Anda di halaman 1dari 19

1

INTEGRALS

INTEGRALS
5.1

BASIC CONCEPTS
If f(x) is derivative of function g(x), then g(x) is known as antiderivative or integral of f(x).
i.e.,

d
dx

f(x)dx = g(x).

{g(x)} = f(x)

(a)

Derivative of a function is unique but a function can have infinite antiderivatives or integrals.

(b)

f( x) dx = g( x) + c, where c is constant of integration, is knwon as indefinite integral.


b

(c)

f (x ) dx = {g(x) + c }ba = g(b) g(a).

dx = x + c.

(d)

(e)
(g)
5.2

(f)
{(x) g(x)}dx = f(x)dx g(x)dx.
c . f( x)dx = c . f ( x) dx .
f(x)dx f{g(t)}. g(t)dt, if we substitute x = g(t) such that dx = g(t)dt.

STANDARD RESULT
x n+1
n +1

1.

2.

(ax + b)n+1
(ax + b) dx = a(n + 1) + c, n 1, n is a rational number..

dx =

+ c, n 1, n is a rational number. If n = 1, then

If n = 1. Then
3.

1
dx = log|x| + c.
x

1
1
dx = log|ax + b| + c.
ax + b
a

In case of rational function, if degree of numerator is equal or greater than degree of denominator, then we first divide numerator by denominator and write it as
Numerator
Denominator

= Quotient +

Re mainder
Deno min ator

, and then integrate.

4.

sin ax dx =

- cos ax
a

5.

cos ax dx =

sin ax
a

6.

tan ax dx = a log | cos as | + c. or a log | sec ax | + c.


If a = 1, then tan x dx = log | cos x | + c or log | sec x | + c.

7.

cot ax dx = a log | sin ax | + c.

8.

sec ax dx = a log | sec ax + tan ax | + c.

9.

cosec ax dx = a log | cosec ax cot ax | + c. If a = 1, then cosec x dx = log | cosec x cot x |+c.

10.

sec ax tan ax dx = a sec ax + c.

11.

cosec ax cot ax dx = a cosec ax + c.

12.

sec

13.

cosec

14.

+ c. If a = 1, sinx dx = cosx + c.
If a = 1, cos x dx = sin x + c.

+ c.

If a = 1, then cot x dx = log | sin x | + c.

If a = 1, then sec x dx = log | sec x + tan x | + c.

ax dx =
2

ax

1
tan ax + c.
a

ax dx =

dx =

eax
a

If a = 1, then sec x tan x dx = sec x + c.


If a = 1, then cosec x cot x dx = cosec x + c.

If a = 1, then sec2 x dx = tan x + c.

1
cot ax + c. If a = 1, then
a

cosec

x dx = cot x + c.

+ c. If a = 1, then ex dx = ex + c.

www.thinkiit.in

5.3
(i)

INTEGRALS
amx

ax

15.

amx dx = m loge a + c. If m = 1, then ax dx = loge a + c.

16.

17.

18.

19.

21.

23.

a2 - x2

dx =

x
2

a2 - x2

a2
2

sin1

24.

a2 + x2

dx =

x
2

a2 + x2

a2
2

2
2
log x + a + x + c.

25.

x 2 - a2

dx =

x
2

x 2 - a2

a2
2

1
a -x
2

1
+ x2

dx =

1
x -a
2

1
2

a +x

1
- a2

x
a

dx = sin1

1
x
tan1
a
a

1 - x2

+ c. If a = 1, then

1
x
sec1
a
a

dx =

+ c. If a = 1, then

1
1+ x2

+ c. If a = 1, then

2
2
dx = log x + a + x + c.

x-a

dx = 2a log x + a + c.
x
a

dx = sin1x + c.
dx = tan1x + c.
1
x2 - 1

dx = sec1x + c.
1

20.

22.

x - a2
2

1
- x2

x 2 - a2

dx= log x +

+ c.

a+x

dx = 2a log a - x + c.

+ c.

log x +

x 2 - a2

+ c.

METHODS OF INTEGRATION
Integration by Substitution (or change of independent variable) :
If the independent variable x in f(x) dx be changed to t, then we substitute x = f (t)

f(x) dx = f(f(t))f(t) dt

i.e., dx = f(t) dt
(ii)

which is either a standard form or is easier to integrate.


Integration by parts :
If u and v are the differentiable functions of x then
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

u. v dx = u vdx dx u ( vdx ) dx.


d

How to choose Ist and IInd functions:


If the two functions are of different types take that function as Ist which comes first in the word
ILATE where I stands for inverse circular function, L stands for logarithrmic function A stands for
Algebratic function, T stands for trigonometric function and E stands for exponential function.
If both functions are algebratic take that function as Ist whose differential coefficient is simple.
It both functions are trigonometrical take that function as IInd whose integral is simpler.
Successive integration by parts : Use the following formula

uvdx n= uv1 uv2 + uv3 u v4 + ......... .........+ (1)

n1

n 1

vn + (1)

vndx.

where u stands for nth differential coefficient of u w. r. t. x and vn stands for n th integral of v w. r. t. x.
cancellation of Integrals : i.e. e {(f(x) + f(x)} dx = e f(x) + c.
x

(iii)

Evalution of Integrals of various Types :


Type I : Integrals of the form

(i)

dx
ax + bx + c
2

(ii)

(ax

dx
2

+ bx + c

(iii) (ax 2 + bx + c ) dx

Rule : Express ax + bx + c in the form of perfect square and then apply the standard resuts.
Type II : Integrals of the form

(i)

px + q
2
ax + bx + c

(ii)

px + q
ax + bx + c
2

(iii)

(p

xn + p1xn-1 + ...... + pn-1x + pn


ax 2 + bx + c

www.thinkiit.in

) dx

INTEGRALS
Rule for (I) :

(px + q)dx
ax 2 + bx + c

p
2a

(2ax + b )dx

pb

dx

= (2a ) (ax 2 + bx + c ) + q - 2a 2

ax + bx + c

bp

dx
ax 2 + bx + c

2
ln | ax + bx + c | + q - 2a

The other integral of R. H. S. can be evaluated with the help of type I.

