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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

LabManual
ComputerEngineeringandInformationTechnology
IIISemester/KScheme
PreparedBy
K.ManiRaj M.Sc.,M.Phil.,&P.Vinitha M.Sc M.Phil
Lecturer,
DepartmentofCE/IT,
M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,
Pavoorchatram.
M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

1A CelsiustoFahrenheitConversionandviceversa
Aim:
To write a C program to convert the given temperature in degree
centigrade to Fahrenheit and vice versa.

Flow chart:

Start

Read C

F=9.0/5.0*c+32

Print F

Read F

C=5.0/9.0*(F-32)

Print C

Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Algorithm:
1. Read the temperature in degree Centigrade.
2. Convert the Centigrade to Fahrenheit using the formula
F=9/5*c+32
3. Print the Celsius and Fahrenheit value.
4. Read the temperature in degree Fahrenheit.
5. Convert the Fahrenheit to Centigrade using the formula
C=5/9*(F-32)
6. Print the Fahrenheit and Celsius value.
7. Stop

Program:
/* Program to convert Centigrade to Fahrenheit and vice versa */
#include <stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
float

c,f;

clrscr();
/*To convert Centigrade to Fahrenheit*/
printf("Enter the temperature in centigrade:");
scanf("%f",&c);
f=9.0/5.0*c+32;
printf("\n\t%.2f Centigrade=%.2f Fahrenheit",c,f);
/*To convert Fahrenheit to centigrade*/
printf("\n\nEnter the temperature in Fahrenheit:");
scanf("%f",&f);
c=5.0/9.0*(f-32);
printf("\n\t%.2f Fahrenheit=%.2f Centigrade",f,c);
getch();
}

Output:
Enter the temperature in centigrade:45
45.00 Centigrade=113.00 Fahrenheit
Enter the temperature in Fahrenheit:114

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

114.00 Fahrenheit=45.56 Centigrade

1B

SimpleInterestandCompoundInterestCalculation

Aim:
To write a C program to find the simple interest and Compound interest
for the Amount (P), Rate of Interest (R) and Number of years (N)

Flowchart:

Start

Read P,N,R

SI=(P*N*R)/100

CI=P*(1+R/100)^N-P

Print SI,CI

Stop
Algorithm:
1. Read Principal (P), Rate of Interest (R) and Number of years (N).
2. Calculate Simple Interest (SI) and Compound Interest using the
formula
SI=(P*N*R)/100
CI=P * ((1+R)/100)^N P
3. Display the result.
4. Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* Program to calculate Simple Interest and Compound Interest */
#include<conio.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<math.h>

// For pow function

void main()
{
double p,n,r,si,ci,x;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the principal:Rs ");
scanf("%lf",&p);
printf("Enter rate of interest:");
scanf("%lf",&r);
printf("Enter number of years:");
scanf("%lf",&n);
/* To calculate Simple Interest*/
si=p*n*r/100;
/* To calculate Compound Interest*/
ci=pow((1+r/100),n)*p-p;
/* Display the result*/
printf("\n\nSimple interest =Rs %.2lf\n\n",si);
printf("Compound Interest =Rs %.2lf",ci);
getch();
}

Output:
Enter the principal:Rs 1000
Enter rate of interest:3
Enter number of years:5
Simple interest =Rs 150.00
Compound Interest =Rs 159.27

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

1C

Toperformarithmeticoperationoftwonumbers

Aim:
To write a program to read two numbers and print the sum, difference,
product and quotient of the two numbers.

Algorithm:
1. Read the numbers a,b;
2. Calculate
Sum=a+b
Difference=a-b
Product=a*b
Quotient=a/b
3. Print sum, difference, product and the quotient.
4. Stop

Flowchart:
Start

Read A,B

Sum=A+B
Diff=A-B
Pro=A*B
Quo=A/B

Print Sum,Diff,
Pro,Quo

Stop
M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* Program to find sum, difference, product and quotient */
#include<conio.h>
#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
float a,b,sum,diff,pro,quo;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the value for A:");
scanf("%f",&a);
printf("Enter the value for B(B<>0):");
scanf("%f",&b);
sum=a+b;
diff=a-b;
pro=a*b;
quo=a/b;
printf("\n\tThe sum of %.2f and %.2f

= %.2f",a,b,sum);

printf("\n\tThe difference of %.2f and %.2f= %.2f",a,b,diff);


printf("\n\tThe product of %.2f and %.2f

= %.2f",a,b,pro);

printf("\n\tThe quotient of %.2f by %.2f

= %.2f",a,b,quo);

getch();
}

Output:
Enter the value for A:7
Enter the value for B(B<>0):5
The sum of 7.00 and 5.00

= 12.00

The difference of 7.00 and 5.00= 2.00


The product of 7.00 and 5.00
The quotient of 7.00 by 5.00

= 35.00
= 1.40

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Viva Questions:
1) What are the various arithmetic operators?
+ Addition
-

Subtraction

* Multiplication
/ Divison
% modulus
2) What is an arithmetic expression?
An arithmetic expression is a combination operators and operands.
3) What are the various relational operators?
<

Less than

>

Greater than

Equal

!=

Not equal

>= Greater than or equal to


<= Lesser than or equal to
4) What are the various logical operators?
&&

- Logical AND

||

- Logical OR

- Logical NOT

5) Explain the ternary operator.


The ternary opearor is also known as Conditional opearator.
Syntax:

(expr 1) ? (expr-2) : expr-3)

The expr-1 is evaluated first. If it is true, the expr-2 is evaluated


and it is the value of expr-1 . If expr-1 is false, expr-3 is evaluated and it
is the value for expr-1
Example:
A=10
B= 15
Max =(A>B )? A : B

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Ex2AIdentificationofEvenandOddnumber
Aim:
To write a program to find whether the given number is even or odd.

Flowchart:

Start

Read N

R=N%2

False

True
If R=0

Print Even

Print Odd

Stop
Algorithm:
1. Read the number N.
2. Find the remainder of N divided by 2 using the Modulus operator
(N%2);
3. If the remainder is zero
The number is Even number

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Otherwise
The number is Odd number
4. Print the result.

5. Stop.
Program:
/* To find whether the number is even or odd*/
#include<conio.h>
#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
int n,r;
clrscr();
printf("Enter a number:");
scanf("%d",&n);
r=n%2;
if(r= =0)
printf("\n\tThe given number %d is even",n);
else
printf("\n\tThe given number %d is odd",n);
getch();
}

Output 1:
Enter a number:8
The given number 8 is even

Output 2:
Enter a number:-7
The given number -7 is odd

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

2B

TodisplaystudentsGrade

Aim:
To write a C program to read the mark of the student and display grade
based on the following norms:
>=75 Grade A , >=50 and <75 Grade B , >=25 and <50 Grade C
<25 Grade F

Flowchart:
Start

Read average
mark (avg)

True
If avg>=75

Print Grade A

False
True
If avg>=50

Print Grade B

False
True
If avg>=75

Print Grade C

Print Grade C

Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Algorithm:
1. Read the average mark of the student.
2. If the mark is >=75 print GRADE A.
3. If the mark is between 50 to 75 print GRADE B.
4. If the mark is between 25 to 50 print GRADE C.
5. If the mark is less than 25 print GRADE F.
6. Stop.

Program:
/* To display the grade of the student */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
float avg;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the average mark of the student:");
scanf("%f",&avg);
if(avg>=75)
printf("\n\tThe student's grade - A");
else if(avg>=50)
printf("\n\tThe student's grade - B");
else if(avg>=25)
printf("\n\tThe student's grade - C");
else
printf("\n\tThe student's grade -F");
getch();
}

Output 1:
Enter the average mark of the student:78
The student's grade - A

Output 2:
Enter the average mark of the student:50
The student's grade B

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Output 3:
Enter the average mark of the student:30
The student's grade - C

Output 4:
Enter the average mark of the student:24
The student's grade -F

Viva Questions:
1) What is a decision making statement?
Decision making statement is used to break the normal flow of the
program and execute part of the statement based on some condition
2) What are the various decision making statements available in C ?

If statement

If ..else statement.

Nested if statement

If ..else ladder statement

Switch statement

3) Write the program logic to find biggest among three without using
, =
return (a>b) ? (a>c ? a:c) : (b>c ? b: c)

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Aim:
3A

TocheckforperfectNumber

Aim:
To write a C program to find whether the given number is perfect number
or not.
A number is a perfect number if the sum of the factors of the number
other than itself is equal to that number.
Example: 28=1+2+4+7+14 is a perfect number.

Algorithm:
1. Read the number N.
2. If the number is less than 0 goto step 7
3. Initialize sum=1, i=2
4. if N % i=0 then sum=sum+i
5. Increment i. If i<=N/2 goto step 4
6. if sum=N
Print the number is a perfect number
else
Print the number is not a perfect number

7. Stop.

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flowchart:

Start

Read N

If N>0

Sum=1
I=2

If
N % i=0

True

Sum=Sum + i

False
i = i+1

True

If
i <= N/2
False
If
Sum=N

False
Print NonPerfect Number

True
Print
Perfect Number

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

Stop

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* To find whether the given number is perfect number */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
int n,sum=1,i;
clrscr();
printf("Enter a number:");
scanf("%d",&n);
if(n>0)
{
for(i=2;i<=n/2;i++)
if(n%i==0) sum=sum+i;
if(sum==n)
printf("\n\t%d is a perfect number",n);
else
printf("\n\t%d is not a perfect number",n);
}
else
printf("\n\tThe input number should be greater than zero");
getch();
}

Output -1:
Enter a number:28
28 is a perfect number

Output-2:
Enter a number:56
56 is not a perfect number

Output-3:
Enter a number:-28
The input number should be greater than zero

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

3B

TodesignsimpleCalculator

Aim:
To write a simple program to develop a simple calculator that accepts two
floating point numbers from the keyboard. Display a menu to the user and get
the users choice. Perform the operation and display the result using switch
statement.

Algorithm:
1. Read the two floating point numbers A, B.
2. Display the menu.
1 - Add
2 - Subtract
3 - Multiply
4 - Divide
3. Get the users choice.
4. If choice =1 then Result=A+B. Goto step 8.
5. If choice =2 then Result=A-B. Goto step 8.
6. If choice =3 then Result=A*B. Goto step 8.
7. If choice =4 then Result=A/B. Goto step 8.
8. Display the result.
9. Stop.

