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1

Effects of Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure on the


Vermicast of African Night Crawlers (EudriluseugeniaeK.)

A Research Paper
Presented to
The Panel of Evaluators of
Special Science and Technology Class
Capiz National High School

In Partial Fulfilment
Of the Subject Research II

By
Kimberly Ann Alcazaren
IV-Curie
July 5,2012

Introduction

Environmental
confronting

the

degradation

world,

and

is

the

rampant

major
use

threat

of

chemical

fertilizers contributes largely to the deterioration of the


environment through depletion of fossil fuels, generation
of

carbon

resources.

dioxide
It

leads

(CO2)
to

and

loss

of

contamination
soil

of

fertility

water
due

to

imbalanced use of fertilizers that has adversely impacted


agricultural productivity and causes soil degradation. Now
there

is

ecological

growing

and

realization

sustainable

that

farming

the

adoption

practices

can

of
only

reverse the declining trend in the global productivity and


environment protection (Aveyard 1988, Wani and Lee 1992,
Wani et al. 1995).

The rampant use of chemical fertilizers contributes


largely

to

depletion

the
of

deterioration

fossil

fuels,

of

the

generation

environment
of

carbon

through
dioxide

(CO2) and contamination of water resources (Wani and Lee,


1992; Wani et al., 1995).

3
The increase in generation of wastes can be harmful if
not disposed properly. Most of these organic residues are
burned currently or used as land fillings. This process not
only reduces the available fertile land, which was used to
produce

food

and

raw

materials,

but

also

pollutes

air,

water and soil (Stephens et al., 1994).

With the advent of industrialization and energy based


intensive agriculture, chemical pathways for raw materials
conversion

became

petrochemical

predominant

based

with

feedstock.

extensive

The

damaging

use

of

long-term

environmental impacts and resource depletion indicate unsustainability of the current methods. Attention is once
again

on

biochemical

appropriate

pathways

biological

with

organisms.

the

intervention

There

are

of

numerous

sources of waste where degradable organic matter is either


partially or fully generated. In India, most of the MSW is
dumped

and

only

intermittently

fraction

processed

in

(less

mechanical

than
compost

10%)

is

plants.

(Shekdar, 1999).

Nowadays,

due

to

the

increasing

cost

of

chemical

fertilizers with the reduction of yield potential of soil


and nutritional value of food due to chemical fertilizing

4
practices lead to an in-depth search for an economically
viable

alternative.

The

primary

solution

to

convert

the

biodegradable waste is Vermiculture biotechnology.

Vermicast or Vermicompost was identified as the best


alternative
viability.

with
It

regard

also

to

proved

industrial
itself

as

and

economical

natures

wonder

product to restore soil health and nutritional value in


food. The presence of earthworms in soil ecosystems is an
indicator of the well being of a system. Earthworms has the
unique

ability

to

convert

elements

such

as

minerals,

nutrients and microbes from soil or composting systems into


an

excretion

that

contains

the

vastest

amount

of

plant

nutrients, microbes and growth elements that do exist. The


excretion

is

called

Vermicast

or

Vermicompost.

The chemical and biological composition of Vermicast can be


regarded

as

the

closest

resemblance

of

balanced

and

healthy soil ecosystem. Elements and nutrients in Vermicast


are also presented to plants in a more absorbable form
compared to any other product in nature or industry.
(W. Joubert and R Fair,2004)

Vermicomposting
compost

with

the

is

use

a
of

method

of

earthworms.

preparing
It

is

one

enriched
of

the

5
easiest

methods

to

recycle

produce

quality

compost.

agricultural

Earthworms

wastes

consume

and

biomass

to
and

excrete it in digested form called worm casts. Worm casts


are popularly called as Black gold. The casts are rich in
nutrients,

growth

promoting

substances,

beneficial

soil

micro flora and having properties of inhibiting pathogenic


microbes.
manure,

Vermicompost is stable, fine granular organic


which

physicochemical
useful

in

enriches
and

raising

soil

biological
seedlings

quality

by

properties.
and

for

improving
It

crop

is

its

highly

production.

Vermicompost is becoming popular as a major component of


organic

farming

system.

