYPE, DIAMETER
AND THICKNESS, AS THE TUBE BEING WELDED.
3. THE AREA OF THE TUBE TO BE REMOVED SHALL BE CAREFULLY MARKED OUT
AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO CONTOUR OF THE PATCH. THE TUBE SECTION MAY
THEN BE REMOVED USING AN OXYACETYLENE GAS CUTTING TORCH OR BY
MECHANICAL MEANS.
4. THE WELD PREPARATION SHALL BE MADE AS PER THE FIG #1. THE FIT UP OF
THE PATCH WELD GAP SHALL BE 2.4 0.8 m.m.
WELDING:
1. A WELDER QUALIFIED TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF IBR SHALL MAKE THE TUBE
AND PATCH WELDS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AN APPROVED WELD PROCEDURE.
2. THE ROOT PASS SHALL BE DONE WITH GTAW PROCESS. THE WELD MAY
THEN BE COMPLETED WITH EITHER SMAW OR GTAW PROCESS. SOME
ACCEPTABLE WELD PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS ARE LISTED IN TABLE#1.
TESTING:
1. ALL THE TUBE AND PATCH WELDING SHALL BE SUBJECT TO CLOSE VISUAL
INSPECTION AND 100% RADIOGRAPHY IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE
REQUIREMENTS OF ASME SECTION V. THE STANDARD ACCEPT/REJECT SHALL
BE SPECIFIED IN ASME SECTION I.
2. COMPLETED WELDS ARE SUBJECT TO HYDROSTATIC TEST.

Section E

Page 40

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

FIGURE 1

Section E

Page 41

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

TABLE #1
WPS NO

Section E

BASE MATERIAL
P1 TO
CARBON STEEL TO CARBON
P1
STEEL
P3 TO
CARBON MOLY TO CARBON
P3
MOLY
P3 TO
CR MOLY TO CR
P3
MOLY
P4 TO
1-1/4 CR TO 1-1/4 CR
P4
P5 TO
2-1/4 CR 1 MOLY TO
P5
2-1/4 CR 1 MOLY
P8 TO
STAINLESS TO STAINLESS
P8

FILLER METAL
ER 70S.2
E7018
ER80S.B2

E7018A1

ER80S.B2

E8018B2L

ER80S.B2

E8018B2L

ER90S.B3

E9018B3L

ER308

ER308-16

Page 42

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

GENERAL PRINCIPAL OF WELD REPAIRS


FURNACE AND BOILER TUBES
I. The minimum replacement tube length should be not less than 150 m.m. a
damaged tube should be cut at least 75 m.m each side of the defective area.
II. Backing rings must not to be used in welding heat absorbing tubes carrying
water or mixture of steam and water.
III. If a backing ring is not used, the first pass of the weld must be made with inert
gas-arc or oxy acetylene. The weld passes may be completed by either process,
or by a manual metal arc.
IV. Pre heat or post heat is not required for welding carbon steel furnace or boiler
tubes.
V. Prior to welding, clean the tube ends to bright metal inside and outside for at
least 40 m.m from the weld area. Remove all deposits of oxide, boiler water salts
and slag to avoid gas or slag inclusions in the weld.
VI. Fit-up of the weld joints is important. It is difficult to obtain accurate cuts on
furnace tubes especially those in welded furnace walls. However, it is worth to
spend extra time to get the existing tube ends squared and correctly chamfered
and to cut the replacement tube to the correct length. Poor fit-up increase the
possibility of an unsuccessful weld.
VII. Allow for shrink in the welding, remember, the weld metal and parent metal are
melted in the welding process and the molten metal shrinks as it solidifies. A butt
weld in the tube will shorten the total tube length about 1.6 m.m.
VIII. Use a clamp or guide lug to hold one end of the replacement tube alignment
while the first weld is made. Do not tack weld both end of the replacement tubes
particularly if the existing tubes are rigidly supported
IX. As a general rule, first complete the welds at the lower end of the replacement
tube. Do not start welding the upper end of the replacement tube until both the
replacement and the existing tubes have cooled to ambient temperature.
WELD REPAIR OF SMALL CRACKS IN TUBE.
In the interest of saving time and cost, it is better to weld small cracks rather than
replace a length of the tube.
The crack must be ground out to form an acceptable welding groove. The groove should
continue well beyond the ends of the crack. The first pass of the weld must be made by
inert gas arc or oxy acetylene process.