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flowchart:
Start

Read A, B

Display the Menu


1 Add
2 Subtract
3 Multiply
4 - Divide

Read Choice

Switch
Choice

Choice=1

Res = A + B

Res = A - B

Res = A * B

Res = A / B

Choice=2

Choice=3

Choice=4

Print Res

Stop
M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* To design simple calculator */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
float

a,b,res;

int ch;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the value of A:");
scanf("%f",&a);
printf("Enter the value of B(B<>0):");
scanf("%f",&b);
printf("\n\nMathematical Operations");
printf("\n************************");
printf("\n\t1->Add");
printf("\n\t2->Subtract");
printf("\n\t3->Multiply");
printf("\n\t4->Divide");
printf("\n\nEnter your choice:");
scanf("%d",&ch);
switch(ch)
{
case 1:res=a+b;
break;
case 2:res=a-b;
break;
case 3:res=a*b;
break;
case 4:res=a/b;
break;
}
printf("Answer =%.2f",res);
getch();
}

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Output 1:
Enter the value of A:5
Enter the value of B(B<>0):7

Mathematical Operations
************************
1->Add
2->Subtract
3->Multiply
4->Divide
Enter your choice:1
Answer =12.00

Output 2:
Enter the value of A:7
Enter the value of B(B<>0):56
Mathematical Operations
************************
1->Add
2->Subtract
3->Multiply
4->Divide
Enter your choice:2
Answer =-49.00

Output 3:
Enter the value of A:5.2
Enter the value of B(B<>0):3
Mathematical Operations
************************
1->Add
2->Subtract
3->Multiply
4->Divide
Enter your choice:3
Answer =15.60

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

4ATofindsumofintegersbetweenAandB
Aim:
To write a C program to find the sum of all integers between any two
numbers.

Flowchart:

Start

Read A,B

Sum=0

False
For i =A to B
True
Sum = Sum + i

Print Sum

Stop
Algorithm:
1. Read the two numbers A and B
2. Initialize sum=0, i=A
3. Repeat step 4 and 5 until i <=B
4. Sum=Sum+i
5. i=i+1
6. Print Sum
7. Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* Sum of integers between given two ranges */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
int a,b,i,sum=0;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the starting number:");
scanf("%d",&a);
printf("Enter the ending number:");
scanf("%d",&b);
for(i=a;i<=b;i++)
sum=sum+i;
printf("\n\tThe sum of integers between %d and %d=%d",a,b,sum);
getch();
}

Output:
Enter the starting number:5
Enter the ending number:12
The sum of integers between 5 and 12=68

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

4B

ToprintFibonaccinumbers

Aim:
To write a C program to print the first ten terms of the Fibonacci
Sequence assuming the first two terms as 0 and 1.

Flowchart:

Star

f1=0, f2=1

Print f1,f2
False
For i=3 to 10
True
f3=f1+f2

Print f3
f1=f2
f2=f3

Stop

Algorithm:
1. Initialize f1=0 , f2=1, i=3
2. Print f1,f2
3. Repeat steps 4 to 8 until i<=10.
4. f3=f1+f2
5. Print f3

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

6. f1=f2 ,f2=f3
7. i= i +1
8. Stop

Program:
/* Fibonacci series */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
int f1=0,f2=1,f3,i;
clrscr();
printf("Fibonacci series");
printf("\n****************\n\t");
printf("%5d%5d",f1,f2);
for(i=3;i<=10;i++)
{
f3=f1+f2;
printf("%5d",f3);
f1=f2;
f2=f3;
}
getch();
}

Output:
Fibonacci series
****************
0

13

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

21

34

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

4C

Tofindnumberofpositive,negativeandzeroinNelements

Aim:
To find the number of positive, negative and zeros in given N elements

Flowchart:
Start
Read N

Pos =0
Neg =0
Ze = 0

False
For i =1 to N
True
False

False
If
i=0

If
i >0
True

Ze = ze + 1

neg = neg + 1

True
pos = pos + 1

Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Algorithm:
1. Read the number of elements N.
2. Initialize pos=0, neg=0, ze=0
3. Repeat steps 4 to 5 N times.
4. Read the number X
5. If X =0
ze++
else if X>0
pos++
else
neg++
6. Print pos, neg, ze
7. Stop

Program:
/* To find number of Positive, Negative and Zeros in given 'N' numbers */

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
int n,x,i,pos=0,neg=0,ze=0;
clrscr();
printf("Enter number of terms:");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("\n\nEnter %d numbers\n",n);
printf("***************\n");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
scanf("%d",&x);
if(x==0)
ze++;
else if(x>0)
pos++;
else
neg++;
}

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

printf("\n\tNumber of positive numbers=%d",pos);


printf("\n\tNumber of negative number=%d",neg);
printf("\n\tNumber of zeros=%d",ze);
getch();
}

Output:
Enter number of terms:7
Enter 7 numbers
**************
23
0
-6
4
-12
0
3
Number of positive numbers=3
Number of negative number=2
Number of zeros=2

Viva Questions:
1) What are the various looping statements available in C?
a) While statement
b) Do..while statement
c) For statement
2) What is the difference between while and do..while statement?
While is an entry controlled statement. The statements inside the
while may not be executed at all when the condition becomes false at the
first attempt itself.
The do..while is an exit controlled statement. The statements in the
block are executed at least once.

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

5ATocalculate&displaytheTotalandAverageofintegers
Aim:

To calculate and display the total and the average of 10 integer numbers.

Algorithm:
1. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
2. Assign Initial value to the variable sum=0;
3. Read 10 numbers and store it in an array variable a[i].
4. Calculate the total of 10 numbers and find the average.
5. Sum=sum + a[i].
6. Avg=sum / 10;
7. Display the array elements and the total.
8. Stop.

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow chart:

Start

Sum=0
False
For i=0 to 9
True
Read a[i]

False
For i=0 to 9
True
sum=sum=a[i]

avg=sum/10

Print sum,
avg

Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* Program to find sum and average of 10 numbers */
#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
int i,a[10];
float sum,avg;
sum=0;
clrscr();
printf("---------- INPUT------------\n\n");
printf("Enter the Array Elements (10 Nos)...\n");
for (i=0;i<10;i++)
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
for(i=0;i<10;i++)
sum=sum+a[i];
printf("----------- OUTPUT----------\n\n");
printf("The Array Elements are...\n");
for(i=0;i<10;i++)
printf("%d\n",a[i]);
printf("Sum of 10 Numbers=== %.0f\n\n",sum);
avg=sum/10;
printf("Average of 10 Numbers=== %.2f",avg);
getch();
}

Output:
---------- INPUT-----------Enter the Array Elements (10 Nos)...
1
2
3
4
5
6

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

7
8
9
10
----------- OUTPUT---------The Array Elements are...
Sum of 10 Numbers=== 55
Average of 10 Numbers=== 5.50

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

5BTocalculate&displaytheTotalmarksusing2Darray

Aim:
Read 3 subject marks of 4 students. Write a program to calculate and
display the total marks of each student. Use a 2D (two-dimensional) array to
store the marks

Algorithm:
1. Define main Function.
2. Declare all variables in specified data type.
3. Get the details for 4 students. R.no & Name of the students using a
single dimensional array.
4. And a inner for loop is to be used to get 3 marks of each students.
5. Calculate the total marks and store it in a 2-D array variable marks[i][j];
6. Display all the details of 4 students.

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow chart:

Start
False
For i=0 to 3
True
sum[i]=0

Read regno[i],name[i]

False
For j=0 to 3
True
Read mark[i][j]

Sum=sum+mark[i][j]

avg=sum/10

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

False
For i=0 to 3
True
Print Regno[i],

False
For j=0 to 3

True
Print mark[i][j]

Print sum[i], avg[i]

Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* Program to calculate and display the total marks of each student */

#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
int i,j,k,rno[10],sum[10],mark[10][10],tot[10];
float avg[10];
char name[10][10],*sub[10];
clrscr();
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{
sum[i]=0;
printf("\nStudent Detail No : %d\n",i);
printf("Enter the Student Rno

");

scanf("%d",&rno[i]);
printf("Enter the Student Name ");
scanf("%s",name[i]);
for(j=0;j<3;j++)
{
printf("Enter the Mark %d ",j);
scanf("%d",&mark[i][j]);
sum[i]=sum[i]+mark[i][j];
}
avg[i]=sum[i]/3;
}
printf("\n---------OUTPUT--------\n\n");
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{
printf("\nStudent No %d",i);
printf("\n\t Rno \t: ");
printf("%d",rno[i]);
printf("\n\t Name\t: ");
printf("%s",name[i]);
for(j=0;j<3;j++)
{
printf("\n\t Sub%d\t\t",j);

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

printf("%d",mark[i][j]);
}
printf("%n");
printf("\n\tTotal Marks

: ");

printf("%d",sum[i]);
printf("\n\tAverage

: %.2f",avg[i]);

}
getch();
}

Output:
Student Detail No : 0
Enter the Student Rno

1001

Enter the Student Name MuthuKumar


Enter the Mark 0 89
Enter the Mark 1 78
Enter the Mark 2 82
Student Detail No : 1
Enter the Student Rno

1002

Enter the Student Name ShivaKumar


Enter the Mark 0 76
Enter the Mark 1 80
Enter the Mark 2 83
Student Detail No : 2
Enter the Student Rno

1003

Enter the Student Name RamKumar


Enter the Mark 0 89
Enter the Mark 1 90
Enter the Mark 2 91
Student Detail No : 3
Enter the Student Rno

1004

Enter the Student Name NanthaKumar


Enter the Mark 0 86

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Enter the Mark 1 56


Enter the Mark 2 73
--------------OUTPUT-----------------Student No 0
Rno

: 1001

Name : MuthuKumar
Sub0

89

Sub1

78

Sub2

82

Total Marks

:249

Average

:83.00

Student No 1
Rno

: 1002

Name

: ShivaKumar

Sub0

76

Sub1

80

Sub2

83

Total Marks

:239

Average

:79.66

Student No 2
Rno

: 1003

Name

: RamKumar

Sub0

89

Sub1

90

Sub2

91

Total Marks

:270

Average

:90.00

Student No 3
Rno

: 1004

Name

: NanthaKumar

Sub0

86

Sub1

56

Sub2

73

Total Marks
Average

:215
:71.66

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Viva questions:
1) What is an array?
An array is a collection of data of same data type. The elements of the
array are stored in consecutive memory locations.
The array elements can be processed using its index.
2) What is the starting index of an array in C?
The starting index of an array in C is 0.
3) What are the types of array?

One dimensional array

Two dimensional array

Multidimensional array.

4) What is a two dimensional array?


Two dimensional is n array of one dimensional array. The elements in the
array are referenced with the help of its row and column index.
5) What are the advantages of the functions?

Debugging is easier

It is easier to understand the logic involved in the program

Testing is easier

Recursive call is possible

Irrelevant details in the user point of view are hidden in functions

Functions are helpful in generalizing the program

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

6ATofindminimumoftwonumbersusingfunction

Aim:
Devise a function called min (x , y) that returns the smaller of two double
values. Test the function with a simple data.

Flow chart:

start

Read X,Y
min(X,Y)

mm =Call
min(X,Y)

False
If (X<Y)

Return Y

B
True
Return X

Print mm

Stop

Algorithm:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Define main Function & Declare all variables required.


Define a function prototype called double min(double,double).
Read two values X,Y.
Call Function min(X,Y) and store the return value in a variable.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

5. Print the result.


6. In Function Definition
Check the smallest number by using a relational Operator(<).
Return the smallest value to step 6.