(ICAR

Research

Region, Umiam 793 103, Meghalaya)

Complex

for

NEH

6
Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study aims to find out the Effects


of

Chicken

(Gallus

gallus

domesticus)

Manure

on

the

Vermicast of African Night Crawlers (EudriluseugeniaeK.)

Specifically, this study seeks to answers the


following questions:

1. Is there a significant difference in using the Broiler


Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure and the Layer
Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure on the growth
gained

of

the

African

Night

Crawlers

(EudriluseugeniaeK.)?
2. Is there a significant difference in using the Broiler
Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure and the Layer
Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure on the amount
of

Vermicast

produced

by

the

African

Night

Crawlers

(EudriluseugeniaeK.)?
3. What is the Macro Analysis of the Vermicast that will be
produced

by

the

(EudriluseugeniaeK.)

using

African
the

Night

Broiler

Chicken

Crawlers
(Gallus

gallus domesticus) Manure and the Layer Chicken (Gallus


gallus domesticus) Manure?

7
4. What is the Micro Analysis of the Vermicast that will be
produced

by

the

(EudriluseugeniaeK.)

African

using

the

Night

Broiler

Crawlers

Chicken

(Gallus

gallus domesticus) Manure and the Layer Chicken (Gallus


gallus domesticus) Manure?

Statement of the Hypotheses

1. There

is

no

significant

difference

in

using

the

Cultured Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure and


the Native Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure
on the growth gained of the African Night Crawlers
(EudriluseugeniaeK.).

2. There

is

no

significant

difference

in

using

the

Cultured Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure and


the Native Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure
on the amount of Vermicast produced by the African
Night Crawlers (EudriluseugeniaeK.).

3. There is no Macro Analysis of the Vermicast that will


be

produced

by

(EudriluseugeniaeK.)

the
using

African
the

Night

Crawlers

Cultured

Chicken

8
(Gallus

gallus

domesticus)

Manure

and

the

Native

Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure.

4. There is no Micro Analysis of the Vermicast that will


be

produced

by

the

(EudriluseugeniaeK.)
(Gallus

gallus

African

using

domesticus)

the
Manure

Night

Crawlers

Cultured

Chicken

and

the

Native

Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Manure.

Significance of the Study

Vermicomposting

is

an

eco-friendly,

economical,

efficient novel technology that can be applied to utilize


agricultural and other organic wastes. This technology also
provides

opportunities

for

self-employment

for

rural

people, by utilizing the available agricultural resources.


The

plant

protection

practices

and

recommendations

for

applications of heavy doses of pesticides to control some


soil insects and weeds have made the soil barren. A growing
awareness of some of the adverse economic and environmental
impacts of agrochemicals in crop production has stimulated
greater interest in the utilization of organic amendments

9
such

as

(Follet,

compost
1981).

or

Vermicompost

Therefore,

the

for

crop

sustainability

production
has

to

be

restored by some means of regular food security.


The Philippines is rich in agriculture but is also
suffering the outcomes of global warming. This study will
be of great benefit because by establishing the concepts of
this study, the agricultural sector of the Philippines will
gain

from

the

inexpensive

cost,

nutritional

and

eco-

friendly products this study will yield.


Potential

environmental

benefits

of

Vermitechnology

include: reduction of noxious qualities of organic wastes,


elimination/reduction

of

harmful

micro

organisms;

conversion of agro-wastes into high value fertilizer and


production of food and feed from food discards (Tripathi et
al., 2005). Vermicompost envisages the soil fertility for
years together without affecting the food quality.
Other researchers can also obtain baseline information
from this study utilizing it in other applications.

10
Definition of Terms

African Night Crawler (EudriluseugeniaeK.) -A Burrowing


earthworm. It is often used exclusively for the casting
production.They are very prolific breedersand are widely
distributed around the warmer parts of the world, like the
Philippines (Blakemore, 2007).
In this study, it refers to the test organism used in
the study.

