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Industrial

Control System
Instrumentation of a technological process

dr in. Anna Czemplik


(na prawach rkopisu)

Introduction

Industrial Control System (ICS) usually performs the following tasks:


1) an instrumentation of a technological process
2) a data acquisition and a process control
3) a data transfer
4) human-machine interface (HMI)
These tasks correspond to the following subsystems of ICS:
I. measuring devices and actuators
II. field devices
III. a communication infrastructure
IV. supervisory computers (a complex system)

Contents
The main topics:

I. Measurement devices
II. Actuating elements
III. Field devices - controllers
IV. Communication networks
V. SCADA & DCS
What is it?
How does it work?

Instrumentation of a technological process


15 hours

15 hours

Definition
Principle of operation
Main features

Topics
I. Measurement devices
Ia. Sensors
Ia-1. Thermometers: a) Expansion thermometer; b) Pressure spring thermometer; c) Resistance thermometer; d) Thermoelectric thermometer;
e) Optical thermometer. Selection of thermometer and measuring circuit
Ia-2. Displacement and force sensors: a) Resistance displacement sensor; b) Piezoelectric displacement sensor; c) Piezomagnetic
displacement sensor; d) Inductive displacement sensor; e) Capacitive displacement sensor; f) Hall effect displacement sensor
Ia-3. Manometer: a) Hydrostatic manometer; b) Hydraulic manometer; c) Elastic manometer; d) Electronic manometer (strain gauge, inductive,
capacitive); e) Manometer with a force sensor. Selection of manometer
Ia-4. Level indicator: a) Water-level indicator; b) Float level gauge: c) Hydrostatic level gauge; d) Displacer level gauge; e) Ultrasonic level
gauge; f) Radar level gauge; h) Another l.g. (capacitive, eletrical, thermometer). Selection of level gauge
Ia-5 Flowmeter: a) Differential pressure flowmeter; b) Rotameter; c) Velocity-type flowmeter; d) Positive displacement flowmeter; e) Inductive
flowmeter; f) Ultrasonic flowmeter; g) Calorimetric flowmeter; h) Vortex flowmeter; i) Coriolis flowmeter; j) Open channel flowmeter. Selection of
flow meter
Ia-6. Speed: a) Tachometer; b) Digital speed sensor
Ia-7. Relays: a) Non electrical relays; b) Electrical relays and switches
Ia-8. Physico-chemical properties: a) pH meter, ...
Ia. Sensor selection

Ib. Converters
Ib-1. Measuring converters types and selection
Ib-3. Separating converters
Ib-4. Analog-to-digital converters
Ib-5. Digital-to-analog converters
Measuring devices; Instrumentation and control tag

II. Actuating elements


IIa. Final control element
IIa-1. Valves
IIa-2. Pumps

IIb. Actuators
IIb-1. Pneumatic actuator
IIb-3. Electric actuator - Electric motors: a) Brushed DC electric motor; b) Synchronous motor; c) Inductive motor
Electro-mechanical drive system

Fundamental definitions
Block diagram of a control system

supervisor system
communication system
controller
A/D
converter

control devices

measuring
converter

measurement
devices

D/A
converter

actuator
(actuating driver)

final control
element

sensor
(sensing element)

actuating
equipment

plant

Part I. Measurement devices


I. Measurement devices
a)

b)

c)

Sensors
1 - temperature,
2 - displacement,
3 - pressure,
4 - level,
5 - flow,
6 - rotational speed,
7 - relays,
8 - electrochemical
Converters
1 - measuring,
2 - signaling,
3 - separating,
4 - A/D,
5 - D/A
Control engineering design

supervisor system
communication system
controller
A/D
converter

D/A
converter

measuring
converter

(actuating driver)

actuator

final control
element

sensor
(sensing element)

plant

I. Measuring devices/ 6

Ia. Sensors
Sensor (transducer, measuring converter) - a device that converts a physical (chemical,
biological, ...) quantity into another signal (usually an electric signal). There are many
types of sensors base on different principles.
Measurement of a basic physical quantity:
1) temperature
2) displacement and force (also stress, strain)
force-related measurement
3) pressure (also pressure difference)
4) level (also volume)
amount-related measurement
5) flow
6) rotational speed

and another:
7) relays (two-stage transducer)
8) electrochemical transducer
More: http://www.omega.com/literature/transactions/
http://www.sensorland.com/
Ia. Measuring devices/ 7

Ia-1a. Expansion thermometer


Principle: Thermal expansion of liquids or solid bodies

 liquid-in-glass
e.g. mercury-in-gas thermometer
or alcohol thermometer

 mechanical
bi-metallic
elongation-type
The difference in thermal expansion in the two metals
leads to a difference of lenght or to a twist of element
in proportion to the temperature

With increasing temperature,


the volume of liquid expands
and the meniscus moves up the capillary.

Ia. Measuring devices/ 8

Ia-1b. Pressure spring thermometer


(gas thermometer)
Principle: The relation between temperature and pressure in a constant volume
Types:
liquid filled (mercury, ethyl alcohol, ...)
gas filled (nitrogen, argon, helium)
vapor pressure (volatile liquid)

capillary

manometer
(spring-type pressure gauge)

thermometric
bulb

The bulb is immersed in a heated substance.


