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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jfoodeng

Review

(Mangifera Indica L. cv. Amelie) with correction for shrinkage

A.O. Dissa a,*, H. Desmorieux b, J. Bathiebo a, J. Koulidiati a

a

Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de lEnvironnement (LPCE), Unit de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences Exactes et Applique (UFR/SEA),

Universit de Ouagadougou, BP7021, Burkina Faso

b

Laboratoire dAutomatisme et de Gnie des Procds (LAGEP), UCBL1-CNRS UMR 5007-CPE Lyon, Bt.308G, 43 bd du 11 Nov. 1918 Villeurbanne,

Universit Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 11 December 2006

Received in revised form 8 March 2008

Accepted 10 March 2008

Available online 16 March 2008

Keywords:

Mango

Amelie

Shrinkage

Drying kinetics

Diffusivity

a b s t r a c t

Drying characteristics of Amelie mango were investigated through slices shrinkage behaviour at 50, 60

and 70 C and drying kinetics at temperatures ranging from 50 to 70 C and for slices of 2.5, 5 and

10 mm thick. Results showed that mango slices shrinkage was less inuenced by temperature and best

tted by the linear model of volume additivity. The density of solid matrix and the linear shrinkage coefcient were evaluated respectively at 1468 kg/m3 and 1.468. The tting of experimental data with two

models (Page and Henderson & Pabis) showed that drying curves were best described by the Page model.

Both water diffusivity values and drying rates curves were strongly inuenced by shrinkage. Drying rates

were underestimated and diffusivities overestimated when drying data are not corrected for shrinkage.

An Arrhenius dependence type of diffusivity was established from drying data corrected for shrinkage

and the activation energy deduced was 25.355 kJ/mol.

2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1.

2.

3.

4.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Materials and methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.

The mangoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.

Maturity measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.1.

Total soluble solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.2.

Acidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.

Bulk shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4.

Drying kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1.

Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.

Drying curves characterisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.1.

Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.2.

Effective water diffusivity determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.3.

Calculation of equilibrium water content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.4.

Drying rate calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.5.

Drying rate curve correction for shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.

Fitting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Results and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.

Maturity measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2.

Shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3.

Drying kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3.1.

Drying rates curves corrected for shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3.2.

Influence of air temperature and slice thickness on drying kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E-mail addresses: dissa@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr, alfa_dissa@univ-ouaga.bf (A.O. Dissa).

0260-8774/$ - see front matter 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.03.008

430

430

430

430

430

430

430

431

431

431

432

432

432

432

433

433

433

433

433

434

434

434

435

430

5.

4.3.3.

Kinetics models evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3.4.

Diffusivity and activation energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

436

436

436

437

437

1. Introduction

main fruit varieties composing orchards are Amelie, Brooks, Lippens, Keitt, Mangot, Kent and Smith. However, a substantial quantity of harvests is lost each season because of inadequate means of

preservation. Facing this problem, drying can constitute an efcient

solution of preservation. For mango fruit, the mode of drying used

in industry and traditionally is convective drying and Amelie is

the most commonly variety used for drying and exportation in this

region. The investigation of this variety drying characteristics is

then necessary for a better understanding of its drying process

and for having dried fruits which respect the standards of external

markets. Thus, during these last years, certain research related to

the drying of mango. Nieto et al. (2001) studied the inuence of

pre-treatments by blanching and/or osmotic dehydration with glucose syrups on air drying kinetics of mango during the falling rate

period. Goyal et al. (2006) studied the thin-layer drying kinetics

of raw mango slices at 55, 60 and 65 C air temperature with control, blanching and blanching in 1% potassium metabisulphide solution as pre-treatments. When studying drying of mango pulp in

vacuum, Jaya and Das (2003) developed an exponential correlation

which allowed determining mango diffusivity as a function of initial thickness and drying medium temperature. Tour and Kibangu-Nkembo (2004) studied the free convection sun-drying of

cassava, banana and mango and established an expression linking

slices initial moisture content to the maximal temperature difference between drying air and each product. Most of these works

did not deal with the inuence of the shrinkage on the drying kinetics of mango whereas that shrinkage could strongly affect the water

diffusion during drying. Therefore, the objective of the current work

was to investigate the shrinkage behaviours of mango slices, to observe the effect of drying temperature and slices thickness on drying characteristics of mango, to evaluate the inuence of shrinkage

on drying rates and water diffusion and to establish a suitable water

diffusion law with correction for shrinkage. This study thus contributed to mango dryer setting and dried mango preservation process.