Physico-chemical
refer

to

those

characters

altering

the

chemical

properties,

material's
chemical

properties

composition
on

properties
reaction;

established

only

of
the

that

that
by

that

Physical

can
the

be

hand,

becomes

is,

changing

any
a

observed

substance

other

properties

is

evident

quality

without

while
any

the
of

during

that

substance's

can

a
a
be

chemical

identity. Simply speaking, chemical properties cannot be


determined just by viewing or touching the substance; the
substance's

internal

structure

must

be

affected

for

chemical properties to be investigated. (Corwin,2000).

its

11
In this study, it refers to the physical properties
like pH and the amount of vermicast produced and chemical
properties

like

presence

of

nitrogen,

phosphorus

and

potassium.

Substrate - In biochemistry, it is a molecule upon


which an

enzyme

involving

the

acts. Enzymes

substrate(s).

catalyzechemical reactions

In

the

case

of

single

substrate, the substrate binds with the enzyme active site,


and an enzyme-substrate complex is formed. The substrate is
transformed

into

one

or

more

products,

which

are

then

released from the active site. The active site is now free
to accept another substrate molecule. In the case of more
than one substrate, these may bind in a particular order to
the

active

site,

before

reacting

together

to

produce

different

organic

products (Bracey et al., 2001).

In

this

study,

it

refers

to

the

materials being fed to the test organism.

Vermicast- also known as worm castings, worm humus or worm


manure, is the end-product of the breakdown of organic
matter by species of earthworm. (Heckman, 2006)

12
In this study, it refers to the fecal matter produced
by the African night crawlers.

Vermiculture - is the controlled growing of worms in


specialty structures (Gershury and Smillie, 1995)
In

this

study,

it

refers

to

the

process

by

which

African night crawlers were grown and feed in a controlled


condition.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study was conducted to determine the amount of


vermicasts it will produce as well as its physico-chemical
properties

African

Night

Crawlers

(EudriluseugeniaeK.)

using different substrates and also the Micro and Macro


Analysis of Vermicast.
This

study

was

limited

using

four

treatments:

Treatment A (1500g Broiler Chicken manure and 1000g garden


soil), Treatment B (7500 organic materials, 1500g Broiler
Chicken manure and 1000g garden soil), Treatment C (1500g
Layer Chicken manure and 1000g garden soil) and Treatment D

13
(7500 organic materials, 1500g Broiler Chicken manure and
1000g garden soil). The study was conducted within the span
of 90 days. The efficiency of the treatments was evaluated
using the following parameters: physical properties like pH
and amount of Vermicast produced and chemical properties
which include nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium level in
it. The physico-chemical analysis of Vermicast was done at
the Department of Agriculture- Region VI, Iloilo City.

Completely

Randomized

Design

(CRD)

was

used

having

four treatments replicated thrice.

The statistical tools to be used in the analysis of


data of the study are: mean and standard deviation, onefactor

ANOVA,

and

the

Tukey

Simultaneous

Comparison

for

Post Hoc Analysis and Chi- square Test. All inferential


tests were set at 5% level of significance.

14
Table 1 below shows the treatments and replications in this
investigation.

Table 1: Treatments and Replicates.


Treatments
Treatment A
Broiler Chicken manure 1500 g
Garden Soil 1000 g
Treatment B
Organic Materials 7500 g
Broiler Chicken manure 1500 g
Garden Soil 1000 g
Treatment C
Layer Chicken manure 1500 g
Garden Soil 1000 g
Treatment D
Organic Materials 7500 g
Layer Chicken manure 1500 g
Garden Soil 1000 g

Replicates

Duration of
Treatment
90 days

90 days

90 days

90 days

Control Variable
Garden Soil
1

90 days

Tables 2, 3, and 4 found in the below and succeeding


pages, show the research design.