Section E

Page 43

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

Note:
I. This type of the repairs entails some risk. Internal deposits. Particularly copper,
may exist under the crack which will result in damaging the parent and/or weld
metal causing failure in a short period of time.
II. Over-heating the tube may have caused the longitudinal crack. In this case, the
tube has swollen and the weld thickness reduced. In the modern welded wall
construction, it is difficult to accurately measure the tube diameter or
circumference to detect the minor swelling. If visual indicates swelling and
reduction of wall thickness at the crack, a complete replacement of the damaged
tube length is the best solution.
III. A circumferential crack indicates a failure due to excessive stress applied by
expansion restriction, bending or fatigue; such cracks can be repaired by
welding. However, unless the cause of failure is diagnosed and corrected,
another similar failure could occur at or near the original crack.
IV. Also the tube cannot be cleaned from inside and there is always a possibility
internal deposits will contaminate the weld.

Section E

Page 44

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

TUBE LEAKS IN BOILER BANK TUBES


A leak in inaccessible tubes in the boiler bank is not un-common. If any such incident
happen in the boiler:
Make sure of the location of the tube. Very often it is through the rolled joint. If the leak
is heavy, and allow it to be continued for a long period, it will damage the tube seat. In
this case re rolling the tube end is not likely to correct the trouble. Seat welding can
rectify such leaks, which is permissible.

GRIND TUBE END IF REQUIRED (EXCESSIVE


BELL MOUTH WOULD HINDER SEAL
WELDING

RE EXPAND
AREA.
6 THIS
M.M SEAL
WELD
INSIDE
OF

NOTE:
1. Clean and dry area to be seal welded.
2. Use E 7015, E 7016 or E 7018 welding electrodes.
3. Seal weld to be made in three passes.
4. SA 515 and SA 516 drum material required pre heating up to 200 F
5. Re expand the tube seat after seal welding as shown

Section E

Page 45

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

BOILER PRESERVATION PROCEDURE


STORAGE OF INDUSTRIAL BOILER
Both the gas and water side of a boiler should be protected against corrosion during out
of service periods. It is known that many of the corrosion problems of boiler and
auxiliary equipment have their inception during storage. Rusting of tube surfaces, as
indicated by the formation of the red hematite (Fe2O3), not only cause a roughened
tube surface but also results in attack of parent metal.
The advantages of efficient feed water and boiler water treatment during operation may
be lost if the same diligence is not applied to protect heat. Transfer surfaces during idle
periods. Protection from corrosion during storage becomes vitally important considering
the number of times during the life of a boiler when it and its auxiliary equipment are
idle.
To minimize the possibility of corrosion, boiler to be placed into storage must be
carefully prepared for the idle period and closely watched during the outage. There are
two methods available for storing the unit dry storage and wet storage. Although the
wet storage procedures is preferred such factors as availability of good quality water,
ambient weather conditions, length of storage period, auxiliary supply of heat, etc may
dictate that the dry storage procedure is more practical.
DEFINITIONS OF WATER QUALITY:
Some cleaning procedures, hydrostatic testing and storage require water of higher
quality than others. For the purpose of economy and convenience the lowest water
quality consistent with requirements is specified in these various procedures. The terms
that identify the different water qualities along with their definitions are list below:
Station service water - Water normally used for drinking, fire protection, etc.
Softened water - Filtered, sodium zeolite softened water with total hardness less than 1
ppm.
Two- bed de-mineralised water - Water than has been passed through cation and anion
ion exchanges in series.
Mixed bed de-mineralised water - Water that has been passed through a mixed bed demineraliser. Water from an evaporator is considered to be of equal quality.
Treated de-mineralised water - Mixed bed de-mineralised water that has 200 ppm of
hydrazine and enough ammonia added to give final concentration of 10 ppm (or a pH of
10.0). In this procedure, condensate is considered to be treated demineralised water.