The maturity of mangoes was evaluated only for the last series

of mangoes brought on April 2007 to France. However, these mangoes had the same ngering-maturity as those of the two rst series. The maturity index was evaluated by the ratio of total soluble

solids (in Brix) and acidity (in mmol/g) as:

2.1. The mangoes

The Amelie variety used in this study was purchased from a local fruit market of Bobo Dioulasso, town in the west of Burkina

Faso. These mangoes belong to three series of fruit purchased from

a market of Burkina Faso and transported to France on the plane

traveller compartment (rst series on September 26th 2005, 2nd

on September 3rd 2006 and the third on April 13th 2007). During

their transport from Burkina to France, the fruits were preserved in

an ambient temperature of 20 C. These fruits were enough unripe

and did not ripen a lot during the 8 h of travelling. At the arrival,

the measures were made between the rst and seventh day after

the fruits transport. For measures, good quality fruits were selected and washed into water to which a small quantity of Natrium

hypochlorite was added as disinfectant, rinsed with drinking water

and peeled. The pulp was separated from the stone and sliced

through according to the desired thickness.

Imaturity

Acidity mmol

g

The total soluble solids of mango samples was measured with a

hand refractometer Master-a (ATAGO P-1, 033 Brix, Japan) initially calibrated with a 20 Brix saccharose solution. To verify the

measure repeatability, three samples were taken once only among

the fruit in the same zone as those used for kinetics, shrinkage and

isotherms measurements. For the measures, a few drops of mango

juice obtained by pressing a sample were placed in a tissue and put

down on the refractometer. The total soluble solids was thus measured and obtained in Brix.

2.2.2. Acidity

A 0.01 mol/L NaOH (sodium hydroxide) solution added with a

0.05% phenolphthalein solution allowed measuring the sample

acidity. Before each measure, the sample was taken from the fruit

and ground in a mixer (MOULINEX, 140W, France) to have pulp of

mango. Three successive acido-basic titrants were obtained for

that pulp. From the sodium hydroxide volume used, the number

of moles of total acid in the mass of mango pulp is deduced from

the matter quantity preservation equation. The fruit acidity is then

dened as the ratio of millimoles of hydronium ion per mass of

fresh pulp used in grams.

2.3. Bulk shrinkage

Parallelepipedic samples of Amelie mango were used to establish the mango shrinkage curves. The initial mean dimensions of

the samples used during the experiments were presented in Table

1. To measure samples shrinkage, the product was dried at 50, 60

or 70 C in an oven-dryer (WTF BINDER). During drying, the weight

of the sample was regularly measured with a balance (SARTORIUS,

0.001 g precision, France) every 10 min during the rst 110 min.

Then, because of the drying rate decrease, measures were taken

every 15 min until 300 min drying and then every 30 min until

the end of drying, determined by constant weight. During drying,

the dimensions of slices were measured using a micrometer Mitu-

Table 1

Initial dimensions of samples used for shrinkage measurement

Temperature (C)

Maturity

Length (m)

Width (cm)

Thickness (cm)

50

60

70

Ripe

Ripe

Ripe

5.5

5.6

6

3.9

4.40

3.2

1.2

1.26

1.3

431

Nomenclature

D

d

D0

DR

Ea

K

L

l

MR

m

Qv

qv

q0v

R

RH

R2

Sb

T

t

V

Va

thickness of the sample (m)

Arrhenius pre exponential factor (m2 s1)

drying rate (kg kg1 s1)

activation energy (J mol1)

drying constant (s1)

length of the slab (m)

half thickness of the sample (m)

moisture ratio

weight (kg)

rate of mass loss (kg s1)

mass ux per unit of initial surface area (kg s1 m2)

mass ux per unit of current surface area (kg s1 m2)

perfect gas constant, R = 8.3145 J mol1 K1

relative humidity (%)

coefcient of determination

shrinkage coefcient

temperature (C, K)

drying time (s)

volume (m3)

air velocity (m s1)

toyo (Japan) of 2 105 m precision. These dimensions were measured at several places of the piece of mango and their mean values

were considered. It was noticed that the slices initial form was

approximately conserved. The results of shrinkage measurements

obtained are the means of three trials at every temperature. For

each measure, the corresponding weights were noted. An ovendryer and a balance (SARTORIUS, France) of 0.001 g precision were

used to determine samplesmoisture content. The dry mass was

evaluated by drying samples at 105 C in the oven-dryer during

24 h (Nguyen et al., 2004). The shrinkage coefcient was then deduced from experimental data according to the following formula:

Sb

V

V0

volume of the sample.