The liquid (gas) expands causing the pressure spring to unwind.
Ia. Measuring devices/ 9

Ia-1c. Resistance thermometer


Principle: Temperature dependence of resistance
 metallic

Pt 100, Ni 100 (i.e. 0C = 100 )

bifilar winding of metallic t.

platinum
nickel
copper
Metal resistance increases under the influence of temperature

R
PTC

 thermistor (semiconductor)
NTC

NTC, PTC, CTC


platinum

 ceramic
PTC

T
Temperature dependence of resistance
Ia. Measuring devices/ 10

Ia-1d. Thermoelectric thermometer


(thermocouple, thermoelement)
Principle: Thermoelectric effect - if junctions of two different metal have a different
temperatures than a voltage is generated.

metal A
T2

T1
metal B

1) Fe-konstantan
2) NiCr Ni
3) PtRh - Pt

E
[mV]
1
2

E=f(T1-T2)

measuring junction
(hot junction)

C
connecting
head

The construction of joint and shield

500

1000

1500

Ia. Measuring devices/ 11

Ia-1e. Optical thermometer


(pyrometer)
Principle: Measurement of thermal radiation emitted by any matter with a temperature
greater than 0K
 global radiation
 monochromatic
 two-colour

Measuring area
Non-contacting measurement
based on an optical system and a detector

Ia. Measuring devices/ 12

Ia-1. Selection of thermometer


(The main selection criteria)
0 C

1) Temperature range:
expansion
pressure spring
resistance
thermoelectric
optical

-200

500
700
900

-50
-270

1600

-100
400

2700
2) Contact or non-contact

Ia. Measuring devices/ 13

Ia-1. Measuring circuit


for the resistance thermometer
R1

R2
R0

Uz

Rw

R3

R1

R3

Rt
The connecting wiring
are added to
the measured resistance

connecting wiring

R2
R0

Uz

2-wire circuit

Rw

3-wire circuit

connecting wiring

Rt
The connecting wiring
occur in
two legs of the bridge
Ia. Measuring devices/ 14

Ia-1. Measuring circuit


for the thermoelectric t.
Simple circuit
cold junction
hot
junction

t0
R1

R2
mV

Rt

R3
Uz

Circuit with the cold junction compensation

hot
junction

A
e1
B

e3

cold junctions

t0

e2

thermostat

e4

e=e1-e2 (e2=const), e3 = - e4

mV
Ia. Measuring devices/ 15

Ia-2. Displacement and force sensors


Measurements of displacement (position) and force are similar on account of that the
displacement is a result of some force.
The force-related measurements contain a wide gamut of sensors for measuring:
stress (calculated by dividing the force applied by the unit area)
strain (defined as the deformation per unit length)
weight (the force on the object due to gravity)
acceleration (accompanied by a force)
torque (moment of force)
pressure (by definition the force per unit area)

Ia. Measuring devices/ 16

Ia-2a. Resistance displacement sensor


Principle: The resistance depends on the geometry of the resistor (and the resistivity of
the material)
 potentiometer

linear
rotary

R=rl

The linear or angular motion of a wiper


is converted into a changing resistance of potentiometer

R=r

 strain gauge

The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable


adhesive. As the object is deformed, the foil is deformed,
causing its electrical resistance to change.

Ia. Measuring devices/ 17

Ia-2b. Piezoelectric displacement sensor


Principle: Piezoelectric effect - some materials (e.g. quartz) generate a voltage under
influence of a mechanical stress.

In most cases, the same element can be used as:


piezo sensor that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy (it is referred to as "generators)
piezo actuators that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy (it is referred to as "motors)

polarization

disk compressed:
generated voltage
has the same polarity
as poling voltage

disk stretched:
generated voltage
has polarity opposite
that of poling voltage

applied voltage
has the same polarity
as poling voltage:
disk lengthens

applied voltage
has polarity opposite
that of poling voltage:
disk shortens

[http://www.americanpiezo.com/knowledge-center/piezo-theory/piezoelectricity.html]

Ia. Measuring devices/ 18

Ia-2c. Piezomagnetic displacement sensor


Principle: Mechanical strain has an influence on a magnetization of ferromagnetic
materials
 coil sensor
Measurement of inductance

F
L

 transformer-type sensor

mA

Measurement of current in the secondary circuit


consisting of two push-pull winding
(a differential measurement)

Ia. Measuring devices/ 19

Ia-2d. Inductive displacement sensor


Principle: Displacement of a part of core involves changes in inductance
 coil sensor

 differential coil sensor

Ls0W2/
 transformer-type sensor

1) Measurement of inductance
2) Measurement of eddy current
(eddy current linear encoder)

The target is part of magnetic circuit

 differential transformer-type sensor

U2

The primary winding are energised with a


constant amplitude A.C. supply. This
produces an alternating magnetic field in the
core and induces a signal into the secondary
winding (2,3) depending on the position of
the core.

