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Physics in National

Development

What Is This Module About?


Have you been curious about the world around us? Have you observed the different events
occurring? Look at the world in which you live. What do you see? You can see the people
around, the animals, the vehicles, the rivers and the streams, the trees and the mountains. Have
you looked up to the sky? Why is it blue? Where are the planets found? How vast is the
universe? How old are the trees? How fast do vehicles and people move?
There are lots of questions to ask about the world we live in. Can the answers be found?
Science has developed through the ages in response to the numerous questions asked about
the physical world. It is science that is in search of simplicity, harmony and order in the different
phenomena that occur around us.
In this module you will learn about science. Specifically, it will discuss what physics is and
its role in the development of our nation. This module is divided into two lessons.
Lesson 1 Physics: The Basic Science
Lesson 2 Physics and Technology: Partners for Progress

What Will You Learn From This Module?


After studying the lessons in this module, you should be able to:

relate physics to other branches of science;

cite examples from your surroundings in which different concepts or principles of


physics operate;

trace the development of physics and technology in the Philippines and relate it to
national development; and

state some worldwide developments in physics which affect society and change
peoples lifestyles and thinking about nature.

Lets See What You Already Know


Encircle the letter of the best answer.
1.

2.

This is the branch of science that deals with nonliving things.


a.

physical science

c.

biology

b.

life science

d.

zoology

Who among the following scientists believed that all matter on earth was a mixture of
earth, water, fire and air?
a.

Aristotle

c.

Galileo Galilei

b.

Albert Einstein

d.

Johannes Kepler

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Albert Einstein formulated the


a.

laws of motion

c.

quantum theory

b.

laws on falling bodies

d.

theory of relativity

This is a branch of science that deals with the study of matter and energy and their
interrelationships.
a.

botany

c.

physics

b.

chemistry

d.

astronomy

Scientific _____________ is a method of answering questions about the physical


world by testing a hypothesis and making a generalization.
a.

notation

c.

attitude

b.

method

d.

calculator

This is a scientific guess.


a.

theory

c.

principle

b.

law

d.

hypothesis

He is a Filipino scientist who invented the fluorescent lamp.


a.

Gregorio Zara

c.

Eduardo San Juan

b.

Agapito Flores

d.

Ernesto P. Sonido

This is a branch of science that deals with the composition, structure and properties of
matter and the changes it undergoes.
a.

biology

c.

geology

b.

chemistry

d.

meteorology

This is the branch of physics that deals with the structure of matter and energy in the
atomic nucleus.
a.

mechanics

c.

electricity

b.

electrodynamics

d.

nuclear physics

10. In which of the following activities do physics principles or ideas operate?


a.

ironing clothes

c.

text messaging

b.

construction of bridges

d.

all of the above

11. Which of the following are products of technology?


a.

ultrasound and radiation in medicine

b.

automobile, LRT, airplane

c.

refrigerator, washing machine, microwave oven

d.

all of the above


2

12. Which of the following devices is not a technological application of electromagnetism?


a.

colored TV

c.

electric fan

b.

transistor radio

d.

magnifying lens

13. The invention of the steam engine


a.

ushered in the Industrial Revolution

b.

marked the end of the use of large amounts of energy

c.

slowed down the delivery of goods and services to people

d.

closed down factories and industries

14. The invention of the transistor


a.

led to the development of electronics

b.

caused the replacement of the vacuum tube in radio and TV sets

c.

made devices such as radios compact and portable

d.

all of the above

15. Which is a harmful effect of technology?


a.

pollution, especially in urban areas

b.

mobilization of people

c.

breakdown of communication

d.

dull and boring lifestyles

Well, how was it? Do you think you fared well? Compare your answers with those in the
Answer Key on page 23.
If all your answers are correct, very good! You may still study the module to review what
you already know. Who knows, you might learn a few more new things as well.
If you got a low score, dont feel bad. This only goes to show that this module is for you. It
will help you to understand some important concepts that you can apply in your daily life. If you
study this module carefully, you would learn the answers to all the items in the test and a lot more!
Are you ready?
You may go now to the next page to begin Lesson 1.

LESSON 1

Physics: The Basic Science


What is physics? Why do we study physics? What are the uses of physics? Physics plays
an important role in human life. This is specifically true in modern times. The lifestyles of people
have changed because of advancements in physics which have found their way into even very
modest homes. With widespread electrification, lighted homes and streets and countless electrical
devices are a common sight. Man-made satellites, land telephones and cellular phones make
communication fast and clear. Jets, fast cars and nuclear-powered ships make transportation
easy. Our stores are flooded with such gadgets as battery-operated watches, cameras,
calculators and computers. Great progress has been made in physics and technology for the
benefit of humankind.
This lesson will introduce you to the nature of physics and its relation to other branches of
science as well as its relevance to your life.

