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Vibration Institute

SKF Group Slide 0

Vibration Institute
Piedmont Chapter
Symposium 2011
Presented by Tom McDermott
SKF Sr. Application Engineer
Friday May 13, 2011

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Discussion topics

Bearing basics
Bearing life expectancy
Bearing failure statistics
Pre-operational damage
mode causes
Operational damage
mode causes
Identifying loading patterns
ISO Standard 15243
Bearing damage analysis
Securing evidence
Conducting analysis

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SKF bearing basics


Purpose and functions of a bearing
Bearing components and materials
Types of bearing loads
Rolling elements ball vs. roller
Contact angle
Precision class
Radial and axial clearance

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Purpose of a bearing and friction


To provide low friction rotation of
machine parts.
To support and locate rotating
equipment.

Resistance to motion which occurs when one


object slides or rubs against another object.
If not controlled, friction will result in:

Heat generation
Increased noise

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Increased wear
Loss of power

Roles of a bearing
Reduce friction
Transmit loads
Support the shaft
Locate the shaft

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Bearing components

Outer ring

Outer ring
raceway

Cage / retainer

Bore surface

Inner ring

Inner ring
raceway

Rolling elements
(balls)

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OD surface

Functions of the cage


Minimize friction and heat
generation.
Prevent contact between adjacent
rolling elements.
Guide the rolling elements.
Provide a surface for the lubricant
to adhere to.
Retain the rolling elements when
bearings of a separable design are
mounted or dismounted.

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Types of bearing loads

Radial load

Axial load
Combined
load

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Point and line contact

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Types of rolling elements


Spherical roller
(symmetrical)

Ball

Taper roller

Cylindrical roller
Needle roller

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Spherical roller
(asymmetrical)

Types of ball bearings


Deep groove

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Angular contact

Self-aligning

Types of roller bearings


Cylindrical

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Taper

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Spherical

CARB

Load carrying capacity relative to bearing type


Load carrying capacity
is expressed as the
basic dynamic load rating
or C in catalogs

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Contact angle

The lower the contact angle, the higher the radial load capacity
The higher the contact angle, the higher the thrust load capacity
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Bearings and contact angles


As contact angle
increases, radial load
capacity decreases; and
axial load (i.e. thrust)
capacity increases.

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Precision classes

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Bearing internal clearances


Radial clearance

C1 < C2 < CN < C3 < C4 < C5

Note: Radial clearances are not


the same as precision classes
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Axial
clearance

How does temperature affect internal clearance?

Reduced
radial
clearance

Compression

Expansion

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Bearing life expectancy


Based upon five assumptions :

1. The bearing is defect free.


2. The correct bearing type and size is selected for the
application.

3. Dimensions of the bearing mating parts are correct.


4. The bearing will be mounted without damage.
5. Good lubrication in the correct quantity will always be
available to the bearing.

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Circle of bearing life

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Why bearings fail


Four predominant
causes of premature
bearing failure
90% of bearings outlive
their machinery
9.5% of bearings will be
removed for preventative
reasons
0.5% of bearings fail in
their application (and this
is generally preventable)

16% Poor Installation

36% Poor Lubrication

14% Contamination

34% Fatigue

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Pre-operational damage mode causes


Damage during transportation, handling and storage.
Incorrect shaft and housing fits.
Defective bearing seats on shafts and in housings.
Faulty mounting practices.
Static misalignment.
Passage of electric current through the bearing.

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Operational damage mode causes

Static vibration
Operational misalignment
Ineffective sealing
Ineffective or inadequate lubrication
Passage of electric current through the bearing
Excessive loading

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Identifying loading patterns: inner ring rotation


Load

Load
Zone

Load
Zone
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Identifying loading patterns: outer ring rotation


Load

Load
Zone

Load
Zone
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Load zone when thrust loads are excessive

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Thrust load + radial load = combined loads

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Internal preload & out of round housing

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Out of round housing visible in outer ring

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Affects of misalignment in a bearing

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Misalignment in a ball and roller bearing

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Bearing damage
analysis
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Classifications: ISO system


The ISO classification system is divided in six main areas
and then further divided into sub-areas.
Going through the table, 15 categories in total can be
observed in which the damage can be classified.
These categories will be covered, one by one, indicating
the features. A number of typical examples are shown.
There are some other reasons for bearing damage, such
as design problems, etc. These are not classified in the
ISO standard.

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Bearing damage classifications: ISO 15243

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Fatigue: subsurface fatigue


1.1. Subsurface fatigue

1. Fatigue

1.2. Surface initiated fatigue

Repeated stress changes


Material structural
changes
Micro-cracks under the
surface
Crack propagation
Flaking, spalling and
peeling
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Fatigue: subsurface fatigue


1.1. Subsurface fatigue

1. Fatigue

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1.2. Surface initiated fatigue

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Fatigue: surface initiated fatigue


1.1. Subsurface fatigue

1. Fatigue

1.2. Surface initiated fatigue

Surface distress
Reduced lubrication
regime
Sliding motion
Burnishing, glazing
Asperity micro-cracks
Asperity micro-spalls
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Fatigue: surface initiated fatigue

oil film =
0.2 micron

Hair strand
(cross section)

1 micron

50 microns

Dirt particle

10 microns

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Fatigue: surface initiated fatigue