Program:
/* Program to write a function to find minimum value */
#include<conio.h>
#include<stdio.h>
/* Main Function */
void main()
{
double x,y,mm;
double min(double,double);
/* Function Prototype */
clrscr();
printf("Enter the value of x:");
scanf("%lf",&x);
printf("Enter the value of y:");
scanf("%lf",&y);
mm=min(x,y);
/* Calling the function min(a,b) */
printf("\n\n\tThe minimum of %.4lf and %.4lf is %.4lf",x,y,mm);
getch();
}
/* Function to return the minimum of two numbers */
double min(double a,double b)
{
if(a<b)
return(a);
else
return(b);
}

Output 1:
Enter the value of x:45.565
Enter the value of y:32.23
The minimum of 45.5650 and 32.2300 is 32.2300
Output 2:
Enter the value of x:-1.2
Enter the value of y:1.2
The minimum of -1.2000 and 1.2000 is -1.2000

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

6BTocalculatefactorialusingrecursivefunction
Aim:
To calculate the factorial of given number using recursive function.

Flow chart:

Start

Read N
Factorial
(N)

Call
F=Factorial(N)

False
Return
N*Factorial(N
1)

If
(N<2)
B
True
Return N
Print f

Stop

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Algorithm:
1. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
2. Define a Function prototype with one argument and return value.
3. Read an integer value and store it in a variable .
4. Call the function called factorial( ) and pass the value as argument.
5. Print the return value.
In function Definition
A)

Calculate the value for given number.


N*factorial(N - 1);
Repeat step A until n becomes 0 or 1.

Program:
/* Program to find Factorial of Given No: using Recursive Function */
#include <stdio.h>
/*Function Declaration with one argument and with return value */
long factorial(long);
/* Main Function */
void main()
{
long number=0,f;
clrscr();
printf("\nEnter an integer value: ");
scanf("%ld",&number);
f=factorial(number);

/* Calling Function */

printf("\nThe Factorial of %ld is %ld\n",number,f);


getch();
}
/* Recursive factorial function */
long factorial(long N)
{
if(N<2)

/* Terminating Condition */

return N;
else
return N*factorial(N-1);

/* Recursive call */

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Output:
Enter an integer value:
6
The Factorial of 6 is 720

Viva Questions
1) What is a function?
Functions are group of statements that can perform a task.
Functions reduce the amount of coding and the functions can be called
from another program.
2) Write the syntax of a function definition.
return-value-type function-name( parameter-list )
{
declarations and statements
}

Function-name: any valid identifier

Return-value-type: data type of the result (default int)

void indicates that the function returns nothing

Parameter-list: comma separated list, declares parameters

A type must be listed explicitly for each parameter unless,


the parameter is of type int

3) What is a recursive function?


A function that calls itself is called a recursive function.
4) How the functions can be called?

Call by value
o Copy of argument passed to function
o Changes in function do not effect original
o Use when function does not need to modify argument
o Avoids accidental changes
Call by reference
o Passes original argument
o Changes in function effect original
o Only used with trusted functions

5) What is the use of return statement?


The return statement is used to exit from the function and return a
value.

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

7ATocalculatethenumberofvowelsinastring
Aim:
Write a C program to find the number of vowels present in the string.
[Assume your string contains both uppercase and lowercase characters]

Algorithm:
1. Begin a program with a comment line.
2. Include Header Files for standard input output function.
3. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
4. Assign the vowels to an array variable.
A[ ] = aeiouAEIOU
5. Get the String and store it in a variable
6. In a nested for Loop
* Check the given string is equal to the value assigned in the array
variable.
* This is done until the string becomes NULL(\o)
* If the character in a string is equal increment the COUNT variable
by 1.
7. Print the Count variable which gives the result.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow chart:

Start

Leta[]={aeiouAEIOU}

Count=0

Read string str

len=strlen(str)

False
For i=0 to len-1
True
False
For j=0 to 9
True
False
If
(str[i]==a[j]

True
A

Count ++

Print the count

Stop
M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

Page45

C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* Program to count No:of Vowels in a String */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
char *str;
char a[]="aeiouAEIOU";
int i,j,count=0;
clrscr();
printf("\nEnter the string\n");
gets(str);
for(i=0;str[i]!='\0';i++)
for(j=0;a[j]!='\0';j++)
if(a[j] == str[i])
{
count++;
break;
}
printf("\n %d vowels are present in the string -> %s",count,str);
getch();
}

Output:
Enter the String
Programming
3 Vowels are present in the string -> Programming

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

7BTofindgivenstringispalindromeornot
Aim:
Write a program to find whether a given string is palindrome or not.

Algorithm:
1. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
2. Let flag =0
3. Read a String and Find the Length of the String as n.
4. Using a for loop check the character str[i] and str[n-1-i].
5. if equal
continue the for loop until i=n/2
else
set flag=1 and break the for loop.
6. If flag =0
Print The string is Palindrome
Else
Print The string is not palindrome
7. Stop

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flowchart
Start

Flag =0

Read
string

N= length(str)
False

For i =0 to n/2
True
If str[i] !=
False

str[n-1-i]
True
Flag =1

False
If flag = 0

Print Not
Palindrome
True

Print
Palindrome

Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

Page48

C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program
/* Program to find whether the string is Palindrome */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<ctype.h>
void main()
{
char str[20];
int n,i,flag=0;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the string:");
gets(str);
n=strlen(str);

//calculate string length

/* Loop to check the characters*/


for(i=0;i<n/2;i++)
if(toupper(str[i])!=toupper(str[n-1-i]))
{
flag=1;
break;
}
/* Check the result*/
if(flag==0)
printf("\n\tThe string %s is a palindrome",str);
else
printf("\n\tThe string %s is not a palindrome",str);
getch();
}

Output:
Enter the String
malayalam
The Given String is Palindrome
Enter the String
TamilNadu
The Given String is not Palindrome

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

Page49

C and Data Structures Lab Manual

7CToconvertthelowercaseintouppercase
Aim:
Read a string, which consists of both lower case characters and upper case
characters. Convert the lowercase character into upper case and vice versa.
Display the new string

Algorithm:
1. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
2. Read a String and Find the Length of the String.
3. Check the characters ASCII value whether it lies between 97 and 122.
4. If the Condition is true
a. Change the ASCII value of the character by subtracting 32
5. Else check the ASCII value lies between 65 and 90
a. If the condition becomes true
i. Add 32 to the value for the character.
6. Repeat the step 4 & step 5 until the length of the string becomes NULL.
7. Print the result.
8. Stop.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow chart:

Start

Read string str

len=strlen(str)
False
For i=0 to len-1
True
If (str[i]>=65
&&str[i]<=90)

False

False

True
A

If (str[i]>=97
&&str[i]<=122

Str[i]=str[i]+32

True
Str[i]=str[i]-32

Print the string

Stop

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:

/* Convert the lowercase character into upper case and vice versa. */
#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
char str[20];
int i;
clrscr();
printf("\n--------INPUT---------\n");
printf("Enter any string->");
scanf("%s",str);
printf("\n\n---------OUTPUT--------\n\n");
printf("The Entered string is---->%s\n\n",str);
for(i=0;i<=strlen(str);i++)
{
if(str[i]>=65 && str[i]<=90)

/* Checking for upper case letters */

str[i]=str[i]+32;
else if(str[i]>=97 && str[i]<=122)

/* Checking for lowercase letters */

str[i]=str[i]-32;
}
printf("\nThe Converted string is---->%s",str);
getch();
}

Output:
--------INPUT--------Enter any string->jAVAiNTERFACE
---------OUTPUT-------The Entered string is---->jAVAiNTERFACE
The Converted string is---->JavaInterface

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Viva Questions:
1) What is a string?
String is a sequence of characters.
2) What is the use of getchar() and gets() functions?
The getchar() function is used to read a single character from the key
board.
The gets() function is used to read a sequence of characters from the
keyboard.
3) What is the use of puts() function?
The puts() function is used to display a string in the standard output
device.
4) What is the difference between getchar() and getch() function?
Both the functions are used to read a single character from the keyboard.
When we use getchar() the character read is displayed on the screen. When we
use getch() the character is not echoed on the screen.
5) What is the difference between strings and character arrays?
A major difference is string will have static storage duration, whereas as
a character array will not, unless it is explicity specified by using the static
keyword.
6) Give some string processing functions.
strcmp() - Used to compare two strings
strcat() Used to concatenate two string.
strlen() Returns the length of the string.
strcpy() Copies one string to another.
toupper() Converts the lowercase letters to uppercase.
tolower() Converts the uppercase letters to lower case.
7) What is the delimiter for string?
\0 is the string delimiter

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

8ADisplaythestudentsdetailusingnestedstructure
Aim:
Write a program for nested structure, the two structures are declared
within a single structure. The two inner structures are : dob ( fields : dd, mm,
yy) and address (st, cty) and the outer structure Student ( fields : rollno,
name).
Write a main program to get and display the details of N students.

Algorithm:
1. Begin a program with a comment line.
2. Include Header Files for standard input output function.
3. Define the Structure called student and structure members (Rno &
Name).
4. Define a nested structure called dob and define the structure
members(day, month & year). Also define a structure variable d.
5. Define another nested structure called address and define the structure
members (street & City). Also define a structure variable ad.
6. Define main Function & Define a structure of array variable Stu [ ].
7. Read N for number of students.
8. Get the students details by structure referencing operator (.).
Eg.,

Stu[ ].d.day
Stu[ ] .ad.street

9. Repeat step 8 until N number of values.


10. Display the students detail by structure referencing operator (.).
11. Repeat step 10 for N times.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow chart:

Start
structstudent
{

intrno;

Define the nested


structure

char name[10];
struct dob
{
int day; int year;
char mon[10];
}d;
struct address
{
char * st,*city;
}ad;

Read N
False
For i=0 to n-1

};

True
Read the details
of student[i]

False
For i=0 to n-1
True
Print the details of
student[i]

Stop
M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* program to get and display the details of N students. Using structure */

#include<stdio.h>
struct student
{
int rno;
char name[10];
struct dob
{
int day;
char mon[10];
int year;
}d;
struct address
{
char * st,*city;
}ad;
};
void main()
{
struct student stu[10];
int n,i;
clrscr();
printf("Enter No of Students....");
scanf("%d",&n);
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
printf("Student Detail No %d",i);
printf("\nEnter The Student Rno...\t");
scanf("%d",&stu[i].rno);
printf("\nEnter the Student Name...\t");
scanf("%s",stu[i].name);
printf("\nEnter the Date of Birth...\t");
printf("\n\t\tDay \t ");
scanf("%d",&stu[i].d.day);
printf("\n\t\tMonth \t");

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

scanf("%s",stu[i].d.mon);
printf("\n\t\tYear \t");
scanf("%d",&stu[i].d.year);
printf("\nEnter The Address...\n");
printf("\n\t Enter the Street Name\t");
scanf("%s",stu[i].ad.st);
printf("\n \tEnter the City Name \t");
scanf("%s",stu[i].ad.city);
}
clrscr();
printf("\n\n ----------OUTPUT----------\n\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
printf("Student No %d\n\n",i);
printf("\t\tStudent RNo\t\t");
printf("%d",stu[i].rno);
printf("\n\t\tStudent Name\t\t");
printf("%s",stu[i].name);
printf("\n\t\tDate of Birth\t\t");
printf("%d- %s - %d ",stu[i].d.day,stu[i].d.mon,stu[i].d.year);
printf("\n\t\tAddress...\n");
printf("\n\t\t\t Street \t%s",stu[i].ad.st);
printf("\n\t\t\t City

\t%s\n",stu[i].ad.city);

}
getch();
}

Output:
Enter No of Students....2
Student Detail No 0
Enter The Student Rno...
Enter the Student Name...