15
Table 2: Treatments and Replicates.
Treatments
Treatment A
Organic Materials 7500 g
Pig manure 1500 g
Garden Soil 1000 g
Treatment B
Organic Materials 7500 g
Chicken manure 1500 g
Garden Soil 1000 g
Treatment C
Organic Materials 7500 g
Goat manure 1500 g
Garden Soil 1000 g

Replicates

Duration of
Treatment

30 days

30 days

30 days

Table 3: Weight Gain of

Treatments

Weight Gain

Mean

Treatment A
R1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

Treatment B

Treatment C

16
Table 4: Amount of Vermicast produced

Treatments

Amount of Vermicast

Mean

produced
A
R1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

Table 4: pH-value

Treatments

Amount of Vermicast
produced

R1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

Mean

17
Table 5: Chemical Components of Vermicast

Determination(%)
Nitrogen (N)
Phosphorous(P2O5)
Potassium (K2O)

Treatment A

Treatment B

Treatment C

18
Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

The degradation and stabilization of organic material


by

earthworms

is

known

as

Vermicomposting

(Dominguez

et

al., 2000; Edwards, 1995; Ndegwa and Thomson, 2000; Ndegwa


et al., 2000). In addition to earthworms, Vermicomposting
also includes micro-organisms; however, earthworms are the
major contributors (Dominguez et al., 2003)
Vermitechnology
Vermitechnology
biotechnology

is

involving

an
the

important
use

of

aspect

of

earthworms

for

processing various types of organic wastes into valuable


resources.

Vermicomposting

helps

to

process

wastes

simultaneously giving biofertilizers and proteins (Prabha


et al., 2005). Thus, vermitechnology could successfully be
used to clean the environment as it uses wastes as raw
material

to

change

polluted,

costly

chemical

farming

to

sustainable agriculture (Lal et al., 2003).


Vermicomposting is the process of having redworms and
other decomposer organisms process our organic waste and
turn

it

into

great

natural

fertilizer

called

19
vermicompost.

Vermi compost

contains:

worm

castings

("vermicastings"), good aerobic compost from other worm bin


organisms, and some material that's on its way to the worms
or other critters (All Things Organic, 2010).
Vermicompost
materials

is

obtained

from

finely-shredded,

most

of

peat-like

the

organic

material

with

excellent porosity, aeration, drainage, and water-holding


capacity (Edwards, 1995, 1998). Edwards also explained that
Vermicompost may contain hormones, soil enzymes, and high
microbial populating which can significantly increase plant
growth. The above properties make Vermicompost an excellent
horticultural

media.

Atiyeh

et

al.

(2000a,

b)

showed

significant increase in margigold and tomato plants when a


traditional potting media was mixed with vermicomposted pig
solids and food wastes. Arancon et al. (2005), showed a
noticeable

increase

in

pepper

plant

leaf

area,

shoot

biomass, and marketable fruit weights when vermicomposted


food waste was used as a fertilizer.

In addition, Vermicompost improves soil structure and


aeration as well as increasing its water-holdingcapacity.
Worms help the environment by decomposing organic material
(food and yard waste)turning it into a natural rich organic
soil

amendment.

The

end

result

is

called

20
vermicompost,wormpoop

or

worm

castings

(Padma

et

al.,

2002).

Earthworms
As

explained

by

Edwards

(1995),

earthworms

ingest

organic matter and egests it as much finer particles after


passing

through

grinding

possess. Worms feed on the


the organic material.

gizzard

that

they

all

microorganisms that grow upon

They take over the role of aerating

necessary in composting to maintain aerobic conditions and


their turnover rate is much higher than with composting as
they

process

feet

deep

layers

of

suitable

organic

material in less than 30 days (Edwards, 1995).

Earthworms are often referred to as farmers friends


and natures polughmente (Darwin, 1881). Many studies were
conducted

on

the

process

by

which

earthworms

transform

organic matter after ingesting it and on the properties of


the

resulting

stabilized
compost.

material,

casts,
Orozco

but

compared
(1996)

to

very

few

synthetic

investigated

were

based

fertilizers
the

on
and

ability

of Eisina Fetida, one of the most promising earthworms for


vermicomposting,
digestion.

to

enrich

coffee

pulp

through

The ingested material had no available C or N

21
originally, but a minimum of 178 ppm of available nitrogen
and 0.86% extractable C were found in the casts, along with
higher P, Ca and Mg values, with a decrease in K content
only.

