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PE Civil Exam 40-Mix Questions & Answers (pdf Format)


For Breath Exam (Morning Session) Set #-3

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Breadth Exam (morning session): This practice exam contains 40 mixed
questions and answers, each set being from all five areas of civil
engineering:

Table Contents:

Page

1.

Construction-8 Q & A

2.

Geotechnical-8 Q & A

11

3.

Structural-8 Q & A

21

4.

Transportation-8 Q & A

25

5.

Water Resources and Environmental-8 Q & A

39

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I. Construction
1.

PROBLEM (Earth Work)


A borrow pit contour elevation has been shown in the figure; it has to be
cut. What is the average volume (yds3) cut from the borrow pit?

.
a.
b.
c.
d.
1.

V=11333 yds3
V=5666 yds3
V=7536 yds3
V=2833 yds3

Solution:

Area of each grid, A=60x60=3600 ft2


V=(1x5+2x7+1x9+2x6+1x5+1x7+3x8+1x9) x [(3600/(4x27)]=2833 yds3
Total Volume of Borrow pit, V=2833 yds3
Correct Answer is (d)

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2

PROBLEM (Earth Work)


AS shown in the Figure, the embankment has to be constructed, the soils
dry unit weight is 106 lb/ft3, moister content is 12.5%. The average area
is A1= 625 ft2 at station 5+00 and A2=560 ft2 at station 7+00. What is
the volume (yd3) of embankment?
a.
b.
c.
d.

V=2194
V=4389
V=3567
V=7895

yd3
yd3
yd3
yd3

2 Solution:
L=700-500=200 ft
Embankment volume (yd3), V = {(A1+A2)/2} x L/27
V = {(625+560)/2} x 200/27=4389 yd3

Correct Answer is (b)

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3.

PROBLEM (Quantity Estimate)


Find the weight for a 26 gage 14" galvanized spiral duct work which is 150'
long with a 15% waste for bracing, hangers, waste, and seams.
a.
b.
c.
d.

3.

574
551
633
474

lbs
lbs
lbs
lbs

Solution:
Galvanized Sheet, Weight per Unit
Area=0.9062 lbs/ft
Duct Length, L=150 ft
Duct diameter, D=14" /12 = 1.17 ft.
Duct perimeter, P=D= 3.14 x 1.17
=3.68 ft.
Total duct area, A=PxL = 3.68 x150
=551 sq. ft.
Add 15% waste for bracing, hangers,
waste, and seams
Area =551 x (1 + 15%)
= 633.73 sq. ft.
Weight = 633.73x 0.906 = 574 lbs.

Correct Answer is (a)

Gauge
Number

Steel
Weight
in
pounds
per
square
foot

US
Standard
Gauge:
thickness
in inches

Manufactu
rers'
Standard:
thickness
in inches

Galvanized
Sheet:
weight in
lbs/sq ft

Stainless
Steel:
weight in
lbs/sq ft

10

5.62

0.1406

0.1345

5.7812

11

0.125

0.1196

5.1562

5.7937
5.15

12

4.37

0.1094

0.1046

4.5312

4.5063

13

3.75

0.0937

0.0897

3.9062

3.8625

14

3.12

0.0781

0.0747

3.2812

3.2187

15

2.81

0.0703

0.0673

2.9687

2.8968

16

2.5

0.0625

0.0598

2.6562

2.575

17

2.25

0.0562

0.0538

2.4062

2.3175

18

0.05

0.0478

2.1562

2.06

19

1.75

0.0437

0.0418

1.9062

1.8025

20

1.5

0.0375

0.0359

1.6562

1.545

21

1.37

0.0344

0.0329

1.5312

1.416

22

1.25

0.0312

0.0299

1.4062

1.2875
1.1587

23

1.12

0.0281

0.0269

1.2812

24

0.025

0.0239

1.1562

1.03

25

0.875

0.0219

0.0209

1.0312

0.9013

26

0.75

0.0187

0.0179

0.9062

0.7725

27

0.687

0.0172

0.0164

0.8437

0.7081

28

0.625

0.0156

0.0149

0.7812

0.6438

29

0.562

0.0141

0.0135

0.7187

0.5794

30

0.5

0.0125

0.012

0.6562

0.515

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4.

PROBLEM (Material Testing)


Which of the following statements is not true for measuring asphalt bitumen
test?
a. The penetration test has performed to measures the consistency
(hardness) of asphalt at a specified test condition.
b. The flash point test determines the temperature to which an asphalt can
be safely heated in the presence of an open flame
c. The bitumen content of a bituminous material is measured by means of
its solubility in Carbon Dioxide.
d. The ductility test can measures the distance a standard asphalt sample
will stretch without breaking under a standard testing condition (5
cm/min at 25 C).

