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VECTORS

VECTORS
1.1

Basic concept

Vectors have magnitude and direction, whereas scalars have only magnitude.

Vector. A directed line segment represents a vector. A vector from P to Q is denoted by PQ . P

and Q are called respectively initial and terminal points of the vector PQ . The direction of vector

PQ

is from P to Q.

The magnitude of vector PQ is denoted by | PQ | and represents length of line segment PQ.
Zero vector. A vector whose initial and terminal points coincide is called a zero vector. It is also

defined as a vector whose magnitude is zero. It is denoted by 0 or AA, BB etc. | 0 | = 0, | 0 | = 0,

| AA | = 0.
r
Unit vector. A vector a is called a unit vector if its magnitude is one unit. It is denoted by a , | a | = 1.
r
a
r
r
Unit vector represents direction along a vector a , also a = a .

Position vector of a point. If we take a fixed point O, which is called the origin of reference

and P be any point in the plane, then the vector OP is called the position vector of P relative to
r
O. If position vector of point P is a , denoted as P( ar ), then corresponding to some origin of

reference O, OP = a .

1.2

Line of support. A line, whose segment is PQ, is called the line of support of the vector PQ .
Types of vectors
1.
Like vectors. Two vectors are said to be like vectors, if they have (i) same or parallel lines of
support.
(ii) same direction.
2.
Unlike vectors. Two vectors are said to be unlike vectors, if (i) their lines of support are same
or parallel, (ii) opposite direction.
3.
Equal vectors. Two vectors are said to be equal, if they have (i) same or parallel lines of
support, (ii) same direction and (iii) equal magnitudes.
We can also say that if like vectors have equal magnitudes then they are equal.
4.
Coinitial vectors. Two or more vectors are said to be coinitial vectors if they have the same

5.
6.
7.

initial point, e.g., AP, AQ, AR etc. are coinitial vectors.


Collinear vectors. Two or more vectors are called collinear vectors, if they have the same or
parallel lines of support.
Coplanar vectors. Any number of non-zero vectors are said to be coplanar if they lie in the
same plane or parallel planes.
Negative vector. A vector which has the same magnitude but opposite direction of the given

1.3

vector, is called the negative of the given vector. If PR = x then RP = - x .


Properties with respect to addition

Triangle law of vector addition. If two vectors are represented


along two sides of a triangle taken in order, then their resultant is
represented by the third side taken in the opposite order.

If the sides OA and AB of DOAB represent OA and ,

then OA + AB = OB , i.e., OB = a + b

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B
r
b

r
a

VECTORS

Parallelogram law of vector addition. If two vectors are


represented along two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then
their resultant is represented along the diagonal of a parallelogram passing through the common vertex of adjacent sides. If
the sides OA and OC of a parallelogram OABC represent
respectively

OA

and OC , then OA + OC = OB .

Additive identity. For every vector a , a zero vector 0 is its additive identity as ar + 0 = ar .
r
Additive inverse. For a vector ar , a negative of vector ar is its additive inverse as ar + ( ar ) = 0 .

1.5

Properties with respect to addition


r
r
r
(i)
Commutative. For vectors ar and b , we have ar + b = b + ar .
r
r
r
(ii)
Associative. For vectors ar , b and cr , we have ar + ( b + cr ) = ( ar + b ) + cr
(iii)
(iv)

1.4

Also for vector AB , its additive inverse is BA as AB + BA = AA = 0 , Also, we conclude BA = AB .


Properties of with respect to multiplication

Multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Let ar be a given vector and k a scalar, then multiplication
of vector ar by scalar k, denoted k ar , is a vector whose magnitude is k times that of vector ar and
direction is (i) same as that of ar , if k > 0. (ii) opposite to that of ar , if k < 0. (iii) a zero vector, if k = 0.
r
r

To prove ar is parallel to b we have to show that ar = k b , where k is a scalar..

Properties with respect to multiplication of a vector by a scalar


r
For vectors ar , b and scalars l, m, we have
r
r
(i) l( ar + b ) = l ar + l b
(ii) (l + m) ar = l ar + m ar
(iii) l(m ar ) = (lm) ar .
Propertes of vectors

To find a vector when position vectors of end points are given :


r
Let ar and b be the position vectors of end points A and B of a line segment AB. Then,

= Position vector of B Position vector of A = OB OA = b ar .


r
r
Components of a vector. If rr = ar + b , then ar and b are known as components of rr .
Vector in two dimensions :
Let rr be position vector of a point P(x, y),
AB

(i)

Then rr = OP
= x i + y j

(ii)

x i and y j are known as component vectors of rr along x and y-axis


and x and y are known as components of rr along x and y-axis.

