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# Translational mechanical system transfer function

## Table 2 Force-velocity, force-displacement, and impedance translational relationships

for springs, viscous dampers, and mass

## Transfer function one equation of motion

Problem: Find the transfer function, X ( s ) / F ( s ) , for the system of Figure 2.15 (a)

## Figure 2.15: a) Mass, spring and damper system b) block diagram

Solution:
Begin the solution by drawing the free-body diagram shown in Figure 2.16(a). Place on the
mass all forces felt by the mass. We assume the mass is traveling toward the right. Thus,
only the applied force points to the right; all other forces impede the motion and act to
oppose it. Hence, the spring, viscous damper and the force due to acceleration point to the
left.

Figure 2.16: a) Free-body diagram of mass, spring and damper system b) transformed freebody diagram

We now write the differential equation of motion using Newtons law to sum to zero all of
the forces shown on the mass in Figure 2.16 (a):

d 2 x (t )
dx (t )
F f (t ) M
fv
Kx (t ) 0
2
dt
dt

d 2 x (t )
dx (t )
fv
Kx (t ) f (t )
2
dt
dt
Taking the Laplace transform, assuming zero initial conditions,
Ms 2 X ( s ) f v sX ( s ) KX ( s ) F ( s )
M

( Ms 2 f v s K ) X ( s) F ( s)
Or
Solving for the transfer function yields
X (s)
1
G ( s)

2
F ( s) Ms f v s K
which is represented in Figure 2.15 (b)
_____________________________________________________________________
Solution II:
We could also solve the problem using the block diagram / signal flow graph.
x
**** Begin the
solution by
kx
f
drawing the
m
free-body
f v x
diagram shown
in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Free-body diagram of mass, spring and damper system
1)
Write the differential equation of motion using Newtons Second Law

2)

d 2 x t
dx t
f t kx t f v
2
dt
dt

## Taking the Laplace transform, assuming zero initial conditions,

2
or Ms X s F s K Fv s X s
3)
Separate the input signal (+ combination of other signal), system and output
signal
1
X s
F s K Fv s X s
Ms 2
4)
Draw the block diagram using the above information
Ms 2 X s F s KX s Fv sX s

X s

1
F s K Fv s X s
Ms 2

Signal
Signal

## Block diagram reduction:

T s

X (s)
1

2
F ( s ) Ms Fv s K

T s

1 / Ms 1
2

1 Fv s K / Ms

1
Ms Fv s K
2

## Transfer function two degrees of freedom / two linearly independent motion

Problem: Find the transfer function, X 2 ( s ) / F ( s ) , for the system of Figure 2.18 (a)

## Figure 2.18: a) Two-degrees of freedom translational

mechanical system b) block diagram
Solution:
The system has two degrees of freedom, since each mass can be moved in the horizontal
direction while the other is held still. Thus, two simultaneous equations of motion will be
required to describe the system. The two equations come form free body diagrams o each
mass. Superposition is used to draw the free-body diagrams. For example, the forces of
M 1 are due to 1) its own motion and 2) the motion of M 2 transmitted to M 1 through the
system. We will consider these two sources separately.
If we hold M 2 still and move M 1 to the right, we see the forces shown in Figure
2.19 (a). If we hold M 1 still and move M 2 to the right, we see the forces shown in Figure
2.19 (b). The total force on M 1 is the superposition, or sum, of the forces just discussed.
This result is shown in Figure 2.19(c).

Fi
gure 2.19: a) Forces on M 1 due only to motion of M 2 ; b) forces on M 1 due only to
motion of M 1 ;c) all forces on M 1
For M 2 , we proceed in a similar fashion: First we move M 2 to the right while holding
M 1 still; then we move M 1 to right and hold M 2 still. For each case, we evaluate the
forces on M 2 . The results appear in Figure 2.20.