Lets Read
What Is Science? What Are the Branches of Science?
Science is an integral part of our lives. There have been many changes some beneficial,
others harmful that have taken place as a result of scientific developments. Our knowledge of
the natural world dates back to the civilized people of ancient times, specifically those of early
Greece and Rome. Modern science would have no foundation on which to grow if not for the
early attempts to understand nature and interpret natural phenomena.
Science is a systematized body knowledge. Like a tree, it has many branches. Its two main
branches are life science and physical science. Life science is the study of living things while
physical science is the study of nonliving things. Life science branches into areas such as
biology, botany and zoology. Physical science branches into areas such as physics and
chemistry.
As time went on, more branches emerged like astronomy, geology and meteorology in
physical science and microbiology in life science. Physical science and life science are branches
of a wider body of knowledge called natural science.

Natural Science

Physical Science

Life Science
Biology

Physics

Botany

Chemistry

Zoology

Astronomy
Geology

Microbiology

Meteorology

The Branches of Science

Lets Try This


1.

What are the two main branches of natural science? How do you differentiate them?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

2.

What is science?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 24.

Lets Learn
What Is the Nature and Scope of Physics?
Physics is at the base of every branch of science because it deals with both life and physical
sciences. It is the study of the basic nature of all matter and energy and the various ways in which
matter interacts with other matter.
The major domains or divisions of physics are the following:
1.

Mechanics the study of the behavior of objects in response to various forces

2.

Molecular physics examines the properties, behavior and structure of molecules

3.

Thermodynamics the study of heat and other forms of energy, and the conversion
of energy from one form into another

4.

Optics the study of the nature and behavior of light


5

5.

Electricity the study of static and current electricity

6.

Electrodynamics analyzes the relationship between electrical and magnetic forces

7.

Modern physics includes the following:


a.

Relativistic mechanics the study of the motion of bodies whose relative


velocities approach the speed of light

b.

Atomic physics the study of the properties of matter on the atomic scale; as
well as the structure of the atom and the forces that act between the positive
nucleus and the negative electrons

c.

Nuclear physics the study of the properties of the nucleus of an atom and the
forces responsible for its stability and disintegration

d.

Quantum mechanics study based on the theory that material particles may be
described as waves, and waves may be described as particles
How Is Physics Related to Other Sciences?

You know that physics is the study of matter and energy. Physics is closely related to other
sciences. In fact, it encompasses them all. Chemistry, for instance, deals with the interaction of
atoms to form molecules. It is a science concerned with the properties, composition and
structure of substances and the changes they undergo. The world we live in is a planet full of
fascinating complexity. To understand this complexity, we must describe and explain the
materials, features and processes that can be observed in our surroundings. The landscape of the
earth, the nature and distribution of materials and conditions in the earths interior are the subjects
and principal interest in the science called physical geology or geophysics. On the other hand,
astronomy is a branch of science that studies the nature and motion of celestial bodies such as
planets and stars. Generally, physics is the study of matter and energy in the universe at large.
Biology is concerned with the nature of living things and the vital processes affecting life
such as growth and reproduction. Living things are composed of matter wherein material and
energy conversions take place. Biology therefore must consider physics as an integral part.
Biophysics is the application of various tools, methods and principles of physical science in the
study of biological problems. Health physics is an interdisciplinary science and has its
application in the protection of humans and the environment from radiation.
We will not fully understand physics unless we compute problems related to it.
Mathematics has a big part in the practical applications of physics.
Astrophysics is the application of the theories and methods of physics in the study of stellar
structure, stellar evolution and the origin of the solar system. Meteorology is a branch of science
that deals with the nature and changes in the atmosphere of a planet, particularly that of the earth.
All these sciences are closely related to physics.

Lets Review
A.

Match the items in Column A with those in column B.


A

B.

1.

It is the study of forces and motion.

a.

chemistry

2.

It deals with the study of the atomic nucleus


and the forces responsible for its stability
and disintegration.

b. nuclear physics
c.

physical science

3.

It deals with the composition,


structure and properties of matter.

d.

mechanics

4.

It deals with the study of living


things, both plants and animals.

e.

biology

5.

It deals with the study of


nonliving things.

f.

meteorology

Answer the following questions.


1.

Why is physics the most basic science?


_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

2.

Which of the following is in the domain of physics?


a.

biophysics

c.

geology

b.

astronomy

d.

electromagnetism

Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 24.

Lets Read
History of Physics
When did the science of physics start? The beginning of physics is difficult to trace because
human interest in matter and energy is as old as human civilization itself. The oldest body of
systemized knowledge about the forms of matter dates back to ancient Greece. The following
scientists contributed much to the development of physics:

Galileo Galilei

1.

Aristotle (384322 B.C.). He believed that all things


are made up of four elements, namely, air, earth, fire and
water.

2.

Galileo Galilei (15641642). He formulated the laws about


the behavior of falling objects.

3.