(iii)

Magnitude of rr , is given by, | rr | = x 2 + y 2 .

(iv)

r
x
y
x i + yj
r
Unit vector along rr , is given by, rr = r = rr , i.e., r = rr i + rr j .
r

(v)

y
x
If q is angle which rr makes with x-axis, then cos q = r , sin q = r .
r

(vi)
(vii)

r
r.

cos q, sin q are known as direction cosines of


For rr = x i + y j ; x and y are known as direction ratios of rr , i.e., components of a
vector are direction ratios of rr , but converse may or may not be true.

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VECTORS
Vector in three dimensions :
r
If r is position vector of point P(x, y, z)
(i)

Then r = xi + yj + zk, xi, yj and zk are component vectors and x, y


Z
k
g

O
i

r
r
b

and z are components of vector rr along x, y and z-axis.


(ii)
(iii)

Magnitude of rr , is given by, | rr | = x 2 + y 2 + z 2


If a, b, g are the angles which vector rr makes with x, y and z-axis, then its direction
x

consies cos a, cos b, cos g are cos a = | rr | ; cos b = | rr | ; cos g = | rr | .


(iv)

x
y
z
Unit vector along rr , is given by, rr = | rr | i + | rr | j + | rr | k = (cos a) i + (cos b) j +

(cos g) k

If r = xi + yj + zk , then x, y, z are direction ratios of rr , i.e., components of a vector are


direction ratios of a vector.
Vector when coordinates of end points are given. If A (x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) be the

(v)

end-points of line segment AB, then AB = (x2 x1) i + (y2 y1) j + (z2 z1) k .

(x2 x1), (y2 y1) and (z2 z1) are components of AB


along x, y and z-axis respectively. These
are also direction ratios along x, y and z-axis respectively.
Position vector of a point dividing the line segment in a given ratio (Section formula).
Position vector rr of a point which divides the join of two given points with position vectors ar

r
l b + ma
and b in the ratio l : m internally is, rr =
.
l+m

If point divides externally, in the ratio l : m, then position vector is

1.6

r
r
l b - ma
.
l -m

Position vector of the mid-point (1 : 1) of the line segment joining the end points with position
r r
r
a+b
r
zvectors a and b is
.
2

Scalar or dot product of two vectors


r

Scalar or dot product of two vectors. If q is the angle between two given vectors ar and b , then
r

their scalar or dot product, denoted by ar . b is given by ar . b = | ar | | b | cos q, where q is


r
angle between ar and b .
r r
a . b is a scalar quantity..
r
( ar . b ). cr is not defined.
r
r
r
Commutative property. For vectors ar and b , ar . b = b . ar .
r
r
Associative property. For vectors ar , b , cr , associative property does not hold as ar . ( b . cr )
is not defined.
r
r
r
Distributive property. For vectors ar , b , cr , ; ar .( b + cr ) = ar . b + ar . cr .
r
r
r
r
For vectors ar and b , ar .(l b ) = (l ar ) . b = l( ar . b ), l is a scalar..
r
r
r r
r
r
For vectors ar and b , ar . b = 0 ar = 0 , b = 0 or ar ^ b .
For vector ar , ar . ar = ar 2 = | ar |2, i.e., square of a vector is equal to square of its magnitude.

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VECTORS

4
r

r
and projection vector of ar along b is

r r
a .b r
r
| b |2 b .

Projection of ar along b is

r r
a.b
r
r
r
Angle between a and b is given by, cos q = r r , q is the angle between ar and b .
| a ||b|

If i , j , k are unit vectors along x, y and z-axis respectively, then


i . i = j . j = k . k = 1 ; i . j = 0, j . k = 0, k . i = 0.

r
r
r
If ar = a1 i + b1 j + c1 k and b = a2 i + b2 j + c2 k , then ar . b = a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 If ar ^ b then

r r
a . b = 0 a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0
r
If q is angle between ar = a1 i + b1 j + c1 k and b = a2 i + b2 j + c2 k , then
a1a2 + b1b 2 + c1c 2

cos q =
1.7

r r
a .b
r
|b|

a12

+ b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c 22

Vector or cross product of two vectors


r
r

Vector or cross product of two vectors ar and b . denoted by ar . b , is given by


r
r
r
r
r r
r
r
a b = | a | | b | sin q n, q is angle between a and b , n is a unit vector ^ to a b , is given by
r
r
r r
a and b and direction is such that a , b and n form a right hand system.
r
r
r
r
r r

a b is a vector quantity, whose magnitude is, | a b | = | a | | b | sin q.

r
b.

r r
| ab |
r
r
If q is angle between a and b , then sin q = r r .
| a || b |
r
r r
r
For a , a a = 0 .
r
r
r
For vectors ar and b , ar b = b ar , i.e., cross product of two vectors is not commutative.
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
For ar , b and cr ,
a ( b c ) ( a b ) c , in general. Not associative.
r
r
r
Distributive property. For vectors ar , b and cr , ar ( b + cr ) = ar b + ar cr .
r
r
r
r r
r
r
For vectors ar and b , ar b = 0 ar = 0 , b = 0 or ar || b .
r
If we want to show that two non-zero vectors ar and b are parallel, then we should
r
r
show that ar b = 0 .
r
Geometrically, | ar b | represents area of a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are along ar and

r
r
1
Area of a triangle whose sides are along ar and b is given by | ar b |.