( px + q) dx

Rule for (II) :

ax2 + bx + c

(ax

p
a

p
2a

( 2ax + b ) dx

(ax

+ bx + c

bp

+ bx + c + q - 2a

pb

dx

dx + q - 2a

ax + bx + c
2

dx

ax + bx + c
2

The other integral of R. H. S. can be evaluated with the help of type I.


Rule for (III) : In this case by actual division reduce the fraction to the form f(x) +

(px + q)dx
ax 2 + bx + c

and then integrate.


dx

dx

dx

(i) a + b sin 2 x

Type III : Integrals of the form

(ii) a + b cos2 x

(iii) asin2 x + bcos2 x

f(tan x )dx

dx

(iv) (a sin x + b cos x )2

(v) a sin 2 x + b sin x cos x + c cos2 x + d

where f (tan x) is a polynomial in tan x.


2
Rule : We shall always in such cases divide above and below by cos x ; then put tan x = t
i.e. sec x dx = dt then the question shall reduce to the forms
2

(at

dt
2

+ bt + c

or

dx

(ii) a + b cos x

(p cos x + q sin x )

dx

(iii) a sin x + b cos x + c

+ bt + c

dx

(i) a + b sin x

Type IV : Integrals of the form

(at

j ( t ) dt
2

p cos x + q sin x + r

(iv) (a cos x + b sin x ) dx (v) a cos x + b sin x + c

Rule for (i), (ii), and (iii):


write

cos x =

1 - tan2 x / 2
,
1 + tan2 x / 2

sinx =

2 tan x / 2
1 + tan2 x / 2

The numberator shall become sec x/2 and the


2

denominator will be a quadratic in tan x/2. Putting tan x/2 = t i.e. sec x/2 dx = 2dt the question shall
reduce to the form
r

at

dt
+ bt + c

. Rule for (iv) : express the numberator as

I(D ) + m(d.c. of D )
find l and m by comparing the coefficients of sin x and cos x and split the integral into sum of two integrals
as l dx + m

d.c. of Dr
Dr

= lx + m ln | D | + c

Rule for (v) : Express the numberator as


r
r
l(D ) + m (d.c. of D ) + n, find l, m, and n by comparing the coefficients of sin x, cos x and constant term
and split the integral into sum of three integrals as
l

dx + m

d.c. of Dr
Dr

dx + n

dx
Dr

= lx + m ln | D | + n

dx

and to evaluate

method to evaluate rule (i), (ii) and (iii).

www.thinkiit.in

dx

proceed by the

INTEGRALS
Type V : Integrals of the form

(x

+ a2 dx
x 4 + kx 2 + a 4

(i)

(x

- a 2 dx
x 4 + kx 2 + a 4

(ii)

where k is a constant, + ve, ve or zero.

Rule for (i) and (ii) : Divide above and below by x then putting (i) t = x
i.e.,

dt =

a2
1 + 2 dx and

dt =

a2
x

a2
1 - 2 dx

then the questions shall reduce to the form

dt
+ c2

or

dt
- c2

Remember :
(i)

x 2dx
x 4 + kx 2 + a 4

(ii)

(x

dx
4

+ kx + a

1
2

(x

+ a2 dx
x 4 + kx 2 + x 4

1
2a2

dx

(x

1
2

+ a2 dx
x + kx 2 + x 4

1
2a2

(2n - 3 )

- a 2 dx
x 4 + kx 2 + a 4

(x

(x

)
)

- a 2 dx
x + kx 2 + a 4

dx

(iii) (x 2 + k )n = k (2n - 2)(x 2 + k )n-1 + k (2n - 2) (x 2 + k )n-1


Type VI : Integrals of the form

(i)

dx

(ii)

(Ax + B) (ax + b )

(iv)

( Ax

dx
2

Ax + Bx + C

dx

+ Bx + c

) (ax

+ bx + c

(iii)

dx

( Ax + B )

( ax

+ bx + c

Rule for (i) and (ii) : Put ax + b = t

(iv)

( ax + b )

Rule for (iii) :

Put Ax + B =

Rule for (iv) :

Put

1
t

ax2 + bx + c
Ax2 + Bx + C

Integration by partial fraction :


Form of the Rational Function

=t

Form of the Partial Fraction

1.

px + q
(x - a)(x - b ) ,

2.

px + q
(x - a)2

3.

px 2 + qx + r
(x - a )(x - b )(x - c ) ;

A
B
C
+
+
x -a x -b x -c

4.

px 2 + qx + r
(x - a )2 (x - b)

A
B
C
+
+
2
x - a (x - a )
x-b

5.

px 2 + qx + r
(x - a) x 2 + bx + c

ab

A
B
+
x -a x -b

A
B
+
x - a (x - a )2

);

A
Bx + C
+
x - a x 2 + bx + c

where x + bx + c cannot be factorised further.