Johannes Kepler (15711630). He formulated the laws


of planetary motion. These laws are used in calculating the
flight paths of todays space vehicles.
7

4.

Sir Isaac Newton (16421727). He formulated


the laws of motion and the law of universal
gravitation.

5.

Count Rumford (17531814) and James P.


Joule (18181889). They made independent
significant studies on heat energy.

6.

Thomas Young (17731829). He was the first


to demonstrate light interference, thus proving
that light is made up of waves.

7.

Michael Faraday (17911867). He discovered


the principle of the electronic motor and
formulated the law of electromagnetic induction.

8.

James Maxwell (18311870). He worked on electromagnetism. He formulated


general equations on electromagnetic fields. He showed that light is a form of
electromagnetic wave.

Isaac Newton

9. Wilhelm Roentgen (18311923) and


Henri Becquerel (18521908). Roentgen
discovered the X ray in 1895 while Becquerel
discovered radioactivity in 1896. Studies on
radioactivity led to the development of
nuclear physics.
10. Albert Einstein (18791955) and Max Planck
(18951947). Einstein formulated the theory
of relativity while Planck formulated the
theory of quantum mechanics.
Albert Einstein

Lets Review
Below is a list of some known scientists. Opposite their names, write their contributions to
the development of physics.
Scientist

Contribu

1. Isaac Newton
2. Johannes Kepler
3. Henri Becquerel
4. Michael Faraday
5. Albert Einstein

Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 24.

Lets Learn
The Scientific Method
How do physicists work? Like other scientists, they work using the scientific method.
The scientific method is a series of steps that a scientist follows in order to arrive at a
scientific truth.
Recognize and state a problem.
Make a hypothesis.
Perform experiments to test hypothesis.
Draw conclusion and formulate generalization.

The Steps in the Scientific Method


How do you carry out the scientific method? First, you find a problem which needs an
explanation. How do you do this? Through observation, of course. Its actually just a matter of
asking questions like Why is the sky blue?
Second, you come up with a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a scientific guess. It attempts to
explain the occurrence of the problem. Then, you test the hypothesis by making observations,
conducting experiments and/or doing calculations. There must be several trials for each test in
order to show that the hypothesis holds true for all instances.
If the hypothesis is found to be correct, it then becomes a theory. A theory is a tested
hypothesis; it is not permanent. If even just one new experiment shows that the theory is not true,
the theory is already discarded.
If, on the other hand, a theory stands the test of time that is, it is proven over and over
and is already considered universal it becomes a principle or law. As you study physics more
extensively, you will encounter different theories as well as principles or laws.
Can You Become a Scientist?
Do you think you can become a scientist? Of course, you can, provided that you work,
think and act like one. This means that you need to make the scientific method a part of your daily
life. If you employ the scientific method in solving problems, you become a more efficient and
productive person. Moreover, you should develop scientific attitudes such as inquisitiveness,
willingness to work, keenness and accuracy of observation, open-mindedness and patience in the
search for truth.

The following are some distinguished Filipino physicists, inventors and technologists:

Gregorio Y. Zara
National Scientist

1.

Gregorio Y. Zara, Ph. D. (19021978) became one of


the Most Outstanding National Scientists of the
Philippines. His contributions to physics and technology
are the video phone, solar oven, alcohol-fueled airplane engine,
an electronic robot that can talk, walk and obey commands, and
a microscope made of Philippine wood.

2.

Eduardo C. San Juan, Ph. D. (19281988) designed


the lunar rover, the first vehicle that traveled on the
surface of the moon.

3.

Agapito G. Flores (18791943) invented the first


fluorescent lamp.

4.

Henry J. Ramos, Ph. D. developed the first


plasma experimental device known as NIPPER I,
which produces gases that can be manipulated for
energy generation and other industrial
applications.

5.

Melecio S. Magno, Ph. D. became the chairman


of the National Science Development Board
(NSDB), now Department of Science and
Technology (DOST). He was a fellow in
Environmental Physics and Ozone Research in the
United States. He specialized in the fields of
meteorology and geophysics.

Melecio S. Magno, Ph.D.


Atmospheric physicist
National Scientist

6. Ernesto P. Sonido, Ph. D. conducted


researches on the environmental impact of natural
hazards in the Philippines and on the applicability
of service reflection method for exploration of
layered chromite.
7. Arturo P. Alcaraz is known as the Father of
Philippine Geothermal Energy. He set up a
working model of a geothermal power station in
Cale, Tiwi, Albay.
Arturo Alcaraz
Father of Philippine
Geothermal Energy

10

Lets Review
Below is a list of some known Filipino physicists, scientists and inventors. Opposite their
names, write their contributions to the development of physics.
Scientist

Contri

1. Arturo P. Alcaraz
2. Agapito G. Flores
3. Melecio S. Magno
4. Henry J. Ram os
5. Gregorio Y. Zara

Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 24.