Area of a parallelogram whose diagonals are along d1 and d2 is given by

If i , j , k are vectors along x, y and z-axis respectively, then

i = 0 , j j = 0 , k k = 0 i j = k ; j k = i ; k + i = j .
r
r
r
r
For a scalar l, l( ar b ) = (l ar b ) = ( ar l b ), where ar and b are given vectors.

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1 r
|d
2 1

d2 |.

VECTORS

SOLVED PROBLES
Ex.1

r
Find the projection of ar = i 3 k on b = 3 i + j - 4 k .

Sol.

r r
15
r ar.b 3 + 0 + 12
r
Projection of a on b =
=
.
=
9 + 1 + 16
26
|b|

Ex.2

If ar is a unit vector and ( xr + ar ).( xr ar ) = 15, find | xr |.

Sol.

x 2 - a2 = 15

Ex.3

Find a vector in the direction of vector 5 i - j - 2 k which has magnitude 8 units.

Sol.

The unit vector in the direction of vector a = 5i - j + 2k is

| x | =15+| ar | =16 | x |= 4
r 2

1
r
|a|

. ar =

( 5i - j + 2k )

5 + ( -1)2 + 22

( 5i - j + 2k ) = 30 ( 5i - j + 2k )
25 + 1 + 4

8
The vector of 8 units in the direction of the vector ar =

30

Ex.4

( 5i - j + 2k )

Find a vector of magnitude 5 units, and parallel to the resultant of the vectors ar = 2 i + 3 j - k
r

and b = i - 2 j + k .
Sol.

The resultant of vector a = 2i + 3j - k and b = i - 2j + k is given by


r r
a+b

= (2i + 3j - k ) + (i - 2j + k ) = 3i + j
r

The unit vector in the direction of ar + b is


=

3
2

3 +1

i +

3 + 12

i.e.,

= 10 i + 10 j
r

A vector of magnitude 5 units, and parallel to ar + b is, therefore,


i.e.,
Ex.5

IF

3
2

r
r
a = i + j + k , b = 2 i - j + 3 k

Here, 2a = 2i + 2j + 2k - b = -2i + j + 3k
and

r r
r
2a - b + 3c = 3i - 3j + 2k

r
3c = 3i - 6j + 3k

3
3
2
r
ij+
k
The unit vector parallel to the vector 2ar - b + 3cr =
22
22
22

Ex.6

Show that the vectors 2 i - 3 j + 4 k and -4 i - 6 j - 8 k are collinear..

Sol.

Two vectors a = a1i + a 2 j + a3k and

r
b = b1i - b2 j + b3k

AND cr = i - 2 j + k , FIND A UNIT VECTOR PARALLEL TO THE

VECTOR 2 a - b + 3c .
Sol.

10
j
2

10 i +

= 5 10 i + 10 j

3
1
2
are collinear if b = b = b
1
2
3

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VECTORS

6
For given vectors, we have
Each is equal to

2
-4

-3
6

4
-8

-1
. Hence , the given vectors are collinear..
2

Ex.7

Find the direction cosines of the vector i + 2 j + 3 k .

Sol.

For a vector a1i + a2 j + a3k , a1, a2, a3 are the direction ratios of the vector..
Hence, for the given vector,
a1 = 1, a 2 = 2 and a3 = 3.
1
2

1 +2 +3

2
2

1 +2 +3

3
2

1 + 22 + 3 2

are the required direction cosines.


1

i.e.,

14

14

3
14

are the required direction cosines.

Ex.8

Find the scalar and vector components of the vector with initial point (2, 1) and terminal point
(5, 7).

Sol.

The vector joining the initial point (2, 1) and the terminal point (-5, 7) is = (- 5 - 2)i + (7 - 1)j = -7i + 6j
The scalar components of the vectors are 7 and 6.

Ex.9

Find the unit vector in the direction of vector PQ , where P and Q are the points (1, 2, 3) and
(4, 5, 6) respectively.

Sol.