In the above table, A, B and C are real numbers to be determined suitably.

www.thinkiit.in

5
5.4

INTEGRALS
PROPERTIES OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS
(i)

a f ( x ) dx = 0

(ii)

(iii)

a f ( x ) dx = a f ( x ) dx + c f ( x ) dx (a < c < b)

(v)

0 f ( x ) dx = 0 f (a - x ) dx

(iv)

a f ( x ) dx = b f ( x ) dx .

a f ( x ) dx = a f (a + b - x ) dx

(vi)

2a

f ( x ) dx

0 f ( x ) dx

0 f ( 2a - x ) dx

5.5

2a

2a

(vii)

(viii)

-a f ( x) dx = 2 0 f ( x ) dx , if f(x) is even function, i.e., f(x) = f(x).

f ( x ) dx

= 2 0 f ( x ) dx ,if f(2a-x) = f(x) and

f ( x ) dx

= 0, if f(2a-x) = f(x)

INTEGRATION AS A LIMIT OF SUMS.


b

a f ( x ) dx =
or

Lt

h0

h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) + ................+ f(a + n - 1 h)]

= (b a) Lt

1
n

[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) + ..........+ f(a + n - 1 h)], where h =

The following results are used for evalating questions based on limit of sums.
(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + ................+ (n 1) = (n1) =
(ii) 1 + 2 + 3 + ..........+ (n1) = (n1) =
2

( n - 1) n
2
(n - 1)n(2n - 1)
6

(iii) 1 + 2 + 3 + .........+ (n 1) = (n1) =


3

n1

(iv) a + ar + ..........+ ar

(n - 1)n
2

] (r 1).

a rn - 1
r -1

www.thinkiit.in

b-a
n

INTEGRALS

SOLVED PROBLESM
Ex.1

Find f(x), if
3
(i) f(x) = (x 1) and f(2) + f(2) = 0

(ii) f(x) = a (cos x + sin x ), f(0) = 9 and

f 2 = 15

Sol.

Here, f (x)

f(x)

= (x1) dx = (x 1) + C

f(2)

= (2 1) + C = =

1
4

= (x 1)

(i)

1
4

1
4

81
+
4

+C+

C=0

1
4

82
4

+C

Given that f(2) + f(2) = 0, we have

+ 2C = 0

20.5 + 2C = 0

Hence, from (1) we have


1
4
(x 1) 10.25
4

f(x) =
(ii)

Here, f (x)

f(x)

1
4
[(x 1) 41]
4

= a (cos x + sin x)

= a (cos x + sin x)dx

= a cos x dx + a sin x dx
= a sin x a cos x + C ...(1)
\ f(0) = 9 = a0 a1+C ...(2) Ca=9
p

f 2 =15 = a1 a 0 + C a+C =15

and

From (2) and (3), we have a = 3, C = 12


Hence, from (1), we have f(x)=3(sin xcos x)+12
Ex.2

Integrate the following functions w.r.t. x :


2
1 + log x )
( x + 1 )( x + log x )
(i) (
(ii)

(iii) x x + 2
Sol.

(i) Put 1 + log x = y. Then,


So, I =

1
dx = dy
x

(1 + log x )2 dx

dy =

y3
3

+C=

(1 + log x )3 + C
3

(ii) Put x + log x = y. Then, 1 + x dx = dy


So,

I=

x + 1

x dx = dy

(x + 1)(x + log x )2 dx
x

www.thinkiit.in

C = 10.25

INTEGRALS
y3
3

= y dy =
2

(iii)

(x + log x )3 + C

+C=

So, I = x x + 2 dy = (y - 2)y 2 dy
1

Put x + 2 = y. Then, dx = dy

( y 2 - 2y 2 ) dy = ( y 2 dy - 2)y 2 dy
3

2
2 2
y - 2. y 3 + C
3
5

Ex.3

Find : (i)

Sol.

(i)

5
3
2
(x + 2)2 - 4 (x + 2)2 + C
3
5

cos x dx
3

(ii)

1 - sin x dx

We have

cos x =

1
4

(cos 3x + 3 cos x) \

cos

x dx =

1
4

cos xdx
=

1 sin 3x
4 3

(ii)

3
4

+ sinx + C =

x
x
x

2 x
+ sin2 - 2 sin cos
cos
2
2
2
2

x
x

cos - sin
2
2

\
Find : (i)
(ii)
Sol.

(i)
\
(ii)
\

3
4

sin3x + sinx + C

We have
1- sin x =

Ex.4

1
12

x
x
= cos - sin
2

x2

x 6 + a6

sec 2 x

x
2

dx

sin 2 dx

= 2 sin

x
2

+ 2 cos

x -1

+C

dx

x2 - 1

1
3

Put x = t so that 3x dx=dt or x dx = dt

x2
x 6 - a6

dx =

1
3

dt

( )

t 2 + a3

1
1
= log t + t 2 + a 6 + C = log x 3 + x 6 + a 6 + C
3

Put tan x = t so that sec x dx = dt

sec 2 x
tan x + 4
2

dx =

dt

t2 + 4

2
= log t + t + 4 +C

= log tan x + tan2 x + 4 +C


(iii)

x
2

dx

dx (iii)

tan2 x + 4

cos

1- sin x dx =

x -1
x -1
2

dx=

1
2

2x
x -1
2

dx

dx
x2 - 1

dx

2
2
= x - 1 - log x + x + 1 + C

www.thinkiit.in

cos 3x dx + 4

INTEGRALS
x +2

Ex.5

Find : (i)

Sol.