552001
ArunKumar

Enter the Date of Birth...


Day

06

Month

11

Year

1979

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Enter The Address...


Enter the Street Name SakthiNagar
Enter the City Name

Tenkasi

Student Detail No 1
Enter The Student Rno...

552002

Enter the Student Name...

BanuMathi.K

Enter the Date of Birth...


Day

07

Month

November

Year

1979

Enter The Address...


Enter the Street Name FirstStreet
Enter the City Name

Madurai

----------OUTPUT---------Student No 0
Student RNo
Student Name
Date of Birth

27713
ArunKumar
6- 11 - 1979

Address...
Street
City

SakthiNagar
Tenkasi

Student No 1
Student RNo
Student Name
Date of Birth

27714
BanuMathi.
7- November - 1979

Address...
Street
City

FirstStreet
Madurai

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

8BToprintthestudentsname,rollnousingunions
Aim:
Write a Program to print the student name, rollno, marks using unions.

Algorithm:
1. Begin a program with a comment line.
2. Include Header Files for standard input output function.
3. Define union called student and structure members (Rno , Name &
mark[ ]).
4. Define the main function and all variables.
5. Read the student rno and name.
6. Get 3 marks of the students and store it in a array variable(mark[ ]).
7. Print the student details.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow Chart:
Start
unionstudent
{
intrno;
char*name;
intmark[10];
}stu;

Define the union

Read rno,
name
False
For i=0 to 3
True
Read mark[i]

Read rno,
name

False
For i=0 to n-1
True
Print mark[i]

Stop

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Page60

C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* Program to print the student name, rollno, marks using unions*/

#include<stdio.h>
union student
{
int rno;
char *name;
int mark[10];
}stu;
void main()
{
int i;
clrscr();
printf("\nEnter the Student Rno :\t");
scanf("%d",&stu.rno);
printf("\nEnter the Student Name :\t");
scanf("%s",stu.name);
for(i=0;i<3;i++)
{
printf("\nEnter the Mark%d

:\t",i);

scanf("%d",&stu.mark[i]);
}
printf("\n--------OUTPUT-----------\n");
printf("Students Record:");
printf("\n\t\tRno

:");

printf("%d",stu.rno);
printf("\n\t\tName

:");

printf("%s",stu.name);
for(i=0;i<3;i++)
{
printf("\n\t\tMark%d :",i);
printf("%d",stu.mark[i]);
}
getch();
}

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Output:
Enter the Student Rno :
Enter the Student Name :
Enter the Mark0

: 87

Enter the Mark1

: 78

Enter the Mark2

: 90

100
Shiva

--------OUTPUT----------Students Record:
Rno

:87

Name

:Shiva

Mark0

:87

Mark1

:78

Mark2

:90

Viva Questions:
1) What is a structure?

Structure is a collections of related variables under one name and Can


contain variables of different data types

Commonly used to define records to be stored in files

Combined with pointers, can create linked lists, stacks, queues, and
trees

2) What is an union?

Memory that contains a variety of objects over time

Only contains one data member at a time

Members of a union share space

Conserves storage

Only the last data member defined can be accessed.

3) How the members of structures and unions can be accessed?


The Members of structures and unions can be accessed with the help of
dot operator as
Structure variablename . structure member
4) What is a nested structure?
Defining a structure within structure is called nested structure.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

9AToswaptwointegerusingpointers
Aim:
Write a program to swap two integer numbers using pointers.

Flowchart

start

Read a,b
swap(*x,*y)

Call
swap(&a,&b)

temp=x;
x=y;
y=x

Print a,b

Stop

Algorithm:
1. Begin a program with a comment line.
2. Include Header Files for standard input output function.
3. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
4. Define a function prototype swap(int*,int*) with two pointer argument.
5. Read two values as input.
6. Print the two values before swapping process.

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7. Function call by passing the address using referencing operator (&).


8. Print two numbers after swapping process.
9. Function Definition
* Assign the first value to a temporary variable (temp)
* Change the pointer value of first number to second number.
* Now change the temp value to the first value.

Program:
/*

Program to Swap two Numbers Using Pointers */

#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
int a,b;
/* Function Declaration with two arguments */
void swap(int*,int*);
clrscr();
printf("Enter the First Number\n");
scanf("%d",&a);
printf("Enter the Second Number\n");
scanf("%d",&b);
printf(" Result Before Swapping...\n");
printf("A=== %d\n",a);
printf("B=== %d\n",b);
swap(&a,&b);

/* Call of Function */

printf(" Result After Swapping...\n");


printf("A=== %d\n",a);
printf("B=== %d\n",b);
getch();
}
/* Function Definition */
void swap(int *x, int *y)
{
int temp;
temp = *x;

/* contents of pointer */

*x = *y;
*y = temp;
}

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Output:
Enter the First Number
28
Enter the Second Number
42
Result Before Swapping
A=== 28
B=== 42
Result After Swapping
A=== 42
B=== 28

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

9BToreadastringusepointer
Aim:

Read a string. Print the above string such that each line contains a single

character. ( Use pointers)

Flow chart:

Start

Declare
char*ptr,*str,c

Read str

ptr=str;
len=strlen(ptr)

For i=0 to len1


Print *ptr

ptr++

Stop

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Algorithm:
1. Begin a program with a comment line.
2. Include Header Files for standard I/O function and string function.
3. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
4. Get the string to print character by character.
5. Find the length of the string.
6. Assign the first pointer address content to the character variable.
7. Print the character variable.
8. Repeat step 6 and step 7 until length of the string becomes 0.

Program:
/* Program to Print the string such that each line contains a single character */

#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
void main()
{
int i,len;
char *str,c,*ptr;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the String\n");
scanf("%s",str);
ptr=str;
len=strlen(ptr);
printf("---------OUTPUT----------\n\n");
printf("Entered String is --> %s\t\n\n",str);
printf("Output character by character....\n");
for(i=0;i<len;i++)
{
c=*ptr;
printf("%c\n",c);
ptr++;
}
getch();
}

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Output:
Enter the String
programming
---------OUTPUT---------Entered String is --> programming
Output character by character....
p
r
o
g
r
a
m
m
i
n
g

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

9CToprinttheelementsinreverseorderusingpointers
Aim:
Read an integer array consist of N elements. Print the elements in reverse
order using pointers

Algorithm:
1. Begin a program with a comment line.
2. Include Header Files for standard I/O function.
3. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
4. Get the array number N.
5. Read N number of elements and store it in the array variable num[ ] ).
6. Print the array list.
7. Print the value using pointer operator *.
8. Repeat step 7 for N times from N to 0.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow Chart:

Start

Read N
False
For i=0 to n-1
True
Read (num+i)

False
For i=0 to n-1
True
Print *(num+i)

False
For i=n-1 to 0
True
Read *(num +i)
)

Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* Program to print the elements in reverse order using pointers */
#include <stdio.h>
void main()
{
int i,n,num[10];
clrscr();
printf("Enter the number of elements in the array:");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("Enter the Array Numbers\n");
for (i= 0; i<n; i++ )
scanf("%d",num+i);
printf("\n\nThe Array Numbers are...\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("%5d",*(num+i));
printf("\n\nReversed Array List ...\n");
for (i = n-1; i >= 0; i-- )
printf("%5d",*( num+i));
getch();
}

Output:
Enter the number of elements in the array:5
Enter the Array Numbers
23

78

45

23

The Array Numbers are...


23

78

45

23

Reversed Array List ...


8

23

45

78

23

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

10AToreadanarrayusingpointer

Aim:
Write a C program to read through an array of any type using pointers.
Write a C program to scan through this array to find a particular value

Algorithm:
1. Begin a program with a comment line.
2. Include Header Files for standard I/O function, Conversion and String
function.
3. Define a function prototype called search( ).
4. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
5. Allocate dynamic memory for a variable using malloc( ) function.
6. Read a string.
7. Repeat step 5 and step 6 until n number of array elements.
8. Print the array elements.
9. Call the function Search ( ) by passing N number of strings.
10 .In function Definition
*Define a temporary variable and allocate the memory space using
malloc( ).
* Read the String to search and store it in the temporary variable.
* Check the value with the array element by using string compare
function.
* If they are equal set flag = 0 else set flag = 1.
11. Check the condition if flag = 0 Print the value is found. Otherwise print
the value given to search is not found.

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Flowchart

Start

Define a string
pointer array

Read the string


using while loop

Print the array

Call
read
Return

False

If
flag=0

PrintStringNot
Found

True
Print String
Found

Stop

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Read

Read the string to be


searched (Temp)

No

For all elements


in string array
Yes

If
(strcmp(str[
i] , temp)

True

False

Flag=0

return

Flag=1

Program:
/* Pointer and Array of any data type to search a given value */
# include<stdio.h>
# include<string.h>
# include<ctype.h>
int flag;
/* FUNCTION PROTOTYPE */
int search(char **, int );
/* Function main */
void main( )
{
char choice;

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int i, n = 0;
char *string[100];
clrscr();
do
{
string[n] = (char *) malloc(50);
printf("Input string: ");
gets(string[n]);
n++;
printf("\n Input another Y/N? ");
choice = getchar();
fflush(stdin);
}while(toupper(choice) == 'Y');
printf("\nArray list \n");
printf("********** \n");
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
{
printf("%s\n", string[i]);
}
/* Function CALL */
search(string, n);
if (flag==0)
printf("The String Given is FOUND");
else
printf("The String Given is Not Found");
getch();
}
/* Definition of function */
int search(char **str, int n)
{
int i,j;
char *temp[10] ;
temp[0]= (char *)malloc(50);
printf("Enter the string to Find\n");

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

gets(temp);
printf("\nThe String to Find\n");
puts(temp);
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
if(strcmp(str[i],temp)==0)
flag=0;
else
flag=1;
}
return(flag);
}

Output:
Input string: Mani
Input another Y/N? y
Input string: Raaju
Input another Y/N? y
Input string: 123
Input another Y/N? y
Input string: 56.34
Input another Y/N? n
Array list
**********
Mani
Raaju
123
56.34
Enter the string to Find
56.34
The String to Find
56.34
The String Given is FOUND

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

10BTofindthelengthofthestringusingpointer

Aim:
To find the length of the string using pointer.

Flow chart:
Start

x=0

Read str
False
While(*str!=0)
True
x++;
str++;

Stop

Algorithm:
1. Begin a program with a comment line.
2. Include Header Files for standard input output function.
3. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.