The vector PQ = (4 - 1) i + (5 - 2)j + (6 - 3 )k


= 3i + 3j + 3k

PQ = 3i + 3j + 3k =

3 2 + 3 2 + 3 2 = 9 + 9 + 9 = 27 = 3 3

so, the unit vector in the direction of PQ =

1
3 3

. 3i + 3j + 3k =

1
1 1
i+
j+
k
3
3
3

Ex.10 Find the direction cosines of the vector joining the points A(1, 2,3) and B(1,2, 1), directed
from A and B.
Sol.

The vector AB = - 2i - 4j + 4k
The

direction

ratios

2, 4 and 4 and, the direction cosines are

of

AB are,

therefore,

-1 -2 2
, ,
3 3 3

Ex.11 Find the position vector of the mid-point of the vector joining the points P(2, 3, 4) and Q(4,
1, 2).
Sol. The position vectors of the points P and Q are 2i + 3j + 4k and 4i + j - 2k
The position vector of the mid-point of the vector PQ is

1 r r
a+b
2

1
6i + 4j + 2k = 3i + 2j + k

1
(2 + 4 )i + (3 + 1)j + (4 - 2)k
2

r r
b+a
1+ 1

Ex.12 Show that the points A, B and C with position vectors


r
r
a = 3 i - 4 j - 4 k , b = 2 i - j + k

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VECTORS

7
B

and c = i - 3 j - 5 k

C
r
b

r
c

respectively form the


vertices of a right-angled
triangle.

Sol.

The vector AB = -i + 3j + 5 k ,

BC

= - i - 2j - 6k ,

CA

= 2i - j + k

Now, AB = AB = - i + 3j + 5k
= - 12 + 32 + 52 = 1 + 9 + 25 = 35 AB 2 = 35

BC = BC = - i - 2j - 6k

(- 1)2 + (- 2)2 + (- 6)2

= 1 + 4 + 36 = 41 BC 2 = 41

CA = CA = 2i - j + k = 2 2 + (- 1)2 + 12 = 4 + 1 + 1 = 6

CA 2 = 6

Since BC2 = AB2 + CA 2; DABC is right- angled triangle, right-angled at A.


Ex.13 Show that the vector i + j + k is equally inclined to the axes OX, OY and OZ.
Let a, b, g be the angles which the vector i + j + k is inclined to the axes OX, OY and OZ respectively..
Then cos a = 1, cos b = 1 and cos g = 1 a = b = g

Sol.

Ex.14 Find the position vector of a point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q whose
position vectors are i + 2 j - k and - i + j + k respectively, in the ratio 2 : 1.
r

Sol.

Let the position vector of P be a = i + 2j - k and of Q be b = -i + j + k .


(i) Let R divide the line joining the point P and Q in the ratio 2 :1 internally. Then, the position vector of R is
r r
2b + a
2+1

1 r r
2b + a
3

()

r
Q b

R
r
P (a)

[(

) (

)]

1
- 2i + 2j + 2k + i + 2j - k
3

1
(- 2 + 1)i + (2 + 2) j + (2 - 1)k = 1 - i + 4j + k
3
3

1
4
1
= - i + j + k
3

(ii)

Let R divide
the line joinin
R

()

r
Q b
r
P (a)

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VECTORS

the points P and Q


in the ratio 2 :1 externally. Then the position
r r
r r
2b - a
= 2b - a
2 -1
- 2i + 2j + 2k - i + 2j - k = - 3i + 3k

Vector of R is
=

)(

Ex.15 Show that the points A(1, 2, 8), B(5, 0, 2) and C(11, 3, 7) are collinear and find the ratio in
which B divides AC.
Sol.

Here

AB = (5 - 1)i + (0 + 2)j + (- 2 + 8)k = 4i + 2j + 6k

and BC = (11 - 5 )i + (3 - 0)j + (7 + 2)k = 6i + 3j + 9k

The vectors AB and BC are collinear if = =


6 3 9

k
A(1,-2,-8)

which is true. Hence, the given points are


collinear. Let B divide AC in the ratio k : 1
Then the coordinates of B are :

1
B

C(11,3,7)

11k + 1 3k - 2 7k - 8
,
,

k +1 k +1 k +1
11k + 1 3k - 2 7k - 8
,
,

k +1 k +1 k +1

Equating

which is true for k =

to (5, 0, 2), we have

11k + 1
k +1

=5;

3k - 2
k +1

= 0;

7k - 8
k +1

2
3

Hence, B divides AC internally in the ratio 2 : 3.


Ex.16 Show that the following points are collinear:
A( -2 i + 3 j + 5 k ), B( i + 2 j + 3 k ) and C ( 7 i - k )
Sol.