(i) Let x + 2 A.

x + 2x + 3

d
dx

5x + 3

dx (ii)

dx

x + 4 x + 10

(x + 2x + 3) + B

x + 2 A.(2x + 2 ) + B

5x + 3 A (2x + 4) + B

On comparing coefficients of like powers of x, we have


1
2

1 = 2A and 2 = 2A + B A =
So,

x+2
x 2 + 2x + 3
2x + 2

1
2

1
2 x 2 + 2x + 3 + C1
2

x + 2x + 3
2

1
(2x + 2) + 1
2
dx
x 2 + 2x + 3

dx =

and B = 1

dx

dx +

x + 2x + 3
2

dx

(x + 1)2 + (

= x 2 + 2x + 3 + C1+log x + 1 + x 2 + 2x + 3 +C2
= x 2 + 2x + 3 + log x + 1 + x 2 + 2x + 3 + C
(ii) Let 5x + 3 A.

d
dx

(x + 4x + 10) + B

On comparing coefficients of x, we have 5 = 2Aand 3 = 4A + B A =

5x + 3
x 2 + 4x + 10

and B = 7

dx

5
(2x + 4) - 7
5
2
dx = 2
x 2 + 4 x + 10
=

5
2

2x + 4
2

x + 4x + 10

5
2 x 2 + 4 x + 10 + C1 - 7
2

dx - 7

dx

( x + 2) 2 +

dx
2

x + 4 x + 10

( 6 )2

= 5 x2 + 4x +10+C1 -7log (x + 2) + x2 + 4x +10 +C2


= 5 x 2 + 4 x + 10 - 7 log x + 2 +

x 2 + 4 x + 10 + C

dx

( x + 1)( x + 2 )

Ex.6

Find :

Sol.

We write

1
( x + 1)( x + 2)

A
x +1

B
x+2

where real numbers Aand B are to be determined suitabley. This gives


1 A (x + 2) + B(x + 1)
Equation the coefficient of x and the constant terms, we get
A + B = 0 and 2A + B = 1
A = 1 and B = 1
Thus,

1
( x + 1)( x + 2)

1
x +1

-1
x+2

= log | x+1 | log | x+2 | + C = log

x -1
x+2

dx

( x + 1)( x + 2) = x 1+ 1 dx - x 1+ 2 dx

+C

www.thinkiit.in

INTEGRALS

Ex.7

Find : (i)

Sol.

(i)

3x - 1

( x + 2 )2 dx

Let 3x - 12
( x + 2)

(ii) (x - 1)2 )(x + 2) dx

A
x+2

( x + 2)2

Then, 3x 1 A(x + 2) + B
Comparing coefficients of x and the constant terms on both sides, we get
3 = A and 1 = 2A + B A = 3 and B = 7
3x - 1

Thus,

( x + 2)2 dx = x + 2 dx - ( x + 2)2 dx = 3 log |x + 2| 7 . ( x + 2)

(ii)

Let

A=

Thus,

(x - 1)2 ( x + 2) dx

A
x -1

+C

+
( x - 1)
x+2
( x - 1) ( x + 2)
2
Then x =A(x 1) (x +2) + B(x + 2) + C (x + 1)
x = A (x2 + x 2) + B (x + 2) + C (x2 2x + 1)
Comparing coefficients of x2, x and the constant terms on both sides, we get
0 = A + C; 1 = A + B 2C ; 0 = 2A + 2B + C

Ex.8

2
9

;B =

1
;C
3

2
9

2
1
2
9 dx +
3
9 dx
dx x -1
x+2
( x - 1)2

2
9

log |x 1|

2
9

log x + 2 3( x - 1) + C

1
3( x - 1)

x -1

2
9

log |x + 2| + C

Find : (i) x sin-1 x dx


(ii) x cos-1 x dx

Sol.

(i)
=
=

Put x = sin t so that d x = cos t . dt

1
2

So,

x sin

-1

x dx = sin t . t . cos t dt

t . sin 2t dt

] ]

1
t . sin 2t dt - 1. sin 2t dt dt
2

= 1 t . cos 2t + cos 2t dt
2

-2

= 1 t . cos 2t + 1 . sin 2t + C
4

1
1
t .(1 - 2 sin 2 t ) + sin t 1 - sin 2 t + C
4
4

=
(ii)

1
1
(2x 2 - 1) sin -1 x + x 1 - x 2 + C
4
4

Put x = cos t so that dx = sin t dt

So,

x cos

www.thinkiit.in

-1

x dx = - cos t . t . sin t dt

10

INTEGRALS
= - 1 t sin 2t dt = 1 t . cos 2t - 1 . sin 2t + C
2

=
Ex.9

1
1
t(2 cos2 t 1)
4
4

1 - cos 2 t

(Using (1) give below)

1
x
(2x2 1) cos1 x
4
4

. cos t + C =

1- x 2

+C

1
1
dt
2
logx (logx)

Find : (i)

sin4x - 4

(ii) e x
dx
1 - cos4x
Sol.

(i)

Let log x = t. Then x = et and

= e t [f ( t ) + f ' (t ) dt, where f ( t ) =


= et .

1
t

= dt \

= et . f(t)+C

x sin 4 x - 4

dx
1 - cos 4 x

4
sin 4x

1
cos
4x
1
cos
4x

= ex

2 sin 2x cos 2x

= ex

2 sin 2x

dx

dx
2 sin 2x
4

= e x cot 2x - 2 cos ec 2 2x dx
= e x [f(x) + f '(x) dx , where f(x) = cot 2x
= ex . f(x) + C = ex . cot 2x + C
Ex.10 Find : (i)
(ii)
Sol.