Earthworms

(Pashanasi,
1992).

increase

nitrogen

mineralization

1992; Parmelee,

rate

1988; Ruz-Jerez,

Available N increased irrespective of the residues

the earthworms feed on or the growth temperature, which was


attributed

to

the

increase

in

oxidized

due

to

soil

ingestion, and not to change in soil texture since the soil


was not mixed (Ruz-Jerez, 1992).
Composting worms are big eaters. Although the general
rule-of-thumb, earthworms eat equal to their body weight
per

day,

but

under

ideal

conditions,

they

are

able

to

consume in excess of their body weight each day. Manures


are the most commonly used worm feedstock, with dairy and
beef manures generally considered the best natural food for
Eisenia,

with

the

possible

exception

of

rabbit

manure

(Gaddie and Douglas,1975).


Composting with worms, both domestic and industrial,
is gaining great popularity throughout as people realize
the value of the resulting compost. Plant growth response
to

both

the

solid

and

liquid

(Environment Network, 2011).

composts

is

remarkable

22
Physico- Chemical Composition
Vermicast

Compost

pH
6.5-7.5
Organic carbon % 20.43 30.31
N %
1.8 2.05
P %
1.32 1.93
K %
1.28 1.50
Carbon : Nitrogen 14-15 : 1
Ca %
3.0 4.5
Mg %
0.4 0.7
Na %
0.02 0.30
S %
Traces to 0.40
Fe %
0.3 0.7
Zn %
0.028 0.036
Mn %
Traces to 0.40
Cu %
0.0027 0.0123

7.7
16.93
2.79
0.49
3.48
6
1.36
0.68
0.61
0.19
0.016
0.008
0.015
0.00004

Chicken
Manure
5.8
4
1.6
3.25
3.25
0.7
0.07
0.5
0.19
0.0052
0.52
0.007

The total N and P value of vermicast does not differ


significantly from that of compost and chicken manure.
However, the largest amount of N in vermicast is in the
NO3 and NO2 plant available format whereas N of compost and
manure is in the NH4 format. The largest amount of P in
vermicompost

is

in

the

P2O5 plant

available

format.

Various yield studies also indicated that the supply rates


of H2PO4--P,

K+,

vermicomposting

SO42-S
is

and

Mg2+ after

significantly

higher

process

than

that

of
of

compost, manure or chemical fertilizers (Fair and Joubert,


2008).

23
Chapter3

Methodology

Materials
These are the following materials used in the study:
10 sacks ofroiler and Layer Chicken manure, bamboo slabs, 3
kg. Earthworms, organic materials (rice straw, non-colored
papers, shredded dried leaves and grasses,plastic cover,
and garden soil)

General Procedure
The organic materials are composed of a mixture of
shredded dried rice straw, leaves and papers. The shredded
organic material was transferred to a suitable bed to allow
them to undergo anaerobic decomposition for at least 14
days. It was covered first with a plastic sheet to minimize
aeration; a little amount of water was used sprinkled on
the heap. Then it was transferred to the Vermicomposting
bin

where

animal

manure

was

crawler (EudriluseugeniaeK.).

added

with

African

night

24
The

ratio

of

the

vermicompost

heap

was:

75:15:10,

respectively (partially decomposed organic material; animal


manure; and garden soil).

For
euginae

every
was

10

kg

used.

sprinkled

(at

moisture

required

of

The

least

vermicompost
vermicompost

once
by

the

week)

heap,
heap

with

earthworms

was
tap

for

kg

of

E.

regularly
water

growth

for
and

survival. The vermicompost bed was not directly exposed to


sunshine

for

the

whole

duration

of

the

vermicomposting

process which takes about 6 weeks. Worms thrive well at a


temperature of 27-290C under the shade of trees.

When

90

100%

of

the

organic

materials

was

decomposed, harvesting was done by manually segregating the


earthworms

from

the

vermicompost.

The

earthworm

was

transferred to a suitable medium for future use. Newlyharvested vermicompost was air-dried for 3-7 days or when
the moisture content of the vermicompost was about 15% and
then be passed through a 2 mm sieve. Materials that did not
pass through the sieve was returned to the vermicompost
beds for the next production cycle.

25
A chemical analysis of the vermicompost was conducted
at the Regional Laboratory of Department of Agriculture,
Iloilo City following the standard methods.

Statistical Procedure
Results were

further analyzed using means, standard

deviation, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and Tukey


test.

26
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