## Figure 2.20: a) Forces on M 2 due only to motion of M 2 ; b) forces on M 2 due only to

motion of M 1 ;c) all forces on M 2

The differential equation of motion using Newtons law to sum to zero all of the forces
shown on the mass:

d 2 x1 (t )
dx (t )
dx (t )
( f v1 f v 3 ) 1 ( K1 K 2 ) x1 (t ) f v 3 2 K 2 x2 (t )
2
dt
dt
dt
2
dx (t )
d x2 (t )
dx (t )
F 0 f v 3 1 K 2 x1 (t ) M 2
( f v1 f v 3 ) 2 ( K 2 K 3 ) x2 (t )
2
dt
dt
dt
2
d x1 (t )
dx (t )
dx (t )
M1
( f v1 f v 3 ) 1 ( K1 K 2 ) x1 (t ) f v 3 2 K 2 x2 (t ) f (t )
2
dt
dt
dt
2
dx (t )
d x2 (t )
dx (t )
f v 3 1 K 2 x1 (t ) M 2
( f v1 f v 3 ) 2 ( K 2 K 3 ) x2 (t ) 0
2
dt
dt
dt
FM 1 0 f (t ) M 1

The Laplace transform of the equations of motion can now be written from Figures 2.19 (c)
and 2.20 ( c) as

M s
1

( f v1 f v3 ) s ( K1 K 2 ) X 1 ( s )
( f v3 s K 2 ) X 1 ( s)

M s
2

( f v3 s K 2 ) X 2 ( s)
2

F (s)

( f v 2 f v3 )s ( K 2 K 3 ) X 2 (s)

## Solving for the transfer function using the Cramers rule:

M 1s 2 ( f v1 f v 3 )s ( K1 K 2 )

( f v3 s K 2 )

X 2 (s)

M s
1

X 2 (s)

X 1 ( s) F ( s)
( fv3s K 2 )

M 2 s 2 ( f v 2 f v 3 ) s ( K 2 K 3 ) X 2 ( s ) 0

M 1s 2 ( f v1 f v 3 ) s ( K1 K 2 ) F ( s )
( f v3s K 2 )
0
2

( f v1 f v 3 ) s ( K1 K 2 )
( f v3s K 2 )

( f v3s K 2 )
M 2 s 2 ( f v 2 f v3 )s ( K 2 K 3 )

F ( s) ( f v 3 s K 2 )
M 1s 2 ( f v1 f v 3 ) s ( K1 K 2 )
( f v3s K 2 )

M s

( f v3s K 2 )

( f v 2 f v3 )s ( K 2 K 3 )

( f v3 s K 2 )
X 2 (s)

2
F ( s) M 1s ( f v1 f v 3 ) s ( K1 K 2 ) M 2 s 2 ( f v 2 f v 3 ) s ( K 2 K 3 ) ( f v3 s K 2 ) 2

## From this, the transfer function, X 2 ( s ) / F ( s ) is

X (s) ( f v3s K 2 )
G(s) 2

F (s)

## As shown in Figure 2.18 (b) where

Or

M s
1

( f v1 f v 3 ) s ( K 1 K 2 )
( f v3 s K 2 )

( f v3 s K 2 )
M 2 s ( f v 2 f v3 ) s ( K 2 K 3 )
2

M 1s 2 ( f v1 f v 3 ) s ( K1 K 2 ) M 2 s 2 ( f v 2 f v 3 ) s ( K 2 K 3 ) ( f v 3 s K 2 ) 2

Displacement
Output 1

Input
Force

Displacement
Output 2

x2

x1
f
K1 x1
f V 1 x 1

fV 3 x 1 x 2

fV 2 x 2

K 2 x1 x2

K 3 x2

## 2) Write the differential equation of motion using Newtons Second Law

d 2 x1 t
dx t
dx1 t dx2 t

m1
f t k1 x1 t f v1 1 f v 3

k 2 x1 t x2 t
2
dt
dt
dt
dt

d 2 x2 t
dx t
dx1 t dx2 t

m2
k 3 x2 t f v 2 2 f v 3

k 2 x1 t x2 t
2
dt
dt
dt
dt

Taking the Laplace transform, assuming zero initial conditions,

M 1 s 2 X 1 s F s K1 X 1 s Fv1sX 1 s Fv 3 s X 1 s X 2 s K 2 X 1 s X 2 s

M 2 s 2 X 2 s K 3 X 2 s Fv 2 sX 2 s Fv 3 s X 1 s X 2 s K 2 X 1 s X 2 s

## Separate the variables,

M s K
2

K 2 Fv1s Fv 3 s X 1 s

Fv 3 s K 2 X 2 s

F s

M 2 s 2 K 3 K 2 Fv 2 s Fv 3 s X 2 s 0

Fv 3 s K 2 X 1 s

## Arrange it in a vector-matrix form

M 1s 2 K1 K 2 Fv1s Fv3 s

Fv 3 s K 2

Fv 3 s K 2

M 2 s 2 K 3 K 2 Fv 2 s Fv3 s

X1 s F s
X s 0

## Solving for the transfer function, X 2 ( s ) / F ( s ) yields

M s K K F s F s F s
2

X 2 s

v1

Fv 3 s K 2

M s K K F s F s
2

v3

v1

v3

Fv 3 s K 2

Fv 3 s K 2
M 2 s K 3 K 2 Fv 2 s Fv 3 s
2

Fv3 s K 2
X 2 s

F2 s M 1s 2 K1 K 2 Fv1s Fv 3 s M 2 s 2 K 3 K 2 Fv 2 s Fv 3 s Fv 3 s K 2 2

We could also solve the problem using the block diagram / signal flow graph
1) Write the differential equation of motion using Newtons Second Law