Ia. Measuring devices/ 20

Ia-2e. Capacitive displacement sensor


Principle: Displacement of a capacitor plate involves changes in capacity
 parallel-plate c.

 rotary c.

 cylindrical c.

 differential parallel-plate c.

Target
Sensor

The target is one plate of the capacitor

x
Ia. Measuring devices/ 21

Ia-2f. Hall effect displacement sensor


Principle: Hall effect an electric current in the conductor placed in a magnetic field
causes a voltage difference (the Hall voltage)

UH=kIB

I+

x UH

The Hall voltage is developed between the two


edges of a current-carrying conductor whose faces
are perpendicular to an applied current flow.

Ia. Measuring devices/ 22

Ia-3a. Hydrostatic manometer


(Hydrostatic pressure gauge)
Principle: Hydrostatic equilibrium between the pressure and the hydrostatic force per
unit area at the base of a column of fluid
 U-tube

 float sensor

(U-pipe)

p1

p2
h

p1-p2=gh(1-2)

The pressure causes a change of liquid


level and the float transfers it to an
indicator

The pressure is indicated by the difference in levels in


the two arms of the tube
Pipes and tubes are not the same
Pipe: The purpose with a pipe is the transport of a fluid like water, oil or similar, and the most import property is the capacity or the inside
diameter.
Tube: The nominal dimensions of tubes are based on the outside diameter. The inside diameter of a tube will depend on the thickness of the
tube. The thickness is often specified as a gauge.
Ia. Measuring devices/ 23

Ia-3b. Hydraulic manometer


(Hydraulic pressure gauge)
Principle: Hydraulic equilibrium of the pressure and another force
 bell pressure gauge
(bell-type manometer)

 piston pressure gauge

The balance the


force of pressure
and bouyant force

p
p

p1
p

p2

cy+mg=pA

The force of pressure


is in balance with the spring

 ring differential manometer


(ring balance)
p1

p1

p2

p2
p2
p1-p2=gh
Ia. Measuring devices/ 24

Ia-3c. Elastic manometer


(Spring-type pressure gauge)
Principle: Equilibrium of the pressure and a spring force
 Bourdon tube

 diaphragm pressure gauge

(tube pressure gauge,


spiral pressure gauge)

 bellows pressure gauge


p

The curved tube is open to external


pressure input on one end and is
coupled mechanically to an indicating
needle on the other end. The external
pressure is guided into the tube and
causes it to flex.

p
Sensor uses the deflection
of a flexible membrane
that separates regions of
different pressure

p
The bellows is stretched on
pressure influence

Ia. Measuring devices/ 25

Ia-3d. Electronic manometer


Principle: Conversion the pressure to a displacement or a mechanical stress and next an
electric measurement of this displacement.
Displacement sensors and manometers
 strain gauge (measurement of resistance)
 inductive

(measurement of inductance)

 capacitive

(measurement of capacity)

differ in a process connection

 differential capacitive

p2

p1

p
Differential manometer with
an elastic membrane is a
double capacitor

Ia. Measuring devices/ 26

Ia-3e. Manometer with a force sensor


Principle: Conversion the pressure to a force or a strain and next an electric
measurement this parameter.

 with piezoelectric sensor


 with strain gauge

 with piezoresistive
strain gauge
 with strain gauge

Ia. Measuring devices/ 27

Ia-3. Selection of manometer


(The main selection criteria)
1) Type of measured pressure
absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to
gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure.
gauge pressure is zero-referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to
absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure.
differential pressure is the difference in pressure between two points.
2) Compromise between an accuracy and susceptibility to overload
3) Inertia measurement of slow/fast pressure changes
4) Process connection
A

2
h2-h1

h2

h1

p1=p2
h2-h1 the pressure arisen from a liquid flow
Assumption: no pipe resistance

2
h2-h1

h2

h1

p1>p2
Ia. Measuring devices/ 28

Ia-4a. Water-level indicator


Principle: Communicating vessels
 glass level gauge

 magnetic level indicator

(tubular level gauge)

It is perfect for high temperature and pressure


applications in case sight glasses and indicating
glass parts cannot be used for safety reasons
Ia. Measuring devices/ 29

Ia-4b. Float level gauge


Principle: Liquid level float is buoyant in liquid and indicates the level
 inductive

Float causes a displacement


of a coil core

 resistance

Float moves
on a linear resistor

Ia. Measuring devices/ 30

Ia-4c. Hydrostatic level gauge


(Manometric level gauge)
Principle: The static pressure in the bottom is proportional to the liquid column in the tank

patm
h1

The pressure at a given depth in a static liquid


depends upon the density of the liquid and the
distance below the surface of the liquid
plus any pressure acting on the surface of the
liquid

P=p1-patm
P=gh

 bell-type

 capacitive

Ia. Measuring devices/ 31

Ia-4d. Displacer level gauge


(Buoyancy transmitter)
Principle: Archimedes' Principle - a body which is completely or partially submerged in
a fluid experiences an upward force (the buoyant force)

Weighing of
the displacer element

Buoyant force moves a coil core


and changes its inductance

Intelligent level transmitters based on


Archimedes buoyancy principle are
designed to measure liquid level,
interface and density.