(i)

x 2 - 8x + 7 dx

1 - 4x - x 2 dx

I=

x 2 - 8 x + 7 dx

( x - 4 )2 - 3 2 dx

I=

1 - 4 x - x 2 dx =

- (x + 2)2 - 5 dx

2
[( x - 4) - 9] dx

x-4
2

x 2 - 8x + 7

9
2

log ( x - 4) + x 2 - 8 x + 7 + C

(ii)

- ( x 2 + 4 x - 1) dx

=
5

log x - (log x)2 dx = t - t2 e

+ C = log x + C

(ii)

1
t

dx
x

5 - ( x + 2)2 dx

x +2
+ C
5

= (x + 2) 1 - 4 x - x 2 + sin1
2
2

www.thinkiit.in

dx

11

INTEGRALS

Ex.11 Evaluate te following definite integrals as limit of sums :


Sol.

where

lim

b-a
n

h=

Here, a = 0, b = 2, f(x) = x and


2-0
n

h=
\

0 x dx

a f (x ) = h 0 h{f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) +........+ f[a + (n 1)h]}

We have

(i)

2
n

or nh = 2

lim

0 x dx = h 0 h{f(0) + f(0 + h) + f(0 + 2h) + .......+ f[0 + (n 1)h]}

= hlim
0 h{0 + (0+h) + (0+2h) +....+ [0 + (n1)h]}
= hlim
0 h[h + 2h +......+ (n 1)h]
2

2 (n - 1) n
2

lim
2
= hlim

0 h [1+2+....+ (n 1)] = h n

2
n

(Q h =

and as h 0, n )

1
= nlim
21 - = 2
n

/2

Ex.12 Show that


/4

= 2
Sol.

p
4

Let x =

f(sin2x) sin x dx

f(cos2x)cosx dx.
p
4

t. Then t =

When x = 0, t =

p
4

0=

p
4

x dt = dx

p / 4

-p/ 4 f(cos 2t) sin 4 cos t - cos 4 sin t dt

-p/4 f(cos 2t)

p/ 4

p/ 4

1
2

.2

p
2

p
4

p /4

f (sin 2x ) sin x dx

cos t -

sin t dt
2

f (cos2t)cos t.dt -

1
2

p /4

f(cos 2t)cos t dt 2 -p /4

p/4

f(cos 2t)sin t dt
2 -p /4

.0

[Q f (cos 2t) cos t is an even function ; and f (cos 2t) sin t is an odd function]
=- 2

p/2

p
p
f sin 2 - t sin - t ( -dt )
4

-p / 4

p
p
,t=
2
4

and when x =

p /4

f (cos 2t)cos t dt

www.thinkiit.in

12

INTEGRALS

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS
EXERCISE I
cos ec x

Q.1.

Evalute :

(i) cos ec x - cot x dx

Q.2

Evalute :

-1
(i) tan 1 + cos 2x dx

Q.3

(i) If f(x) = sin2x + cos3x + 5, f(0) =

sin 2x

(ii)

3
2

sin 6 x + cos 6 x
dx
sin 2 x. cos 2 x

(iii) 1 + cos 3 x dx

(ii) tan -1(sec x + tan x) dx ,

p
p
<x<
2
2

, find (x)
p


(ii) If f(x) = a sinx + b cos x and f(0) = 4, f(0) = 3, f 2 = 5, find f(x)

(iii) The gradient of a curve is given by = 2x (iv)

3
x2

. The curve passes through (1,1). Find its equation.

The gradient of a curve is 6x2 2ax + a2. The curve passes through the point (0, 0) and (1, 8). Find a.

Q.4

Evaluate :

(i) sin x sin 2x sin 3 x dx (ii) tan x tan 2x tan 3 x dx

Q.5

Evaluate :

(i)

Q.6

Evalute :

(i)

Q.7

Evaluate :

(i) (a + b cos x )2 dx

Q.8

Evalute :

Q.9

Evaluate :

(i) sec 3 x dx

Q.10

Evaluate :

(i) sin (log x ) dx

Q.11

Evaluate :

Q.12

Evaluate :

(i)

Q.13

Evaluate :

(i) (3 x - 2) x 2 + x + 1 dx

Q.14

Evaluate :

(i)

Q.15

Evaluate :

(i) 1 + cot x dx

Q.16

Evaluate :

(i) ( x 2 + 1) ( x 2 + 4) dx

Q.17

Evaluate :

(i)

sin x

sin(x - a)
dx
sin x

1
dx
+ e -x

(ii)

1/ 2

sin 2x

1- x
1+ x

(iii) sin( x - a) sin( x - b)dx

1
dx
+ x 1/ 3

(ii)

sin x sin( x + a)
3

(1+ x )
(i) log (1 + x) dx

(ii) sin( x - a) dx

(ii)
(ii)

dx , a np,

sin -1 x
dx
x2

sin -1 x - cos -1 x

sin

-1

nz

x + cos -1 x

dx

(ii) e ax cos bx dx

dx

sin ( x - a )
dx
sin ( x + a )

(ii)

(ii)

1
dx
+1

cos x

1 + cos x + sin x dx

(iii)

1
dx
3 + 2 sin x + cos x

3 sin x + 2 cos x

(ii) 3 cos x + 2 sin x dx

a-x
dx
a+x

(ii) (2x - 5) x 2 - 4 x + 3 dx

3 + 4 cos x dx
1

x2 + 2

2x

(ii) ( x 2 + 1) ( x 2 + 3) dx (iii) ( x 2 + 1) ( x 2 + 4) dx
(ii)

x2 + 1
dx
+ x2 + 1

(iii) ( tan x + cot x ) dx

www.thinkiit.in

13
Q.18

INTEGRALS
e2

Evaluate : (i) e log x - (log x )2 dx (ii)

(iv)

p/ 2

1- x
dx
1+ x

(ii)

1
dx
2 cos x + 4 sin x

Q.19

Evaluate as limit of sums : (i)