Section E

Page 46

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

DRY STORAGE
When it is known that a boiler is to be idle for a considerable length of time and that a
brief period will be allowed for preparation to return it to service, the dry storage
method is recommended. In this method the unit is emptied, thoroughly cleaned
internally and externally dried, and then closed up tight to exclude both moisture and
air. Trays of lime, silica gel, or other moisture absorbent may be placed in the drums to
draw off the moisture in the air trapped by the closing up of the boiler.
The following general procedure is recommended when placing a unit into dry storage.
1.

Fire the boiler according to the normal start-up procedure and establish 50 psig
drum pressure. Secure the boiler and when the pressure decays to 20 psig,
immediately drain the boiler and headers under air. As soon as possible, open
the drums to allow air to circulate for drying of all internal surfaces.
This step is included for a unit that has been in service and is to be placed into
storage. For a unit that has never been in service, start with Step 2.

2.

If the unit is full of water and cold, drain the unit under air. All non-drainable
boiler tubes and superheater tubes should be blown with compressed air. If an
external source of heat is available such as a steam coil air heater, portable
heaters, etc., operate these heaters to assist in drying the internal boiler
surfaces.
Install trays (of non-porous construction and capable of passing through the
drum man way) containing the moisture absorbent (silica gel is preferred) into
the drums. Insert the trays into the drum being certain that none of the
absorbent comes into contact with the metal surface of the drum. To insure
against an overflow of corrosive liquid after the moisture has been absorbed, the
trays should not be more than full of dry absorbent. The amount of absorbent
can vary but the recommended minimum is one pound of absorbent per 1000
pounds per hour steam flow capacity of the unit.

3.

Attach a source of nitrogen to the steam drum vent, close all other vents and
drains and pressurize the boiler to 10 to 15 psig with nitrogen. The amount of
nitrogen required will vary according to the volume of the unit.

4.

With the boiler and superheater pressurized, alternately open all boiler drains
(including superheater) to purge air from the unit until pressure decays to zero.
It may be necessary to repeat this process several times to reduce the amount of
oxygen left in the unit to a minimum.

5.

The unit should now be stored under 5 to 10 psig nitrogen pressure maintained
at the steam drum. To maintain the nitrogen pressure, all connections and valves

Section E

Page 47

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

should be blanked or tightly closed. Check gas pressure daily to ensure


protection.
6.

We would recommend that periodic inspection of the unit be performed every 3


months to assure that no corrosive action is taking place and to replenish the
absorbent as required. Since air will enter the unit during this inspection, it will
be necessary to repeat Steps 3 & 4 to expel the air.

CAUTION : THE UNIT SHOULD BE PROPERLY TAGGED AND THE APPROPRIATE


WARNING SIGNS ATTACHED NOTING THAT THE BOILER IS STORED UNDER
NITROGEN PRESSURE AND THAT COMPLETE EXHAUSTION OF THE NITROGEN MUST
OCCUR BEFORE ANYONE ENTERS THE DRUM. BEFORE ENTERING DRUMS TEST TO
PROVE THAT THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION IS AT LEAST 19.5 percent.
The above procedure is intended to include the economizer and superheater.

Section E

Page 48

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

WET STORAGE
The advantage of employing the wet storage procedure is that the unit is stored
completely wet with the recommended levels of chemicals to eliminate a wet-dry
interface where possible corrosion can occur. It is suggested that volatile chemicals be
used to avoid increasing the level of dissolved solids in the water to be used for storage.
In preparing a unit for wet storage, the following procedure is recommended.
1.

