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Anda di halaman 1dari 14

VECTORS

1.1

Basic concept

Vectors have magnitude and direction, whereas scalars have only magnitude.

and Q are called respectively initial and terminal points of the vector PQ . The direction of vector

PQ

is from P to Q.

The magnitude of vector PQ is denoted by | PQ | and represents length of line segment PQ.

Zero vector. A vector whose initial and terminal points coincide is called a zero vector. It is also

| AA | = 0.

r

Unit vector. A vector a is called a unit vector if its magnitude is one unit. It is denoted by a , | a | = 1.

r

a

r

r

Unit vector represents direction along a vector a , also a = a .

Position vector of a point. If we take a fixed point O, which is called the origin of reference

and P be any point in the plane, then the vector OP is called the position vector of P relative to

r

O. If position vector of point P is a , denoted as P( ar ), then corresponding to some origin of

reference O, OP = a .

1.2

Line of support. A line, whose segment is PQ, is called the line of support of the vector PQ .

Types of vectors

1.

Like vectors. Two vectors are said to be like vectors, if they have (i) same or parallel lines of

support.

(ii) same direction.

2.

Unlike vectors. Two vectors are said to be unlike vectors, if (i) their lines of support are same

or parallel, (ii) opposite direction.

3.

Equal vectors. Two vectors are said to be equal, if they have (i) same or parallel lines of

support, (ii) same direction and (iii) equal magnitudes.

We can also say that if like vectors have equal magnitudes then they are equal.

4.

Coinitial vectors. Two or more vectors are said to be coinitial vectors if they have the same

5.

6.

7.

Collinear vectors. Two or more vectors are called collinear vectors, if they have the same or

parallel lines of support.

Coplanar vectors. Any number of non-zero vectors are said to be coplanar if they lie in the

same plane or parallel planes.

Negative vector. A vector which has the same magnitude but opposite direction of the given

1.3

Properties with respect to addition

along two sides of a triangle taken in order, then their resultant is

represented by the third side taken in the opposite order.

then OA + AB = OB , i.e., OB = a + b

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B

r

b

r

a

VECTORS

represented along two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then

their resultant is represented along the diagonal of a parallelogram passing through the common vertex of adjacent sides. If

the sides OA and OC of a parallelogram OABC represent

respectively

OA

and OC , then OA + OC = OB .

Additive identity. For every vector a , a zero vector 0 is its additive identity as ar + 0 = ar .

r

Additive inverse. For a vector ar , a negative of vector ar is its additive inverse as ar + ( ar ) = 0 .

1.5

r

r

r

(i)

Commutative. For vectors ar and b , we have ar + b = b + ar .

r

r

r

(ii)

Associative. For vectors ar , b and cr , we have ar + ( b + cr ) = ( ar + b ) + cr

(iii)

(iv)

1.4

Properties of with respect to multiplication

Multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Let ar be a given vector and k a scalar, then multiplication

of vector ar by scalar k, denoted k ar , is a vector whose magnitude is k times that of vector ar and

direction is (i) same as that of ar , if k > 0. (ii) opposite to that of ar , if k < 0. (iii) a zero vector, if k = 0.

r

r

r

For vectors ar , b and scalars l, m, we have

r

r

(i) l( ar + b ) = l ar + l b

(ii) (l + m) ar = l ar + m ar

(iii) l(m ar ) = (lm) ar .

Propertes of vectors

r

Let ar and b be the position vectors of end points A and B of a line segment AB. Then,

r

r

Components of a vector. If rr = ar + b , then ar and b are known as components of rr .

Vector in two dimensions :

Let rr be position vector of a point P(x, y),

AB

(i)

Then rr = OP

= x i + y j

(ii)

and x and y are known as components of rr along x and y-axis.

(iii)

(iv)

r

x

y

x i + yj

r

Unit vector along rr , is given by, rr = r = rr , i.e., r = rr i + rr j .

r

(v)

y

x

If q is angle which rr makes with x-axis, then cos q = r , sin q = r .

r

(vi)

(vii)

r

r.

For rr = x i + y j ; x and y are known as direction ratios of rr , i.e., components of a

vector are direction ratios of rr , but converse may or may not be true.