Q.20

Prove that

p/2

log (sin x ) dx

sin x dx

p/ 2

Evaluate :

(i)

Q.22

Evaluate :

p/ 2

sin 2 xdx

( x + e 2 x ) dx

(iii)

( 2x + 3) dx

(iv)

(3 x 2 + 2x + 1) dx

2 - sin x

log 2 + sin x dx

(ii)

-p / 4

p/3

p
log (cos x ) dx = - (log 2)
2

p/ 4

Q.21

dx

(iii) 0 ( x 2 + a 2 ) ( x 2 + b 2 )

-p / 2

1+ tan x dx

p/6

p/ 2

Q.23

Evaluate :

(i)

(sin | x | + cos | x |)dx

(ii)

2
(iii) | x + 2x - 3 | dx

e|x|dx

-1

-p / 2

(iv) f ( x ) dx , where f(x) = |x 1| + |x 2| + |x 3|


1

Q.24

3x 2 + 4, when 0 x 2
9 x - 2, when 2 x < 4

(i) f ( x ) dx , where f(x) =

Evaluate :

(ii)

(iii)

| 5 x - 3 | dx

Evaluate :

(i)

sin 2 x
dx
sin x + cos x

p/2

(iv)

p/2

Q.26

(iv) | sin x | dx

p/2

Q.25

2p

| cos x | dx

Evaluate :

(i)

p/2

(iv)

x
dx
sin x + cos x

sin 3 x
dx
sin 3 x + cos 3 x

sin x - cos x
dx
1 + sin x cos x

(ii)

x
dx
sin x + cos x

x tan x

(iii) sec x + tan x dx


0

x sin x

(v) 1 + cos 2 x dx
0
p/2

(ii)

sin x
sin x + cos x

p/ 4

dx

(iii)

p/2

(v)

log (1+ tan x) dx

x(1 - x )n dx

www.thinkiit.in

(vi)

sin 2x log (tan x) dx


0

14

INTEGRALS

BOARD PROBLES
EXERCISE II
p/2

Q.1

(i)

Evaluate

sin 7 x + cos7 x

Q.2

(i)

2x + 1

sin7 x

x + 4x + 3

dx

dx .

+ 2x) dx

as limit of a sum. [C.B.S.E. 2000]

sin

(ii)

(x

(ii)

x dx .

(iii)

1 + sin 2x

x + cos2 x dx

(iv)

x sin

-1

x dx .

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

Q.3

(i)

sin 7x sin x dx . (ii)

4x + 3
2

2x + 2x - 3

dx

(iii)

log (1 + x

) dx . (iv)

x -1

(x + 1)( x - 2) dx .
[C.B.S.E. 2001]

Q.4

(i)

Evaluate as the limit of a sum ( x + 3) dx . (ii) Evaluate


2

x
dx .
1 + sin x

(iii)
0

x sin x
1 + cos 2 x

dx .

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

Q.5

(i)

ax

cos bx dx . (ii)

(x 2 + 1)(x + 1)

dx

(iii)

dx
x +1+ x + 2

(iv)

dx

x 2 - 4x + 8 .
[C.B.S.E. 2002]

p/2

p/2

Q.6

(i)

Evaluate

cos 2 x dx .

(ii)

Prove that

p/ 4

Prove

tan x + cot x ) dx = 2p .

(iii)

log (1 + tan q) dq =

p
log 2.
8

(iv)

1 1
Evaluate e x - 2 dx .
x x
1

[C.B.S.E. 2002]
Q.7

(i)

(iv)

sec 3 x

(ii)

tan -1 x

(1 + x )2 dx .

(i)

1 - sin x
1 + sin x

x dx

sin 2x .log (tan x) dx = 0.

(ii)

Prove that

p/2

cos 2x . log sin x dx .

p/ 4

-a

p/2

Evaluate

dx.

[C.B.S.E. 2003]

(iii)

-1

(x + 2)(3 - 2x) .
p/2

Q.8

tan

(iii)

(iv)

sin 2 x
dx
sin x + cos x

www.thinkiit.in

a-x
dx
a+x

= ap.

[C.B.S.E. 2003]

15
Q.9

INTEGRALS

(i)

(sin -1 x )2 dx . (ii)

sin 4 2x dx . (iii)

dx
3 + 2 sin x + cos x

(iv)

ex

5 - 4e x - e2 x

dx .

[C.B.S.E. 2004]
0

Q.10

(i)

f (x) dx , where f(x) = |x| + |x + 3| + |x + 6|.

Evaluate

-5

(ii)

( x 2 + x ) dx
1

(i)

1- x
p
dx = - 1.
1+ x
2

Prove that

p/ 4

(ii)

p/2

Evaluate

2 tan

x dx .

(iv)

Q.12

sin 2x

(i)

a2 sin2 x + b2 cos2 x

(iv)

x2 + 6x + 12 dx

dx .

x2

(ii)

1 - sin 2x dx = 2 - 1.

p/ 4

(iii)

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

Q.11

dx

5 + 4 cos x

as a limit of sums (iii)

cos x dx
.
(1 + sin x )( 2 + sin x )

16 + (log x )2
dx .
x

sin 2x

(a + b cos x)2 dx

(v)

(iii)
(vi)

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

2x - 1

(x - 1)(x + 2)( x - 3) dx .

log x - (log x)2 dx .


[C.B.S.E. 2005]

Q.13

(i)

( x 2 + 1) e x

(iv)

tan q dq

dx.

( x + 1)2

(ii)

( x + 3)

(v)

3 - 4 x - x 2 dx .

cos 4 x dx

2x + 1

2x2 + 4x - 3 dx

(iii)

x2 + x + 1

(x + 2)(x + 1)2 dx .