Assuming that mango slices form is one of a parallelepiped, their

volume was calculated as length width thickness. Due to the

similarity between the three relative dimensions variation d/d0,

W/W0, L/L0 for X/X0 > 0.2 as showed on Fig. 2a, the shrinkage of mangoes is considered isotropic. Changes in Sb with respect to the moisture content (reported to its initial value) constitute the shrinkage

curve. The experimental shrinkage curves obtained are then simulated with the fundamental linear model of volume additivity.

Load Unit

Basket

Control Screen

Trays

Fan

Distilled Water

Heater

Heater

width of the sample (m)

Greek letters

q

density (kg m3)

c

samples shape factor

Subscripts

a

air

cr

critical

d.b.

dry basis

dm

dry mass

eff

effective

eq

equilibrium

exp

experimental

m

model

0

initial

s

solid

v

vapor

w

water

w.b.

wet basis

Drying Kinetics of Amelie mango slices were determined using

a laboratory dryer (climatic chamber Votsch Industrietechnik,

Germany) in the Process Engineering and Automatic Laboratory

(LAGEP UMR 5007 CNRS) of Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University.

The schematic diagram of the dryer is shown in Fig. 1. The samples were dried in a perforated square basket, which had a ow

cross-section of 10 cm 10 cm. They were weighted at regular

intervals with a Master Pro SARTORIUS precision balance coupled

to the chamber. Weight changes with respect to time were noted

at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70 C) and for different slice

thicknesses (2.5, 5 and 10 mm) at 70 C. The dry mass was determined by drying samples at 105 C in an oven-dryer during 24 h

according to Nguyen et al. (2004). Deduced drying curves were

simulated by the empirical models of Page and Henderson &

Pabis.

3. Theory

3.1. Shrinkage

Several previous works expressed the shrinkage coefcient Sb of

food products during drying. Several models were so developed by

Suzuki et al. (1976) and Lozano et al. (1980). In the current study,

the inuence of temperature on Amelie mango shrinkage was

investigated. Experimental measures of ripe mango shrinkage were

established and simulated using the fundamental linear model of

volumes additivity. This model is based on the hypothesis of the

additivity of volumes of water and solids, assuming that the volume of air in pores is negligible and that cellular tissues are incompressible. This last hypothesis has been used for fruit and

vegetables by several authors: Desmorieux (1992), Iglesias et al.

(1993), Leonardo and Dermeval (2004). If V is the total volume of

the sample and ms the mass of solid matrix, assuming a negligible

volume of air, the volume versus the moisture content on dry basic

X of the product is expressed as:

Balance Screen

V ms

Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of the experimental dryer set-up.

1

X

W

1

X

qs qw

3

432

From Eqs. (2) and (3), the shrinkage coefcient can be stated as:

Sb

qw qs X

qw qs X 0

Hence

Sb

1

uX 0

X

1 uX 0 1 uX 0 X 0

With u qqws the linear shrinkage coefcient and X0 the initial moisture content. Eq. (5) assumes that the shrinkage coefcient varies

linearly with the moisture content of the product as follows:

X

0

Sb b a0

6

X0

uX 0

7

where a0

1 uX 0

1

0

8

b

1 uX 0

The ratio of the slope a0 and the origin ordinate b0 of that linear

shrinkage curve (represented by straight-line of Sb versus XX0 ) allows

identifying the true values of the density of solid matrix qs and the

linear shrinkage coefcient u by the following formulae:

qs

qw a0

X 0 b0

a0

0

b X0

10

These expressions give an estimate of the density of solid matrix and the linear shrinkage coefcient which are difcult to

determine through direct physical measurements. The density of

water used is qw = 1000 kg m3.

3.2. Drying curves characterisation

The water diffusivity of mangoes is evaluated by using the simplied mathematical Ficks second law. Assuming one-dimensional

moisture transfer, homogenous and parallelepipedic shape for the

mangoes samples, uniform initial moisture distribution and a nonshrinking slab, the analytical solution of Ficks equation is (Crank,

1975):

1

2

X X eq

8 X

1

2 p Dt

2

exp

2n

1

14

X cr X eq p n0 2n 12

4 l2

where Xcr is the critical water content, l the half thickness of the

slice, D the water diffusivity, n the Fouriers series number and c

the shape factor equal to p82 for a parallelepiped.