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VECTORS

Vector in three dimensions :

r

If r is position vector of point P(x, y, z)

(i)

Z

k

g

O

i

r

r

b

(ii)

(iii)

If a, b, g are the angles which vector rr makes with x, y and z-axis, then its direction

x

(iv)

x

y

z

Unit vector along rr , is given by, rr = | rr | i + | rr | j + | rr | k = (cos a) i + (cos b) j +

(cos g) k

direction ratios of a vector.

Vector when coordinates of end points are given. If A (x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) be the

(v)

end-points of line segment AB, then AB = (x2 x1) i + (y2 y1) j + (z2 z1) k .

along x, y and z-axis respectively. These

are also direction ratios along x, y and z-axis respectively.

Position vector of a point dividing the line segment in a given ratio (Section formula).

Position vector rr of a point which divides the join of two given points with position vectors ar

r

l b + ma

and b in the ratio l : m internally is, rr =

.

l+m

1.6

r

r

l b - ma

.

l -m

Position vector of the mid-point (1 : 1) of the line segment joining the end points with position

r r

r

a+b

r

zvectors a and b is

.

2

r

Scalar or dot product of two vectors. If q is the angle between two given vectors ar and b , then

r

r

angle between ar and b .

r r

a . b is a scalar quantity..

r

( ar . b ). cr is not defined.

r

r

r

Commutative property. For vectors ar and b , ar . b = b . ar .

r

r

Associative property. For vectors ar , b , cr , associative property does not hold as ar . ( b . cr )

is not defined.

r

r

r

Distributive property. For vectors ar , b , cr , ; ar .( b + cr ) = ar . b + ar . cr .

r

r

r

r

For vectors ar and b , ar .(l b ) = (l ar ) . b = l( ar . b ), l is a scalar..

r

r

r r

r

r

For vectors ar and b , ar . b = 0 ar = 0 , b = 0 or ar ^ b .

For vector ar , ar . ar = ar 2 = | ar |2, i.e., square of a vector is equal to square of its magnitude.

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VECTORS

4

r

r

and projection vector of ar along b is

r r

a .b r

r

| b |2 b .

Projection of ar along b is

r r

a.b

r

r

r

Angle between a and b is given by, cos q = r r , q is the angle between ar and b .

| a ||b|

i . i = j . j = k . k = 1 ; i . j = 0, j . k = 0, k . i = 0.

r

r

r

If ar = a1 i + b1 j + c1 k and b = a2 i + b2 j + c2 k , then ar . b = a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 If ar ^ b then

r r

a . b = 0 a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0

r

If q is angle between ar = a1 i + b1 j + c1 k and b = a2 i + b2 j + c2 k , then

a1a2 + b1b 2 + c1c 2

cos q =

1.7

r r

a .b

r

|b|

a12

r

r

r

r

r

r

r r

r

r

a b = | a | | b | sin q n, q is angle between a and b , n is a unit vector ^ to a b , is given by

r

r

r r

a and b and direction is such that a , b and n form a right hand system.

r

r

r

r

r r

r

b.

r r

| ab |

r

r

If q is angle between a and b , then sin q = r r .

| a || b |

r

r r

r

For a , a a = 0 .

r

r

r

For vectors ar and b , ar b = b ar , i.e., cross product of two vectors is not commutative.

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

For ar , b and cr ,

a ( b c ) ( a b ) c , in general. Not associative.

r

r

r

Distributive property. For vectors ar , b and cr , ar ( b + cr ) = ar b + ar cr .

r

r

r

r r

r

r

For vectors ar and b , ar b = 0 ar = 0 , b = 0 or ar || b .

r

If we want to show that two non-zero vectors ar and b are parallel, then we should

r

r

show that ar b = 0 .

r

Geometrically, | ar b | represents area of a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are along ar and

r

r

1

Area of a triangle whose sides are along ar and b is given by | ar b |.

i = 0 , j j = 0 , k k = 0 i j = k ; j k = i ; k + i = j .

r

r

r

r

For a scalar l, l( ar b ) = (l ar b ) = ( ar l b ), where ar and b are given vectors.

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1 r

|d

2 1

d2 |.

VECTORS

SOLVED PROBLES

Ex.1

r

Find the projection of ar = i 3 k on b = 3 i + j - 4 k .

Sol.

r r

15

r ar.b 3 + 0 + 12

r

Projection of a on b =

=

.