Sensor
without
chamber
Sensor
in a side-and-bottom chamber
Ia. Measuring devices/ 32

Ia-4e. Ultrasonic level gauge


Principle: Reflection of high frequency acoustic waves
The sensors emit waves (20 kHz to 200 kHz) that are reflected
back to and detected by the emitting transducer. The elapsed time
period between transmission and reception of the signal - at the
speed of sound - is measured and calculated as a distance and
computed into level or volume.

In order to improve the accuracy of


measurement it is important to take into
account a moisture, temperature, and
pressure changing speed of sound.
Example applications

Ia. Measuring devices/ 33

Ia-4f. Radar level gauge


(Microwave sensor)
Principle: Reflection of microwaves
The sensors emit waves (1 GHz to 30 GHz ) and measure the time
period between transmission and reception of the signal.

Speed of microwave is independent of moist,


vaporous, dusty, and temperature environments
Ia. Measuring devices/ 34

Ia-4h. Another level gauge


Principle: Property of sounder depends on its draught in liquid

Capacitive l.g.
Sounder is a long capacitor and his capacity depends on draught

Electrical variable-resistance l.g.


Sounder is a superconductor and his resistance
depends on draught in a low temperature liquid

Thermometer level gauge


Draught cools the measuring element, e.g. the resistance thermometer

Ia. Measuring devices/ 35

Ia-4. Selection of level gauge


(the main selection criteria)
1) Type of medium (phase): liquid, solid or slurry
2) Properties of medium, e.g. dielectric constant, density
3) Conditions of measurement, e.g. temperature, pressure (or vacuum)

Ia. Measuring devices/ 36

Ia-5a. Differential pressure flowmeter


(Orifice flowmeter)
Principle: Bernoullis principle an obstruction inserted in the flow causes a pressure
drop proportional to the square flow speed.
 orifice plate

p
Pressure sensor measures the differential pressure before and within the constriction

 flow nozzle

 Venturi tube
(Venturi meter)

Nozzle and tube offer advantages over orifice plates in that they require less
upstream piping and incur lower permanent pressure loss.

Ia. Measuring devices/ 37

Ia-5b. Rotameter
Principle: Balance between the flowing force and the weight of the float
The rotameter consists of a vertically oriented glass (or plastic) tube with a larger
end at the top.
The substance flows through the meter vertically from bottom to top and lifts the
float proportionally to the flow quantity.

plastic
metal
glass
Ia. Measuring devices/ 38

Ia-5c. Velocity-type flowmeter


(Rotating meter)
Principle: The fluid flow actuates the movement of blades, screw or turbine-type impeller
proportionally to flow rate.

 blade f.
counter

impeller

 screw f.

The flow is calculated by


measuring and integrating
the flow speed over the
flow area

counter

impeller

 turbine f.

Ia. Measuring devices/ 39

Ia-5d. Positive displacement flowmeter


Principle: Counting repeatedly the filling and discharging of known fixed volumes
A typical positive displacement flowmeter comprises a chamber that obstructs the
flow. Inside the chamber, a rotating/reciprocating mechanical unit is placed to
create fixed-volume discrete parcels from the passing fluid.

 piston

four-way
valve
Piston is operated to fill a cylinder with the fluid
and then discharge the fluid. Each stroke
represents a finite measurement of the fluid

See also: http://www.efunda.com/designstandards/sensors/flowmeters/flowmeter_pd.cfm

Ia. Measuring devices/ 40

Ia-5e. Inductive flowmeter


(electromagnetive)
Principle: Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction - when a conductor moves through
a magnetic field then a voltage will be induced

electromagnet
electrode
The liquid serves as the conductor and the
magnetic field is created by energized coils
outside the flow tube. The inducted voltage is
detected with the aid of an electrode.
It can only be used for electrical conductive fluids as water.

Ia. Measuring devices/ 41

Ia-5f. Ultrasonic flowmeter


(Ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter)
Principle: Doppler effect - The frequency of the reflected signal is modified by the
velocity and direction of the fluid flow

scheme
Z

By measuring the frequency shift between the


ultrasonic frequency source, the receiver, and the
fluid carrier, the relative motion are measured.
Doppler meters may be used where other meters don't work.
It can be installed outside the pipes (do not obstruct the flow )
It is sensitive to changes in density and temperature the fluid.
Ia. Measuring devices/ 42

Ia-5g. Calorimetric flowmeter


Principle: Intensity of cooling depend on the flow rate of the fluid

Two temperature sensors are in close contact with the fluid but thermal insulated from each
other. The flowing fluid cools both sensors but one of the two sensors is constantly heated.
The temperature difference between the two sensors is proportional to the flow rate.