Lets Study and Analyze


Science widens our view of our environment. It affects the way we see the world and the
decisions we make about our world.
One day for instance, while you and your friend are walking, you pass by piles of garbage
along the street. What real life problem can you identify in this situation? Using the scientific
method, suggest ways of solving the problem. Write these steps on the following lines:
State the problem:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Gather information:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Formulate hypothesis:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Conduct an investigation:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
State conclusion:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Cite applications:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on pages 24 and 25.
11

Lets Learn
Do you need physics in your life? Why?

Physics drives progress. The different modes of transportation air, water, land
all work based on the principles of physics. Physics research has helped vehicle
manufacturers come up with faster, more energy-efficient vehicles. Ships, cars and
airplanes are more powerful and efficient as a result of physics research. Even space
flight would not have been possible without human knowledge of the principles of
physics.

Physics improves our way of living. The modern facilities and appliances in the
home, such as the refrigerator, microwave oven and washing machine, have made
housework easier and life more comfortable. Radios, television sets, videocassette
players and compact disc players have made life pleasurable and relaxing.

Physics improves health and saves lives. Over the years, physics research has
enabled the development of the instruments that help detect diseases faster. There are
also new ways of treating diseases such as cancer, thanks to the researches of
physicists.

12

Physics connects the world. Satellites, cellular phones, fax machines and the Internet
all exist because of years of research of physicists.

Physics creates jobs. Knowledge of physics can help you in your career. Engineers,
doctors, science teachers, mechanics, architects and even artists all need to have some
knowledge of physics. Also, knowledge in the use of products of physics research,
such as computers, can help you land a high-paying job.

Lets Try This


Complete the table below by writing down different activities/devices found in various
places that are connected with physics.
Place

Devices/Activities

At home
On the street
Market
Playground
Church
Sea
School
Clinic

Check your answers against the Answer Key on page 25.

Lets See What You Have Learned


A.

Identify the field of science referred to in each of the following. Write your answer in
the space provided.
__________1.

Science that deals with the study of the movement of planets, stars
and other heavenly bodies

__________2.

Study of the earth, its nature and distribution of its materials as well
as its interior

__________3.

Deals with the atmosphere of a planet, particularly that of the earth

__________4.

Study of living things

13

B.

__________5.

Study of matter and energy and their interrelationships

__________6.

Study of the structure of matter and energy in the atomic nucleus

Identify which physicist/scientist/inventor made each of the following contributions to


the advancement of physics.
__________1.

The most outstanding natural scientist of the Philippines who


discovered the solar oven and video phone

__________2.

Filipino scientist who designed the lunar rover, the first vehicle to
land on the moon

__________3.

Studied the behavior of falling bodies

__________4.

Formulated the theory of relativity

__________5.

Formulated the laws of motion

__________6.

A Filipino who invented the fluorescent lamp

Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on pages 25 and 26.
Did you get everything right? If you did, thats very good! You learned a lot from this lesson.
You are now ready to move on to Lesson 2. If you missed some items, thats okay. Just go back
to the parts you did not understand well. Afterward, proceed to Lesson 2.

Lets Remember

Science is a body of knowledge and a way of thinking.

Natural science is divided into physical science and life science. Physical science is the
study of nonliving things while life science is the study of living things.

Physics is the most basic of all sciences. It encompasses all other sciences.

The scientific method is a scientists way of answering questions about the world by
testing hypotheses and formulating theories.

Physics is a science which we use every day. It has many uses and applications in our
daily life.

14

LESSON 2

Physics and Technology:


Partners for Progress
How does physics differ from technology? Physics and technology are related, but they are
not the same. Physics attempts to understand nature and its laws. Such inquiry gives birth to
knowledge. Technology uses this knowledge to make life easier and more enjoyable.
Physics is the science that searches for relationships among elements of our physical
universe, while technology is the application of these relationships to meet ones needs and goals
in terms of products, processes and services that benefit humankind.
Technology is a
way of doing.

Science is a
way of
knowing.

Physics provides explanations of the natural world, while technology yields inventions.
Technology is concerned with the practical applications of scientific laws and theories. The
electric motor, transistor radio, colored TV and computer are technological applications of the
laws of electromagnetism.
One example that will distinguish physics from technology is the theory of space travel. The
theory (physics) was developed during Newtons time, but not the technology. Landing on the
moon was just a dream before. But with the development of the technology of space exploration,
that dream became a reality.
In this lesson you will learn more about physics and technology. After studying the lesson,
you should be able to:

trace the development of physics and technology in the Philippines and relate it to
national development; and

enumerate some developments in physics and technology which affect society and
change peoples lifestyles and thinking about nature.