In convective drying of solids, this solution is valid only for

the falling rate period when the drying process is controlled by

internal moisture diffusion for slice moisture content below the

critical value. Therefore, the diffusivity must be identied from

Eq. (14) by setting the initial moisture content to the critical

value Xcr and by setting the drying time to zero when the mean

moisture content of the sample reaches that critical moisture

content.

To take shrinkage into account in Eq. (14), the sample thickness must be considered as a function of time and l(t) is so

obtained from shrinkage measurements. Eq. (14) becomes (Crank,

1975):

"

#

1

2

X X eq

8 X

1

Dt

2p

15

exp 2n 1

X cr X eq p2 n0 2n 12

4 lt2

For a long diffusion time corresponding in our case to MRc < 0.35,

Eq. (15) becomes(Crank, 1975):

"

#

8

p2 Dt

16

MRcr 2 exp

p

4 lt2

With MRcr

3.2.1. Simulation

Drying curves were simulated using two empirical models of reduced moisture content: Pages and Henderson & Pabis models.

These two empirical models coming from the fundamental diffusion model are generally suitable for fruits. The Page model has

been successfully used for the drying characteristics description

of many products such as carrots, okra and gs (Doymaz,

2004a,b, 2005), eggplant (Ertekin and Yaldiz, 2004) and fresh and

treated Papaya (Anoar et al., 2003). This model is stated as follow

(Page, 1949):

y

MR expkt

11

With

MR

X X eq

X 0 X eq

12

X the average moisture content of the product, X0 the initial moisture content, Xeq the equilibrium moisture content and t the drying

time.

The Henderson & Pabis model is also an exponential model. This

model is obtained by simplication of the rst term of the series

solution of Ficks second law. It has been used by several authors

such as Simal et al. (2005) for kiwi fruits and by Doymaz (2004b)

for mulberries. This model effectively predicts the drying rate at

the beginning of the drying process but appears sometimes to be

less efcient for the last stages of the process. It is expressed as

(Henderson and Pabis, 1961):

MR a expbt

13

where a and b are the parameters of the Henderson & Pabis model.

X X eq

X cr X eq

17

values are typically determined by plotting experimental drying

data in terms of ln(MRcr) versus t/[l(t)]2 data. Theses values identied for different temperatures: 40, 50, 60 and 70 for slices of 5 mm

initial thickness are deduced from the slopes of ln(MRcr) vs. t/[l(t)]2

straight-line. Activation energy was thus identied from diffusivity

according to Arrhenius dependence as:

Ea

18

D D0 exp

RT 273:15

where R is the perfect gas constant (R = 8.3145 J mol1 K1), D0 the

Arrhenius factor (m2 s1), T the temperature (C) and Ea the activation energy for internal mass transfer (J mol1).

In order to analyse the inuence of shrinkage on water diffusivity of Amelie mango, values of diffusivities for a non-shrinking

sample and for a shrinking sample were evaluated and compared.

3.2.3. Calculation of equilibrium water content

The equilibrium moisture content (Xeq) between the mango

sample and the drying air was expressed by Eq. (19) deduced

from the Modied Henderson model according to Dissa (2007).

This equation resulted from the tting of experimental data of

Amelie mango desorption isotherm at 40 C (R2 = 0.9982, RMSE =

6.4598 104). The modied Henderson model was used to take

drying temperature variation into account. The use of the parameters of this model for the whole drying air temperature range was

motivated by the results of Myara and Sablanis works (2001)

which showed that mango isotherm does not vary much with temperature in 1560 C range:

433

1=0:3316

ln1 RH

0:0193T 44:36

19

The drying rate at different instants of drying was estimated by

derivation of the moisture content X (db) with respect to time

using a derivation program adapted to the software MATLAB version 6.1. The obtained drying rate curves were smoothed using a

Microsoft Excel macro-program. This macro initially tted series

by an appropriate polynomial function and replaced each value

of the series by a medium value in such a way that standard deviations from initial values are minimised.