d 2 x1 t
dx t
dx1 t dx2 t

m1
f t k1 x1 t f v1 1 f v 3

k 2 x1 t x2 t
2
dt
dt
dt
dt

d 2 x2 t
dx t
dx1 t dx2 t

m2
k 3 x2 t f v 2 2 f v 3

k 2 x1 t x2 t
2
dt
dt
dt
dt

2) Taking the Laplace transform, assuming zero initial conditions,
M 1s 2 X 1 s F s K1 X 1 s Fv1sX 1 s Fv 3 s X 1 s X 2 s K 2 X 1 s X 2 s

M 2 s 2 X 2 s K 3 X 2 s Fv 2 sX 2 s Fv 3 s X 1 s X 2 s K 2 X 1 s X 2 s
3) Separate the input signal (+ combination of other signal), system and output
signal
M 1s 2 X 1 s F s K1 X 1 s Fv1sX 1 s Fv 3 s X 1 s X 2 s K 2 X 1 s X 2 s
1
X1 s
F s K1 Fv1s X 1 s Fv 3 s K 2 X 1 s X 2 s
M 1s 2
System Input Summing Junction
M 2 s 2 X 2 s K 3 X 2 s Fv 2 sX 2 s Fv 3 s X 1 s X 2 s K 2 X 1 s X 2 s
1
K 3 Fv 2 s X 2 s Fv 3 s K 2 X 1 s X 2 s
X 2 s
M 2s2
Output System
Summing Junction

## 4) Draw the block diagram using the above information

1
X1 s
F s K1 Fv1s X 1 s Fv 3 s K 2 X 1 s X 2 s
M 1s 2

1
X 2 s
M 2s2
Summing junction

K 2 FV 3 s
1 X1

K F s X s F s K X s X s
3

connect

M 1s 2
K1 FV 1s

X2

connect

v2

K 2 FV 3 s

v3

1
M 2s2
K 3 FV 2 s

X2

## Block Diagram Reduction:

K 2 FV 3 s

F
1
2
M 1s K1 FV 1s

M 1s 2 K1 FV 1s

M s

K 3 Fv 2 s M 1s 2 K1 FV 1s

X2

X2

K 2 FV 3 s
M 2 s 2 K 3 Fv 2 s

1
2
M 1s K1 FV 1s

X2

K 2 FV 3 s
M 2 s 2 K 3 Fv 2 s

1
2
M 1s K1 FV 1s

1
2
M 2 s K 3 Fv2 s

K 2 FV 3 s

2
K 2 FV 3 s M 2 s K 3 Fv 2 s
K 2 FV 3 s

X1

K 2 FV 3 s

X 2 s
M 1s K1 FV 1s M 2 s 2 K 3 FV 2 s

K 2 FV 3 s
F2 s 1

M 2 s 2 K 3 FV 2 s M 1s 2 K1 FV 1s
2
2
M1s K1 FV 1s M 2 s K3 FV 2 s
K 2 FV 3 s
X 2 s

2
2
F2 s M 1s K1 FV 1s M 2 s K 3 FV 2 s K 2 FV 3 s M 2 s 2 K 3 FV 2 s M 1s 2 K1 FV 1s
2

connect

M 1s 2
K1 FV 1s

K 2 FV 3 s

1
M 2s2

K 2 FV 3 s

F
1 X1

X2

K 3 FV 2 s

connect

K 2 F3 s
1
M 1s 2
K1 F1s

T s
1
K 2 F3 s M 2 s 2
K 3 F2 s
1

## ** Please write all the forward path

gains, loop gains, non-touching loop
gains and

X2

2
M 1s

K 2 FV 3 s

2
M 2s

K1 FV 1s
K1 FV 1s K 3 FV 2 s
M 1s 2
K F s
M 1s 2
M 2s2
2 2V 3
K F s K 2 FV 3 s
M 1s
1
1 2V 1
K F s
M 1s
M 2s2
3 V2 2
K 2 FV 3 s K 3 FV 2 s
M 2s
K F s
M 1s 2
M 2s2
2 V2 3
M 2s