15

Lets Read
How Did Physics and Technology Develop in the Philippines?
The awareness of physics and technology in the Philippines may be traced back to the
pre-Spanish era.
The early settlers in the Philippines were the Aetas, the Indonesians and the Malays. These
early settlers already had knowledge in the field of navigation. Their way of life also showed
traces of scientific concepts. For example, people were engaged in fishing, farming and mining.
They were skilled artisans, jewelers and goldsmiths. They also knew metalwork as seen in the
manufacture of their tools and weapons. They wove cloth out of abaca, cotton, banana,
pineapple and from silk imported from China. They were also engaged in ship building.
In 1521, the Spanish colonizers brought Western culture, and along with it Western
technology, to the Philippines. We learned much of the sciences, arts and letters from the
Spaniards. Agricultural industries, such as the tobacco industry, advanced during the Spanish era.
Transfer and adaptation of American physics-related technology started during the
American era. Under the American regime, our means of transportation were vastly improved.
Our old industries were expanded with the use of modern machineries and advanced technical
know-how. New industries like pineapple canning, sugar refining, ropemaking and copra drying
bloomed.

Lets Think About This


1.

Did the early settlers in the Philippines show knowledge of scientific concepts and
principles? Cite activities or occupations they engaged in where scientific principles
were applied.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

2.

Do you think the Spanish and American eras significantly contributed to the
advancement of physics and technology in the Philippines? How?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 26.

16

Lets Learn
What Is the Role of Physics and Technology in National Development?
The development of physics and technology was greatly influenced by the invention of the
steam engine in 1750 and the transistor in 1948.
The invention of the steam engine took place in the Industrial Revolution. It marked the
beginning of the use of a large supply of energy.
Many of our modern technologies are physics-based and need large amounts of energy.
The products of these technologies are in the form of goods and services utilized by people.
Some examples are the use of ultrasound and radiation in medicine for diagnosis and therapy;
development in transportation, such as the automobile and light railway transit (LRT); and
advancement in communication such as satellites and wireless communication.
On the other hand, the invention of the transistor started the revolution in the
telecommunications industry and information technology. The transistor replaced the vacuum
tube, which was the most important component of radio and TV sets during the 1950s.
Compared to the vacuum tube, the transistor is lighter, compact, portable and requires very little
electric power to operate. These characteristics make the transistor a very important element in
communication devices today, especially those used in space exploration.
The invention of the transistor led to the development of electronics. It is a technology that
depends on the behavior of electrons. Today, almost all electric appliances make use of
semiconductor devices. These devices are diodes, transistors and combinations of those and
other elements contained in a very small chip of silicon called integrated circuit or IC. ICs are
the major components of computers.
Through the use of transistors and ICs, electrical devices have been transistorized,
miniaturized (made smaller) and automated. Computers and robots are used not only in various
industries but in the home as well.
Developments in physics and technology have certainly contributed a lot to national
development. In the Philippines, the key to the much-needed economic development of the
country is a comprehensive, unified and responsive science and technology program.
Recognizing the importance of having a unified science and technology program, DOST
research and development (R and D) in priority areas such as construction and industry,
information technology, electronics, metals and engineering, agriculture and emerging technologies
has been intensified. Science and technology support structures that are crucial to industrial
development are being strengthened both by the public and private sectors.

Lets Review
1.

Cite two major inventions that led to the development of physics and technology.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

17

2.

How does physics contribute to national development?


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 26.

Lets Learn
Do you know of agencies or institutions in our country that are engaged in research and
development? Have you visited them? Some of these agencies are listed below.
1.

Energy Research and Development Center (ERDC). It is involved in applied


research and development of alternative sources of energy, like solar and wind energy,
biomass and other nonconventional energy resources.

2.

Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). This is the seat of the first
Philippine nuclear reactor developed for research purposes. It produces radioisotopes
such as cobalt 60, phosphorus 32 and strontium 90 for researches in medicine,
industry and agriculture. The institute promotes and regulates the use of radioactive
materials in the country to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects
of nuclear radiation.

3.

National Institute of Physics (NIP). This is the seat of physics research and training
in the country. Basic studies and experiments in physics are done here. It includes
studies on plasma, lasers, solid-state physics and superconductivity.

4.

Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services


Administration (PAGASA). This agency provides information about the weather,
climate, astronomical and atmospheric phenomena and their causes and effects on
people and the environment.

5.

Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS). This institute


is tasked to warn people of impending disasters arising from volcanic eruptions,
earthquakes, and geotectonic phenomena such as tsunamis, faults and landslides.

Lets Learn
What major developments in physics have implications on you and society? How have they
changed peoples thinking about nature?
Physics has brought about so many things that affect people and society. The following are
major developments in physics that have implications on society and have changed peoples
thinking about nature:

Change from Ptolemys idea that the earth was the center of the universe and of
planetary motion to Copernicus view that the sun is the center of the solar
system.

18

The concepts of motion and force changed over time as new theories were proposed
by thinkers from different eras, from Aristotle to Galileo, to Newton and Einstein.