4.

Solution:
C is not true. The bitumen content of a bituminous material is measured
by means of its solubility in Carbon Disulfide.
Correct Answer is (c)

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5.

PROBLEM (Quantity Take-Off)


A 5- storied apartment building has to be built, building footings layout with crosssection is shown in the Figure. How much volume of concrete is required for
building the foundation up to Ground Level (G.L.) with a 10% wastage?

a.
b.
c.
d.
5.

351
324
342
376

ft3
ft3
ft3
ft3

Solution:
Total number of footing =9 Nos.
Volume of each footing with extended column= 6x6x1+1x1(3-1) =38ft3
Total volume= 38x9x (1+10% wastage) =376.2 ft3
Correct Answer is (d)

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6.

PROBLEM (Time-Cost Trade-Off)


A subcontractor has the task of erecting 8000 square meter of metals scaffolds. The
contractor can use several crews with various costs. It is expected that the
production will vary with the crew size as given below:
Estimated daily
production
(square meter)
160

Crew size
(men)

Crew formation

200

240

1 scaffold set, 2 labors, 2 carpenter, 1


foreman
2 scaffold set, 3 labors, 2 carpenter, 1
foreman
2 scaffold set, 3 labors, 3 carpenter, 1
foreman

Consider the following rates:


Scaffolding $70/day;
Labor $90/day;
Carpenter $130/day and
Foreman $140/day.
Determine the least direct cost of this activity considering the different crews
formation.
a.
b.
c.
d.

6.

$32400.00
$32500.00
$32900.00
$32300.00

Solution:
The calculations are shown in the following table.
Crew size

Duration (days)

Cost ($)

8000/160=50 days

50 x (1x70 + 2x90 + 2x130 + 1x140) =


32500

8000/200=40 days

40 x (2x70 + 3x90 + 2x130 + 1x140) =


32400

8000/230=35 days

35 x (2x70 + 3x90 + 3x130 + 1x140) =


32900

Correct Answer is (a)

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7.

PROBLEM (Site Layout And Control)


All residential developments areas to provide two Deep Soil Zones (D.S.Z); one to
the rear and one to the front of the property. Which of the following statements is
not true for the Deep Soil Zones (D.S.Z)?

a. Rear Deep Soil Zones are to have minimum width of 8m or 30% of the average
width of the site which ever is the greater and a minimum depth of 18% of the
length of the site up to 8m but not less than 5.5m. Greater than 8m may be
provided if desirable.
b. Deep Soil Zones must be provided for all new developments only, except on
large lot rural or agriculturally zoned land.
c. Front Deep Soil Zones are to be the width of the site boundary minus the
driveway width and the pathway width by the front setback depth.
d. Deep Soil Zones cannot be covered by impervious surfaces such as concrete,
terraces, outbuildings or other structures.
7.

Solution:
Deep Soil Zones must be provided for all new developments and existing
development, except on large lot rural or agriculturally zoned land.
Correct Answer is (b)

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8.

PROBLEM (Site Layout And Control)


Which of the following statements is not applicable for Temporary Access Roads
Construction?
a.
b.

c.
d.

8.

Temporary roads shall follow the contour of the natural terrain to the extent
possible. Slopes should not exceed 10 percent.
A 6-inch course of Coarse Aggregate shall be applied immediately after
grading or the completion of utility installation within the right-of-way. Filter
fabric may be applied to the roadbed for additional stability.
Roadbeds shall be at least 12 feet wide for one-way traffic and 18 feet wide
for two-way traffic.
All cuts and fills shall be 2:1 or flatter to the extent possible.

Solution:
Roadbeds shall be at least 14 feet wide for one-way traffic and 20 feet wide for
two-way traffic.
Correct Answer is (c)

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II.

Geotechnical

9.

PROBLEM (Soil Classification)


A soil sample has the following properties by the Unified Soil Classification System.
LL = 42, PL = 31. What is the soil classification?
a.
b.
c.
d.

9.

CH
MH
ML
CL

Solution: From plasticity Chart, LL=42, PL=31; PI=42-31=11, ML.

Correct Answer is (c)

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10.

PROBLEM (Boring Log Interpretation)


Which of the following statements is not satisfactory for boring log
interpretation?

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a. The blows/foot is number of times the 140 lbs drive weight dropped 30
inches needs to penetrate one foot. The 37 blows per foot confirm the
description of dense or well-compacted soil.
b. The moisture content range of 1.2 to 5.7% means the soil has enough
moisture and will not require a lot of water to achieve compaction.
c. The dry density in the top 4 feet is 127.7 pound per cubic foot (PCF). This
indicates a well-graded soil with a low void ratio. It can be expected to have
significant cohesion and friction angle
d. The soil between 5 and 8 feet of depth has a dry density of only 96.8 pcf.
This indicates the soil is poorly graded and a low percentage of fines. This
soil will probably have little or no cohesion. That means it may not stand on a
construction slope as steep as 1H to 1V.
10.