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4. Read the String.


5. Increase the pointer value of the variable using increment operator.
6. The count variable is incremented by 1.
7. Repeat step 5 and step until the string pointer is NULL.
8. Print the counted numbers which is the length of the string.

Program:
/* Program to Find Length of Strings using Pointers */
#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
int x;
char *str;
x=0;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the String\n");
scanf("%s",str);
printf("Length of %s is ",str);
while (*str != '\0')
{
x++;
str++;
}
printf("%d",x);
getch();
}

Output:
Enter the String
Programming
Length of Programming is 11

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

10CToconcatenatetwostringusingpointer
Aim:
To concatenate two string using pointer

Algorithm:
1. Begin a program with a comment line.
2. Include Header Files for standard input output function.
3. Define main Function & Declare all variables required.
4. Read two strings s1 and s2
5. Move to the end of first string using a temporary pointer.
6. Add the second string to the end of first string pointed by
temporary variable.
7. Print the concatenated string s1

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow Chart:
Start

Declare
char*s1,*s2,*temp

Read s1,s2

temp=s1

While
(*temp!=\0)

False

True
temp++;

While
(*s2!=\0)

False

True
*temp=*s2
temp++
s2++

Print s1

Stop

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* String Concatenation */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
char *s1,*s2,*temp;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the first string:");
gets(s1);
printf("Enter the second string:");
gets(s2);
printf("\n\tThe string s1 before concatenation:%s",s1);
printf("\n\tThe string s2 before concatenation:%s",s2);
temp=s1;
while(*temp!='\0') /* Move to end of string1 */
temp++;
while(*s2!='\0')

/* Add second string to the end of string2 */

{
*temp=*s2;
temp++;
s2++;
}
*temp='\0';
printf("\n\tThe concatenated string s1:%s",s1);
getch();
}

Output:
Enter the first string:Operating
Enter the second string:System
The string s1 before concatenation:Operating
The string s2 before concatenation:System
The concatenated string s1:OperatingSystem

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Viva Questions:
1) What is a pointer?
Pointer is a variable that holds the address of another variable.
2) What is called the indirection operators?
* is called the indirection operator since it is used to indirectly access the
value of a variable through its pointer.
3) What are the advantages of pointer?

As pointer enables us to access a variable that is defined outside the


function.

Pointers are more efficient in handling arrays.

Pointers reduce the program length and complexity of the program.

Pointers increase the execution speed.

Use of pointers to character strings results in saving of data storage


space in memory.

4) What is the use of void pointer?


Void pointer is used to point a variable of any data type.
5) What is the relationship between arrays and pointer?
The arrays can be easily manipulated with the help of the pointers of
appropriate type. The array name can be assigned to a pointer and the
elements in the array can be accessed by incrementing the pointer.
For example:
int a[5]= {2,3,6,7,1};
int *p=a;
Then

*p=a[0];
*(p+1)=a[1];
*(p+2)=a[2];
*(p+3)=a[3]
*(p+4)=a[4];

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Ex11ATocreateandPrintSinglyLinkedListofVowels

Aim:
To write a C program to create a linked list to contain the vowels a, e,
i, o, u in the data field of the nodes.

Algorithm:
1. Define the structure of the node.
2. Define function to get a new node
This function allocates memory for the node structure defined and
returns the pointer to that node say newnode.
3. Define function insafter( p,x) to insert a node after a given node.
Let the address for the previous node be prenode and data to be
inserted as X

Get a new node newnode

newnodedata=X

newnodenext= prenode next

prenodenext=newnode

Return the address of the new node

4. Define the function to create the list.

Store the vowels in a character array.

Get a new node and save its address.

Store the first data. Let the next field be NULL.

Store the remaining data in the link list by using the


function insafter( ) that inserts a node after the given
node.

5. Define a function Show to print the linked list.


6. Define the main function that calls the function to create the list and to
print the list.
7. Stop.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow Chart:
Start

Define Array vowels


{ a, e, i, o, u}

i=0

Get a new node

Store the data vowel[i] in the


data field

Set the link field as


NULL

Add the node to the


list

i = i +1

True
If i<6
False
Print the List

Stop

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/*

To create and print linked list */

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
/* Node structure definition */
struct node
{
char data;
struct node *next;
};
typedef struct node *nodeptr;
nodeptr prenode,first;
/* Get node Function */
nodeptr getnode()
{
nodeptr d;
=(nodeptr) malloc(sizeof(struct node));
return d;
}
/*

Function for insertion after a node

*/

nodeptr insafter(nodeptr p,char x)


{
nodeptr newnode;
if (p==NULL)
{
printf("\n Void insertion:");
exit(1);
}
newnode=getnode();
newnode->data=x;
newnode->next=prenode->next;
prenode->next=newnode;
return newnode;
}

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

void createlist()

/* Function for creation */

{
char vow[]={'a','e','i','o','u'};
int i;
prenode=first=getnode();
prenode->data=vow[0];
prenode->next=NULL;
fflush(stdin);
for(i=1;i<6;i++)
prenode=insafter(prenode,vow[i]);
}
void show()

/*

Function for displaying the list

*/

{
prenode=first;
while (prenode->next!= NULL)
{
printf("%c---->",prenode->data);
prenode=prenode->next;
}
printf("NULL");
}
void main()

/* Main Function */

{
clrscr();
createlist();
printf("\nThe created List");
printf("\n*****************\n\n");
show();
getch();
}

Output:
The created List
**************
a---->e---->i---->o---->u---->NULL

M.S.P.V.LPolytechnicCollege,Pavoorchatram

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

11B
Aim:

Todeletethefirstnodeinthelinkedlistofintegers

To write a C program to delete the first node that contains an integer

data item of a single linked list.

Algorithm:
1. Define functions getnode(), insafter() and createlist() to get a new
node, insert a node after a node and create the linked list respectively.
2. The first pointer points the address of the first node.
3. Define a function delfirst() that deletes the first node and returns the
data in the first node using the algorithm given below.

Store the data pointed by the first node in a variable.

Make

first

pointer

to

point

the

next

node

as

first=firstnext.

Return the address of the new first node.

4. Define a function show to print the linked list.


5. Define the main function as

Create the linked list using the function createlist().

Print the list using the function show().

Delete the first node using the function delfirst().

Print the list using the function show().

6. Stop.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow Chart:
Start

Read the
data

Get a new node

Store the data in


the data field

Set the link field


as NULL

Add the node to


the list

Yes

More
data?
No
Print the
List

Delete the first node by


adjusting the first
i
Print the

Stop
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Page88

C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/*

To create and print linked list */

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
/* Node structure definition */
struct node
{
int data;
struct node *next;
};
typedef struct node *nodeptr;
nodeptr prenode,first;
/* Get node Function */
nodeptr getnode()
{
nodeptr d;
d=(nodeptr) malloc(sizeof(struct node));
return d;
}
/*

Function for insertion after a node

*/

nodeptr insafter(nodeptr p,int x)


{
nodeptr newnode;
if (prenode==NULL)
{
printf("\n Void insertion:");
exit(1);
}
newnode=getnode();
newnode->data=x;
newnode->next=prenode->next;
prenode->next=newnode;
return newnode;
}

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

/* Function for creation */


void createlist()
{
int no;
char ans='y';
prenode=first=getnode();
printf("\n Enter the data:");
scanf("%d",&no);
prenode->data=no;
prenode->next=NULL;
fflush(stdin);
while(ans=='y' || ans=='Y')
{
printf("\n Any more data(Y/N)?:");
fflush(stdin);
ans=getchar();
if(ans=='Y' || ans=='y')
{
printf("\n Enter the data:");
scanf("%d",&no);
prenode=insafter(prenode,no);
}
else
break;
}
}
/* Function to delete the first node */
int delfirst()
{
int x;
x=first->data;
first=first->next;
return x;
}

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

/*

Function for displaying the list

*/

void show()
{
prenode=first;
while (prenode!= NULL)
{
printf("%d---->",prenode->data);
prenode=prenode->next;
}
printf("NULL");
}
/* Main Function */
void main()
{
int del;
clrscr();
printf("\n Creating the list");
printf("\n******************");
createlist();
printf("\n Displaying the list");
printf("\n--------------------\n\n");
show();
del=delfirst();
printf("\n\n\nThe list after deleting the first node");
printf("\n---------------------------------------\n\t");
show();
printf("\n\nThe deleted data %d",del);
getch();
}

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Output:
Creating the list
**************
Enter the data:5
Any more data(Y/N)?:y
Enter the data:34
Any more data(Y/N)?:y
Enter the data:23
Any more data(Y/N)?:y
Enter the data:1
Any more data(Y/N)?:n
Displaying the list
-------------------5---->34---->23---->1---->NULL

The list after deleting the first node


--------------------------------------34---->23---->1---->NULL
The deleted data 5

Viva Questions:
1) What is data structure?
An organization and representation of data is called data structure.
2) What are the two types of data structure?
Data structures can be classified into two types
a) Linear data structures
b) Non-linear data structures

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

3) What is the linear structure?


In linear data structure the elements are stored in sequential order. The
linear data structures are

Array

Linked list

Stack

Queue

4) What is a linked list?


Linked list: Linked list is a collection of data of same data type but the
data items need not be stored in consecutive memory locations.

A Linked list with 3 Nodes


5) What are the operations that can be performed on a linked list?

Insertion

Deletion

Searching

6) What are the possible locations where the data can be inserted into a
linked list?
Data can be inserted into the linked list in the beginning, in the
middle and at the end.
7) What are the possible locations where the data can be deleted in a
linked list?
Data can be deleted from the first, from the last and from the
middle.
8) What is a doubly linked list or two way list?
The linked list which has two pointer which points to the previous node
and the next node is called a doubly linked list.
When we use doubly linked lilst we can traverse the node in both the
directions.
9) What is a circular list?
The linked list in which the last node points back to the first node is called
circular list.

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

12 ToperformstackoperationsinStackusingarray
Aim:
To write a C program to perform operations in stack using array.

Algorithm:
1. Declare the structure of stack with an array of size 20 to hold the stack
and the initialize top =-1
2. Define a function push( ) to add the data to the stack as
 Check if the stack is full if so display Stack Full and return.
 Otherwise
Increment the top value.
 Store the data in the stack[top] and return
3. Define a function pop( ) that deletes the value in the top of the stack
as
 If top=-1 print Stack Empty and return
 Otherwise Print the element at stack[top] and decrement top
value and return
4.

Define a function show that prints the elements in the stack.

5. Define the main function as


 Display the menu to the user
1 - Push
2 - Pop
3 List the stack
4 Exit
 Get the choice from the user

If choice =1 read the data and add it to the stack


using push( ) function.

If the choice = 2 delete the data from the stack using


pop ( ) function.

If the choice is 3 display the data in the stack.

If choice = 4 exit from the program

Else repeat the above steps.