(vi)

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
p/ 3

Q.14

(i)

Evaluate

p/6
p/2

Q.15

dx
1 + tan x

(i)

1
1 + tan x

dx .

(ii) Prove that

f ( x ) dx = f (a - x ) dx.

sin 4 x sin 8x dx

Hence evaluate

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

(ii)

sin 2x
dx
(1 - cos 2x )(2 - cos 2x)

(iii)

1 - x2

1 + x 4 dx
[C.B.S.E. 2007]

Q.16

(i) (2x 2 + 3 x + 5) dx as limit of sums (ii)

x tan x
dx (iii) x 2 - x dx as limit of sums
sec x cos ec x

[C.B.S.E. 2007]
Q.17

(i)

x 2 + 4x

x3 + 6x2 + 5 dx (ii) If (e

ax

4x
3x 2
+ bx ) dx = e
+
find the value of a and b
4
2

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

www.thinkiit.in

16

INTEGRALS
p

Q.18

(i)

x tan x

x sin x

sec x + tan x dx (ii) 1+ cos2 x dx

p/2

(iii)

x
dx
sin x + cos x

(iv) cot -1(1 - x + x 2 ) dx


0

[C.B.S.E. 2008]
Q.19

(iv)

x sin
p

Q.20

sec 2 x
dx
3 + tan x

(i)

(i)

-1

(ii)

ex
x

5 - 4e - e

2x

(iii)

dx

( x - 4) e x

ecos x + e-cos x dx

dx

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

x dx

ecos x

( x - 2)3

p/2

(ii)

(2 log sin x - log sin 2x) dx

(iii)

x dx

a2 cos2 x + b2 sin2 x dx
[C.B.S.E. 2009]

Q.21

(i)

sec

p/2

Q.22

(i)

6x + 7

Evaluate : (i)

x + sin x
dx
1 + cos x

Evaluate (i)

Q.27

Evaluate :

p /3

(ii)

p /6
p

x - x dx .

x sin x
dx
1 - x2

(ii)

-1

Q.26

[C.B.S.E. 2010]
[C.B.S.E. 2011]

dx

(x - 5)(x - 4)

Evaluate (i)

5x 2

[C.B.S.E. 2010]

Q.25

dx

x2 + 4x + 3 dx

(ii)

sin x dx

p /2

Q.24

(x - 2) (x - 3)

-p / 2

Q.23

x+2

(ii)

(7 - 4x ) dx

x sin x

1 + cos
0

-1

dx
1 + tan x

dx

[C.B.S.E. 2011]
[C.B.S.E. 2012]

x +1
(ii) (x - 1)2 (x + 3) dx

[C.B.S.E. 2012]
[C.B.S.E. 2013]

cos 2x - cos 2a
dx
cos x - cos a

Evaluate :

Q.28

x+2
2

x + 2x + 3

Evaluate :

[C.B.S.E. 2013]
dx

x(x
Q.29

dx

+3

Evaluate :
2p

[C.B.S.E. 2013]
1

1+e

sin x

dx

www.thinkiit.in

17

INTEGRALS

ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE 1 (UNSOLVED PROBLEMS)
1. (i) cot x cosec x + c (ii) tan x cot x 3x+c (iii)
3. (i)

cos 2x
2

4. (i)

cos 4x
16

sin 2x
3

+5x+2

cos 2x
8

sin

3x
2
2

(ii) 2 cos x + 4 sin x + 1 (iii) y = x +

cos 6x
24

2 2
3

+ c (ii)

1
3

log cos 3x +

1
2

x2
2

+ c 2. (i)
3
x

+c (ii)

px
4

x2
4

+c

3 (iv) 3, 2

log cos 2x +

1
2

log cosx + c
sin( x - a)

5. (i) x cos a sin a log sin x+c (ii) sin a log sin (x a)+(x a) cos a (iii) cosec (a b) log sin( x - b) + c
-2

1
1/3
1/6
1/6
6. (i) tan x e + c (ii) 2 x 3x + 6x 6log (x + 1) + c 7. (i) 2 log(a + b cos x ) a + b cos x + c

b
a

(ii) 2 cosec a cos a + cot x + sin a

8. (i)

p x
1
log tan 2 + 2

( x + 1)2

x2
4

log (x + 1)

x2

x
2

sin -1 x
+ c (ii)
x

1 - 1- x

+ log
x

9.

(i)

sec x tan x
2

10.

(i)

x
[sin(log x) cos (log x)] + c
2

11.

(i) 2 1- x + x 1- x sin

12.

1 cos x
1 x
(i) cos a sin cos a sin a log [sin x + sin2 x - sin2 a ] + c (ii) a sin
+ a2 - x 2 + c

13.

(i) (x + x + 1)

(ii)

3/2

3 tan 2 + 4 - 7

x
3 tan + 4 + 7
2

1
x 2 - 4 x + 3 2 log [(x 2) +

x2 - 4x + 3 ]

12x
13

16.

(i)

1
1
1
tan x
3
6
x2 - 1

1 x

tan

(ii)

1
2

x+c

(ii)

x
2

x - x2

log (sin x + cos x) + c

(i)

2
p

2
log x + 2 + x + x + 1 + c

(ii)

15.