John Daltons theory that the atom was indivisible was disproved when elementary
particles such as quarks (besides protons and neutrons) were discovered in the
nucleus of an atom.
Physicists views of nature change, and these changes affect our lives and
thoughts. Since physics and technology play an important role in determining the state
of development of a country, it also affects the lifestyles and way of thinking of the
people who live in that country.

What are the effects of the advances in physics and technology?


Science and technology greatly influenced the quality of modern life. The average human life
span has been increased by medical advances. People now enjoy the conveniences that electric
appliances give. They can move about faster and can go to faraway places. These fast and
convenient means of transportation afford them time for other worthwhile activities.
Communication satellites enable them to communicate with one another wherever they may be.
Do such changes really bring about a better quality of life for us?
There are technologies that affect the quality of life adversely. Pollution has become a
serious health and environmental threat because of the growth of industries.
Family life and traditions have been greatly affected by the improper use of technological
products such as the telephone and television.
Workers are displaced because certain types of work are done by fewer individuals in
shorter time.
We must bear in mind that whatever progress has been made in science and technology
should benefit humankind. Hence, we cannot overemphasize the need for wise and proper
utilization of technology to ensure the greatest good for everyone.

Lets Review
1.

2.

Give four important effects of the advances in physics and technology on you and on
society.
a.

_____________________________________________________________

b.

_____________________________________________________________

c.

_____________________________________________________________

Name five harmful effects of technology.


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on pages 26 and 27.
19

Lets Try This


Below is a list of some products of technology. Identify the scientific ideas or concepts
behind each and its effect on you and society. Write your answer in the space provided for each.
Product of
Technology
Flatiron
Radio

Scientific
Concepts
heat
sound

E
Makes work easier
Makes life pleasura
lead to noise polluti

Tricycle
TV
Computer
Cell phone

Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 27.

Lets Think About This


You had just arrived home from the market. You were very tired. After putting all the items
you bought in their proper places, you tuned in to the radio to listen to good music and relax. But
the radio did not function.
1.

What steps should you undertake to find out why the radio was not functioning?
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

2.

What principles of physics are involved in the operation of a radio?


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 28.

Lets See What You Have Learned


Fill up the table by citing at least two examples of advances in technology as a result of
physics research in each area indicated. The first item has been done for you. Write your answers
in the space provided for each area.
Area
Transportation
Communication
Medicine
Agriculture
Industry
Education

Examples
LRT, jet planes

Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 28.
20

Lets Remember

Physics and technology are related, but they are not the same. Physics has to do with
discovering facts and relationships between observable phenomena. Technology has
to do with tools, teachings and procedures for putting scientific findings to use.

The invention of the steam engine in 1750 ushered in the Industrial Revolution.

The invention of the transistor in 1948 started the revolution in the telecommunications
industry and information technology.

You have reached the end of the module. Congratulations! Did you enjoy studying this
module? Did you learn a lot from it? Read the following summary of its main points to help you
remember them better.

Lets Sum Up

Physics is the most basic of all sciences.

Physics is the science that explains the relationships among the elements of the physical
universe, while technology is the application of these relationships.

Awareness of physics and technology in the Philippines may be traced back to the preSpanish era.

Many of our modern technologies are physics-based.

The invention of the steam engine in 1750 ushered in the Industrial Revolution, while
the invention of the transistor in 1948 started the revolution in the telecommunications
industry and information technology.

Integrated circuits (ICs) consist of semiconductor devices such as diodes, transistors


and combinations of those contained in a very small chip of silicon.

The use of transistors and IC transistorized, miniaturized and automated electrical


devices.

Computers and robots find uses not only in industry but also in the home.

Advances in physics and technology changed peoples views of nature, and their
lifestyles and ways of thinking.

21

What Have You Learned?


A.

Match the items in Column A with those in Column B.


A

Set A
1.

Physics

2.

Chemistry

3.

Botany

4.

Astronomy

5.

Life science

a.

study of composition and structure of matter

b.

study of plants

c.

study of living things

d.

study of matter and energy

e.

study of stars and galaxies

Set B
1.

Henri Becquerel

a.

discovered X rays

2.

Michael Faraday

b.

invented the alcohol-fueled airplane engine

3.

Isaac Newton

c.

formulated the laws of motion

4.

Wilhelm Roentgen

d.

discovered radioactivity

5.

Gregorio Zara

e.

proved that magnetism can produce electric


current

Set C
1.

radio, TV, cassette

a.

make traveling more convenient and faster

2.

refrigerator, washing
machine, electric stove

b.

useful in medicine for diagnostic purposes

c.

provides entertainment

d.

make household chores easier and convenient

e.

make communication fast and effective

3.

telephone, cell phone,


fax machine, telegraph

4.

tricycle, bus,
train, LRT

5.

ultrasound, X-ray
machines, stethoscope

Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 28. If you got a score
of:
03

You have to study the whole module again.