6. Stop

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Flow chart:

Start

Declare stack array


Top=-1

Display the menu


1 Push
2 Pop
3 List the stack
4 Exit
C
Read users
choice

Switch
Choice

Choice=1

Read X

Print
Stack

Choice=2
B
Choice=3
Choice=4

Stop

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Push:

If
top=20

Top=top+1
Stack[top]=X

Print Stack
Full

Pop
B

If
top=1

Print
stack[top]

Top=top-1
Print Stack
Emptyl

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Page96

C and Data Structures Lab Manual

Program:
/* stack using array */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
/*Structure to hold the stack*/
struct stack
{
int a[20];
int top;
}s;
/*Function to add element to the stack*/
void push(int x)
{
if(s.top==20)
printf("Stack full");
else
{
s.top++;
s.a[s.top]=x;
printf("\n\tData is added to stack\n");
}
}
/*Function to delete element from the stack*/
void pop()
{
int x;
if(s.top==-1)
{
printf("\n\tStack empty");
}
else
{
printf("\n\tThe deleted data is %d",s.a[s.top]);
s.top--;
}
}

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

/*Function to display the stack data*/


void show()
{
int i;
if(s.top==-1)
{
printf("\nStack Empty");
}
else
{
printf("\nThe stack elements");
printf("\n-------------------\n\t");
for(i=0;i<=s.top;i++)
printf("%d\t",s.a[i]);
printf("<---top\n");
}
}
/*Main function*/
void main()
{
int ch,data;
clrscr();
s.top=-1;
do
{
printf("\n\t\t\t Menu");
printf("\n\t\t1->Push");
printf("\n\t\t2->Pop");
printf("\n\t\t3->List stack");
printf("\n\t\t4->Exit");
printf("\nEnter your choice:");
scanf("%d",&ch);

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switch(ch)
{
case 1:

printf("Enter the data:");

scanf("%d",&data);
push(data);
break;
case 2: pop();
break;
case 3: show();
break;
case 4: exit(0);
}
}while(ch<4);
getch();
}

Output:
Menu
1->Push
2->Pop
3->List stack
4->Exit
Enter your choice:1
Enter the data:67
Data is added to stack
Menu
1->Push
2->Pop
3->List stack
4->Exit
Enter your choice:1
Enter the data:11
Data is added to stack
Menu

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

1->Push
2->Pop
3->List stack
4->Exit
Enter your choice:3
The stack elements
------------------------67

11

<---top
Menu

1->Push
2->Pop
3->List stack
4->Exit
Enter your choice:2
The deleted data is 11
Menu
1->Push
2->Pop
3->List stack
4->Exit
Enter your choice:3
The stack elements
-----------------------67

<---top
Menu
1->Push
2->Pop
3->List stack
4->Exit

Enter your choice:4

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C and Data Structures Lab Manual

13Toconvertinfixtopostfixusingstack
Aim:
To write a C program to convert an infix expression into post fix
expression.

Algorithm:
1. Define a stack of to hold the characters.
2. Initialize stack top = -1.
3. Read the infix expression.
4. Add ) to the end of the infix expression.
5. Push ( to the stack.
6. Scan the infix expression from left to right and repeat the step 7 for all
the characters in the infix expression.

7. If the character is an operand

Add it to the postfix expression

If the character is (

Push it to the stack

If the character is )

Repeatedly Pop the characters from the stack and add it


to the postfix expression until ) is encountered.

Pop )

If the character is an operator

If the precedence of the character

is lesser than or

equal to the precedence of the operator in the top of the


stack repeatedly pop the characters from the stack and
add it to the post fix expression till an operator of higher
precedence is encountered.

Push the operator to the top of the stack.

8. Print the postfix expression.


9. Stop.

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Flow chart:

Start

Declarethestack
Top=1

Read infix
expression

Add ) to the end


of infix expression

Push ( to the stack

False

For each
character in

Print Postfix
Expression

True
Switch
Character

Stop

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Character=Operand

Character = (

Add to postfix
expression

Push the
character to the
t k

Repeatedly Pop the characters


fromthestackandaddittothe
postfix
expression
till
stack[top]=(.
Pop(

Character = )

Character is an

If the precedence of the character less


than or equal to the precedence of the
operator on stack top Pop the character
from the stack and add it to the postfix
expression till operator of higher
precedenceisreached.
P h h
h
k

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Program:
/* Program to convert infix to postfix using stack */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<alloc.h>
#include<ctype.h>
#include<string.h>
/*Stack declaration*/
struct stack
{
char a[20];
int top;

//Array to hold the stack


// Top pointer

}s;
/*Function to push the data into stack*/
void push(char c)
{
if(s.top==20)
printf("Stack full");
else
{
s.top++;
s.a[s.top]=c;
}
}
/*Function to pop the data from the stack*/
char pop()
{
char x;
if(s.top==-1)
{
return '0';
}
else
{
x=s.a[s.top];
s.top--;

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return x;
}
}
char tops()

/*Function that returns top of the stack*/

{
if(s.top==-1)
return '#';
else
return(s.a[s.top]);
}
int preced(char c)

/*Function that returns the precedence of operator*/

{
if(c=='+' || c=='-')
return 1;
else if(c=='*' || c=='/')
return 2;
else
return 3;
}
/*Function to check the operator precendence*/
int islow (char c,char d)
{
if(preced(c)<=preced(d))
return 1;
else
return 0;
}
/*Function check whether the character is an operator*/
int isoperator(char c)
{
if(c=='+' || c=='-' || c=='*' || c=='/' || c=='^')
return 1;
else
return 0;
}

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/*Main function*/
void main()
{
char infix[20],post[20],c;
int len,i,j;
clrscr();
s.top=-1;
printf("Enter the infix expression:");
gets(infix);
len=strlen(infix);
infix[len]=')';

//Add ')' at the end

infix[++len]='\0';
i=j=0;
push('(');

//Push '(' to the stack

do
{
c=infix[i];
if(isalpha(c)) //Check whether the character is an alphabet
{
post[j]=c;
j++;
}
else if(c=='(')
{
push(c);
}
else if(isoperator(c))
{
while(isoperator(tops()) && islow(c,tops()))
{
post[j]=pop();
j++;
}
push(c);
}

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else if(c==')')
{
while (tops()!='(')
{
post[j]=pop();
j++;
}
pop();
}
i++;
}while(tops()!='#');
post[j]='\0';
printf("\nPostfix form is %s",post);
getch();
}

Output 1:
Enter the infix expression:(a+b)*(c+d)
Postfix form is ab+cd+*

Output 2:
Enter the infix expression:a+b/c+d
Postfix form is abc/+d+

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14EvaluationofPostfixExpression
Aim:
To write a C program to evaluate a postfix expression.

Algorithm:
1. Declare the structure for the stack.
2. Read the postfix expression.
3. Repeatedly execute the following for all the characters in the
expression from left to right

If the character is a number


 Then convert the character to integer by subtracting 0
from the character.
 Push the integer value into the stack.

If the character is a operator


 Pop two values from the stack and perform the
operation and store the result to stack.

4. The stack top has the result. Pop it and Print.


5. Stop.

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Flowchart
Start
Declare the
k
Read the
infix

For each
character in infix
i
True
If
Character

False

Pop two operands from the


stack.
Perform the operation.
Store the result in the stack

Push (character -0 ) into


the stack

Pop the top of the


stack and print
the result

Stop

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Program:
/* Evaluation of postfix expression */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<math.h>
#include<ctype.h>
#include<conio.h>
/* Declaration of stack */
struct stack
{
int top;
float a[20];
}s;
/* Main Function */
void main()
{
int i,n;
float op1,op2,op3;
char ex[20];
clrscr();
s.top=-1;
printf("\n\n\tEnter the postfix expression:");
gets(ex);
n=strlen(ex);
for (i=0;i<n;i++)
{
if (isdigit(ex[i]))
{
s.top++;
s.a[s.top]=ex[i]-'0';//To covert character into integer
}
else
{
op2=s.a[s.top--];
op1=s.a[s.top--];

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switch(ex[i])
{
case '+':op3=op1+op2;
break;
case '-':op3=op1-op2;
break;
case '*':op3=op1*op2;
break;
case '/':op3=op1/op2;
break;
case '^':op3=pow(op1,op2);
break;
}
s.a[++s.top]=op3;
}
}
printf("\n\t The result of (%s) is %.2f",ex,s.a[s.top]);
getch();
}

Output 1:
Enter the postfix expression:34*78+*
The result of (34*78+*) is 180.00

Output 2:
Enter the postfix expression:145*+
The result of (145*+) is 21.00

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Viva Questions
1) What is stack?
A stack is a Last-In-First-Out linear data structure in which insertion and
deletion takes place at only one end called the top of the stack.
2) What are the operations that can be performed on the stack?
PUSH To add a new element to the top of the stack
POP To remove an element at the top of the stack.
3) What are the applications of the stack?

The stack data structure is used in applications where Last-In-FirstOut operations are carried out.

Stack is used in implementing subroutine calls, recursion, evaluation


of arithmetic expression, compilers etc.

4) What is an arithmetic expression?


An arithmetic expression is a collection of operators and operands.
5) What is infix, postfix, prefix notation?

Infix Notation: If the operator appears between the operands is


called infix notation
Example: A+B

Postfix Notation ( Reverse Polish notation):If the operator


comes after the operand then the notation is called postfix
notation.
Example: AB+

Prefix Notation(Polish notation): If the operator comes before


the operand then the notation is called prefix notation.
Example: +AB

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6) What is the infix, prefix , post fix form of the following expression?
a) A + B + C
Infix

b) (A+B) * (C+D)

c) A-B / C-D

Postfix

Prefix

A+B+ C

AB+C+

++ABC

(A+B) * (C+D)

AB+CD+*

*+AB+CD

A-B / C-D

ABC/-D-

--A/BCD

7) Features of Prefix and Postfix expression:

The operands are in the same order as the infix notation.

Parenthesis is not needed to represent the precedence of operation

The priority of operators is irrelevant.

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15

ImplementationofQueueusingarray

Aim:
To write a C program to perform operations in queue using array.

Algorithm:
1. Declare the array to hold the queue elements and the variables to hold
the front and rear index.
2. Define functions to insert data into the rear end of queue as

If the rear=Q-SIZE-1 then


Print Queue Full
Else
Rear=Rear+1.
Store the s=date in the rear position
Print the queue

3. Define functions to delete the data from the queue

If front=rear
Print Queue Empty
Else
front=front+1
Print the deleted element and the queue

4.

Define function to print the elements in the queue.

5.

Define main function

Initialize front = rear =-1

Create a queue with elements

Display the menu to the user


1->Insertion
2->Deletion
3->Exit

Get the users choice


If choice = 1 call the function to add element
If choice = 2 call the function to delete the element
If choice = 3 then Exit the program

Repeat the step 5 till choice = 3.