3.2.5. Drying rate curve correction for shrinkage

While evaluating diffusivity, the critical moisture content

identication is possible only if a constant drying rate period

exists. This period is generally absent during drying of most

fruits and vegetables. However, it can sometimes be exhibited

a constant drying ux stage (mass per unit of area and time)

from a falling rate period (mass per unit of time) provided we

are able to determine and account for the sample exchange surface shrinkage. The drying rate is usually represented by the

mass loss of the product Qv (kg s1) per unit of dry mass. The

mass ux qv (kg s1 m2) can be obtained by dividing this mass

loss by the entire exchange surface area as (May and Perr,

2002):

qv

Qv

ms dX

S

S dt

20

and S the exchange surface area calculated from shrinkage

data.

Assuming that the shrinkage is isotropic, the bulk shrinkage is a

function of the samples current surface as:

Sb

S d

S 0 d0

21

where S0 is the sample initial surface area, d0 and d initial and current thicknesses of the sample.

With

d

Sb 1=3

d0

was evaluated by the values:

of the coefcient of determination (R2) and reduced chi square

v2 for the kinetics,

of the coefcient of determination (R2) and standard error given

by the root mean square errors (RMSE) for shrinkage.

The best t to the studied physical parameters were given for R2

values closer to 1 and standard error and v2 values closer to 0.

4. Results and discussion

4.1. Maturity measurement

For the last series of mangoes, the maturity of the fruit was

evaluated by Brix and acidity measurements. These two chemical

magnitudes for the whole fruits used were respectively 14.0

1.7 Brix and 8.9 3.1 mmol/100 gpulp. The maturity index represented by the Brix-acid ratio was estimated at 157.30

54.84 Brix g/mmolacid for the whole mangoes used. The rate of

dry mass was also evaluated at 13.66 g/100 gpulp.

1.0

X eq

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

L/L0

W/W0

0.4

d/d0

0.3

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

22

0.5

X/X0

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Fig. 2a. Length, width and thickness shrinkage proles of Amelie mango slices at

50 C.

Hence

2=3

S S0 Sb

23

The mass ux and the mass loss of the product corrected for

shrinkage can then be expressed by the following equations:

0.9

24a

dX

dt

0.8

24b

exhibiting a constant drying ux period and identifying the critical

moisture content. From Eqs. (24a) and (24b), the drying rate corrected for shrinkage deduced from the mass loss corrected for

shrinkage is:

S2=3

b

25

0.7

0.6

V/V0

ms 2=3 dX

S

dt

S0 b

Q 0v S0 q0v

q0v

DR

0.9

0.5

0.4

0.3

50C

60C

70C

0.2

0.1

3.3. Fitting

The different ttings were obtained through a regression program in the MATLAB software version 6.1. In order to nd the

models of drying kinetics and shrinkage that adjust the best exper-

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

X/X0

Fig. 2b. Inuence of temperature on the bulk shrinkage of Amelie mango slices:

experimental values and simulation by additivity linear model.

4.2. Shrinkage

Shrinkage curves of parallelepipedic mango according to length,

width and thickness are showed on Fig. 2a. The similarity between

the shrinkage proles of the three sides allowed assuming Amelie

mango shrinkage to be isotropic. Slices bulk shrinkage coefcient

variations with reduced moisture content at 50, 60 and 70 C are

then presented in Fig. 2b. Three samples were used for each temperature and the average shrinkage values were presented. The

shrinkage curves obtained were overall linear and almost the same

at 50, 60 and 70 C. Therefore, it could be deduced that ripe Amelie

mangoes shrinkage is not much inuenced by drying temperatures. The experimental shrinkage curves were not strictly linear

but they could be tted by the fundamental linear model of

volumes additivity. The determination coefcients and standard

errors of experimental values tting showed in Table 2 were

respectively higher than 0.96 and 0.0004 for the three temperatures. Thus, the linear model of volumes additivity may be assumed to represent the bulk shrinkage mechanism of Amelie

mangoes at 50, 60 and 70 C with acceptable errors. This linear

model of volume additivity is based on physical assumptions and

supposes that the evaporated water volume during drying is

replaced by the same volume of shrinkage. The dried mango obtained is therefore a compact product with a low porosity. From

the slope of shrinkage straight-line, the intrinsic density of solid

matrix and the linear coefcient of shrinkage were respectively

evaluated at 1468 kg/m3 and 1.468. These results are in accordance

with the order of magnitudes given by Lozano et al. (1983), who

estimated the density of solid matrix for fruits and vegetables to

vary between 1300 and 1550 kg m3. For water diffusivity determination with correction for shrinkage, an empirical model of slice

account in Crank (1975) solution. According to Fig. 2c the thickness

was assumed to decrease linearly with reduced moisture content.