47

Review the parts of the module you did not understand.

811

Good! Just review the items which you did not get right.

1215

Very good! You learned a lot from this module.


22

Answer Key
A.

Lets See What You Already Know (pages 13)


1.

Options b, c, d are incorrect because they all deal with living things.

2.

Option b is incorrect because Einstein formulated the theory of relativity; c


is incorrect because Galileo studied falling bodies; d is incorrect because
Johannes Kepler formulated the laws of planetary motion.

3.

Option b is incorrect because Galileo formulated the laws on falling bodies;


c is incorrect because Max Planck formulated the quantum theory; a is
incorrect because Newton formulated the laws of motion.

4.

Option a is incorrect because botany is the study of plants; b is incorrect


because chemistry is the study of the composition of matter; d is incorrect
because astronomy deals with celestial bodies like planets, stars, and
galaxies.

5.

Options a, c and d are incorrect because they dont answer questions about
the physical world.

6.

Hypothesis is a scientific guess.

7.

Option a is incorrect because Gregorio Zara invented the video phone; c is


incorrect because Eduardo San Juan invented the lunar rover; d is incorrect
because Sonido is an environmental impact researcher.

8.

Option a is incorrect because biology deals with the study of plants and
animals; c is incorrect because geology deals with the study of the earths
interior; d is incorrect because meteorology deals with the study of the
atmosphere of the planet.

9.

Option a is incorrect because mechanics deals with forces and motion; b is


incorrect because it deals with electric and magnetic fields; c is incorrect
because electricity deals with static and current electricity.

10.

Options a, b and c are all correct because all principally involve physics.

11.

Options a, b and c are all correct because all are products of technology.

12.

Option d is correct because it operates on laws of refraction; a, b and c are


incorrect because all involve the laws of electromagnetism.

13.

Options b, c and d are incorrect because they are not the effects of the
invention of the steam engine.

14.

Options a, b and c are all correct because they are all the important and
good effects of the invention of the transistor.

15.

Option b is incorrect because it is a good effect of technology; options c


and d are incorrect because they are not effects of technology.

23

B.

Lesson 1
Lets Try This (page 5)
1.

The two main branches of natural science are life science and physical
science. Life science is the study of living things while physical science is the study
of nonliving things.

2.

Science is a systematized body of knowledge.

Lets Review (page 7)


A.

B.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1.

Physics is the most basic science because the concepts and principles of
physics are fundamental to other sciences.

2.

d (Electromagnetism is a domain of physics; a, b and c are areas or fields


of science.)

Lets Review (page 8)


Scientist
1. Isaac Newton
2.
3.
4.
5.

Johannes Kepler
Henri Becquerel
Michael Faraday
Albert Einstein

Contribu
Formulated the laws of motion
gravitation
Formulated the laws of planeta
Discovered radioactivity
Formulated the law of electrom
Formulated the theory of relati

Lets Review (page 11)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Scientist
Arturo P. Alcaraz
Agapito G. Flores
Melecio S. Magno
Henry J. Ramos
Gregorio Y. Zara

Contribu
Made a working model of a geot
Invented the first fluorescent lam
Made contributions to meteorolo
Developed the first plasma devic
Invented the video phone and al

Lets Study and Analyze (page 11)


(The following are possible answers.)
Problems:
1.

How does garbage affect the environment?

2.

What are the proper ways to dispose of garbage?

24

Information gathered:
1.

People lack discipline.

2.

There is a lack of dumping sites.

3.

People are not aware of municipal ordinances about segregation of garbage.

4.

There is lack of information on how to recycle things.

Hypothesis:

Improper waste disposal may cause dirty surroundings, bad odor and
illness among the people in the community.

Investigation: Conduct a survey and compare the surroundings and health conditions
of people in areas where garbage is properly disposed of and those
where garbage is thrown anywhere.
Conclusion:

Application:

To maintain clean surroundings and prevent the spread of diseases in


the community, people should:
1.

maintain discipline

2.

practice proper ways of waste disposal


a.

segregate biodegradable and nonbiodegradable wastes

b.

recycle nonbiodegradable waste

c.

make compost pits

Use of shredders for composting

Lets Try This (page 13)


Place
At home
In the street
Market
Playground
Church
Sea
School
Clinic

Devices/Acti
Flatiron, oven toaster, vacuum c
Calesa, tricycles, jeepneys, train
Weighing scale, measuring tape
See-saw, chinning bars, slide
Bell, microphone, overhead proje
Boatship
Computer, photocopier machine,
Weighing scale, stethoscope, X-

Lets See What You Have Learned (pages 1314)


A.

1.

astronomy

2.

geology

3.

meteorology

4.

biology

5.

physics

6.

nuclear physics

25

B.

C.

1.

Gregorio Zara

2.

Eduardo San Juan

3.

Galileo Galilei

4.

Albert Einstein

5.