Ia. Measuring devices/ 43

Ia-5h. Vortex flowmeter


Principle: Karman effect - an obstruction in a fluid flow creates vortices in a downstream
flow
Vortices cause a local disturbance of pressure
detected by the sensor. Frequency of vortices is
proportional to the flow rate

Karman vortex street

Animation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vortex-street-animation.gif

Ia. Measuring devices/ 44

Ia-5i. Coriolis flowmeter


Principle: Coriolis effect It is a direct measurement mass (not sensitive to changes in pressure, temperature, viscosity and density )

The fluid runs through a U-shaped


tube that is caused to vibrate in an
angular harmonic oscillation. Due
to the Coriolis forces, an
additional vibration arise that
deform the tube

Animation: http://www.emersonprocess.com/micromotion/tutor/42_densityoperatingprincipal.htm
Ia. Measuring devices/ 45

Ia-5j. Open channel flowmeter


Principle: An obstruction inserted in the flow causes a backwater
A common method of measuring flow through an open channel is to
measure the height of the liquid as it passes over an obstruction as a
weir or flume in the channel.
Common used obstruction types:
the sharp-crested weir,
the V-notch weir,
the Cipolletti weir,
the rectangular-notch weir,
the Parshall flume
Venturi flume.

 sharp-crested weir

 V-notch weir

 Venturi flume

Ia. Measuring devices/ 46

Ia-5. Selection of flow meter


(The main selection criteria)
1) If the flowrate information should be continuous or totalized?
2) Type of medium: steam, gas, liquid
3) Properties of medium: viscosity (Reynolds number), density
4) Conditions of measurement, e.g. pressure, temperature
5) Unit
m3/s (volumetric flow rate, volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow, volume velocity)
kg/s (mass flow rate)

Ia. Measuring devices/ 47

Ia-6a. Tachometer
(Rate generator)
Principle: A small ac/dc generator that develops an output voltage proportional to its rpm
The rotor of the tachometer is mechanically connected, directly or indirectly, to the load .

 dc generator

 ac generator

U1
Uzasil

eg

eg

1
The dc rate generator often has
permanent magnetic field excitation.

The ac rate generator field is excited


by a constant ac supply

The phase or polarity of output voltage (eg) depends on the rotor's direction of rotation

Ia. Measuring devices/ 48

Ia-6b. Digital speed sensor


Principle: A pulse generator plus a pulse counter

photoelectric

transformer-type

fn

fz Uz
.
magnetoresitive

relay-type
(reed swich)

NS

(rotational speed
sensor)

fn

Ia. Measuring devices/ 49

Ia-7a. Non electrical relays


(Two-stage transducers)
Principle: Overflow of a definite input value causes an abrupt change of output value
(usually closure of contacts used e.g. to direct control)
Measurement sensors used to a detection of only two-stage.

 liquid level switch, e.g.


- vibrating fork liquid level switch (submergence, filling)

- float switch (exceeding the level)

 pressure rise relay, e.g.


U-tube (mercury join contacts after the overflow of pressure)

 temperature rise relay, e.g.


- bimetallic switch (overflow of temperature)

 acoustic

- microphone (detection of sound intensity, frequency)

 light-, ...
- photodiode, photoresistor (proximity detector )

Ia. Measuring devices/ 50

Ia-7b. Electrical relays and switches


Principle: Relay - overflow of a definite input value causes a closure of contacts
Switch is operated by the motion of a machine part or presence of an object

 electrical activated device


 reed switch
N S
close relation

N S
turn

N S

tern
tern

 limit switch

Ia. Measuring devices/ 51

Ia-8. Physico-chemical properties


The main type of measurement:

a) pH pH meter
b) redox potential (oxidation/reduction potential, ORP) ORP meter
c) humidity hygrometer
d) oxygen (proportion of O2 in the gas or liquid ) oxygen meter, lambda sensor
e) conductivity conductometer
f) suspension densitometer, suspension turbidity meter
g) water hardness
h) concentration refractometer
....

Ia. Measuring devices/ 52

Ia-8a. pH meter
Principle: The measurement bases on an electrode made of a doped glass membrane
that is sensitive to a specific ion
10-7
10-14
100 mol/l
- concentration of hydrogen ions (H+)
- in practice from 10mol/l to 10-15 mol/l

14
basic solution

7
H2O

pH

acidic solution

A typical pH probe consists of a


combination electrode, which combines
both the glass and reference electrodes
into one body. The probe produces a
small voltage (about 0.06 volt per pH
unit) that is measured and displayed as
pH units by the meter

The ph meter requires a cleaning and a frequent calibration


because the glass electrode does not give
a reproducible e.m.f. over longer periods of time

Ia. Measuring devices/ 53

Ia. Sensor selection


The main directions
Procedure of the sensor selection:
1) statement of the main requirements for sensor
2) review of available sensors from the point of view of fulfilment of requirements
Requirements:
 measurement value (temperature, pressure, ..)
 range
 accuracy class
 mounting of the instrument (process connection, location)
 frequency response
 environmental condition (e.g. Ex, dustiness, moisture)
 operational reliability (e.g. periodical calibration)
 dimensions, weight
 complexity of additional equipment
 qualification of service staff (method of calibration or programming)
 price of sensor and an additional apparatus
 resolution of the measured signal
Ia. Measuring devices/ 54