Solution:
Statement b is not satisfactory
The moisture content range of 1.2 to 5.7% means the soil is very dry and will
require a lot of water to achieve compaction.

Correct Answer is (b)

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11.

PROBLEM (Soil Compaction)


A road project requires a fill to be compacted to 95% of its relative density with
relation to the standard Proctor (ASTM D698). The laboratory results for the
standard Proctor indicated that the soil has a maximum dry density of 121 lb/ft3,
and an optimum moisture content of 9.0%.
After the compaction of the fill soils with a vibratory roller, field testing with a sand
cone, nuclear densio-meter, or other appropriate methods indicated that the
compacted fill soils have an in-place unit weight of 124.00 lb/ft3, and a moisture
content of 7.0%. Calculate the relative compaction, and does the compacted fill
exceed project requirements or not?
a
b
c
d.

11.

94.60%
95.30%
95.01%
96.10%

<
>

>

95%
95%
95%
95%

Solution:
Maximum dry density, m = 121 lbs/ft3
Optimum moisture content, mo = 9.0%
In-situ density, = 124 lbs/ft3
In-situ moisture content, m = 7.0%
Required relative compaction per project specifications, Rd = 95%
Rd =

d
m

Dry density of the in-situ soil, d = -

(m)
100

d =124.0 lb/ft3 - 124.0 lb/ft3 x (7.0%) = 115.32 lb/ft3


100
Rd =

115.32 lb/ft3 = 95.30% > 95%


121 lb/ft3

OK

The compacted fill exceeds project requirements of at least 95% relative density

Correct Answer is (b)

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12 .

PROBLEM (Lateral Earth Pressure)


Using the Rankine analysis, determine the lateral earth pressures due to
earthquakes on a 8 ft rigid concrete retaining wall. The free draining gravel backfill
has a soil unit weight, , of 132 lb/ft3, and an angle of internal friction, , of 33
degrees. The retaining wall will be constructed for passive conditions.
a.
b.
c.
d.

12.

3056
5080
7020
8078

lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft

Solution:
Unit weight of soil backfill, = 132 lbs/ft3
Angle of Internal Friction, = 33 degrees
Wall height, H = 8 ft
Passive case (wall moves toward retained soil)

Coefficient for passive conditions, K


K = KP =

(1 + sin ) =
(1 - sin )

(1 + sin 33)
= 3.40
(1 - sin 33)

Lateral earth pressure due to earthquakes,


3 KhH2
8
Earthquake coefficient, Kh =
Pe =

3
4

K=

3 (3.40) = 2.55
4

3 KhH2
8
= 3 (2.55) x (132 lb/ft3 x (8 ft)2 = 8078 lb/ft
8

Pe =

Correct Answer is (d)

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13.

PROBLEM (Vertical Stress, Pore Pressure & Effective Stress)


Calculate the change in vertical stress at 3 ft below the middle of a 6 ft x 9 ft
rectangular foundation. Using the Boussinesq theory and chart. The applied building
load on this foundation is 3200 lb/ft2.
a.
b.
c.
d.

13.

2768
2134
2585
1790

lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2

Solution:
z = 3 ft
q = 3200 lb/ft2
Rectangular footing size, 6 ft x 9 ft
= Pv
Pv = summation of all stress components (i.e. Pv1 + Pv2 + .... + Pvn). In this case,
we analyze the foundation in 4 equal but separate quadrants. Instead of a single 6
ft x 9 ft foundation, we have 4 separate 3 ft x 4.5 ft quadrants. This is done so that
one corner of each quadrant is located in the center of the footing.
4Pv = 4qSince the quadrants have equal dimensions with the same applied load,
we simply multiply the equation by 4 (4 quadrants).
= Pv = 4Pv = 4q
m=

x
z

n=

y
z

4.5 ft
3.0 ft

= 1.5

3.0 ft
3.0 ft

= 1.0

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= 0.202, Influence value from Boussinesq chart, where m = 1.5 and n= 1.0.
= 4q = 4(3200 lb/ft2)(0.202) = 2585 lb/ft2
Correct Answer is (c)

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14.

PROBLEM (Settlement)
Determine the consolidation settlement at the center of the clay layer of the mat
(30m x 40m) foundation shown in the Figure. Given, the total effective stress,
=220 KN/m2 and the average effective stress increased due to the foundation
load, =90 KN/m2 at the center of the clay layer.

a.
b.
c.
d.