Isaac Newton

6.

Agapito Flores

Lesson 2
Lets Think About This (page 16)
1.

Yes, the early settlers in the Philippines showed knowledge of scientific concepts
and principles. They applied this knowledge in fishing, farming, mining,
metalwork, ship building and navigation.

2.

Filipinos learned much about science, arts and letters from the Spaniards.
Agricultural industries like the tobacco industry flourished during the Spanish rule.
On the other hand, physics-related technology started during the American
regime. The means of transportation were vastly improved. New industries like
pineapple canning, sugar refining, rope making and copra making were
introduced.

Lets Review (pages 1718)


1.

The inventions of the steam engine and the transistor led to the development of
physics and technology.

2.

Physics and technology contribute to national development through:

progress in transportation, telecommunication and information


technology

progress in agriculture and industry

progress in medicine

electrical devices being transistorized, miniaturized and automated

extensive research and development in agriculture, industry and information


technology, which are crucial to national economic progress

Lets Review (page 19)


1.

(Choose only four from the following:)

The average human life span has increased.

Communication has become effective and fast.

People are mobilized.

Household chores are now easier and life has become more comfortable.

People have more time for pleasure because work is easier.


26

2.

People can relate and communicate with other people in other places.

Events are covered and viewed simultaneously in different parts of the


world.

Exploration of space is now possible.

Doing research is easier and more convenient through the Internet.

Teleconferencing is now possible.

Productivity and income have increased.

There are more job opportunities.

Simultaneous activities can be done.

Diseases are detected and diagnosed faster. There are also better methods
of treating certain diseases.

Harmful effects of technology

It causes widespread pollution.

Many workers are displaced.

Students spend more time on computer games, surfing and chatting on the
Internet, causing them to earn poor grades.

Interaction among people is lessened because they can now work right
inside their homes.

Natural resources are being used up at an alarming rate.

Weapons with potential to destroy civilization are created.

There are now plenty of congested roads with smoke-belching cars, trucks,
buses and jeepneys.

Rivers, lake and oceans are contaminated with wastes.

Some species of plants and animals have become extinct.

Family ties have weakened due to lesser interaction among members of the
family.

Lets Try This (page 20)


Product of
Technology
Flatiron
Radio

Scientific
Concepts
heat
Sound

Tricycle
TV
Computer

mechanics
electricity, light,
sound
electronics

Cell phone

radiation

E
Makes work easier an
Makes life pleasurabl
create noise pollution
Mobilizes people
Provides entertainme
enjoyable and relaxin
Makes work faster an
information; efficient
communication
Communication beco

27

Lets Think About This (page 20)


1.

2.

a.

Check if other electrical appliances and devices are functioning. If they are,
you can rule out brownout as the reason for the radios failure to function.

b.

Bring the radio to an electrician or someone who has knowledge in


electronics to fix it.

Principles of physics:
a.

Electricity is due to the moving of electrons along a conductor. To have a


continuous flow of current, there must be a complete or closed circuit. If
there are broken or disconnected wires, the circuit is said to be open and
there will be no current flowing.

b.

In a radio, there is transformation of electric energy to sound energy.

Lets See What You Have Learned (page 20)


Area
Transportation
Communication
Medicine
Agriculture
Industry
Education

D.

Example
Development of jeepneys, cars, tru
fast craft, ships, jet planes and spa
Global communication through sat
cable TV and cell phones, fiber op
Use of ultrasound, laser beams, m
imaging, X rays, radioisotopes, fib
Application of genetic engineering
tracers
Electronic banking, robotics, finge
optics
Use of computer-aided instructions
Internet, use of fax machines and
messages, information and knowle

What Have You Learned? (page 22)


Set A

Set B

Set C

1.

1.

1.

2.

2.

2.

3.

3.

3.

4.

4.

4.

5.

5.

5.

28

Glossary
Life science The branch of science that deals with the study of living things.
Physics The physical science that deals with the study of matter and energy and the
transformation of energy.
Physical science The branch of science that deals with the study of nonliving things.
Science A systematized body of knowledge based on observation and experimentation.
Scientific method An orderly method that is effective in gaining, organizing and applying
new knowledge.
Technology A method of solving practical problems by applying or implementing scientific
findings.

References
Capistrano, Phondora S., et al. New Physics: Science and Technology for Fourth Year.
Philippines: Philippine Book Company, Inc., 1990.
Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Science and Technology IV. SEDP series.
Philippines: Book Media Press, Inc., 1992.
Hewitt, Paul G. Conceptual Physics. 7th ed. New York: Harper Collins College
Publishers, 1993.
Portugal, Hideliza L. and Emma F. Fondevilla. Science and Technology: Physics Metro
Manila: Vibal Publishing Books, Inc., 1993.
Salmorin, Lolita M. Science and Technology Today: Physics. Metro Manila: Abiva
Publishing House, Inc., 1990.

29