=

9 + 1 + 16

26

|b|

Ex.2

Sol.

x 2 - a2 = 15

Ex.3

Sol.

| x | =15+| ar | =16 | x |= 4

r 2

1

r

|a|

. ar =

( 5i - j + 2k )

5 + ( -1)2 + 22

( 5i - j + 2k ) = 30 ( 5i - j + 2k )

25 + 1 + 4

8

The vector of 8 units in the direction of the vector ar =

30

Ex.4

( 5i - j + 2k )

Find a vector of magnitude 5 units, and parallel to the resultant of the vectors ar = 2 i + 3 j - k

r

and b = i - 2 j + k .

Sol.

r r

a+b

= (2i + 3j - k ) + (i - 2j + k ) = 3i + j

r

=

3

2

3 +1

i +

3 + 12

i.e.,

= 10 i + 10 j

r

i.e.,

Ex.5

IF

3

2

r

r

a = i + j + k , b = 2 i - j + 3 k

Here, 2a = 2i + 2j + 2k - b = -2i + j + 3k

and

r r

r

2a - b + 3c = 3i - 3j + 2k

r

3c = 3i - 6j + 3k

3

3

2

r

ij+

k

The unit vector parallel to the vector 2ar - b + 3cr =

22

22

22

Ex.6

Sol.

r

b = b1i - b2 j + b3k

VECTOR 2 a - b + 3c .

Sol.

10

j

2

10 i +

= 5 10 i + 10 j

3

1

2

are collinear if b = b = b

1

2

3

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VECTORS

6

For given vectors, we have

Each is equal to

2

-4

-3

6

4

-8

-1

. Hence , the given vectors are collinear..

2

Ex.7

Sol.

For a vector a1i + a2 j + a3k , a1, a2, a3 are the direction ratios of the vector..

Hence, for the given vector,

a1 = 1, a 2 = 2 and a3 = 3.

1

2

1 +2 +3

2

2

1 +2 +3

3

2

1 + 22 + 3 2

1

i.e.,

14

14

3

14

Ex.8

Find the scalar and vector components of the vector with initial point (2, 1) and terminal point

(5, 7).

Sol.

The vector joining the initial point (2, 1) and the terminal point (-5, 7) is = (- 5 - 2)i + (7 - 1)j = -7i + 6j

The scalar components of the vectors are 7 and 6.

Ex.9

Find the unit vector in the direction of vector PQ , where P and Q are the points (1, 2, 3) and

(4, 5, 6) respectively.

Sol.

= 3i + 3j + 3k

PQ = 3i + 3j + 3k =

3 2 + 3 2 + 3 2 = 9 + 9 + 9 = 27 = 3 3

1

3 3

. 3i + 3j + 3k =

1

1 1

i+

j+

k

3

3

3

Ex.10 Find the direction cosines of the vector joining the points A(1, 2,3) and B(1,2, 1), directed

from A and B.

Sol.

The vector AB = - 2i - 4j + 4k

The

direction

ratios

of

AB are,

therefore,

-1 -2 2

, ,

3 3 3

Ex.11 Find the position vector of the mid-point of the vector joining the points P(2, 3, 4) and Q(4,

1, 2).

Sol. The position vectors of the points P and Q are 2i + 3j + 4k and 4i + j - 2k

The position vector of the mid-point of the vector PQ is

1 r r

a+b

2

1

6i + 4j + 2k = 3i + 2j + k

1

(2 + 4 )i + (3 + 1)j + (4 - 2)k

2

r r

b+a

1+ 1

r

r

a = 3 i - 4 j - 4 k , b = 2 i - j + k

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VECTORS

7

B

and c = i - 3 j - 5 k

C

r

b

r

c

vertices of a right-angled

triangle.

Sol.

The vector AB = -i + 3j + 5 k ,

BC

= - i - 2j - 6k ,

CA

= 2i - j + k

Now, AB = AB = - i + 3j + 5k

= - 12 + 32 + 52 = 1 + 9 + 25 = 35 AB 2 = 35

BC = BC = - i - 2j - 6k

= 1 + 4 + 36 = 41 BC 2 = 41

CA = CA = 2i - j + k = 2 2 + (- 1)2 + 12 = 4 + 1 + 1 = 6

CA 2 = 6

Ex.13 Show that the vector i + j + k is equally inclined to the axes OX, OY and OZ.