AB = (1 + 2)i + (2 - 3)j + (3 - 5 )k = 3i - j - 2k

BC = (7 - 1)i - 2j + (- 1 - 3 )k = 6i - 2j - 4k

AC = (7 + 2)i - 3j + (- 1 - 5 )k = 9 i - 3 j - 6k

Further, AB = 9 + 1 + 4 = 14

BC = 36 + 4 + 16 = 56 = 2 14

AC = 81 + 9 + 36 = 126 = 3 14

Therefore, | AC |=| AB | + | BC |
Hence, the points A, B and C are collinear.
r
r r r
r r r r r r
Ex.17 If a, b, c are unit vectors such that ar + b + cr = 0 , find the value of a . b + b . c + c . a .
r r r
Sol. It is given that | a |=| b |=| c |= 1

r r
r
r
Now, ar + b + cr = 0 gives a = -(b + c )

[ ( )] (

r r
r r r
r r rr
(Q ar . ar = | ar |2 = 12 = 1)
\ a . a = a. - b + c = - a.b + ac
rr rr
a.b + a.c = -1
r r r r
rr rr
a.b + c.a = -1 (Q a . c + c . a )
r
r
rr rr
Similarly, b.cr + ar.b = -1 and
c.a + b.c = -1
rr rr rr
3
rr rr rr
a.b + b.c + c.a = Adding the three, we get 2 a.b + b.c + c.a = -3
2

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= 2

VECTORS
9
r r
r r
r r
Ex.18 If a = 0 or b = 0 , then a . b = 0 . But the converse need not be true. Justify your answer with an
example.
r r
r
r r
Sol. If a = 0 or b = 0, the ar.b = 0
r

But the converse is not necessarily true. For, take a = 2i - j + 3k and b = 3i + 3j - k


r
r
Then ar.b = 0. because ar.b = 6 - 3 - 3 = 0 Yet. the vectors are non-zero vector.
Ex.19 If the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC are (1, 2, 3), (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 2), respectively, then find
ABC.
Sol.

Here,| BA |= (1 + 1)i + (2 - 0 )j + (3 - 0) k

A(1, 2, 3)

= 2i + 2j + 3k

| BA |= 22 + 22 + 32

4 + 4 + 9 = 17

B(1, 0, 0)

C(0, 1, 2)

and | BC |= (0 + 1)i + (1 - 0 )j + (2 - 0 )k
= i + j + 2k

| BC |= 12 + 12 + 22 = 1 + 1 + 4 = 6 So,

( 2i + 2j + 3k ).( i + j + 2k ) =

17. 6 cos ABC


10

2 + 2 + 6 = 102 cos ABC

BA.BC =| BA | . | BC | .cos ABC

= cos ABC

102

10
ABC = cos-1

102

Ex.20 The scalar product of the vector i + j + k with a unit vector along the sum of vectors 2 i + 4 j - 5 k
and li + 2 j + 3 k is equal to one. Find the value of l .
Sol.

b = 2i + 4j - 5k andc = l i + 2j + 3k
Let a = i + j + k,

Then b + c = (2i + 4j - 5k ) + (l i + 2j + 3k )
r

= ( 2 + l ) i + (4 + 2)j + ( -5 + 3)k = (2 + l )i + 6j - 2k

Unit vector along


r r
r r
b+c
1
b+c = r r =
(2 + l )i + 6j - 2k
2
|b+c|
(2 + l ) + 36 + 4

2+l

(2 + l)

i +
+ 40

(2 + l)

j + 40

2k

( 2 + l )2 + 40
r

Now, we are given that ar . unit vector along b + cr = 1

So, (i + j + k ).

2+l

(2 + l )

2+l

(2 + l )2 + 40

+ 40

2+l+6-2

(2 + l )2 + 40

l+6=

i +

(2 + l )2 + 40

(2 + l )

+ 40

j-

=1
(2 + l )2 + 40
2k

(2 + l )2 + 40

=1

=1

(2 + l )2 + 40

(l + 6)2 = (2 + l )2 + 40
l2 + 12l + 36 = l2 + 4l + 4 + 40 8l = 8 l = 1

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VECTORS

10
Ex.21
Sol.

r
r
Let a = i + 4 j + 2 k , b = 3 i - 2 j + 7 k and
r
r
c = 2 i - j + 4 k . Find a vector d which is perpendicular to
r
Let
d = a1i + a2 j + a3k
r
r rr
rr
Since vector d is perpendicular to both ar and b , d.a = 0 and d.b = 0

r r

both a and b , and c . d = 15.