The parameters a and b of the linear correlation established from

thickness measures are presented in Table 2. These parameters

were evaluated with standard errors lower than 0.0008.

4.3. Drying kinetics

4.3.1. Drying rates curves corrected for shrinkage

Assuming that samples maintain their parallelepipedic shape as

the drying progresses (assumption supported by the experimental

data for most of the drying process, i.e. X/X0 > 0.2) and considering

a linear and isotropic shrinkage, the mango slice bulk shrinkage is

expressed according to Eq. (4) and Section 4.2 as:

Sb

1 1:4687X

1 1:4687X 0

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

Bulk shrinkage

0.2

a = 0.9547

b = 0.0491

a = 0.4436

b = 0.5516

0.1

R2

50 C

60 C

70 C

0.9846

0.9692

0.9920

4

4.5523 10

4.9229 104

1.7530 104

R2

60C Experimental data

70C Experimental data

50C Page model

60C Page model

70C Page model

0.9

Table 2

Mango slices shrinkage: experimental data tting at 50, 60 and 70 C with linear

additivity model

Ta (C)

26

According to Eqs. (24a) and (26), the mass ux per unit of current

exchange surface area can be stated as:

MR=(X-Xeq)/(Xo-Xeq)

434

0.5

1.5

0.9181

0.9718

0.9782

2.5

7.8573 10

1.8407 104

2.3734 10 4

x 10

Time (s)

4

Fig. 3a. Inuence of temperature on the drying kinetics of Amelie mango slices and

simulation by Page model.

0.0025

0.00225

0.9

0.002

0.8

d/d0

0.7

0.6

0.5

70C

0.00175

0.0015

0.00125

60C

50C

0.001

0.00075

0.0005

50C

60C

70C

0.4

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

per unit of initial surface area (without shrinkage)

0.00025

0

X/X0

Fig. 2c. Inuence of temperature on the thickness linear shrinkage of Amelie

mango slices.

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

X/X0

Fig. 3b. Inuence of temperature on the drying rate per exchange surface area of

Amelie mango slices of 5 mm thick.

435

q0v

2=3

ms 1 1:4687X

dX

dt

S0 1 1:4687X 0

27

on Figs. 3a and 4b were obtained from Eq. (27) by using experimental water contents. The critical water contents of Table 4 were

deduced from these curves. Evaluated critical water contents have

allowed calculation and comparison of diffusivities with taking

shrinkage into account and without taking shrinkage into account

in the processing of drying kinetics during the falling drying rate

period.

4.3.2. Inuence of air temperature and slice thickness on drying

kinetics

Moisture Ratio and drying rates curves (per unit of current surface area and per unit of initial surface area) for three temperatures

(50, 60 and 70 C) and for three thicknesses (2.5, 5, 10 mm) are presented respectively on Figs. 3a, 3b, 4a and 4b. The experiments

were carried out using a drying air of 15% relative humidity and

0.8 m s1 velocity. These characteristics of drying air were sufcient to reach equilibrium water contents corresponding to water

activities lower than 0.6, the typical preservation water activity

of dried mango according to several authors (Dissa, 2007; Pott

et al., 2005; Desmarais and Marcotte, 2002). It can be observed that

most of the drying takes place during the falling drying rate period.

The Figs. 3b and 4b show that when Amelie mangoes drying rates

curves are not corrected for shrinkage, almost no constant rate drying period exists. Moreover, drying rates obtained after correction

for shrinkage are always higher than those non-corrected. It can be

concluded that when shrinkage is not considered in drying data

processing, Amelie mango drying rates per unit of exchange surface area (mass ux) are very under-estimated. The corrected dry-

presented on Table 4 for many drying conditions. It is easily

remarkable on this table that these critical values depend on the

drying operating conditions.

The inuence of temperature on the moisture ratio and drying

rate curves per unit of exchange surface area of 5 mm thick Amelie

mango slices at 50, 60 and 70 C is illustrated in Figs. 3a and 3b.