Ib. Converters
Definition and classification
Classification of converters according to function:
1) measuring
conversion of a sensor signal into a standard signal
typical electric standard signals: 0-5mA, 0-10mA, 0-20mA, 4-20mA, 0-10V
2) signaling
matching circut - exchange of one standard to another
current-current, voltage-voltage, current-voltage, voltage-current, currentpressure (intersystem converter);
3) separating
assurance of the galvanic isolation between functional sections of system
the same standard of input and output and the gain equal 1
4) analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, A to D)
conversion a continuous quantity to a discrete time representation in digital form
typically the digital output is a twos complement binary number
5) digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D to A)
conversion of a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage
or electric charge)
Ib. Measuring devices/ 55

Ib-1. Measuring converters


a sensor signal to the standard signal
According to input value:

converter of force, voltage, resistance, pressure


According to principle of operation:

parametric, generating
According to construction (electric circuit)

open circuit (without a feedback)


close circuit (with a feedback)
According to modulation of output signal:

a) modulation of direct current level


b) frequency modulation
c) discrete output with modulation pulse-width (PWM)
Ib. Measuring devices/ 56

Ib-1a. Measuring converters


with modulation of direct current level
Examples:
 measuring converter of a resistance

Us

Rs

 measuring converter of a small voltage

Iout
Us
Us

Rr

Rb
Rf

Rr

Rb
Rf

Rs resistance of sensor; Us voltage of sensor


Rb balancing resistance of the circuit; Rf feedback resistance; Rr receiver

Ib. Measuring devices/ 57

Ib-1b. Measuring converters


with frequency modulation
Types:

 generating

tachometer generator
 modulating

position-type

digital speed measurement

 oscillatory with a forced vibration


 oscillatory with a free vibration
in

MC

OS

Cout

AC

MC matching, AC activation
OS - oscillatory system
Cout output converter

out

f =

1 F
2 ml
F

A
l

string-type converter
(the force F into the frequency f)
Ib. Measuring devices/ 58

Ib-1c. Measuring converters


with pulse-width modulation
Example:

Uout

UX
LG

ULG

UA

ULG

UX

UA
UC

Uout
LG linear generator (g. of linear signal)
UA activation; C - comparator
Ux input voltage
Uout output voltage

ti

Ib. Measuring devices/ 59

Ib-1. Measuring converter selection


The main directions
Requirements:
a suitable static characteristic (linear or non-linear)
 stability of characteristic
a small conversion error (e.g.<1%)
 no hysteresis
 galvanic separation of input and output circuits
 easy modification of conversion range
 low level of noise
 small influence onto the source of signal
 low sensitivity to a change of load
 dynamic properties (time response, pass band)
 service conditions

Ib. Measuring devices/ 60

Ib-3. Separating converters


galvanic separation
Disturbing signals:
 serial voltages
result of a inductive coupling between two wires
primarily frequency of 50Hz and 100Hz
Suppression with the help of low-pass filter
passing the measured signal (frequency <10Hz)

 parallel voltages
result of a ground loop
frequency of 50Hz5kHz,
high voltages, constant component

sensor

measuring
converter

Suppression with the help of galvanic separation

RA

UR

RB

CB

Ib. Measuring devices/ 61

Ib-3. Separating converters


galvanic separation
Application of galvanic separation

UP

UP

200

I1

2
200

sys

100

I2

200 5

200 3

Realization of galvanic separation


 transformer-type

 optoelectronic

GZ
xin

Iin

TO

xout
=

Iout
Ib. Measuring devices/ 62

Ib-4. Analog-to-digital converters


A/D
Conversion process
u(t)
Analog signal
(continues in both
time and amplitude)

Sampling

u[k]

Quantization

Sampled-date signal
(discrete in time and
continues in amplitude)

Parameters of A/D converter:

Encoding
Discrete time
discrete amplitude
signal

Digital signal

Ux

range of input signal


resolution (bits) - quantization error (%)
10 bits = 210 = 1024 qantums= 0,1%
12 bits = 212 = 4096 qantums = 0,025%

sampling rate (sampling frequency)


conversion time (for one sample)
If a single converter services n inputs, than sampling rate = 1 / (n*conversion time)
Minimum of sampling rate (Shannon-Kotielnikov sampling theorem*)
fs sampling rate,
- theoretically: fs >= 2fw
fx the highest frequency of the original signal
- practically: fs >= 2fb, (fb=10fw)
fb used pass band (gain>=0.7)
*Shannon-Kotelnikov, WhittakerNyquistKotelnikovShannon

Ib. Measuring devices/ 63

Ib-4a. Analog-to-digital converters


Types
 Integrating ADC (dual slope ADC)

Ux
U1
Uw

U1

U2

U3 L

U
Nx = Nmax x
Uw

Ux

T1

T2

U2

GW

US

T1

t
U3
Nmax

Nx

Uw

T2

Ib. Measuring devices/ 64

Ib-4b. Analog-to-digital converters


Types
 ramp-compare ADC

 frequency-type ADC
c

U
UX

Uout
ti

fx

Forming

frequency
input

Gate

Controler
Pulse generator

Counter

Nx

Cancel

counting fx
for a determinate
time period

 a direct-conversion ADC (flash ADC)


 a successive-approximation ADC
 a delta-encoded ADC or counter-ramp
 a pipeline ADC (a subranging quantizer)
 a sigma-delta ADC (a delta-sigma ADC)
 a time-interleaved ADC
 an ADC with intermediate FM stage
 ...
Ib. Measuring devices/ 65