The unit should be filled with deaerated, de-mineralized water treated with 200
ppm hydrazine (N2 H4 ) for oxygen removal and sufficient ammonia (NH3)in order
to attain a pH of 10 (for de-mineralized water, this will require approximately 10
ppm ammonia).

2.

We strongly recommend pre-mixing of the chemicals with the water to insure a


uniform mixture entering the boiler. This can be accomplished by the blend-fill
method. The blend-fill method consists of blending the chemicals with the demineralized water at a continuous rate such that a uniform mixture is entering
the boiler. Simply introducing the chemicals through the drum man head after
establishing water level will not insure adequate dispersion of chemicals to all
internal surfaces, unless sufficient heat is delivered to the furnace (i.e. firing the
boiler) to induce natural circulation throughout the boiler.

3.

Fill the unit with the treated de-mineralized water to the normal centerline of the
steam drum. Stop fill.

4.

Back fill the superheated with treated de-mineralized water until a rise in steam
drum level is noted. Continue filling until water exits from the steam drum vents.
After filling, all connections should be blanked or tightly closed.

A source of low-pressure nitrogen should be connected at the steam drum, maintain 5


to 10 psig, to prevent air from entering the unit during the storage period.
CAUTION: THE UNIT SHOULD BE PROPERLY TAGGED AND THE APPROPRIATE
WARNING SIGNS ATTACHED NOTING THAT THE BOILER IS STORED UNDER
NITROGEN PRESSURE AND THAT COMPLETE EXHAUSTION OF THE NITROGEN
MUST OCCUR BEFORE ANYONE ENTERS THE DRUM. BEFORE ENTERING
DRUMS TEST TO PROVE THAT THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION IS AT LEAST
19.5 percent.
5.

If storage continues into winter, ambient temperatures below the freezing point
of water create a real hazard to the boiler pressure parts and it will be necessary
to provide a means of keeping the unit warm to avoid damage.

6.

At some later date when the unit is to be placed into service, the boiler can be
drained to normal start-up water level and placed into operation.

Section E

Page 49

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

7.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

In some cases, an expansion tank or surge tank (such as a 55-gallon drum)


above the steam drum or superheater elevation may be required to
accommodate volume changes due to temperature changes. This tank is
equipped with a tight cover and sight glass and contains properly treated water.
The tank should be connected to an available opening, such as a vent line at the
top of the steam drum in order to create a hydrostatic head. This tank will
provide a ready, visual check of water level or in leakage during lay up.
A source of low-pressure nitrogen should be connected to the surge tank to
maintain 5 to 10 psig to prevent air from entering the unit during the storage
period.

8.

The treated de-mineralized water should be analyzed weekly, and when


necessary, sufficient chemicals should be added through the chemical feed line,
to establish the proper levels recommended. Samples of the treated water can
be taken at the continuous blow down line or any suitable drain connection.

9.

No unit should be stored wet when there is any possibility of a temperature drop
to the freezing point unless sufficient heat can be provided to the unit to
eliminate the danger of water freezing and subsequent damage to pressure
parts.

Section E

Page 50

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

NITROGEN BLANKET
Nitrogen should be introduced through a T fitting or one vent (or drain) at each of the
following locations:
1.
2.

Drum vents.
Superheater outlet header connection.