[a cos bx + b sin bx] + c

+c

(i) 7 log
1
2

a2 + b2

1 + cos x + sin x
x 1
+ log
+c
2 2

1 + tan x
2

14.

eax

+c

7(2x + 1) 2
21
x + x +18
16

1 2
1
3/2
(x 4x + 3) (x 2)
3
2

2
1
(2x 1) sin
p

(ii)

(ii)

+c

5
log (3 cos x + 2 sin x) + c
13

x2 + 1

log x 2 + 3 + c

1
(iii) tan tan x + 1 + c

x 2 - 2 x + 1

-1

17. (i) 2 2 tan 2 x - 4 2 log x 2 + 2x + 1 + c

www.thinkiit.in

18
(ii)

INTEGRALS
x 2 - 1
tan -1
+c
3
3 x

e2
-e
2

18. (i)

19.

p
p
- 1 (iii)
2ab(a + b)
2

(ii)

(i) cos acos b (ii)

15 + e8
2

23. (i) 4 (ii) 2e2 (iii) 4 (iv)


p
2

(iii) p - 1 (iv)

(ii) p

1
(n + 1)(n + 2)

tan x - 1
tan-1
+c
2
2 tan x

(iii)

(iii) 14 (iv) 36 21. (i)

19
2

24. (i) 66 (ii)


2 + 1

5 +1

(iv) 2 2 log
2( 5 - 2)

log 2 - 1
4 2

p2
4

(v)

p 1

4 2

13
10

(ii) 0 22.

(iii) 2

26. (i)

p
12

(i) 2 log ( 2 1)

(iv) 4 25.

p
4

(ii)

p
4

p
log 2 (iv)
8

(iii)

(v)

(vi) 0
EXERCISE 2 (BOARD PROBLEMS)

p
4

1. (i)

(ii) 18

(i) 2 x 2 + 4 x + 3 - 3 log( x + 2) + x 2 + 4 x + 3 + c

2.

(ii)

1
32

[12x 8 sin 2x+sin

4x]+c
x2
2

(iii) log (x + cos x)+c (iv)

sin x +

x
4

1- x 2

1
1
sin x + c
4

13. (i) p/2 (ii) p/12

p
p
p
93
16
p
p
p2
p2
16. (i) p - 1 (ii)
(ii)
(iii) 2 2 log ( 2 + 1) (iv) log 2 17. (i)
(iii)
2 18. (i) 2 (ii) 4
2
2
2
15
4
4

(iii)

3
5 2

(iv)

20
3

3.

(ii) 2 2x 2 + 2x - 3 +

(i)

sin 6 x sin 8x
12
16

1
3
log x + + x 2 + x -
2
2
2

(iii) x log (1 + x ) 2(x tan x) + c (iv)

5. (i)

(iii)

eax
a2 + b2

2
3

2
3

[a cos bx + b sin bx] + c


3/2

log (x + 2)

2
3

3/2

log(x + 1)

7. (i)secxtanx+log(secx+tanx) (ii)
2
7

+c

(iv) log (x + 2)

3
14

+c

log(x + 1) +

1
log (x 2) + c
3

(ii)

1
4

(iv)

1
-1 x - 2
tan 2
2

4. (i)

1
1 - + log 2
4 2

(iv)

(ii) p (iii)

1
1
1
tan x log (x + 1)
2
2

log (x + 1) +

6. (i)

p
4

(iv)

1
px x 2
1
2
tan -1 x 1
+ [log(1+x)+tan x log(1+x )]+c (iii)
2
2
4 4
1+ x

(3 2x) + c 8. (iii)

26
3

1
2

+c

log ( 2 +1)

www.thinkiit.in

e2
-e
2

p2
4

19

INTEGRALS
1

9. (i) x(sin x) + 2 1- x 2 sin x 2x + c


x
1 e + 2

(iv) sin

12. (i)

1
2

a -b

(i)

1
6

(ii)

14
3

1
1
log(x + 2) +
3
2

2 3/2

(ii) [3 4x x ] +

( x + 2)
2

(v)

3x
8

1
32

11.
1. (iii) 1log 2

(iv) log

log (x 3)

(iv) x 3log (x + 6x + 12) +

x
1 + tan
2

+c

4
3

6
3

+ tan

x+3

+c

x - 1

x
13. (i) e x + 1 + c

+ c (vi) log x + c

15. (i)

1
24

(3 sin x sin 12x) + c

17.

(i)

log

sin 2x + c

1
3
log (x + 1) + c
3

p
3

sin 8x] + c (iii) tan

2 ( x + 1) - 5

2 ( x + 1) + 5

2
1
2
log [2x + 4x 3]
2
4 5
1
4

(iii)

1
8

7
1 x + 2
3 - 4 x - x 2 + 2 sin 7 + c

(iii)

sin 4x +

[3x sin 4x +

2
(ii) log x 16 + (log x ) + log[log x + 16 + (log x )2 ]

2
a

log(a + b cos x ) +

2
a
+
b
cos
x
b

1
3

73
2

1
8

log [a sin x + b cos x] + c

(iii) log(x 1)

(v)

+ c 10.

(ii)

(iv)

tan2 q - 1

(vi) 2 log (x + 1)
(ii)

tan2 q - 2 tan q + 1

+c
tan 2 tan q +
2
2

2 2 tan q + 2 tan q + 1

1 - cos 2x
1
log 2 - cos 2x

+c

1
x +1

-1

+ 3 log (x + 2) + c
x 2 - 2 x + 1

+c
(iii) 2 2 log 2
x + 2 x + 1

(ii) a = 4, b = 3
2x - 9
+ x2 - 9x + 20 + c
2

23. 6. x2 - 9x + 20 + 34. log

(ii)

p2
4

25.

(i)

11
4

26.

(i)

- sin-1 x 1 - x2 + x + c

(ii)

3
5
1
1
+C
log | x - 1 | + log | x + 3 | - .
8
8
2 (x - 1)

www.thinkiit.in