Let a, b, g be the angles which the vector i + j + k is inclined to the axes OX, OY and OZ respectively..

Then cos a = 1, cos b = 1 and cos g = 1 a = b = g

Sol.

Ex.14 Find the position vector of a point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q whose

position vectors are i + 2 j - k and - i + j + k respectively, in the ratio 2 : 1.

r

Sol.

(i) Let R divide the line joining the point P and Q in the ratio 2 :1 internally. Then, the position vector of R is

r r

2b + a

2+1

1 r r

2b + a

3

()

r

Q b

R

r

P (a)

[(

) (

)]

1

- 2i + 2j + 2k + i + 2j - k

3

1

(- 2 + 1)i + (2 + 2) j + (2 - 1)k = 1 - i + 4j + k

3

3

1

4

1

= - i + j + k

3

(ii)

Let R divide

the line joinin

R

()

r

Q b

r

P (a)

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VECTORS

in the ratio 2 :1 externally. Then the position

r r

r r

2b - a

= 2b - a

2 -1

- 2i + 2j + 2k - i + 2j - k = - 3i + 3k

Vector of R is

=

)(

Ex.15 Show that the points A(1, 2, 8), B(5, 0, 2) and C(11, 3, 7) are collinear and find the ratio in

which B divides AC.

Sol.

Here

6 3 9

k

A(1,-2,-8)

collinear. Let B divide AC in the ratio k : 1

Then the coordinates of B are :

1

B

C(11,3,7)

11k + 1 3k - 2 7k - 8

,

,

k +1 k +1 k +1

11k + 1 3k - 2 7k - 8

,

,

k +1 k +1 k +1

Equating

11k + 1

k +1

=5;

3k - 2

k +1

= 0;

7k - 8

k +1

2

3

Ex.16 Show that the following points are collinear:

A( -2 i + 3 j + 5 k ), B( i + 2 j + 3 k ) and C ( 7 i - k )

Sol.

AB = (1 + 2)i + (2 - 3)j + (3 - 5 )k = 3i - j - 2k

BC = (7 - 1)i - 2j + (- 1 - 3 )k = 6i - 2j - 4k

AC = (7 + 2)i - 3j + (- 1 - 5 )k = 9 i - 3 j - 6k

Further, AB = 9 + 1 + 4 = 14

BC = 36 + 4 + 16 = 56 = 2 14

AC = 81 + 9 + 36 = 126 = 3 14

Therefore, | AC |=| AB | + | BC |

Hence, the points A, B and C are collinear.

r

r r r

r r r r r r

Ex.17 If a, b, c are unit vectors such that ar + b + cr = 0 , find the value of a . b + b . c + c . a .

r r r

Sol. It is given that | a |=| b |=| c |= 1

r r

r

r

Now, ar + b + cr = 0 gives a = -(b + c )

[ ( )] (

r r

r r r

r r rr

(Q ar . ar = | ar |2 = 12 = 1)

\ a . a = a. - b + c = - a.b + ac

rr rr

a.b + a.c = -1

r r r r

rr rr

a.b + c.a = -1 (Q a . c + c . a )

r

r

rr rr

Similarly, b.cr + ar.b = -1 and

c.a + b.c = -1

rr rr rr

3

rr rr rr

a.b + b.c + c.a = Adding the three, we get 2 a.b + b.c + c.a = -3

2

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= 2

VECTORS

9

r r

r r

r r

Ex.18 If a = 0 or b = 0 , then a . b = 0 . But the converse need not be true. Justify your answer with an

example.

r r

r

r r

Sol. If a = 0 or b = 0, the ar.b = 0

r

r

r

Then ar.b = 0. because ar.b = 6 - 3 - 3 = 0 Yet. the vectors are non-zero vector.

Ex.19 If the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC are (1, 2, 3), (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 2), respectively, then find

ABC.

Sol.