The T fitting is to be installed between the pipe (or header) and the vent (or drain)
valve. The nitrogen inlet to the T should include a stop valve identical to the vent (or
drain) valve. The stop valve and T fitting should be a permanent addition to the
location listed.
The nitrogen required to seal the drainable components may be supplied from a
permanent nitrogen system or portable tanks located near the vent elevations. Due to
differences in plant layout, the owner should choose his own method of piping the
nitrogen, either from their permanent system or from portable tanks, to the vent (or
drain) locations listed.
CAUTION : THE UNIT SHOULD BE PROPERLY TAGGED AND THE APPROPRIATE
WARNING SIGNS ATTACHED NOTING THAT THE BOILER IS IS STORED UNDER
NITROGEN PRESSURE AND THAT COMPLETE EXHAUSTION OF THE NITROGEN MUST
OCCUR BEFORE ANYONE ENTERS THE DRUM. BEFORE ENTERING DRUMS TEST TO
PROVE THAT THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION IS AT LEAST 19.5 percent.
PROTECTION OF EXTERNAL SURFACES
Gas side corrosion of an idle boiler can cause considerable damage, especially to the ash
hoppers, expansion joints, dampers, boiler casing, fuel burning equipment, baffles, and
flues and ducts.
Flue dust, ash, slag, or cinders from sulphur bearing fuels contain sulphuric acid. When
moisture is added, a dilute acid is formed which is very corrosive. In preparing the boiler
for storage these accumulations must be removed by either blowing with air lances,
washing with water, scraping, or brushing. In most cases the deposits cannot be
completely removed by mechanical means & must, therefore, be neutralized with
alkaline water. The alkaline flush should be continued until the water leaving the boiler
is completely neutralized. Litmus paper may be used to determine the acidity of the
wash leaving the boiler.
After the flushing operation has been completed, the boiler should be filled with treated
water and fired with a low sulphur fuel to completely dry the setting. During the storage
period it may be necessary to use auxiliary heaters and blowers to maintain the metal
temperature above the dew point. These auxiliary heaters and blowers are also

Section E

Page 51

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

necessary to prevent freezing when the wet storage method is used and the
temperature is likely to fail below freezing.
In areas with extremely corrosive atmosphere, all machined surfaces on fuel burning
equipment should be protected with a preservative coating.
Throughout the storage period, particular attention must be given to make sure that no
fuel leakage occurs. It is, therefore, recommended that all oil and gas connections to
burners be disconnected.

Section E

Page 52

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

WATER WASHING PROCEDURE OF ECONOMISER


INTRODUCTION:
Ash accumulation on furnace and convection tube surfaces may reach an amount that
normal soot blowing action cannot control efficiently. Since an effective method for
removal of these deposits is by out of service water washing, units are equipped
with drains to permit this procedures, water wash can be introduced into the soot
blower system as shown in figure 1, for cleaning convection surfaces. In addition to this
water wash system, the use of a water hose is necessary to wash the furnace walls and
other areas that would not be reached by soot blower water wash. The effectiveness of
this method will depend upon the amount and solubility of ash accumulation. When ash
deposits contain an appreciable amount of sulfur, they should be removed prior to any
extended outage. These deposits can absorb moisture contained in the atmosphere and
form sulfuric acid or sulfurous acid, which will corrode various pressure parts.
Water Requirement
Because water will reactivate sulfur bearing ash deposits, it is extremely important the
wash solution is an acid neutralizing solution. This is to be used in only heavy fuel oil
firing A good combination is warm water and trisodium phosphate. The amount of
trisodium phosphate needed can be determined by knowing the percent sulfur in the
ash and the total amount of ash in the fuel oil. Knowing it takes two parts trisodium
phosphate to neutralize three parts sulfur, the total trisodium phosphate needed, can
then be determined. The trisodium phosphate must then be diluted into a pumpable
solution and metered into the wash water as washing begins. In B.F.GAS fired boilers
the use of trisodium phosphate is not mandatory. The temp.of water used for washing
should be 80C 100C i.e. de aerator water preferably. The same method can be used
in economizer also. Please refer service bulletin no. PSB 2 & 3 for economizer water
washing.
Caution
Immediately after the wash cycle has been completed, the unit must be fired to remove
all moisture from crevices, porous refractories, and other places where it may collect
and cause corrosion if it is not eliminated. Using hot, treated water in the wash system
can minimize corrosion hazards.
Never pump more water than the amount the drains on the unit can accommodate to
the structural parts of the hoppers may tend to plug the drains. Observation and rodding
can prevent large build ups. Use centrifugal pumps with design pressure 10 kg/cm2
and flow capacity 5 TPH pumping of water.