Ib-5. Digital-to-analog converters


DAC
In: number X= X020 + X121 + ... + Xn2n

Out: signal Uout

if Xi=1 then switch=1

 weigh-resistive
U

21R

2iR

22R

2iR

21R

Uout

U
1
0

1
0

X0

22R

1
0

X1

Uout

Xi

 voltage ladder
U

2R

2R

2R

2R

2R

2R

Uout

U
1
0

X0

1
0

X1

1
0

2R

2R
Uout

Xi

 ...
Ib. Measuring devices/ 66

Ic. Measuring devices

classical measuring transducer (converter)


= sensor [+ measuring converter]
A
D
sensor.

measuring c.

separating c.

controller

A/D

intelligent measuring transducer (converter)


= sensor + separator + ADC + uP = communication port
A
D
sensor

controller

communication port
Ic. Measuring devices/ 67

Ic. Instrumentation and control tag


Graphical symbols and identifying letters in control engineering design

process parameter
function: R - recording
I - indication
C - control
A - alarm

TRCA
154

alarm
specification

TRCA
154

D density
F flow rate
G distance, length, position
L level
P pressure
Q material properties
T temperature
W velocity, mass

programmable
device

TRCA
154

configurable
device

For further details, see DIN 19227


More: http://www.samson.deServicesTechnical Information

Ic. Measuring devices/ 68

Ic. Instrumentation and control tag


Standards

US Standards:
ANSI Y32.2.3 Graphical Symbols for Pipe Fittings, Valves and Piping
ANSI Y32.2.11 Graphical Symbols for Process Flow Diagrams
ISA 5.5 Graphical Symbols for Process Displays
British Standards:
BS: 1646 1-4 Symbolic Representation for Process Measurement, Control
Function and Instrumentation
German Standards:
DIN 19227 P1-P3 Graphical Symbols and Identifying Letters for Process
Measurement and Control Functions
Polish Standards:
PN-M-42007 (archive)
More: http://enormy.pl
http://www.samson.deServicesTechnical Information

Ic. Measuring devices/ 69

Part II. Actuating equipment


c

supervisor system

II. Actuating equipment


a)

b)

Final control element


1 valve
2 - pump
Actuator
1 - electrical motors
2 - pneumatic actuator
3 - hydraulic actuator

communication system
controller
A/D
converter

D/A
converter

measuring
converter

(actuating driver)

actuator

sensor

controling
system

final control
element

(sensing element)

plant
controlled system

Examples:
Actuating equipment (final control equipment):
- final control element
- actuator

Control valve:
- valve (closure element, body of valve)
- actuating driver
- positioner (measuring element)

Body of valve manipulates the mass and energy flow.


The opening or closing of control valve is usually done by electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic actuator.
Positioner is used to control the opening or closing of the actuator based on electric, or pneumatic signals.
IIa. Actuating equipment/ 70

IIa. Final control element


Final control element a part of the controlled system that manipulates the mass and
energy flow.
Basic type of final control element:
1) valves
2) pumps
Classification valves according to function:
control valve
throttling (choke) valve
gate (sluice) valve
safety-valve
reflux valve

Classification pumps according to principle of operation:


positive displacement pump
impulse pump
velocity pump
gravity pump

Classification valves according to construction:

ball (globe)

rotary (butterfly)

knife

neadle

flap
IIa. Actuating equipment/ 71

IIa-1. Valves
Valve a device that manipulates the mass flow on basis of a throttling.

 ball valve

(globe valve)
Inside a spherical disc
Features: simplicity, sealing

 V-port ball valve

(V-notch valve; a segmented ball valve )


Inside a spherical disc with a notch
Features: simplicity, sealing, precise control

 butterfly valve
(quarter-turn valve)
Inside a metal disc mounted on a rod
and positioned in the center of the pipe
Features: low cost, light

More: http://www.valtorc.comValves

 knife gate valve

IIa. Actuating equipment/ 72

IIa-2. Pumps
Pomp a device used to move fluids (liquids, gases, slurries) by mechanical actions
(often a reciprocating or rotary mechanism).
 velocity pump
 positive displacement pump
The pump moves a fluid by trapping a fixed
amount of it and then forcing (displacing) that
trapped volume into the discharge pipe
screw

(rotodynamic pump, dynamic pump)


The pump increases the flow velocity thereby
kinetic energy and this energy is converted to
pressure
centrifugal

lobe
Operation under closed valve conditions
The positive displacement pump physically displaces the fluid
The velocity pump can be safely operated
resulting in a continual build up in pressure and finally
under closed valve conditions
mechanical failure of either pipeline or pump

 impulse pump

The pump use pressure created by gas (usually air) and pushing part of the liquid upwards
IIa. Actuating equipment/ 73

IIb. Actuators
(effectors, servomotor)
Actuator - a type of motor for moving or controlling a mechanism (final control element).
It is operated by a source of energy (an electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure,
pneumatic pressure) and converts this energy into some kind of motion.
Actuator processes and amplifies the output signal of controller