6. Stop

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Flow chart:
Start

Declare Queue array


Front=Rear=-1

Createaqueue
ofNelemnets

Displaythemenu
1Add
2Delete

3 Exit
C
Read users
choice

Switch
Choice

Choice=1
A
Choice=2
B
Choice=3

Stop
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Add element in a queue:


A

False

If

Read X

Rear=QSize1

True

Rear=rear+1
q[rear]=X

Print Stack
Full

Print Queue

DeleteElementsintheQueue
B

If
Front=rear

False
Front=front+1

True
Print
Queue

Printq[rear]
Print Queue

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Program:
/* Inserting and deleting elements from the queue */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#define Q_SIZE 20
/*Declaration of array for queue*/
struct queue
{
int a[Q_SIZE];
int front,rear;
}q;
/* Function to insert element into the queue */
void insert()
{
int x;
if (q.rear==Q_SIZE-1)
printf("\n\nQueue full. Insertion not possible");
else
{
printf("\n Enter data to insert:");
scanf("%d",&x);
q.rear++;
q.a[q.rear]=x;
}
}
/*Function to delete the elements in the queue */
void deleteq()
{
if(q.front==q.rear)
printf("\n\nQueue is empty. Deletion not possible:");
else
{
++q.front;
printf("\n\n The deleted element is %d",q.a[q.front]);
}
}

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/*Function to display the elements in the queue*/


void show()
{
int i;
if (q.front==q.rear)
printf("\n\nQueue Empty\n");
else
{
printf("\n\n The elements in the queue:\n");
printf("******************************\n");
printf("\tFront--->");
for(i=q.front+1;i<=q.rear;i++)
printf("%d ",q.a[i]);
printf("<---Rear\n");
}
}
/* Main program*/
void main()
{
int n,i,ch;
clrscr();
q.front=q.rear=-1;
printf("\n No. of elements initially in the queue:");
scanf("%d",&n);
/* Creating a queue with n elements */
for (i=0;i<n;i++)
{
q.rear++;
printf("\n\tEnter the element:");
scanf("%d,",&q.a[i]);
}
show();
while(1)
{
printf("\n\n\t\t Select your choice:");
printf("\n\t1->Insertion");

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printf("\n\t2->Deletion");
printf("\n\t3->Exit");
printf("\n\nEnter your choice:");
scanf("%d",&ch);
switch (ch)
{
case 1:insert();
show();
break;
case 2:deleteq();
show();
break;
case 3:exit(0);
}
}
}

Output:
No. of elements initially in the queue:3
Enter the element:2
Enter the element:4
Enter the element:5
The elements in the queue:
***********************
Front--->2 4 5 <---Rear
Select your choice:
1->Insertion
2->Deletion
3->exit
Enter your choice:1
Enter data to insert:45
The elements in the queue:
***********************
Front--->2 4 5 45 <---Rear

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Select your choice:


1->Insertion
2->Deletion
3->exit
Enter your choice:2
The deleted element is 2
The elements in the queue:
***********************
Front--->4 5 45 <---Rear
Select your choice:
1->Insertion
2->Deletion
3->Exit
Enter your choice:3

Viva Questions:
1) What is a queue?
Queue is a linear data structure in which insertions are done end
one end called the Rear of the queue and Deletions are done at another
end called the Front. The queue is referred as First-In-First-Out data
structure.
2) What is a circular queue?
A queue in which both the front and the rear wrap around to the
beginning of the array when they reached the MAX size of the queue is
called circular queue.
3) What is a priority queue?
A queue where insertions and deletions are performed based on
some priority is called priority queue.

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16CreationbinaryTree

Aim:
To write a C program to create a binary tree.

Algorithm:
The following algorithm to create a binary using sequential representation.

1. Define the structure of a node.


2. Read number of data in the binary tree.
3. Define function maketree( ) to get

a new node that stores the data in

the data field and sets the left and right pointer to NULL and returns
the address of the created node.

4. Define a function create( ) for creating the tree as


a) Declare a pointer array that stores the address of the
node.
b) First the root node is created and its address is stored at
the first index of the array.
c) Then using for loop the data are read and stored in the
data field using the maketree( ) function.
If the array index i an even number then the node is
linked as the left child of the node (i/2).
If the array index i is an odd number then the node is
linked as the right child of the node (i/2).
d) The leaf nodes left and right pointers are declared
NULL.

5. Define a function inorder() that prints the inorder list of the tree using
recursive call.

6. Define the main function that calls the functions create( ) and inoder to
create a tree and print the in order traversal of the tree.

7. Stop.

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Flow chart:
Start

While true

False
Exit

True
Display the menu
1-Create tree
2-Inorder List
3-Exit

Read users Choice

Switch
Choice

Choice = 1
A
Choice = 2

Choice = 3
Stop

Exit

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Creating a tree:

Read number of
nodes in the tree N

Read the data

Create the root node. Store its


address in the first index of the array

For i=2 to N

False

True
Read the data

Store data in the data


field

If

i%2 = 0

Insert the new node as the


right child of the node (i/2)

Insert the new node as the


left child of the node (i/2)

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Inorder Traversal using Recursion

Inorder (p)

True
If
P!=NUL

p=p llink

False

Print data in the


node

p=prlink

True
If
P!=NUL
False
Return

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Program:
/* Creating a binary tree and inserting the elements */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<malloc.h>
/* Tree structure */
struct node
{
int data;
struct node *rlink;
struct node *llink;
};
/* Creating a tree */
struct node *maketree(int item)
{
struct node *p;
p=(struct node*) malloc(sizeof(struct node));
p->data=item;
p->llink=NULL;
p->rlink=NULL;
return p;
}
/* Inserting nodes into the tree */
struct node *create()
{
struct node *ptr,*t,*t1[100];
int n,i,item,k=1;
printf("\n Enter the number of data to insert..");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("\n Enter the data one by one \n");
scanf("%d",&item);
ptr=maketree(item);
t1[k++]=ptr;
for(i=2;i<=n;i++)
{
scanf("%d",&item);

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t=(struct node*) malloc(sizeof(struct node));


t->data=item;
t1[k++]=t;
if(i%2==0)
{

t1[i/2]->llink=t;
t->rlink=NULL;
t->llink=NULL;

}
else
{
t1[i/2]->rlink=t;
t->llink=NULL;
t->rlink=NULL;
}
}
return ptr;
}
/* In order traversal */
void inorder(struct node *p)
{
if(p!=NULL)
{
inorder(p->llink);
printf("%d\t",p->data);
inorder(p->rlink);
}
}
/* Main Function */
void main()
{
struct node *p;
int opt,pos,item;
clrscr();

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while(1)
{
printf("\n\t\tMain Menu");
printf("\n\t\t----------");
printf("\n\t1.Create Tree");
printf("\n\t2.Inorder List");
printf("\n\t3.Exit\n");
printf("Select the option <1,2,3>...");
scanf("%d",&opt);
switch(opt)
{
case 1:p=create();
break;
case 2:printf("\n Inorder List \n");
inorder(p);
break;
case 3:exit(0);
}
printf("\n\n Press any key to continue...");
getch();
}
}

Output:
Main Menu
---------1.Create Tree
2.Inorder List
3.Exit
Select the option <1,2,3>...1
Enter the number of data to insert..5
Enter the data one by one
1
2
3
4
5

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Press any key to continue...


Main Menu
---------1.Create Tree
2.Inorder List
3.Exit
Select the option <1,2,3>...2
Inorder List
4

Press any key to continue...


Main Menu
---------1.Create Tree
2.Inorder List
3.Exit
Select the option <1,2,3>...3

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17PreorderTraversalusingrecursion
Aim:
To write a C program for pre -order traversal of a binary tree using
recursion.

Algorithm:
The following algorithm to create a binary using sequential representation.
1.

Define the structure of a node.

2.

Read number of data in the binary tree.

3.

Define function maketree( ) to get a new node that stores the data in
the data field and sets the left and right pointer to NULL and returns
the address of the created node.

4.

Define a function create( ) for creating the tree as

5.

Declare a pointer array that stores the address of the node.

6.

First the root node is created and its address is stored at the first
index of the array.

7.

Then using for loop the data are read and stored in the data field
using the maketree( ) function.
a) If the array index i an even number then the node is
linked as the left child of the node (i/2).
b) If the array index i is an odd number then the node is
linked as the right child of the node (i/2).

8.

The leaf nodes left and right pointers are declared NULL.

9.

Define a function preorder() that prints the preorder list of the tree
using recursive call as
a) Visit the node
b) Traverse left subtree
c) Traverse right subtree

10.

Define the main function that calls the functions create( ) and
preorder to create a tree and print the in order traversal of the tree.

11.

Stop.

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Flow chart:
Start

While true

False
Exit

True
Display the menu
1-Create tree
2-Preorder List
3-Exit

Read users Choice

Switch
Choice

Choice = 1
A
Choice = 2

Choice = 3
Stop

Exit

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Creating a tree:

Read number of
nodes in the tree N

Read the data

Create the root node. Store its


address in the first index of the array

For i=2 to N

False

True
Read the data

Store data in the data


field

If

i%2 = 0

Insert the new node as the


right child of the node (i/2)

Insert the new node as the


left child of the node (i/2)

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Pre order traversal using recursion

Preorder (p)

Print data in the


node
False
p=p llink

True
If
P!=NUL

p=prlink

If
P!=NUL

Return

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Program:
/* Pre-order Traversal using recursion */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<malloc.h>
/* Tree structure */
struct node
{
int data;
struct node *rlink;
struct node *llink;
};
/* Creating tree */
struct node *maketree(int item)
{
struct node *p;
p=(struct node*) malloc(sizeof(struct node));
p->data=item;
p->llink=NULL;
p->rlink=NULL;
return p;
}
/* Inserting elements into the tree */
struct node *create()
{
struct node *ptr,*t,*t1[100];
int n,i,item,k=1;
printf("\n Enter the number of data to insert..");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("\n Enter the data one by one \n");
scanf("%d",&item);
ptr=maketree(item);
t1[k++]=ptr;
for(i=2;i<=n;i++)
{
scanf("%d",&item);

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t=(struct node*) malloc(sizeof(struct node));


t->data=item;
t1[k++]=t;
if(i%2==0)
{
t1[i/2]->llink=t;
t->rlink=NULL;
t->llink=NULL;
}
else
{
t1[i/2]->rlink=t;
t->llink=NULL;
t->rlink=NULL;
}
}
return ptr;
}
/* Pre_order traversal using recursion */
void preorder(struct node *p)
{
if(p!=NULL)
{
printf("%d\t",p->data);
preorder(p->llink);
preorder(p->rlink);
}
}
/* Main function */
void main()
{
struct node *p;
int opt,pos,item;
clrscr();

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while(1)
{
printf("\n\t\t Main Menu");
printf("\n\t\t----------");
printf("\n\t1.Create");
printf("\n\t2.Preorder");
printf("\n\t3.Exit\n");
printf("Select the option <1,2,3>...");
scanf("%d",&opt);
switch(opt)
{
case 1:p=create();
break;
case 2:printf("\n\n Preorder List \n");
preorder(p);
break;
case 3:exit(0);
}
printf("\n Press any key to continue....");
getch();
}
}

Output:
Main Menu
---------------1.Create
2.Preorder
3.Exit
Select the option <1,2,3>...1
Enter the number of data to insert..5
Enter the data one by one
1
2
3

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4
5
Press any key to continue....
Main Menu
--------------1.Create
2.Preorder
3.Exit
Select the option <1,2,3>...2
Preorder List
1

Press any key to continue....