(a1i + a2j + a3k )(. i + 4j + 2k ) = 0

....(1)

a1 + 4a2 + 2a3 = 0

(a1i + a2j + a3k ).(3i - 2j + 7k ) = 0

3a1 - 2a2 + 4a3 = 0

.....(2)

r
Also, crd = 0
2i - j + 4k . a1i + a2j + a3k = 15

)(

2a1 - a2 + 4a3 = 15 .....(3)


Solving a1 , a2 and a3 from (1), (2) and (3),

we have a1 =

Ex.22
Sol.
Ex.23
Sol.

160
3

5
3

, a2 =

70
and a3 = -

3
1
Thus, the required vector is 160i - 5j - 70k .
3
r r
r r
r r
Show that ( a - b ) ( a + b ) = 2 ( a b )
r
r r r
r r r r
r r r r r r
r r r r
r r
Consider a - b a + b = a - b a + a - b b = ar ar - b ar + ar b - b b = 0 + a b + a b - 0 = 2 a b
r
Find l and m if ( 2 i + 6 j + 27 k ) ( i + lj + mk ) = 0 .
r
Given 2i + 6j + 27k i + lj + mk = 0

)(

r
d

) (

)(

( )

2i i + 6j i + 27k i + 2l i j + 6lj j + 27lk j


r
+ 2mi k + 6mj j + 27mk k = 0
r
2 0 - 6i j + 27k i + 2l i j + 6l 0 - 27lj k - 2 k i + 6mj k + 27 0 = 0

-6k + 27j + 2lk - 27l i - 2mj + 6mi = 0

6m - 27l = 0; 27 - 2m = 0

(6m - 27l )i + (27 - 2m )j + (2l - 6 )k = 0

and

2l - 6 = 0

l = 3, m =

27
2

27
Hence, l = 3 and m = .
2

r r

Ex.24 Given that a . b = 0 and a b = 0 . What can you conclude about the vectors a and b ?
r
r
Sol. Given ar . b = 0, we have | ar | | b | cos q = 0
r
Either | ar | = 0, | b | = 0 or q = 90
r
r
r
Given ar b = 0 , we have | ar | | b | sin q = 0
r
Either | ar | = 0, | b | = 0 or q = 0
r
Hence, From (1) and (2) taken together, we have
Either | ar | = 0 or | b | = 0
r

Ex.25 If either a = 0 or b = 0 , then a b = 0 . Is the converse true ? Justify your answer with an
example.
Sol.

The converse not true. take any two non-zero collinear vectors, say, a = i - j + 2k and b = 2i - 2j + 4k
Then,

r r r r
r r r
a 0 ; b 0 yet a b = 0
i j
r r
a b = 1 -1
2 -2

k
2
4

r
= ( -4 + 4 ) i + ( 4 - 4 ) j + ( -2 + 2 ) k = 0

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VECTORS

11

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS
EXERCISE I
r

Q.1

If a = 2i + j - k, b = i - j + 2k and c = i - 2j + k such that ar + lb is perpendicular to cr , find the value of l.

Q.2

r
r
r
Find the angles which vector ar makes with vectors b and cr , where a = 3i + 2j - k, b = 2i - j - 3k and
r
c = 2(i - j + k ) .
r

Q.3

Find the value of l for which the vectors a = li + 2j + 3k and b = i - 2j - 3k are (i) parallel, and (ii)
perpendicular.

Q.4

Find the work done by the force F = 2i + j + 2k in displacing an object from A(1, 2, 3) to B(3, 1, 2).

Q.5

Find the work done by the forces i - j + 2k and 2i + 3j + k in displacing an object from the origin to the
point A(2, 1, 4).

Q.6

Find the projection of the vector i + 2j + 4k on the vector 2i + 4j + k .

Q.7

Find the component of the vector i - j + 2k in the direction of 2i + j - k .

Q.8

Show that the points whose position vectors are 4i - 3j + k, 2i - 4j + 5k and i - j from a right triangle.

Q.9

The adjacent sides of a triangle are 2i - j + 4k and i - 2j - k . Find the area of the triangle.

Q.10

Find the area of a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are i + 2j + 2k and 2i + j - k .

Q.11

If A(1, 1, 2), B(2, 3, 1) and C(3, 2, 1) are the vertices of DABC, find its area using the vector
method.

Q.12

If i + 2j - k and i + j - 2k are the two diagonals of a parallelogram, find its area.

Q.13

If A(2, 1, 1), B(1, 2, 0), C(3, 2, 2) and D(4, 1, 3) are the vertices of a parallelogram ABCD, find its area.

Q.14 If ar , b and cr are the position vectors of the vertices of DABC, show that the area of
DABC is

1 r
|a
2

r
r
b + b cr + cr ar |
r

Q.15

Prove that ( ar b ) ( ar + b ) = 2 ar b . Interpret the result geometrically..