The time required to reduce the moisture ratio to any given level

in Fig. 3a depended on the drying temperature, being highest at

50 C and lowest at 70 C. This tendency exists for both corrected

drying curve and non-corrected. Thus, for a 5 mm thick slice, equilibrium is reached in 250 min at 50 C, 166 min at 60 C and 83 min

at 70 C. Fruits and vegetables drying time reduction with air temperature increasing was reported by many authors: Doymaz

(2005) and Gogus and Maskan (1999) for okra, Doymaz (2004b)

for carrot, Ertekin and Yaldiz (2004) for eggplant, Stamatios and

Vassilios (2004) for g and Rosell et al. (1997) for green bean. This

drying time reduction should be linked to the energies necessary

for water extraction from the product and its vaporisation. These

energies are as high as the drying air temperature is high. However,

increasing temperature to decrease drying time should take into

account the conditions of retention of certain nutrients of mangoes

such as vitamin C, the risk of volatile components lost at higher

drying temperatures and the product crusting.

The inuence of slice thickness on the Moisture Ratio and drying rate curves per unit of exchange surface area of Amelie mango

for three slices of 2.5, 5 and 10 mm thick at 70 C is presented in

Figs. 4a and 4b. We can note that at any given level in Fig. 4a the

time required to reduce the Moisture Ratio was dependent on

the slice thickness. Moreover, corrected drying rate and non-corrected drying rates are as high as the thickness is small. When

the slice thickness decreases, the drying rate per unit of exchange

0.003

0.8

0.7

0.0025

0.9

MR=(X-Xeq)/(Xo-Xeq)

0.00275

5mm Experimental data

10mm Experimental data

2.5mm Page model

5mm Page model

10mm Page model

0.6

RH=15% Ta=70 C Va=0.8m/s

0.5

0.4

0.3

2.5mm

0.00225

0.002

5mm

0.00175

0.0015

0.00125

0.001

10mm

0.00075

0.0005

0.2

per unit of initial surface area (without shrinkage)

0.00025

0.1

0

0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time(s)

3

x 10

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

X/X0

Fig. 4a. Inuence of slices thickness on the drying kinetic of Amelie mango at 70 C

and simulation by Page model.

Fig. 4b. Inuence of slices thickness on the drying rate per exchange surface area of

Amelie mango at 70 C.

Table 3

Fitting statistics of drying kinetics

Dimensions

L (cm)

W (cm)

d (cm)

4.2

1

5

4

1

5

3.8

0.5

5

1.6

0.6

2.5

4

2.7

10

Ta (cm)

Page

2

1.0150

1.0605

1.0824

1.0232

1.0335

2.8761 104

5.1666 104

4.2015 104

0.0012

1.3123 104

0.9971

0.9923

0.9896

0.9967

0.9986

1.4957 104

6.1110 104

0.0010

2.8154 104

1.4277 104

R2

v2

1.7562 104

2.9391 104

6.2462 105

7.0988 104

6.0183 105

1.0612

1.0648

1.2313

1.0736

1.0817

0.9968

0.9940

0.9983

0.9985

0.9996

1.6445 104

4.7429 104

1.7277 104

1.3217 104

4.3428 105

1

, RH = 15%

50

60

70

70

70

surface area increases and the time required for attaining equilibrium decreases. At 70 C, this time is 666, 250 and 83 min, respectively for slices of 10, 5 and 2.5 mm thick. That means that, when

the thickness is doubled, more than the double of the time required

to attain the equilibrium point is necessary.

1

40C (RH30% Va0.8m/s)

50C (RH15% Va0.8m/s)

60C (RH15% Va0.8m/s)

70C (RH15% Va0.8m/s)

60C (RH20% Va0.48m/s)

60C (RH40% Va1.6m/s)

0.9

(X-Xeq)/(Xcr-Xeq)

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

R= 0.9907

11

-20.7

10

-20.8

-20.9

9

8

-21

-21.1

-21.2

3.1

1/T (1/K)

Experimental drying kinetics during falling drying rate period of

Amelie mango slices of 5 mm thick for various drying conditions

(Ta = 40, 50, 60 and 70 C, RH = 15%, 20%, 30% and 40% and

Va = 0.48, 0.8, 1.6 m s1) are showed on Fig. 5a. From these drying

curves, were deduced water diffusivities identied from the slopes

of ln[(X Xeq)/(Xcr Xeq)] vs. ratio time [l(t)]2 tted straight-line.