Main Menu
--------------1.Create
2.Preorder
3.Exit
Select the option <1,2,3>...3

Viva Questions:
1) What is a tree?

Trees are collection of items or elements along with the relationship


with one another.

Trees are used to represent hierarchical relationship.

2) What is a root node?


The node without parent is called a root node.
3) What is a leaf node?
The nodes without children are called leaves
4) What is a binary tree?
A binary tree, T, is either empty, or is such that:
T has a special node called the root node.

T has two sets of nodes, LT and RT, called the left subtree and
right subtree of T, respectively.

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LT and RT are binary trees.

Every node in a binary tree can have atmost two children.

5) What is a complete binary tree?


A binary tree is complete binary tree if

If all levels except the last level have the maximum number of
possible nodes ( 2r-1).

In the last level the nodes can be left free only at the right end.

6) What is a full binary tree?


A binary tree is full if it contains maximum possible number of
nodes at all the levels.
7) What are the three types of traversal in binary tree?

Inorder Traversal

Preorder Traversal

Post order traversal

8) What is a binary search tree?


A binary tree is said to be binary search tree if for every node N
1. All the elements in its left subtree are smaller than the value
of N.
2. All the elements in its right subtree are larger than the value
of N.

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18ImplementationofLinearSearchandBinarySearch
Aim:
To write a C Program for linear searching and binary searching.

Algorithm:
1. Define function for linear search as
a) Read the data to be searched X.
b) Scan the array from left to right.
c) Compare X with the first element.
d) If equal then
Print SUCCESS and return
Else
Compare X with second element and so on
e) The above process is repeated for all the elements in the array.
f) If no value in the array matches with X then Print NO MATCH
and return.
2. Define function for Binary Search as
a) Sort the array in ascending order.
b) Let lb=0 and ub=n-1
c) Read the data to be searched X.
d) Find the mid position of the given array
Mid=(lb+ub)/ 2 (N --- No.of Elements in the array)
e) Compare X with a[mid]
If equal then
Goto step (g)
Else
If X less than a[mid] then ub=mid-1
If X greater than a[mid] then lb=mid+1
If lb<=ub
Repeat steps (d) and (e) for the sub array lb to ub
Else
Goto step (g)
g) If (lb>ub)
Print Search Success
Else
Print Search Failed
f) Return.

f)

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3. Define the main function.


a) Read the number of elements in array.
b) Read the array elements
c) Call Linear search
d) Call Binary search
4. Stop

Flow chart:

Start

ReadN
ReadArrayElements

Call
Linear
Search

A
Call
Binary
Search
B
stop

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Binary Search

Binary
Search

Read X

Lb = 0
Ub = N-1

No

While lb <= ub

Print
FAILURE

Yes
Mid=(lb+ub) /2

If
X=a[mid]

True
Print SUCCESS

False
B
False
If
X<A[mid

Lb=mid+1

True
Ub = mid-1

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Linear Search
Linear
Search

Read X

For each element


in the array

All elements processed


Print
FAILURE

More elements
If
A[i]=X

Print
SUCCESS

Program:
/* Linear Search and Binary Search Program */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
/* Function for Linear search */
void linear(int a[],int n)
{
int data,i;
printf("\n\tEnter the item to be searched:");
scanf("%d",&data);
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
if(data= =a[i]) break;
if(i==n)
printf("\n\n\tThe search item is not present in the array\n");
else
printf("\n\n\tThe search item is present in the array\n");
}

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/* Function for binary search */


void binary(int a[],int n)
{
int data,lb,ub,mid,i,j,temp;
/* Sorting the Array */
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<n-1;j++)
{
if(a[j]>a[j+1])
{
temp=a[j];
a[j]=a[j+1];
a[j+1]=temp;
}
}
}
printf("\n\tThe array in sorted order\n\n\t");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("%5d",a[i]);
lb=0;
ub=n-1;
printf("\n\n\tEnter the item to search:");
scanf("%d",&data);
while(lb<=ub)
{
mid=(lb+ub)/2;
if(data==a[mid])
break;
else
{
if( data<a[mid])
ub=mid-1;

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else
lb=mid+1;
}
}
if(lb>ub)
printf("\n\n\tThe search item is not present in the array");
else
printf("\n\n\tThe search item is present in the array");
}
/* Main function */
void main()
{
int a[30],n,i;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the number of data :");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("\nEnter the elements:\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
printf("a[%d]:",i);
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
}
printf("\n\nUsing Linear search ");
printf("\n-------------------\n");
linear(a,n);

//Call Linear search

printf("\n\nUsing Binary search ");


printf("\n-------------------\n");
binary(a,n);

//Call Binary Search

getch();
}

Output:
Enter the number of data :7
Enter the elements:
a[0]:8
a[1]:5

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a[2]:9
a[3]:3
a[4]:7
a[5]:2
a[6]:7
Using Linear search
-------------------------Enter the item to be searched:5
The search item is present in the array
Using Binary search
--------------------------The array in sorted order
2

Enter the item to search:67


The search item is not present in the array

Viva Questions:
1) What is searching?
Searching means searching for an element in a given list.
2) Compare linear search and binary search.

Linear Search

Binary Search

Linear search can be performed in

Binary search can be performed

sorted and unsorted data

only in sorted data

If an data is not present in the

At each scan the number elements

array we have to search the entire

to be checked is reduced by 2

list from the first to last


Time complexity

Time Complexity

F(n) =O (n)

F(n) ==[ log 2n ]+ 1

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19

InsertionSort

Aim:
To write a C program to read 10 elements and sort the array using
insertion sort.

Algorithm:
1.

Read the elements into the array.

2.

Take the second element. Compare it with the first element. If the
second element less than the first element interchange them.

3.

Take the third element compare it first and second element and insert
it in the correct position by shifting the elements in the array. So that
the first, second and third elements are in sorted order.

4.

In general Take the ith element and compare it with the all the
elements before it and place it in the proper position by shifting the
elements one position right.

5.

When the ith element is placed, the elements in the array from the 0th
to the ith position will be in the sorted order.

6.

The above process is continued for all the elements in the array.

7.

Stop

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Flow chart:

start

Read 10
elements
For i=1 to n-1

temp=a[i]
j=i-1

False
While ( temp<a[j]
and j>=0)
True
a[j+1]=a[j]
j=j-1

A[j+1]=temp

Print the
sorted array

Stop

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Program:
/* Insertion sort

*/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
int a[10],i,j,temp;
clrscr();
printf("\n Enter the array elements:\n");
for(i=0;i<10;i++)
{
printf("a[%d]:",i);
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
}
printf("\n Press any key to continue");
printf("\n\n\nUnsorted array:");
printf("\n~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\n");
for (i=0;i<10;i++)
printf("%5d",a[i]);
/* Insertion sort procedure */
for(i=1;i<10;i++)
{
temp=a[i];

j=i-1;

while(temp<a[j] && j>=0)


{
a[j+1]=a[j];
j--;
}
a[j+1]=temp;
}
printf("\n\n\nThe sorted array");
printf("\n~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\n");
for (i=0;i<10;i++)
printf("%5d",a[i]);
getch();
}

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Output:
Enter the array elements:
a[0]:454
a[1]:23
a[2]:7
a[3]:2
a[4]:8
a[5]:3
a[6]:87
a[7]:3
a[8]:7
a[9]:2
Press any key to continue
Unsorted array:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
454

23

87

The sorted array


~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2

23

87 454

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20
Aim:

ImplementationofQuickSort

Write a C program to read 10 elements and sort the above numbers

using quick sort.


The recursive algorithm consists of four steps
A. If there are one or less elements in the array to be sorted, return
immediately.
B. Pick an element in the array as a "pivot" element. (Usually the leftmost element in the array is used.)
C. Split the array into two parts - one with elements larger than the pivot
and the other with elements smaller than the pivot.
D. Recursively repeat the algorithm for both halves of the original array

Algorithm:
1. Define the array
2. Define the function sort( first, last) for partitioning and sorting the array is
a)

If (first < last) continue else the array is sorted return

b)

Let the pivot element be A[first].

c)

Initialize up=first and down=last

d)

Repeat
a. Increment up until a[up]<= pivot and up<last
b. Decrement down until a[down] >= pivot and down>first.
c. If up<down interchange a[up] and a[down].Until up<dow.

e)

Interchange a[first] and a[down].

f)

The pivot element is fixed at the index down.

g)

If (first < last) The sorting is again continued for the arrays
a[first] to a[down-1] and a[down+1] to a[last].

3. The main function is defined as


a)

Read the number of terms N.

b)

Read the array elements.

c)

Call the sort function with sort(0,n-1).

d)

Print the array.

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Flowchart

Start

Read N

Read the array


elements

Call
sort(0,n-1)

Sort

B
Print the
sorted array

Stop

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Partitioning and sorting


Sort

B
Sort(first, last)

If
first<last

Pivot=a[first]
Up=first
Down=last

While (a[up]<pivot)
and ( up<last)

False

True
Up++

While (a[down>pivot)
and ( down>first)

False

True
Down--

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True
If
up<dow

Interchange
a[up] and

False
Interchange a[first] and
a[down]

Call sort(first, down-1)


Call sort(down+1,last)

Program:
/* Quick sort Program */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
int a[50],n;
/* Function to print the array */
void display()
{
int i;
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("%5d",a[i]);
}

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/* Recursive function to partition and sort the array */


void sort(int first,int last)
{
int temp,pivot,up,down;
if(first<last)
{
pivot=a[first];
up=first;
down=last;
/* Partitioning */
while(up<down)
{
while(a[up]<=pivot && up<last)
up++;
while(a[down]>=pivot && down>first)
down--;
if(up<down)
{
temp=a[up];
a[up]=a[down];
a[down]=temp;
}
}
temp=a[first];
a[first]=a[down];
a[down]=temp;
sort(first,down-1);

// Recursive call

sort(down+1,last);

//Recursive call

}
}
/* Main function */
void main()
{
int i;
clrscr();

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printf("Enter number of terms:");


scanf("%d",&n);
printf("Enter the array elements:\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
printf("a[%d]:",i);
scanf("%d",&a[i]);
}
sort(0,n-1);
printf("\nSorted array\n");
printf("**************\n");
display();
getch();
}

Output:
Enter number of terms:10
Enter the array elements:
a[0]:56
a[1]:2
a[2]:7
a[3]:2
a[4]:9
a[5]:0
a[6]:12
a[7]:6
a[8]:1
a[9]:7
Sorted array
**************
0

12

56

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Viva Question:
1) What is sorting?
Sorting is the process of arranging the data in some order.
2) What are the various types of sorting?

Bubble sort

Insertion sort

Radix sort

Merge sort

Quick sort

3) What is merging?
Merging means sorting two sorted array into a single sorted array.
4) What are the sorting algorithms based on the technique of Divide
and Conquer?

Merge sort

Quick sort

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