Section E

Page 53

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

Preparation for Water Washing


After the unit has been shutdown and cooled down, the following steps must be taken
prior to initiation of the wash cycle:
1. Remove all large ash accumulations from the furnaces and economizer hopper to
prevent plugging the drains.
2. Remove the covers on the drain troughs in the furnace hopper.
3. Install covers over all burners and be sure a dam is in place at the economizer outlet
duct to prevent water and ash from entering the air heater. It is recommended that
insulation packing on the inside of outlet expansion joint be removed.
4. Open all wash water drains on the unit.
5. If washing is to be done using the soot blower system, close both isolation valves on
the soot blower normal blowing medium line and open the telltale drain to prevent
wash water leakage back into the system. Isolate all steam traps downstream of
these isolation valves.
6. Remove the blank flange in the wash supply line.
7. Open the isolation valves on the wash water spray line and close the telltale drain.
8. Ensure an adequate amount of preferably warm, alkaline water is available for
washing and that neutralizing trisodium phosphate solution has been prepared and is
ready for injection.
Water Wash Cycle
1. Pressurize the wash water supply line to 6.6 to 10 kg/cm2
2. Ensure neutralizing solution injection pump can overcome wash water supply line
pressure.
3. Place the soot blowers in manual operation so that selective operation may be
accomplished.
4. Starting with the top row of soot blowers, operate the blowers, one at a time, from
the front to the rear of the unit. This will allow the tubes below to soak and assist in
ash removal. It may be necessary to remove the orifices from the soot blower line
which are provided for steam blowing in order to get the maximum water flow and
pressure at the soot blower nozzle.
5. After all soot blowers in the top row have been cycled, repeat the procedure for each
of the lower subsequent rows. All drains should be observed frequently, and rodded
if necessary to prevent ash plugging and backing up wash water. Check drain water
pH and adjust neutralizing solution feed as required.
6. After all soot blowers in the unit have been cycled, repeat steps 4 and 5 if necessary.
7. Depressurize the soot blower system.
8. Using a water hose, wash down all areas that were not cleaned by the soot blower
system.
If ash accumulation cannot be removed by the above procedure, an alternate method is
using high pressure water blasting.
After washing has been completed, the following steps should be taken:
Section E

Page 54

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER

LTD
PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT NO-PB0751

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Secure wash system and neutralizing solution injection system.


Remove all covers from the burner openings and economizer duct.
Drain all water from the expansion joints in the unit and replace insulation packing.
Replace covers over the drain troughs in furnace hopper.
Return soot blower system to normal operation. Insure blank flange is installed in
wash water supply line.
6. Immediately after washing, fire the unit, in accordance with applicable operating
instructions, to remove moisture to prevent corrosion.

A Final Note
A good rule to follow when deciding whether or not to water wash is, A partial water
wash is worse than no water wash at all.

Section E

Page 55

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART FOR BOILER....................................................... 1


EMERGENCY BOILER PROCEDURES................................................................. 4
LOW WATER LEVEL ....................................................................................... 4
HIGH WATER LEVEL ...................................................................................... 6
FURNACE PUFFING & BACK FIRING ............................................................. 7
SUPERHEATER TEMPERATURE INCREASES RAPIDLY ................................... 8
BOILER EXPLOSION (IF OIL FIRING IS PROVIDED) ....................................... 9
BOILER IMPLOSIONS .................................................................................... 10

Section F

Page i

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART FOR BOILER


S.N

INDICATION

PROBABLE CAUSE

PROBABLE SOLUTION

1.

Low water level

F.W control valve failure.


BFP failure
Tube leak

Set right the system


Start the stand-by pump
Identify and rectify the
defect.

2.

