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Membrane Bioreactor Technology

(MBR)
Future for Water and Wastewater
Treatment
By
R V SINGH

M b
Membrane
Bi
Bioreactors
t
(MBR)
Modification of the traditional activated sludge
g p
process
Combine aeration, clarification and filtration into a
single step (reduced footprint)

Why Use MBR Technology?

Water Quality
Reuse
Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR)

Footprint Hidden
Hidden out of site
site

Low Maintenance/Remote Monitor

Robust/Resilient Biological Process

Retrofit/Upgrade

Modular (Phased Growth)

Reduced Disinfection Requirements?

MBR A hi
MBR-Achievable
bl Effluent
Effl
t Quality
Q lit
-

Effluent BOD < 5 mg/L

Effluent TSS < 5 mg/L

Total Phosphorus < 0.13


mg/L

Total Nitrogen < 3 mg/L

Ammonia < 0.1 mg/L

Turbidity < 0.2 NTU

Up to 4-6 log removal of


bacteria*

Up to 2-4 log removal of


viruses*

* - prior
i to
t disinfection
di i f ti

Mixed liquor in
A
Aeration
ti
T nk
Ta
k

Permea ted Wa ter

Membrane Cartridges
g ((flat-plate
p
MF))

Polyethylene
y y
membrane;; ultrasonically
y welded
to both sides of an ABS plate

M b
Membrane
C t id
Cartridges
C t id Anatomy
Cartridge
A t
-ABS plate
Chlorinated polyethylene
-Chlorinated
membrane
-Ultrasonically weld process
-Polyester
P l
t plenum
l
material
t i l
-0.4 mean pore size
-<0.1 effective p
pore size

Type 510

T
Type
515

-1.64ft x 3.28ft

-1.64ft x 4.92ft

-8.61ft2 Area

-13.451ft2 Area

The Submerged
S
Membrane Unit (SMU)
(S
)

The Submerged Membrane Unit (SMU)


Manifold

Tube
Membrane case

Membrane cartridge

Diffuser case
Diffuser

MBR-SMU
MBR
SMU Types

BRACKETTGREEN CAIRD & RAYNER CLARK COPA DORR-OLIVER EIMCO PROCESS ENVIROQUIP JONES+ATTWOOD WEMCO

11

EW 400
EW-400

Only for large


plants

EK 400
EK-400

ES200
ES-200

MBR How does a SMU work?


MBR-How

Continuous cross-flow of mixed liquor and air maintains optimum biofilm


thickness (Fluid
(
velocity: 0.5 m/sec)
/
)

Cross-Flow Filtration and Biofilm management

The MLSS is moved parallel to the


surface and cleaning is achieved by the
shear force generated by the crossflow
velocity
y over the membrane surface

Light suction or hydraulic head


forces clean water through
membrane

Does not trap hair or stringy materials,


common with all other membrane types.

BRACKETTGREEN CAIRD & RAYNER CLARK COPA DORR-OLIVER EIMCO PROCESS ENVIROQUIP JONES+ATTWOOD WEMCO

14

Th Biofilm
The
Bi fil (A Dynamic
D
i Membrane)
M b
)

Biofilm

Limited formation in water treatment

Almost instantaneously forms on all


membranes submerged in mixed liquor

Serves as primary filtering mechanism


(<0.1 mm)

Biofilm control is key to membrane


performance in mixed liquor

Biofilm protects membranes and extends


membrane life

MBR M b
MBR-Membrane
Cl
Cleaning
i In
I Place
Pl

Cleaning takes approximately 3-6 hours per basin, using 0.5% Sodium
Hypochlorite or Weak Acid
Cleaning of membranes is required only once every 3-6 months
No backflushing,
backflushing backwashing or maintenance cleaning required
Manual, semi-automated and fully-automated systems available
No chemical storage required
Acid neutralization and dechlorination not required for spent chemical disposal

BNR Biological Nutrient removal


Nitrogen Removal
Organic nitrogen converted to ammonia by Hydrolysis

Ammonia is converted to nitrite and then to nitrate during


Nitrification

Sludge age and water temperature


Ample D.O during aeration
Low pH due to nitrification- loss of alkalinity

Nitrate is reduced to nitrogen gas during Denitrification

Sufficient SCFA carbon or endogenous carbon


True anoxic conditions
Size of anoxic zone or length of anoxic period
Internal recycle rates in continuous processes

MBR 3-stage
MBR3 t
UNRTM Process
P
Ultimate
Nutrient
Removal

BNR Biological Nutrient removal


Phosphorous Removal

Influent soluble, biodegradable carbon content is fermented to


volatile fatty acids (VFA) under anaerobic condition
VFA generation is coupled with P release due to breakage of
phosphate-bonds
Released P and the P in the influent is incorporated in the
biomass (sludge) during anoxic/aerobic condition in order
replenish phosphate pool (EBPR or Bio-P)
P is removed from the system
y
when excess sludge
g is wasted

Anaerobic condition need to be maintained to ensure VFA


generation
DO poisoning in the recycle stream is to be avoided

MBR- 3-stage UNR

TM

Process

Applications
Custom designs
g
Package plants

Portable plants

Applications

WWTP upgrades and


retrofits
t fit

Industrial treatment plants

Wastewater
reuse/reclamation
Sludge thickening

Eliminate secondary clarification


and tertiary filtration

MBR ttechnology
h l
combines
bi
the functions of a clarifier and
filter
No longer have to be
concerned about
Sludge bulking/filamentous
organisms (poor settling)
Solids loading on clarifiers
High
Hi h flows,
fl
I&I
Maintenance

MBR-Blend Into Surroundings


Office Building

MBR in basement
of Office Building

MBR-Blend
MBR
Blend Into Surroundings
2 MLD MBR

More Robust, More Resilient Process


MBR systems operate at very high MLSS concentrations
(
(usually
ll 8,000
8 000 to
t 18,000
18 000 mg/l)
/l) Can
C go up to
t 35000 mg/L+
/L

Large amount of biomass is very resilient to fluctuations in


l di and
loading
d able
bl to
t handle
h dl high
hi h loading
l di

Functions well even at low flows and loadings (very flexible


operation)
ti )

Resistant to toxic shocks and upsets


Membrane provides nearly absolute barrier to solids

Easy to Operate

Few Moving Parts

Easy to Operate
Membrane plants do not require the constant
fine-tuning required in many conventional
treatment systems
Strict control of MLSS concentrations, sludge
wasting rates, etc. is not required
Daily procedures generally consist of plant
checkout and regulatory sampling/testing
requirements
Fewer
F
man-hours
h
required
i d for
f operation
ti

Simple Installation/Easy to Construct

Units are shipped in 2 components


Both fully assembled
Max lift 2t Others have to lift up to 5t

Our Goal: The Perfect Membrane

High Flux in MLSS

L
Low
TMP operation
ti

Result: High permeability and Long life

Maximizing Membrane Service Life


With over 2000 installations
i t ll ti
over the
th last
l t 17
years, Kubota membranes have proven to be a
reliable membrane for the wastewater industry.
y
The life expectancy is 10+ years.
Standard Warranty is a 5-year full warranty
(d
(domestic
ti sewage).
)

P
Process
Fl ibilit
Flexibility
8,000 18,000 MLSS operations
12 30 days SRT
1.
2
2.
3.
4.

SRT directly impacts membrane fouling


High SRT low sludge yield
Low SRT Lower power consumption
Sludge
g Handling
g is no longer
g a bottleneck with 18
days of storage in the MBR

Source: EWT/KUBOTA