Basic type of actuator:


1) pneumatic actuator
2) hydraulic actuator
3) motor-driven actuator (electrical servomotors)

Actuators are also known as:


effectors (in robotics)
servomotor linear actuator, rotary actuator

IIb. Actuating equipment/ 74

IIb-1. Pneumatic actuator


Principle: Pneumatic actuator converts energy of compressed air into a mechanical motion

 diaphragm actuator

Actuator that has a chamber divided in half by a


diaphragm that separates areas with different
pressure levels.

 pneumatic cylinder

 bellow actuator

Self-acting thermostatic actuator


(e.g. used for temperature control)
More: http://heating.danfoss.com

IIb. Actuating equipment/ 75

IIb-3. Electric actuator


Definitions:
actuator - a device converting a low-power signal into a large-force displacement
(linear or rotary )
motor a device converting a heat, electrical energy, mechanical energy into energy
to drive machines (usually electrical energy into energy of rotational motion)
Actuator
a large force
a small velocity

Motor
a small torque
a high velocity

Electric actuator (servomotor):


a) an electric motor + a gear
b) an electric motor giving a suitable displacement (e.g. stepper motor)

IIb. Actuating equipment/ 76

IIb-3. Electric motors


General principle: Lorentz force - any current-carrying conductor placed within an
external magnetic field experiences a torque or force
Classification:

stator
rotor

[http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_13/1.html]

IIb. Actuating equipment/ 77

IIb-3a. Brushed DC electric motor


Principle: Stator with a stationary magnets and the rotor powered from a DC power by
brushes and commutator.
Magnetic fields of the stator and the rotor interact and a generated torque causes a turn of the rotor.
The commutator consisted of a split ring reverses the current each half turn of the rotor.

 permanent magnets
+
brushes

N S

 electromagnets
+

series m.

shunt m.

M
separately excited m.

The type of connection determines the characteristics of the motor


Control:
- the sense of rotation depends on the polarity of the excitation winding control by change of the polarity
- the rotational speed is proportional to the EMF in its coil - control by variable supply voltage, resistors or
electronic controls (e.g. PWM)
- the torque is proportional to the current
Advantages: low initial cost, high reliability, simple control of motor speed
Disadvantanges: sparking and wear of the electric contact commutator-brushes

IIb. Actuating equipment/ 78

IIb-3b. Synchronous motor


Principle: Rotor with a stationary magnets and the stator powered from the AC power
and generating a rotating magnetic field.
Electromagnets on the stator create the magnetic field which rotates in time with the oscillations of the
line current and the rotor turns in step with this field, at the same rate (the motor speed is synchronized
with the frequency the AC supply current )

 three-phase s.m.

 single phase s.m.

 stepper m.

N
S

Control:
- sense of rotation depends on the direction of rotating magnetic field control by change of the phase order
- motor speed is synchronized with the supply frequency control by a variable-frequency driver
Advantages: speed independent of the load,
accurate control in speed and position for stepper motor
Disadvantanges: above a certain size, synchronous motors are not self-starting motors

IIb. Actuating equipment/ 79

IIb-3c. Inductive motor


(asynchronous motor)
Principle: Rotor contained no powered circuit and the stator powered from the AC power
and generating a rotating magnetic field.
Electromagnets on the stator create the rotating magnetic field which induces an electric current in the
windings of rotor. Interaction between magnetic fields of stator and rotor produces a torque. The rotor
rotates at a slower speed than the stator field

 squirrel-cage rotor induction motor


Windings of rotor in the form of cage (poured
or welded)

 wound-rotor induction motor


Windings of rotor brought out via slip rings and
brushes which allows to connect a resistance during
start-up and to short-circuit windings during work.

Control:
- sense of rotation depends on the direction of rotating magnetic field control by change of the phase order
- motor speed is proportional to supply frequency control by a variable-frequency driver.
Advantages: ruggedness, simplicity, 90% of industrial motors are induction m. (mainly the squirrel-cage rotor)
Disadvantanges: hard starting (it is accompanied by inrush currents up to 7 times higher than running current)
V

Starting with:
star-delta switch
motor soft starter

M
U

W IIb. Actuating equipment/ 80

IIb-3. Electro-mechanical drive system


A variable-frequency drive (VFD)
(adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive, inverter drive)
- a type of adjustable-speed driver used to control AC motor speed and torque by
varying motor input frequency and voltage
 electronic - frequency converter (frequency changer)
 electromechanical = motor + generator

A motor soft starter


- a device used with AC electric motors to temporarily reduce the load and torque in the
powertrain of the motor during startup. This reduces the mechanical stress on the motor
and shaft, as well as the electrodynamic stresses on the attached power cables and
electrical distribution network, extending the lifespan of the system

IIb. Actuating equipment/ 81

Contents
The main topics:
Instrumentation of a technological process
I. Measurement devices
15 hours
II. Actuating elements
-----------------------------------------I. Field devices - controllers
15 hours
II. Communication networks
III. SCADA & DCS

82