Unable to maintain Leakage from tube.


drum level
Leakage from tube sheet

3.

Excessive
water
level fluctuations

4.

Low S.H.
Temp.

steam

5.

S.H. temp. shoots Higher firing rate


up during start up
low mass flow.
/ pressure raising
Throttled start up
vent.

6.

Remove the boiler from


service
Arrest tube leak
Arrest tube sheet leak
Extreme load swings
Control load fluctuations
Fluctuating water supply
Set right feed water
supply system.
F.W.
control
system
malfunctioning.
Increase the blow down
Bad quality of water.
rate and maintain water
quality.
Improper drum internal Set
right
the
fitting.
fittings
Drum
level
high/ Tune the level control
fluctuation.
system. Avoid frequent
Improper water quality.
load/pressure fluctuations.
Internal / external deposit.
Maintain water quality.
Carryover of fuel/ash
Keep the internal /
external surface clean.
Adjust S.A. and furnace
pressure

Furnace
unsteady.

Section F

temp.

Control
bagasse
feeding and excess air
Ensure start up vent and
S.H. drains are kept open
fully.
Secondary combustion of Adjust secondary
bagasse near S.H. zone.
air setting.
Furnace tubes are dirty
Clean the tubes
Uneven fuel feeding.
Adjust the fuel feeder
variation.
Inconsistent fuel quality.
Maintain quality of the
fuel.

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

7.

7.

High conductivity
in steam

High
temp.

flue

Solids carry over.


High
boiler
concentrations.
Water level high.

gas

8.

9.

10.
11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Check boiler water


quality.
Maintain water quality.
Maintain
Normal
water level
High load fluctuations.
Control load fluctuations
Defective drum internal
Check for baffle leakages.
Flue gas bypassing.
Arrest baffle leakages
Bagasse fines firing above Increase secondary air
the combustion zone.
pressure
&
maintain
Dirty heating surface.
furnace pressure.
Increase soot blower
frequency & clean the
dirty surfaces.
High excess air
water

Control excess air from O2


/ CO2 readings.
Clinker formation.
Control
bagasse
High bagasse pole.
Bagasse piling inside the
pole
furnace
Adjust fuel/air flow
to the furnace
Sound of steam Leakage from tube
Identify and rectify the defect
blowing
from
furnace.
Steam explosion in Sudden tube rupture
Remove boiler from service
furnace
Bowed water wall
Over heating due to internal Check for internal deposits.
surfaces
deposit
Maintain the drum level
Low water level in steam
drum
Tube blisters
Localised overheating.
Repair by re-tubing.
Internal deposits.
Check for tube blockage
Tube blockage.
Tube swelling
Localised over heating
Repair by re-tubing.
Internal deposits.
Check for tube blockage
Tube blockage
Internal pitting in Corrosion due to high Determine the extent of
drums or tubes
oxygen in water
damage and replace the
tube if required.
Source of high oxygen to
be identified and to be
eliminated.
External pitting
Corrosion due to ash Find
the
cause
for
deposit.
condensation
and

Section F

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

16.

17.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

eliminate the source.


Corrosion due to low
temperature condensation
Tube cracking
Mechanical stress.
To be identified for
differential expansion.
Vibration of pressure parts
Mechanical restrictions to
be removed.
External metal loss Erosion
due
to
ash Control ash carry over by
or highly polished
carryover.
adjusting S.A. pressure.
surface.
Steam erosion due to soot Adjust the soot blower
blowing
and check for
performance

Section F

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

EMERGENCY BOILER PROCEDURES


LOW WATER LEVEL
Cause:
F W Control System failure
BFP failure
Tube leak
Action
Compare control room indication with gauge glass level.
If the water level falls out of sight due to momentary failure of water supply system, due
to negligence of the operator, due to momentary fluctuations that might occur with
extraordinary changes in load, appropriate action should be taken at once to trip the
fuel. Any decision to continue to operate, even if only for a short time at a reduced
rating, would have to be made by someone in authority who is thoroughly familiar with
the circumstances that led to the emergency and positively certain that the water level
can be restored immediately without damaging the boiler.
In the absence of such a decision:

Stop all fuel feeding immediately.