## To check your transfer function, refer this:

T s

K 2 FV 3 s
M 1M 2 s 4 K1M 2 s 2 F1M 2 s 3 K 2 M 2 s 2 F3 M 2 s 3 K 3 M 1s 2 F2 M 1s 3 K 2 M 1s 2 F3 M 1s 3 K1K 3

## K1F2 s K 3 F1s F1F2 s 2 K1K 2 K1F3 s K 2 F1s F1F3 s K 2 K 3 K 2 F2 s K 3 F3 s F3 F2 s 2

Obtain the transfer function model of this system:
(b)
y
(a)
y
K
Ky
M
F M
Force, F M
By
B
K
A mass-damper-spring
FBD
P
system
Applying Newtons law of motion, the force
equation can be written as

My F Ky By

Or

d2y
dy

M
F Ky B
2
dt
dt

## Taking the Laplace transform (assuming

zero initial conditions), we obtain

Ms y s F s K Bs y s
2

## Separate the variables,

Ms

Therefore,

K Bs y s F s

y s
1

2
F s Ms K Bs
Block diagram :

displacement output, x0

xO

B
K xO xi B x O x i

displacement input, xi

FBD

## Applying Newtons law of motion, the

force equation can be written as

Mx

K xO xi B x O x i

## Taking the Laplace transform (assuming

zero initial conditions), we obtain
Ms 2 xO s K Bs xO xi
K Bs xi xO
Separate the variables,
Ms 2 K Bs xO s K Bs xi s
Therefore,
xO s
K Bs

2
xi s Ms K Bs
Block diagram :
Ms 2 xO s K Bs xi xO

(C.)

y1

K1

M1

B1

y2

K2

Force, F

M2

y1

K1 y1
B1 y 1

M1

B2

B2 y 2 y 1

y2
M2

## Free Body Diagram

A mechanical system

m2

d 2 y2 t
dy 2 t dy1 t
f t B2

k 2 y2 t y1 t
2
dt
dt
dt

m1

d 2 y1 t
dy t
dy2 t dy1 t
k1 y1 t B1 1 B2

k 2 y2 t y1 t
2
dt
dt
dt
dt

m2 s 2 y 2 s f s B2 s y 2 s y1 s k 2 y 2 s y1 s

K 2 y2 y1

m1 s 2 y1 s k1 y1 t B1sy1 t B2 s y 2 s y1 s k 2 y 2 s y1 s

K 2 B2 s
1 y2
M 2s2

K 2 B2 s

y1
1
2
M 1s
K1 B1s

## Block diagram reduction (from above diagram):

K 2 B2 s

1
M 2s2

1
M 2 s K 2 B2 s

K 2 B2 s
M 2s2

M 2s2

1
M 1s K1 B1s
2

K 2 B2 s
M 1s 2 K1 B1s

y s
K 2 B2 s

2
2
F s M 2 s K 2 B2 s M 1s K1 B1s K 2 B2 s M 2 s 2

## Signal flow graph:

y1

y1

T s

K 2 B2 s 1 / M 1s 2 1 / M 2 s 2
K 2 B2 s
M 1s 2
K B s K B s K1 B1s
1 2 22 2 22
M 2s
M 1s
M 2s2
K Bs
1 21
M 2s

K 2 B2 s

K 2 B2 s

F
1
M 1s 2

1
M 2 s 2 y1

K1 B1s

*** Please write all the forward path gains, loop gains, non-touching loop gains and
To check the equ.:

T s

K 2 B2 s
M 1M 2 s 4 K 2 M 1s 2 K 2 M 2 s 2 K1M 2 s 2 B2 M 2 s 3 B2 M 2 s 3 B1M 2 s 3
K 2 K1 K 2 B1s B2 K1s B1B2 s

y

M2
B

K2

## A motorcycle suspension system

K1

K2 x y

M1

M2

B x y

M1

K1 x u
Free Body Diagram

or

d 2 x t
dx t dy t
dx t dy t
m1
B

k2
k1 x t u t
2
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
d 2 y t
dx t dy t
m2
k 2 x t y t B