14.

345.00
275.00
187.00
141.00

mm
mm
mm
mm

Solution:
=220 KN/m2, =90 KN/m2, Cc=0.29 and eo=0.85
Settlement, Sc={CcHc/(1+eo)}log {(+ )/ }
Sc={0.29 x 8/(1+.85)}log {(220+ 90)/ 220}*1000=186.77 mm
Correct Solution is (c)

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15.

PROBLEM (Gravity Wall)


Determine the active earth pressure for the following retaining wall, H=18 feet.
Where, the unit weight of the soil is = 120 lb/ft3, = 9o and =32o.

a.
b.
c.
d.
15.

11 Kip/ft
4 Kip/ft
8 Kip/ft
14 Kip/ft

Solution:

KA=[cos32o /(cos9o+{sin(32o +9o) sin9o}]2


KA=[0.848 /(0.987 +0.320)]2=0.42
PA= 1/2 KA H2=.5 x 120 x .42 x 182= 8183.45 lb/ft =8.183 Kip/ft
Correct Solution is (c)

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16.

PROBLEM (Braced And Anchored Excavations)


Determine the tension of the tie rods T if they are spaced at 2 meters from the
center of the anchored sheet pile wall shown in Figure. The unit weight of soil is =
15.0 kN /m3.

a.
b.
c.
d.

16.

123.00
345.00
176.00
288.00

kN
kN
kN
kN

Solution:
Tie rods are spaced at 2 meter center to center
= 15.0 kN /m3
Pa= 1/2 Ka H2a=1/2 x 15.00 x 0.33 x 92= 200.48 kN/m (horizontal)
Taking moment at tie rod for mobilized passive resistance
Pp x (9-1-1.5)= Pa x (9-3-1.5)
Pp x 6.5= 200.48 x 4.5
Pp= 138.79 kN/m
Tension of the Rods, T= (200.48-138.79) x 2=123.38 kN

Correct Solution is (a)

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III.

STRUCTURAL

17.

PROBLEM (Loadings)
In a building column the axial forces are determined as 180 kips of dead load, 100
kips of floor live load, 50 kips from the roof snow load. Determine the required
strength of the column without wind & earthquake load. Using the combination load
specified by AISCs Manual of Steel Construction.
a.
b.
c.
d.

17.

241.00 kips
458.00 kips
346.00 kips
401.00kips

Solution:
Given, D=180 kips, L=100 kips, S=50 kips, W=0.0 kips, & E=0.0 Kips
The following load combinations are provided by AISCs Manual of Steel
Construction.
Lr = Roof live load, S = Snow load, R = Rainwater nominal load
Combination of load:
1.2 D + 1.6 L + 0.5 (Lr or S or R)= 1.2 x180 + 1.6 x 100 +0.5 (50)= 401 kips
1.2 D + 1.6 (Lr or S or R) + (0.5 L or 0.8 W)
= 1.2 x180 + 1.6 x (50) +0.5 x 100=346.00 kips
1.2 D + 1.6 W + 0.5 L + 0.5 (Lr or S or R)= 1.2 x180 + 0.0 + 0.5 x (50)=241 kips
The required strength for the column is 401 kips.

Correct Answer is (d)

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18.

PROBLEM (Loading)
Determine the dead load acting on the shown in the Figure steel beam with
concrete slab & floor tiles as shown in the Figure. The tiles flooring is 3 thick with
cement mortar.

6 ft
Flooring
6 inch concrete slab

W18x97

a.
b.
c.
d.

18.

772
630
727
547

lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft ft

Solution:
Considering, cement mortar & tiles unit weight is 120 lb/ft3
and
Concrete slab unit weight is 150 lb/ft3
Steel Beam weight = 97 lb/ft
Weight of concrete slab = 150 x 6/12 x 6 = 450 lb/ft
Weight of tiles flooring = 120 x 3/12 x 6 = 180 lb/ft
Total dead weight = 727 lb/ft

Correct Answer is (c)

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19.

PROBLEM (Analysis)
Determine the reaction of YA in the frame as shown in Figure.

a.
b.
c.
d.

19.

-6.25 K
6.25 K
31.25 K
-12.5 K

Solution:
Positive moment is in the clockwise direction
MA=0,
5 x 15 x (15/2) + 25 x15-YD x30=0
YD= 31.25 K
H=0, YD+ YA-25=0,
YA=-31.25+25= -6.25 K

Correct Answer is (a)

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20.