Shut off all steam flow & water flow from the boiler.

Dump the bed.

Simultaneously, if feed water has become available and the operator is assured that no
pressure parts have been damaged,
Take the feed water control system into manual mode.
Allow the water flow to boiler gradually to normal water level. (Do not hurry up
which may lead for sudden quenching and tube leak.)
If pressure parts damage is suspected,

Reduce the steam pressure gradually.

b. Depends upon the circumstances run the I.D. & F.D. Fans and allow very less air
to furnace to cool the boiler so as to examine the extent of damage.

Open the drum vents when the pressure drops below 2 kg/cm2.

Section F

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

Drain the boiler when the drum metal temperature is 90C following normal draining
procedures.

If any tube rupture and bulging is observed, rectify the damages.

If any tube sheet leakages observed, re-roll the leaking tubes.

After repairs, conduct hydro test.

Determine the cause of low water & correct it.

Section F

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THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

HIGH WATER LEVEL


Cause:

Feed water control malfunction.

Operator error.

Instrument Air supply failure.

Foaming

Action

Take the drum level control loop into manual mode.

Reduce the water level immediately by operating the intermittent blows down to
maintain the drum level.

Reduce the steam discharge rate, if necessary.

Start the stand by compressor if required.

Analyse the water quality, (alkalinity and solids)

Section F

Page 6

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

FURNACE PUFFING & BACK FIRING


Cause:

Uncontrolled feeding of fuel into the furnace.

Malfunctioning of furnace draft control system.

Sudden increase in F D fan air.

Tube rupture.

Action
1. Take the furnace draft and airflow controls system into manual mode and maintains
the furnace pressure.
2. Never increase fuel/auxiliary fuel/air flow suddenly.
3. In case of tube failure take the boiler out of service immediately.

Section F

Page 7

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

SUPERHEATER TEMPERATURE INCREASES RAPIDLY


Cause

High firing rate.

Low mass flow.

Sudden drop in steam load.

Secondary ignition of bagasse pith near S.H. zone.

More fines in fuel.

More excess air to the furnace.

Dirty water wall tubes.

Action
1. Immediately open the startup vent valve and reduce the S.H. steam temperature to
safe limits.
2. Avoid sudden fuel flow into the furnace.
3. Avoid sudden load fluctuations on the boiler which leads for uncontrolled fuel feed
into the furnace.
4. Avoid secondary combustion in the superheater zone by adjusting the secondary
airflow.
5. Check the excess air levels and control the primary airflow by observing the O2/CO2
levels in the flue gas.
6. Keep the water wall tubes clean by monitoring the combustion.

Section F

Page 8

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

BOILER EXPLOSION (IF OIL FIRING IS PROVIDED)


Cause:
1.

Accumulation of fuel in the furnace


a) Due to incomplete combustion,
b) Due to loss of ignition,
c) Due to fuel valve leakages.
d) Due to frequent startups.
e) Due to in-sufficient purging of furnace.

2.

With the mixture of unburned fuel with air in explosive proportions and the
application of heat sufficient enough to raise the temperature of the mixture to
ignition point.

Action
1.

Trip the firing systems immediately.

2.

Evacuate the furnace to the possible extend.

3.

Analyse the reasons for explosion and rectify the system.

Section F

Page 9

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX


PUNE, INDIA.

PROJECT: INDIAN CANE POWER LTD


PROJECT NO-PB0751

BOILER IMPLOSIONS
Causes

Sudden tripping of fuel to furnace

Too negative furnace draft due to failure of furnace pressure control system.

Action

In case of sudden fuel trip take the draft control system into manual mode and
maintain the furnace pressure.

Restart the fuel feeding system if possible.

Section F

Page 10