2
dt
dt
dt

M 1s 2 X s Bs X s Y s K 2 X s Y s K1 X s U s

M 1s 2 X s Bs Y s X s K 2 Y s X s K1 U s X s
M 2 s 2Y s K 2 X s Y s Bs X s Y s

K1

## Block Diagram Reduction:

1 X
M 1s 2

K 2 Bs

1
M 2s2

1 / K1

K 2 Bs

1
M 2s2

1
M 2s2

1
M 2s2

1 / K1

K 2 Bs

M 1 s 2 K1
K1

K1 K 2 Bs
M 1s K1 K 2 Bs

1
M 2s2

1 / K1

K1
M 1 s 2 K1

K 2 Bs

K1
M 1 s 2 K1

K1
M 1s 2

M 1 s 2 K1
K1

Y s
K1 K 2 Bs

2
2
U s M 2 s M 1s K1 K 2 Bs K 2 Bs M 1s 2 K1

T s

## Refer to K. Ogatas Book (pg 132)

K / M s K
2

K1 / M 1 s

Bs / M 2 s 2

1 K 2 Bs / M 1s 2
1

K 2 B2 s 1 / M 2 s y1
2

K1
1 / M 1s 2
1

K 2 Bs / M 2 s 2

K1 K 2 Bs
M 1s 2 M 2 s 2

## (e) Obtain the transfer function model X O s X i s of this system

K1 xO xi B1 x O x i

xi
K1

B1
B2
K2

xO
y

A mechanical system

B2 x o y
K2 y

xO
y

## The differential equation of motion for the system:

B1 x O x i K1 xo xi B2 x O x i

B x
2

y K2 y

## Taking the Laplace Transform (assuming zero initial condition), we obtain

B1s X i s X O s K1 X i s X 0 s B2 X 0 s Y s
B2 X 0 s Y s K 2Y s
Xi

K1 B1s

B2 s X O Y 1
B2 s

XO Y
1
K2

XO

## Block Diagram Reduction:

Xi

K1 B1s K 2 B2 s

Xi

XO

1
1

B2 s K 2

K1 B1s

XO

K 2 B2 s

Xi

K1 B1s K 2 B2 s
K 2 B2 s K1 B1s K 2 B2 s

X O s

X i s

B1
B

s 1 2 s 1
K1
K2

B
B
B1
s 1 2 s 1 2 s
K1
K2
K1

XO

## Signal flow graph:

T s

K1 B1s / B2 s K1 B1s / K 2
K1 B1s / B2 s
1
K1 B1s / K 2

K 2 K1 B1s B2 s K1 B1s
K 2 B2 s K1 B1s K 2 K1 B1s B2 s
K1 B1s K 2 B2 s

K 2 B2 s K1 B1s K 2 B2 s

Xi

1 / B2 s

K1 B1s

X0

1/ K2
1
Equation of motion by inspection
Problem: Write but do not solve, the equations of motion for the mechanical network of
Figure 2.21

## Figure 2.21 : Three- degrees of freedom translational mechanical system

Solution: The system has 3 degrees of freedom, since each of the three masses can be
moved independently while the others are held still. The form of the equations will be
similar to electrical mesh equations.
+[ Sum of impedances connected to the motion at x1] X1(s) [ Sum of impedances
between x1 and x2] X2(s) [ Sum of impedances between x1 and x3] X3(s) = [ sum of
applied forces at x1]
[ Sum of impedances between x1 and x2]X1(s) + [Sum of impedances connected to the
motion at x2] X2(s)- [ Sum of impedances between x2and x3] X3(s) = [ sum of applied
forces at x2]
[ Sum of impedances between x1 and x3]X1(s) - [Sum of impedances between x2 and x3]
X2(s) + [ Sum of impedances connected to the motion at x3] X3(s) = [ sum of applied
forces at x3]
M 1 has two springs, two viscous dampers and mass associated with its motion. There is
one spring between M 1 and M 2 and one viscous damper between M 1 and M 3 . Thus,

M s
1

( f v1 f v 3 ) s ( K1 K 2 ) X 1 ( s) K 2 X 2 ( s) f v 3 sX 3 ( s) 0

Similarly, for M 2
K 2 X 1 ( s ) M 2 s 2 ( f v 2 f v 4 ) s K 2 X 2 ( s ) f v 4 sX 3 ( s ) F ( s )

And for M 3

f v 3 sX 1 ( s ) f v 4 sX 2 ( s ) M 3 s 2 ( f v 3 f v 4 ) s X 3 ( s ) 0