Here,| BA |= (1 + 1)i + (2 - 0 )j + (3 - 0) k

A(1, 2, 3)

= 2i + 2j + 3k

| BA |= 22 + 22 + 32

4 + 4 + 9 = 17

B(1, 0, 0)

C(0, 1, 2)

and | BC |= (0 + 1)i + (1 - 0 )j + (2 - 0 )k

= i + j + 2k

| BC |= 12 + 12 + 22 = 1 + 1 + 4 = 6 So,

( 2i + 2j + 3k ).( i + j + 2k ) =

10

= cos ABC

102

10

ABC = cos-1

102

Ex.20 The scalar product of the vector i + j + k with a unit vector along the sum of vectors 2 i + 4 j - 5 k

and li + 2 j + 3 k is equal to one. Find the value of l .

Sol.

b = 2i + 4j - 5k andc = l i + 2j + 3k

Let a = i + j + k,

Then b + c = (2i + 4j - 5k ) + (l i + 2j + 3k )

r

= ( 2 + l ) i + (4 + 2)j + ( -5 + 3)k = (2 + l )i + 6j - 2k

r r

r r

b+c

1

b+c = r r =

(2 + l )i + 6j - 2k

2

|b+c|

(2 + l ) + 36 + 4

2+l

(2 + l)

i +

+ 40

(2 + l)

j + 40

2k

( 2 + l )2 + 40

r

So, (i + j + k ).

2+l

(2 + l )

2+l

(2 + l )2 + 40

+ 40

2+l+6-2

(2 + l )2 + 40

l+6=

i +

(2 + l )2 + 40

(2 + l )

+ 40

j-

=1

(2 + l )2 + 40

2k

(2 + l )2 + 40

=1

=1

(2 + l )2 + 40

(l + 6)2 = (2 + l )2 + 40

l2 + 12l + 36 = l2 + 4l + 4 + 40 8l = 8 l = 1

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VECTORS

10

Ex.21

Sol.

r

r

Let a = i + 4 j + 2 k , b = 3 i - 2 j + 7 k and

r

r

c = 2 i - j + 4 k . Find a vector d which is perpendicular to

r

Let

d = a1i + a2 j + a3k

r

r rr

rr

Since vector d is perpendicular to both ar and b , d.a = 0 and d.b = 0

r r

....(1)

a1 + 4a2 + 2a3 = 0

.....(2)

r

Also, crd = 0

2i - j + 4k . a1i + a2j + a3k = 15

)(

Solving a1 , a2 and a3 from (1), (2) and (3),

we have a1 =

Ex.22

Sol.

Ex.23

Sol.

160

3

5

3

, a2 =

70

and a3 = -

3

1

Thus, the required vector is 160i - 5j - 70k .

3

r r

r r

r r

Show that ( a - b ) ( a + b ) = 2 ( a b )

r

r r r

r r r r

r r r r r r

r r r r

r r

Consider a - b a + b = a - b a + a - b b = ar ar - b ar + ar b - b b = 0 + a b + a b - 0 = 2 a b

r

Find l and m if ( 2 i + 6 j + 27 k ) ( i + lj + mk ) = 0 .

r

Given 2i + 6j + 27k i + lj + mk = 0

)(

r

d

) (

)(

( )

r

+ 2mi k + 6mj j + 27mk k = 0

r

2 0 - 6i j + 27k i + 2l i j + 6l 0 - 27lj k - 2 k i + 6mj k + 27 0 = 0

6m - 27l = 0; 27 - 2m = 0

and

2l - 6 = 0

l = 3, m =

27

2

27

Hence, l = 3 and m = .

2

r r

Ex.24 Given that a . b = 0 and a b = 0 . What can you conclude about the vectors a and b ?

r

r

Sol. Given ar . b = 0, we have | ar | | b | cos q = 0

r

Either | ar | = 0, | b | = 0 or q = 90

r

r

r

Given ar b = 0 , we have | ar | | b | sin q = 0

r

Either | ar | = 0, | b | = 0 or q = 0

r

Hence, From (1) and (2) taken together, we have

Either | ar | = 0 or | b | = 0

r

Ex.25 If either a = 0 or b = 0 , then a b = 0 . Is the converse true ? Justify your answer with an

example.

Sol.

The converse not true. take any two non-zero collinear vectors, say, a = i - j + 2k and b = 2i - 2j + 4k

Then,

r r r r

r r r

a 0 ; b 0 yet a b = 0

i j

r r

a b = 1 -1

2 -2

k

2

4

r

= ( -4 + 4 ) i + ( 4 - 4 ) j + ( -2 + 2 ) k = 0

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VECTORS

11

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

EXERCISE I

r

Q.1

Q.2

r

r

r

Find the angles which vector ar makes with vectors b and cr , where a = 3i + 2j - k, b = 2i - j - 3k and

r

c = 2(i - j + k ) .

r

Q.3

Find the value of l for which the vectors a = li + 2j + 3k and b = i - 2j - 3k are (i) parallel, and (ii)

perpendicular.