PROBLEM (Member Design)


Determine the ultimate load, Qult of a rectangular footing that is 6x 4 and eccentric
shown in the Figure where, soil unit weight is = 120 lb/ft3, and the ultimate
bearing capacity is qu=3200 lb/ft2, eB=1.5 and eL=1.75.

a.
b.
c.
d.
20.

76.8.0 Kips
48.0 Kips
22.5 Kips
25.4 Kips

Solution:
Where, eL/L=1.75/6= 0.292> 1/6, and eB/B=1.5/4= 0.375>1/6;
Therefore,
B1=B(1.5-3eB/B)= 4(1.5-3 x 1.5/4)= 3.750 ft
L1=L(1.5-3eL/L)= 6(1.5-3 x 1.75/6)= 3.750 ft
Effective Area, A=1/2(L1B1)=1/2 (3.750 x 3.750)= 7.03 ft2
q'u=3200 lb/ft2
Therefore, Qult= Ax q'u= 7.03 x 3200= 22496=22.5 Kips

Correct Answer is (c)

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21.

PROBLEM (Mechanics Of Materials)


Which moment is not correct as shown in the following diagrams?

a. -450
b. -650
c. -800
d. -700

21.

K-ft
K-ft
K-ft
K-ft

Solution:
c is not correct
M at support=0, Moment, M= -(10 x10 x 10/2) + -(20 x 20)=900 K-ft
Correct Answer is (c)

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22.

PROBLEM (Member Design)


Determine the maximum shear for the simply supported reinforced concrete beam
shown with a dead load of 1.5 k/ft and a live load of 2.0 k/ft. Assume that the point
of reaction is at the end of the beam.

a. 48.00
b. 78.00
c. 56.00
d. 72.00

22.

k
k
k
k

Solution:
Self weight = (12/12 ft) x (27/12 ft) x 150 lb/ft3 = 338 lb/ft = 0.34 k/ft
Wu = 1.4 (1.5 k/ft + 0.34 k/ft) + 1.7 (2 k/ft) = 5.98 k/ft
Vu (max) is at the ends = WuL/2 = 5.98 k/ft x (24 ft)/2 = 71.71 k
Correct Answer is (d)

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23.

PROBLEM (Member Design)


Determine the capacity of an 18 x 18 column with 10-#8 bars, tied. Grade 40
steel and 3,000 psi concrete.

a
b
c
d

23.

731
450
340
825

kips
kips
kips
kips

Solution:
Given, Grade 40 reinforcement has fy = 40,000 psi and fc = 3,000psi
Find Pn, with =0.65 and Pn = 0.80Po for tied columns and
P0 = 0.85 fc( A g A st ) + f s A st
Vertical steel area for #10 bar, A= 3.14/4 x {(8/8)2}=0 .78 in2
Ast = 10 bars (0.78 in2) = 7.8 in2
Concrete area (gross): Ag = 18 in 18 in = 324 in2
Pn = (0.65)(0.80)[0.85 x (3000) x (324 7.8) + 40,000 x 7.8]
= 731,281 lb = 731 kips
Correct Answer is (a)

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24.

PROBLEM (Mechanics Of Materials)


Check the adequacy of the shown tension element where, fy=60 ksi. Considering,
the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method.
Where,
Tn, is the nominal strength of the member

Tu, is the Ultimate strength of the member.


t is the resistance factor, t = 0.9 for cross-section yielding

Bar 6 in x 0.75 in

L=100 kips
D=60 kips
t Tn = 210 kips < Tu = 232 kips
t Tn = 243 kips > Tu = 232 kips
t Tn = 243 kips > Tu = 210 kips
t Tn = 310 kips > Tu = 280 kips

a.
b.
c.
d.

24.

Solution:
Given, DL= 60 kips, LL= 100 kips
Tn, is the nominal strength of the member

t Tn Tu

t is the resistance factor taken as: t = 0.9


Fy = Steel yield strength= 60 ksi
Ag = Gross area of section= (6 x 0.75) in2
Tu = 1.2D + 1.6L = 1.2*60 + 1.6*100 = 232 kips
Tn = Fy x Ag =60 x 6 x 0.75 = 270 kips
t Tn = 0.9*270 = 243 kips > Tu= 232 kips OK
Correct Answer is (b)

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IV.

25.

TRANSPORTATION

PROBLEM (Horizontal Curve)

A curving highway has a design speed of 120 km/hr. At one horizontal curve, the
super-elevation has been set at 8.0% and the coefficient of the side friction is found
to be 0.12. Determine the minimum radius of the curve that will provide a safe
vehicle.
a.
b.
c.
d.

25.

530
495
567
642

meters
meters
meters
meters

Solution:
Design speed, V = 120 km/hr
Super-elevation, e = 8%
Coefficient of side friction, f = 0.12
Minimum radius, R
R = V2/(127(e/100+f))=(120)2/(127x(.08+0.12))=566.92 meters
Correct Answer is (c)

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26.