Q.16

Prove that | ar b | = a2 . b2 - (a .b)2 .

Q.17

r
r
r
If | ar | = 4, | b | = 3 and | ar b | = 8, find ar . b .

r r

Q.18 Find a unit vector perpendicular to both the vectors i + 2j - 3k and 3i - j + 2k .


Q.19

Find a vector of magnitude 5 units in a direction perpendicular to both the vectors i + j - 2k and 2i - j + k .

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VECTORS

12
Q.20

r
r
r
r
Prove that ar ( b + cr ) + b ( cr + ar ) + cr ( ar + b ) = 0 .

Q.21

For any vector ar , prove that | ar i |2 + | ar j |2 + | ar k |2 = 2| ar |2.

Q.22

Find a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of DABC where the position vectors of A, B and C are
2i - j + k, i + j + 2k

and 2i + 3k respectively..

Q.23

Find the angles of DABC when the vertices are A(1, 2, 1), B(2, 1, 1) and C(1, 1, 2).

Q.24

r r
r
r
For any vector rr , prove that r = ( r . i )i + ( r . j )j + ( r .k )k.

Q.25

If a and b are unit vectors inclined at an angle q then prove that sin = | a b |.
2
2

r
Q.26 If ar , b and cr are three mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitude, prove that the vector ar
r

+ b + cr is equally inclined with the vectors ar , b and cr .


r
r
r r
r
r
r
If ar = 3i - j and b = 2i + j - 3k , express b in the form b = b1 + b2 , where b1 is parallel to ar and b2 is
perpendicular to ar .

Q.27

Q.28

For any two vectors a and b , prove that | a + b |2 + | a b |2 = 2(| a |2 + | b |2).

Q.29

r
r
r
If ar + b + cr = 0 , | ar | = 3, | b | = 7 and | cr | = 5, find the angle between ar and cr .

Q.30

r
r
r
r r
If ar and b are two vectors such that | ar + b | = | ar | then prove that 2a + b is perpendicular to b .

ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE 1 (UNSOLVED PROBLEMS)
2. 60, 90
6.
11.

3. (i) 1 (ii) 13

2 21
3
107
2

18.

7.

-1

9.

12. 11 sq units

sq units

( i - 11j - 7k )

19.

171

4. 13 units

5. 20 units
3 14
2

sq units

13. 6 2 sq units

5( i + 5j + 3k )
35

22.

10. 5 2 sq units
17. 4 5

3i + 2j - k
14

1
1
3
1
1
3
1 13
1
1
23. A = cos 2 7 , B = cos 14 , C = cos 2 7 27. b1 = i - j ; b2 = i + j - 3k

2
2
2
2

29. 60
r

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VECTORS

13

BOARD PROBLES
EXERCISE II
Q.1

Find l if a = 4i - j + k and b = l i - 2j + 2k are perpendicular to each other..

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

r
r
a = 3i + j - 2k and b = 2i + 3j - k .

Q.2

Find a unit vector perpendicular to both

Q.3

r
Define a b and prove that a b a b = (a . b) tan q , where q is the angle between
r r r r

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

r r

the vectors a and b .


Q.4

If three vectors

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

r r
r
r r r r
r r r r r r
a , b and c are such that a + b + c = 0 , prove that a b = b c = c a

[C.B.S.E. 2001]
r

r
b = i - 2k

r r
2b a

Q.5

If a = 4i + 3j + k and

Q.6

Find a vector whose magnitude is 3 units and which is perpendicular to the following
r

find

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

two vectors a and b : a = 3i + j - 4k and b = 6i + 5j - 2k

[C.B.S.E. 2001]

Q.7

In D OAB, OA = 3i + 2j - k and OB = i + 3j + k . Find the area of the triangle.

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.8

r
r
r
Prove that (ar b )2 =| ar |2 .| b |2 -(ar . b)2 .

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.9

For any two vectors a and b , show that (1 + | a |2 )


r

r
)
(1 + | b | ) = (1 - a.b
r 2

r 2

r r r r
+ | a + b + a b |2

[C.B.S.E. 2002]
Q.10

r r
If a , b and cr are position vectors of points A, B and c, then prove that
r r r r r r
a b + b c + c a is a vector perpendicular to the plane of D ABC.

Q.11
Q.12

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Find the value of l so that the two vectors 2i + 3j - k and. 4i + 6j + lk are


(i) Parallel
(ii)
Perpendicular to each other
[C.B.S.E. 2003]
Find the unit vector perpendicular to the plane ABC where the position vectors
of A, B and C are 2i - j + k, i + j + 2k and 2i + 3k respectively..
r

[C.B.S.E. 2004]
r

Q.13

If a = 5i - j - 3k and b = i + 3j - 5k , then show that vectors a + b and a - b are orthogonal.