This linear data tting was done with a determination coefcient

R2 = 0.9935. Identied diffusivities were presented in Table 4,

likewise shrinkage and temperature inuences on their values

were illustrated. These diffusivities varied from 2.61 1010 to

1.2973 109 m2 s1 for drying data corrected for shrinkage and

from 1.04 109 to 4.05 109 m2 s1 for non-corrected drying

-10

12

-20.6

-21.3

2.9

x 10

R= 0.9917

-20.5

ln (D)

The experimental results of drying kinetics were t using Page

and Henderson & Pabis models and the tting statistics are presented in Table 3. The experimental data were well tted by the

two models with similar values of tting parameters. However,

Pages model tting parameters R2 from 0.9940 to 0.9996 and v2

from 4.3428 105 to 4.7429 104 were the highest. As showed

in Figs. 3a and 4a, Pages model suitably describes the experimental drying curves of mango slices and may be assumed to represent

Amelie mango desorption kinetics prole.

13

-20.4

D(m/s)

436

3.2

x 10

-3

310

320

330

T(K)

340

350

drying of slices of 5 mm thick at 40, 50, 60 and 70 C.

data. These diffusivities values were in the same range as those obtained by Ruiz-Lpez and Garca-Alvarado (2007) for a Mexican

mango variety, which varied from 1010 and 2 109 m2 s1.

According to Table 4, enough signicant differences existed between diffusivities obtained from corrected data and those obtained from non-corrected data. Relative differences between the

two types of diffusivity ranged from 45% to 76%. These results

showed that Amelie mangoes diffusivities were much overestimated when shrinkage was not taken into account in drying data

processing. Corrected diffusivities from Table 4 and Fig. 5b increased with temperature in 1010 m2 s1 at 40 C to 109 m2 s1

at 70 C. Also, ln(D) decreased almost linearly with the inverse of

temperature according to Fig. 5b. From the slope of the curve D

vs. 1/T (Fig. 5b), the activation energy value for a sample of

5 mm thick was evaluated at 25.355 kJ/mol. This value was close

to 27 kJ/mol, that obtained by Ruiz-Lpez and Garca-Alvarado

(2007) for the Mexican variety. From experimental data tting

according to Arrhenius law and for temperature ranging from 40

to 70 C, Amelie mango diffusivity was best expressed by the following equation:

25471

D m2 =s 1:003105 exp

28

RT 273:15

0.1

5. Conclusion

0

0

10

20

30

40

x103

Time (s)

Fig. 5a. Inuence of drying conditions on the drying curve of mango slices of 5 mm.

Table 4

Inuence of dryings conditions on the water effective diffusivity value

Ta

(C)

d

(mm)

X0

(db)

RH

(%)

Va

(m s1)

Xcr/

X0

D

(m2 s1)

Dv,eff

(m2 s1)

(Dv,eff D)/

Dv,eff (%)

40

50

60

60

60

70

70

70

5

5

5

5

5

2.5

5

10

5.03

6.22

6.59

7.05

6.11

6.52

6.43

7.23

30

15

15

20

40

15

15

15

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.48

1.6

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.87

0.72

0.31

0.38

0.37

0.41

0.33

0.57

5.63 1010

7.49 1010

1.07 109

3.15 1010

2.61 1010

5.44 1010

1.30 109

1.17 109

1.04 109

1.37 109

3.15 109

1.12 109

1.09 109

1.45 109

4.05 109

3.18 109

45.86

45.29

66.11

71.88

76.06

62.48

67.97

63.21

shrinkage.

was characterised. Drying kinetics at 50, 60 and 70 C and bulk

shrinkage at 50, 60 and 70 C were experimentally established

and simulated by models. Results showed that Amelie mangoes

shrinkage was less inuenced by drying air temperature and best

tted by the fundamental linear model of volumes additivity.

This model allowed evaluating the mango solid matrix density

and linear shrinkage coefcient at respectively 1468 kg/m3 and

1.468. Drying curvesstudy showed that Amelie mango drying

kinetics were best tted by Page model. There was a marked

inuence of shrinkage on drying rates and water diffusivities.

Drying rates were underestimated and diffusivities overestimated

when drying data are not corrected for shrinkage. A temperaturedependence law of diffusivity was established from shrinkagecorrected data and activation energy (Ea) was evaluated at

25.355 kJ/mol. This study allowed estimating drying parameters

of Amelie mango; the most used, produced, dried and exported

variety in sub-Saharan Africa. However, some intrinsic parame-

ters of the fruit such as the degree of maturity could have effects

on Amelie mango drying and should be taken into account in

coming work.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the AUF (Agence Universitaire de la

Francophonie) and the French Cooperation service in Burkina Faso

for nancial support.

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