PROBLEM (Horizontal Curve Sight Distance)


A large elevated object is located 46 feet from the centerline of a two-lane highway,
which has 12-foot wide lanes. The elevator is situated on the inside of a horizontal
curve with a radius of 600 feet. Assuming that the elevated object is the only sight
restriction on the curve. What is the minimum sight distance along the curve,
where degree of the curve 12 turns out?
a
b
c
d

26.

351
257
405
461

ft
ft
ft
ft

Solution
Distance from the center of the inside lane to the object, M = 46-12/2=40 ft.
Degree of the curve, D = 12
Radius of the curve, R = 600 ft
Sight distance (ft), S
M = R - Rcos(SD/200)
(SD/200)=cos-1((R-M)/R)= cos-1((600-40)/600)=21.03
S=(21.03x200)/12=350.65 ft.
Correct Answer is (a)

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27.

PROBLEM (Passing Sight Distance)


A vehicle moving at a speed of 50 mph is slowing traffic on a two-lane
highway. What passing sight distance is necessary, in order for a passing maneuver
to be carried out safely? Please assume that the passing vehicle accelerates to
passing speed before moving into the left lane.
The following variables have the values given:
Passing vehicle driver's perception/reaction time = 2.5 sec
Passing vehicle's acceleration rate = 1.47 mph/sec
Initial speed of passing vehicle = 50 mph
Passing speed of passing vehicle = 60 mph
Speed of slow vehicle = 50 mph
Speed of opposing vehicle = 60 mph
Length of passing vehicle = 22 ft
Length of slow vehicle = 22 ft
Clearance distance between passing and slow vehicles at lane change = 20 ft
Clearance distance between passing and slow vehicles at lane re-entry = 20 ft
Clearance distance between passing and opposing vehicles at lane re-entry = 250 ft
a.
b.
c.
d.

27.

1500
1900
1600
1800

ft
ft
ft
ft

Solution:
Calculate the passing sight distance, D1
V = 73.3 ft/sec (50 mph)
T=2.5 sec
Vf = 88 ft/sec (60 mph)
Ui = 73.3 ft/sec (50 mph),
A = 2.16 ft/sec/sec (1.47 mph/sec).
S1=VT= 183.3 feet.
Distance D is computed using the equation, Vf2=Ui2 + 2AD
D= (Vf2-Ui2 )/2A=(882-73.32)/2x2.16=548.86 ft
D1=S+D=183.3+548.86=732.16 ft

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The passing sight distance is the distance D2, which is defined as the distance that
the passing vehicle travels while in the left lane.
Where, V2 = 14.67 ft/sec (60mph-50mph=10 mph = relative speed of passing
vehicle with reference point on the slow vehicle).
S2 = 20 ft + 22 ft + 22 ft. + 20 ft =84 ft
S2=V2T,
T2=S2/V2=84/14.67=5.73 sec.
V = 88 ft./sec. (60 mph)
D2= VT2=88x5.73=504.24 ft
The distance, D3=250 ft. is the clearance distance between the passing vehicle and
the opposing vehicle at the moment the passing vehicle returns to the right lane.
The passing sight distance D4 is defined as the distance the opposing vehicle
travels during 66% of the time that the passing vehicle is in the left lane.
V = 88 ft./sec. (60 mph) and T4 = 3.7 seconds (5.7*66%).
D4=VT4=88*3.7=325.6 ft
The total passing sight distance, D=D1 + D2 + D3 + D4=1812 ft.
Correct Answer is (d)

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28.

PROBLEM (Ascending Grades)


A highway, with traffic normally runs at 60 mph has an inclined section with a 4%
grade, how much can the elevation of the roadway increase before the speed of the
larger vehicles is reduced to 50 mph?
a.
b.
c.
d.

28.

32
50
40
26

ft
ft
ft
ft

Solution
From Graph in the Ascending Grades module, we can see that a 4% grade causes a
reduction in speed of (60 mph-50 mph)=10 mph after 1250 feet.

We can just estimate the elevation increase by multiplying the length of the grade
by the grade.
H= 1250x0.04 = 50 ft.
The elevation of the roadway can only be increased by about 40 feet before heavy
vehicles are reduced to a speed of 50 mph.
Correct Answer is (b)

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29.

PROBLEM (Sag Vertical Curves)


A stopping sight distance of 450 ft. is to be maintained on a sag vertical curve with
tangent grades of -3% and 0%, what should the length of the curve be? Assume a
headlight beam has an upward divergence angle of 1.
a.
b.
c.
d.

29.