[C.B.S.E. 2004]

Q.14

Show that the points whose position vectors are a = 4i - 3j + k. b = 2i - 4j + 5k

and c = i - j form a right angled triangle.


Q.15
Q.16
Q.17

Q.18

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

r
r
r
r
r
Let a = i - j, b = 3 j - k . Find a vector d which is perpendicular to both a and b
r r
and c . d =1.
[C.B.S.E. 2005]
r
Express the vector a = 5i - 2j + 5k as sum of two vectors such that one is parallel
r
r
[C.B.S.E. 2005]
to the vector b = 3 i + k and the other is perpendicular to b .
r r
r
If a,b and c are mutually perpendicular vectors of equal magnitude, show that they are
r r r
equally inclined to the vector a + b + c .
[C.B.S.E. 2006]
r
r
r
r
r
r
If a = i + 2j - 3k and b = 3i - j + 2k , show that a + b and a - b are perpendicular to

each other.
Q.19

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

Find the angle between the vectors

r r
a+b

r r
and a - b

r
where a = 2i - j + 3k

and

r
b = 3i - j - 2k

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
Q.20

If

r
a = i + j + k

and

r
b = j - k

find a vector

r r r
r
c such that a c = b

and

r r
a.c =3

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[C.B.S.E. 2007]

VECTORS

14
Q.21

Find the projection of

r r
r
r
r
b + c on a where a = 2i - 2j + k ,b = i + 2j - 2k

and

r
c = 2i - j + 4k

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

r r r r
r r
r
Three vectors a , b and c satisfy the condition a + b + c = 0 . Find the value of
r
r
r
rr rr rr
a.b + b.c + c.a if a = 1, b = 4 and c = 2 .

Q.22

Q.23

Find a vector of magnitude 5 units. perpendicular to each of the vectors

r r
a+b

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

) and (ar - br )

where a = i + j + k and b = i + 2j + 3k

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

If i + j + k , 2i + 5j . 3i + 2j - 3k and i - 6j - k are the position vectors of the points A, B, C

Q.24

. Deduce that AB
are collinear..
and D, find the angle between AB
and CD
and CD
[C.B.S.E. 2008]

r
r r r r
r
r
r
If a + b + c = 0 and a = 3, b = 5 , and c = 7, show that angle between ar and b is 60.

Q.25

[C.B.S.E. 2008]
Q.26

The scalar product of the vector i + j + k with a unit vector along the sum of vectors
l i + 2j + 3k 2i + 4j + 5k

and is equal to one. Find the value of l .


[C.B.S.E. 2009]
r
r r r r
r
If P is a unit vector and (x - p ) (x + p ) = 80 , then find x .
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
r
r
r r
r
Find the projection of a on b if a . b = 8 and b = 2i + 6j + 3k
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
r
r
r
If a = i + j + k , b = 4i - 2j + 3k and c = i - 2j + k , find a vector of magnitude 6 units
r r
r
which is parallel to the vector 2a - b + 3c .
[C.B.S.E. 2010]
r
r
r
r
Let a = i + 4j + 2k, b = 3i - 2j + 7k and c = 2i - j + 4k . Find a vector d which is
r
r
r r
perpendicular to both a and b and c . d = 18.
[C.B.S.E. 2010]

Q.27
Q.28
Q.29
Q.30
Q.31

Using vectors, find the area of the triangle with vertices A(1, 1, 2), B(2, 3, 5) and C(1, 5, 5).
[C.B.S.E. 2011]

Q.32

Let a = i + 4 j+ 2 k , b = 3 i - 2 j+ 7 k and c = 2 i - j + 4 k . Find a vector p which is

perpendicular to both a and b and p . c = 18.

[C.B.S.E. 2012]

If a = i - j+ 7 k and b = 5 i - j + l k , then find the value of l, so that a + b and a - b are

Q.32

perpendicular vectors

[C.B.S.E. 2013]

ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE 2 (BOARD PROBLEMS)
1. 1

2.

5 3

(5 i - j + 7k )

6. 2i - 2j + k

7.

3
2

10 sq units

10. 60 27. 6 14

11. (i) 2 (ii)

26
1

12.

14

22.

21
2

( 3 i + 2j - k
23.

31. 1 61
2

6 i

15.
+

10
6

32.

1
( i + j + 3k
4

6 k

16. 6i + 2k ; - i - 2j + 3k

24. 180 26. 1 27. 9 28.


^

8
7

19.

p
2

20.

5 2 2
i+ j+ k
3
3
3

21. 2

29. 2i - 4j + 4k 30. 64i - 2j - 28k

p = 64 i - 2 j - 28 k

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