Q.4

Find the work done by the force F = 2i + j + 2k in displacing an object from A(1, 2, 3) to B(3, 1, 2).

Q.5

Find the work done by the forces i - j + 2k and 2i + 3j + k in displacing an object from the origin to the

point A(2, 1, 4).

Q.6

Q.7

Q.8

Show that the points whose position vectors are 4i - 3j + k, 2i - 4j + 5k and i - j from a right triangle.

Q.9

The adjacent sides of a triangle are 2i - j + 4k and i - 2j - k . Find the area of the triangle.

Q.10

Q.11

If A(1, 1, 2), B(2, 3, 1) and C(3, 2, 1) are the vertices of DABC, find its area using the vector

method.

Q.12

Q.13

If A(2, 1, 1), B(1, 2, 0), C(3, 2, 2) and D(4, 1, 3) are the vertices of a parallelogram ABCD, find its area.

Q.14 If ar , b and cr are the position vectors of the vertices of DABC, show that the area of

DABC is

1 r

|a

2

r

r

b + b cr + cr ar |

r

Q.15

Q.16

Q.17

r

r

r

If | ar | = 4, | b | = 3 and | ar b | = 8, find ar . b .

r r

Q.19

Find a vector of magnitude 5 units in a direction perpendicular to both the vectors i + j - 2k and 2i - j + k .

www.thinkiit.in

VECTORS

12

Q.20

r

r

r

r

Prove that ar ( b + cr ) + b ( cr + ar ) + cr ( ar + b ) = 0 .

Q.21

Q.22

Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of DABC where the position vectors of A, B and C are

2i - j + k, i + j + 2k

and 2i + 3k respectively..

Q.23

Find the angles of DABC when the vertices are A(1, 2, 1), B(2, 1, 1) and C(1, 1, 2).

Q.24

r r

r

r

For any vector rr , prove that r = ( r . i )i + ( r . j )j + ( r .k )k.

Q.25

If a and b are unit vectors inclined at an angle q then prove that sin = | a b |.

2

2

r

Q.26 If ar , b and cr are three mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitude, prove that the vector ar

r

r

r

r r

r

r

r

If ar = 3i - j and b = 2i + j - 3k , express b in the form b = b1 + b2 , where b1 is parallel to ar and b2 is

perpendicular to ar .

Q.27

Q.28

Q.29

r

r

r

If ar + b + cr = 0 , | ar | = 3, | b | = 7 and | cr | = 5, find the angle between ar and cr .

Q.30

r

r

r

r r

If ar and b are two vectors such that | ar + b | = | ar | then prove that 2a + b is perpendicular to b .

ANSWER KEY

EXERCISE 1 (UNSOLVED PROBLEMS)

2. 60, 90

6.

11.

3. (i) 1 (ii) 13

2 21

3

107

2

18.

7.

-1

9.

12. 11 sq units

sq units

( i - 11j - 7k )

19.

171

4. 13 units

5. 20 units

3 14

2

sq units

13. 6 2 sq units

5( i + 5j + 3k )

35

22.

10. 5 2 sq units

17. 4 5

3i + 2j - k

14

1

1

3

1

1

3

1 13

1

1

23. A = cos 2 7 , B = cos 14 , C = cos 2 7 27. b1 = i - j ; b2 = i + j - 3k

2

2

2

2

29. 60

r

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VECTORS

13

BOARD PROBLES

EXERCISE II

Q.1

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

r

r

a = 3i + j - 2k and b = 2i + 3j - k .

Q.2

Q.3

r

Define a b and prove that a b a b = (a . b) tan q , where q is the angle between

r r r r

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

r r

Q.4

If three vectors

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

r r

r

r r r r

r r r r r r

a , b and c are such that a + b + c = 0 , prove that a b = b c = c a

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

r

r

b = i - 2k

r r

2b a

Q.5

If a = 4i + 3j + k and

Q.6

Find a vector whose magnitude is 3 units and which is perpendicular to the following

r

find

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

Q.7

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.8

r

r

r

Prove that (ar b )2 =| ar |2 .| b |2 -(ar . b)2 .