465 ft
243ft
287 ft
356 ft

Solution

Sight distance, S = 450 ft.


Beam upward divergence, B = 1
Assumed Height of the headlights, H = 2 ft
Change in grade, A = 3% (|G2-G1|
If S > L then

L=2x450-(200 x (2+450 x tan1))/3%=900-657=243 ft


If S < L then (invalid because L < S)

Curve length, L=243 ft

Correct Answer is (b)

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30.

PROBLEM (Vertical Clearances)


A bridge is being designed to pass over a rural two-lane highway with a design
speed of 60 mph. The section of the two-lane highway where the bridge crosses
over is an 1800 foot vertical sag curve with
A = 3.5. What is the bridge clearance height?
a.
b.
c.
d.

30.

10.50 ft
12.4 ft
16.5 ft
18.6 ft

Solution
Design
Speed Km/h
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140

Passing
Distance (m)
200
270
345
410
485
540
615
670
730
775
815

Design
Speed mph
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75

Passing
Distance (ft)
710
900
1090
1280
1470
1625
1835
1985
2135
2285
2480
2580

From Green book table, passing sight distance for a design speed of 60 mph is
2,135 feet
Therefore, S=2135 ft
L=1800 ft
A=3.5
Bridge clearance height, H
Here, S> L,
S=L/2+400(H-5.75)/A=2273.17 ft
2135=1800/2+400(H-5.75)/3.5
Or, 400(M-5.75)=(2135-900)x 3.5
H=16.55 ft.
Bridge clearance height is 16.55 feet
Correct Answer is (c)

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31.

PROBLEM (Horizontal Curve)


A horizontal curve is designed with a 600 m radius and is known to have a tangent
length of 52 m. The PI is at station 200+00. Determine the stationing of the PT.
a.
b.
c.
d.

31.

PT=200+52
PT=200+80
PT=200+34
PT=199+48

Solution:

PC=PI-T=(200+00)-(0+52)=199+48

PT=PC+L=(199+48)+(1+04)=200+52

Correct Answer is (a)

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32.

PROBLEM (Acceleration And Deceleration)


A racecar is speeding down a level straightaway at 100 km/hr. The car has a
coefficient of drag of 0.3, a frontal area of 1.5 m2, a weight of 10 kN, a wheelbase
of 3 meters, and a center of gravity 0.5 meters above the roadway surface, which
is 1 meter behind the front axle. The air density is 1.054 kg/m3 and the coefficient
of road adhesion is 0.6. What is the rate of acceleration for the vehicle?
a.
b.
c.
d.

32.

2.35
2.25
1.45
1.15

m/sce2
m/sce2
m/sce2
m/sce2

Solution:
Use the force balancing equation to solve for a.

Since the straightaway is a level one, the grade is zero,

Aerodynamic resistance is computed:

Rolling resistance is computed:

Tractive Effort is computed:

Looking back to the force balancing equation:

Divide out mass, which can be computed from weight by dividing out gravity.

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Thus, divide mass from the force and acceleration can be found.

Thus, the vehicle is accelerating at a rate of 1.43 meters per second squared.

Correct Answer is (c)

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V.

WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT

33.

PROBLEM (Energy And/or Continuity Equation)


Determine the height of water in a column that produces a gauge pressure of 16
psi.

a.
b.
c.
d.

33.

235 ft
32 ft
37 ft
998 ft

Solution:
The relationship between the height of a column of water and the resulting pressure
is 2.31 ft of water produces 1 psi.
Ht = P x 2.31 = 16 (psi) x 2.31 (ft/psi) = 36.96 ft.
Correct Answer is (c)

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34.

PROBLEM (Friction and/or Minor Losses)


Determine the pipe friction loss of irrigation systems in 2000 ft of 10-inch diameter
Class 160 PVC pipe if the flow rate is 1000 gpm.
a.
b.
c.
d.

34.

16.4 ft
12.5 ft
8.6 ft
9.5 ft

Solution:
The Hazen-Williams equation, with C = 150 (for plastic pipes), is generally suitable
for irrigation systems and can be expressed as,
Hf = [{0.000977 x (Q)1.852}/(D)4.871] x L

Where,
Hf = Friction loss (feet)
Q = Flow rate (1000.0 gpm)
D = Diameter (10-inches)
L = Length of pipe (2000.0 feet)
Hf = [{0.000977 x (1000)1.852}/(10)4.871 ]x 1000
Hf = 9.46 ft

Correct Answer is (d)

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35.

PROBLEM (Pressure Conduit)


For an 10-inch Class 160 PVC pipeline that is 4000 feet long and has a flow rate of
1200 gpm, compare the potential surge pressure caused when a butterfly valve is
closed (in 10 seconds) to a gate valve that requires 30 seconds to close.
Butterfly Valve
a.
b.
c.
d.