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.9

r

r

)

(1 + | b | ) = (1 - a.b

r 2

r 2

r r r r

+ | a + b + a b |2

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.10

r r

If a , b and cr are position vectors of points A, B and c, then prove that

r r r r r r

a b + b c + c a is a vector perpendicular to the plane of D ABC.

Q.11

Q.12

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

(i) Parallel

(ii)

Perpendicular to each other

[C.B.S.E. 2003]

Find the unit vector perpendicular to the plane ABC where the position vectors

of A, B and C are 2i - j + k, i + j + 2k and 2i + 3k respectively..

r

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

r

Q.13

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

Q.14

Q.15

Q.16

Q.17

Q.18

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

r

r

r

r

r

Let a = i - j, b = 3 j - k . Find a vector d which is perpendicular to both a and b

r r

and c . d =1.

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

r

Express the vector a = 5i - 2j + 5k as sum of two vectors such that one is parallel

r

r

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

to the vector b = 3 i + k and the other is perpendicular to b .

r r

r

If a,b and c are mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitude, show that they are

r r r

equally inclined to the vector a + b + c .

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

r

r

r

r

r

r

If a = i + 2j - 3k and b = 3i - j + 2k , show that a + b and a - b are perpendicular to

each other.

Q.19

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

r r

a+b

r r

and a - b

r

where a = 2i - j + 3k

and

r

b = 3i - j - 2k

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

Q.20

If

r

a = i + j + k

and

r

b = j - k

find a vector

r r r

r

c such that a c = b

and

r r

a.c =3

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[C.B.S.E. 2007]

VECTORS

14

Q.21

r r

r

r

r

b + c on a where a = 2i - 2j + k ,b = i + 2j - 2k

and

r

c = 2i - j + 4k

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

r r r r

r r

r

Three vectors a , b and c satisfy the condition a + b + c = 0 . Find the value of

r

r

r

rr rr rr

a.b + b.c + c.a if a = 1, b = 4 and c = 2 .

Q.22

Q.23

r r

a+b

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

) and (ar - br )

where a = i + j + k and b = i + 2j + 3k

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

Q.24

. Deduce that AB

are collinear..

and D, find the angle between AB

and CD

and CD

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

r

r r r r

r

r

r

If a + b + c = 0 and a = 3, b = 5 , and c = 7, show that angle between ar and b is 60.

Q.25

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

Q.26

The scalar product of the vector i + j + k with a unit vector along the sum of vectors

l i + 2j + 3k 2i + 4j + 5k

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

r

r r r r

r

If P is a unit vector and (x - p ) (x + p ) = 80 , then find x .

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

r

r

r r

r

Find the projection of a on b if a . b = 8 and b = 2i + 6j + 3k

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

r

r

r

If a = i + j + k , b = 4i - 2j + 3k and c = i - 2j + k , find a vector of magnitude 6 units

r r

r

which is parallel to the vector 2a - b + 3c .

[C.B.S.E. 2010]

r

r

r

r

Let a = i + 4j + 2k, b = 3i - 2j + 7k and c = 2i - j + 4k . Find a vector d which is

r

r

r r

perpendicular to both a and b and c . d = 18.

[C.B.S.E. 2010]

Q.27

Q.28

Q.29

Q.30

Q.31

Using vectors, find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1, 1, 2), B(2, 3, 5) and C(1, 5, 5).

[C.B.S.E. 2011]

Q.32

[C.B.S.E. 2012]

Q.32

perpendicular vectors

[C.B.S.E. 2013]

ANSWER KEY

EXERCISE 2 (BOARD PROBLEMS)

1. 1

2.

5 3

(5 i - j + 7k )

6. 2i - 2j + k

7.

3

2

10 sq units

10. 60 27. 6 14

26

1

12.

14

22.

21

2

( 3 i + 2j - k

23.

31. 1 61

2

6 i

15.

+

10

6

32.

1

( i + j + 3k

4

6 k

16. 6i + 2k ; - i - 2j + 3k

^

8

7

19.

p

2

20.

5 2 2

i+ j+ k

3

3

3

21. 2

p = 64 i - 2 j - 28 k

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