35.

135
198
375
415

psi
psi
psi
psi

Gate Valve
45 psi
68 psi
125 psi
135 psi

Solution:
P = 0.028 (Q x L)/(D2 x T)
Where,
Q = Flow rate (1200 gpm)
D = Pipe Diameter. (10 inches)
L = Length of pipeline (4000 feet)
Tb = Time to close Butterfly valve (10 seconds)
Tg = Time to close Gate valve (30 seconds)
P = Surge pressure (psi)?

Surge pressure for Butterfly Valve,


Pbv = 0.028 x (1200 x 4000) / (102 x 10)=135 psi
Surge pressure for Gate Valve (Pgv),
Pgv = 0.028 x (1200 x 4000) / (102 x 30)=45 psi
Correct Answer is (a)

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36.

PROBLEM (Energy Dissipation)


A box culvert, W=2400 mm by L=1800 mm, Q=24.0 m3/sec, supercritical flow in
culvert, the normal flow depth = brink depth is yo =1.3 m, the tail water depth is
TW=0.90 m. What is length of the energy dissipating pool if d50 /ye =0.45?

a.
b.
c.
d.

20.8 m
16.4 m
13.6 m
7.2 m

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36.

Solution:
W0=2400mm=2.40m
yo =ye for rectangular section, ye =1.3 m
Vo =Q/A=24.0/(2.40 x 1.3)=7.69 m/s
Fr=Vo /[(9.81)(ye )]1/2 =7.69/[(9.81)(1.3)]1/2 =2.15
TW/ye =0.9/1.3=0.69, TW/ye <0.75 O.K.
Given, d50 /ye =0.45, d50 =(0.45) (1.3)=0.58 m
From Graph hS /ye =1.6
hS =(1.3)(1.6)=2.08 m
hS /d50 =2.08/0.58 =3.58 m, 2<hS /d50 <4 OK.
The length of the energy dissipating pool is 10(hs) or 3Wo
LS =10xhs=(10)(2.08)=20.8 m
LS min=(3)(Wo)=(3)(2.4)=7.2 m,
Considering, LS =20.8 m
Correct Answer is (a)

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37.

PROBLEM (Open Chanel)


What is the width of a broad-crested weir to convey a river discharge that varies
between 0.15 and 30.0 m3/sec, ymax=1.75 m, ymin=1.05 m?

a.
b.
c.
d.
37.

29.0
38.0
12.0
17.0

m
m
m
m.

Solution:

Correct Answer is (a)

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38.

PROBLEM
Determine the 3-hour, 2-year rainfall depth for Fulton County. Where e = 0.767, b =
40, and d = 7.6 for the 2-year frequency.

a.
b.
c.
d.

38.

4.30
1.50
3.20
2.16

inches
inches
inches
inches

Solution:

Where:
D = rainfall depth (in.)
I = design rainfall intensity (in./hr)
Td = storm duration (min.)
and
e = 0.767, b = 40, and d = 7.6
tc = 3 hours = 180 minutes

Therefore: I = 40/ (180 + 7.6)0.767


I= 0.72 in/hr
D = 0.72 x 180 / 60 = 2.16 inches
Correct Answer is (d)

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39.

PROBLEM (Collection systems -infiltration, inflow)


Which of the following statements is not true for Inflow and infiltration (I/I) in
sewer systems?
a.
b.
c.
d.

39.

Increased operational and capital costs in the sewer network and at


treatment plants;
Reduced sewer and treatment capacity leading to increased operation of
combined sewer overflows, flooding and pollution;
Increased sewer and treatment capacity restricting for future development;
Lowering of groundwater levels leading to detrimental effects on local water
resources and loss of soil into sewers causing operational problems and
structural damage.

Solution:
C is not true.
Reduced sewer and treatment capacity restricting for future development.
Correct Answer is (c)

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40.

PROBLEM (Water Collection)


A community has a population of 40,000. What would be the storage tank capacity
for fire flow?

a.
b.
c.
d.
40.

1.2
3.6
4.5
2.2

MG
MG
MG
MG

Solution:
P=40,000
The fire flow is calculated as follows:
Fire flow (gpm) =
Where "P" is the population in 1,000's of people. So, for our community with a
population of 40,000, the fire flow would be:

The required storage capacity for fire flow is calculated as follows:


Capacity, Q = Fire flow Duration
Capacity, Q = 6,043 gpm 360 minutes
Capacity, Q = 2,175,480 gal
The storage tank must thus have a fire flow capacity of 2.2 million gallons.

Correct Answer is (d)


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