1.1. Subsurface fatigue

1. Fatigue

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1.2. Surface initiated fatigue

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Fatigue: surface initiated fatigue

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Fatigue: surface initiated fatigue

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Hydrogen Embrittlement

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Wear: abrasive wear


2.1. Abrasive wear

2. Wear
2.2. Adhesive wear

Progressive removal of
material
Ingress of dirt particles
Accelerating process
Dull surfaces

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Wear: abrasive wear


2.1. Abrasive wear

2. Wear
2.2. Adhesive wear

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Wear: abrasive wear

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Wear: adhesive wear


2.1. Abrasive wear

2. Wear
2.2. Adhesive wear

Low loads
Accelerations
Smearing / skidding / galling
Material transfer / friction heat
Tempering / re-hardening
With stress concentrations and
cracking or flaking
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Wear: adhesive wear


2.1. Abrasive wear

2. Wear
2.2. Adhesive wear

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Wear: adhesive wear

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Corrosion: moisture corrosion


3. Corrosion

3.1. Moisture corrosion


3.2. Frictional corrosion

3.2.1. Fretting
corrosion
3.2.2. False brinelling

Oxidation / rust
Chemical reaction
Corrosion pits / flaking
Etching
(water/oil mixture)

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Corrosion: moisture corrosion


3. Corrosion

3.1. Moisture corrosion


3.2. Frictional corrosion

3.2.1. Fretting
corrosion
3.2.2. False brinelling

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Corrosion: moisture corrosion


3. Corrosion

3.1. Moisture corrosion


3.2. Frictional corrosion

3.2.1. Fretting
corrosion
3.2.2. False brinelling

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Corrosion: moisture corrosion

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Corrosion: frictional corrosion: fretting


3. Corrosion

3.1. Moisture corrosion


3.2. Frictional corrosion

3.2.1. Fretting
corrosion
3.2.2. False brinelling

Micro-movement
between mating
surfaces
Oxidation of asperities
Powdery rust / loss of
material
Occurs in fit interfaces
transmitting loads

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Corrosion: frictional corrosion: fretting


3. Corrosion

3.1. Moisture corrosion


3.2. Frictional corrosion

3.2.1. Fretting
corrosion
3.2.2. False brinelling

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Corrosion: frictional corrosion: fretting

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Corrosion: frictional corrosion: false brinelling


3. Corrosion

3.1. Moisture corrosion


3.2. Frictional corrosion

3.2.1. Fretting
corrosion
3.2.2. False brinelling

Rolling element / raceway


Micro movements / elastic
deformations
Vibrations
Corrosion / wear / shiny /
red depressions

Stationary: rolling element pitch


Rotating: parallel flutes
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Corrosion: frictional corrosion: false brinelling


3. Corrosion

3.1. Moisture corrosion


3.2. Frictional corrosion

3.2.1. Fretting
corrosion
3.2.2. False brinelling

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Corrosion: frictional corrosion: false brinelling

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Electrical erosion: excessive voltage


4. Electrical
erosion

4.1. Excessive voltage


4.2. Current leakage

High current / sparking


Localized heating in very short Interval / melting / welding
Craters up to 100 m

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Electrical erosion: excessive voltage


4. Electrical
erosion

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4.1. Excessive voltage


4.2. Current leakage

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Electrical erosion: excessive voltage

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Electrical erosion: current leakage


4. Electrical
erosion

4.1. Excessive voltage


4.2. Current leakage

Low current intensity


Shallow craters closely positioned
Development of flutes on raceways & rollers, parallel to
rolling axis
Dark gray discoloration

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Electrical erosion: current leakage


4. Electrical
erosion

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4.1. Excessive voltage


4.2. Current leakage

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Electrical erosion: current leakage

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Plastic deformation: overload


5.1. Overload

5. Plastic
deformation

5.2. Indentation from debris


5.3. Indentation by handling

Static or shock loads


Plastic deformations
Depressions in rolling
element distance
Handling damages

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Plastic deformation: overload


5.1. Overload

5. Plastic
deformation

5.2. Indentation from debris


5.3. Indentation by handling

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Plastic deformation: overload

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Plastic deformation: indentation from debris


5.1. Overload

5. Plastic
deformation

5.2. Indentation from debris


5.3. Indentation by handling

Localized overloading
Over-rolling of particles dents
Soft / hardened steel / hard mineral

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Plastic deformation: indentation from debris


5.1. Overload

5. Plastic
deformation

5.2. Indentation from debris


5.3. Indentation by handling

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Plastic deformation: indentation from debris

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Plastic deformation: indentation from handling


5.1. Overload

5. Plastic
deformation

5.2. Indentation from debris


5.3. Indentation by handling

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Indentation from handling: localized overloading

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Fracture: forced fracture


6.1. Forced fracture

6. Fracture

6.2. Fatigue fracture


6.3. Thermal cracking

Stress concentration >


tensile strength
Impact / overstressing

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Fracture: forced fracture


6.1. Forced fracture

6. Fracture

6.2. Fatigue fracture


6.3. Thermal cracking

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Fracture: forced fracture

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Fracture: fatigue fracture


6.1. Forced fracture

6. Fracture

6.2. Fatigue fracture


6.3. Thermal cracking

Rings and cages - Crack initiation / propagation


Exceeding fatigue strength under bending
Finally forced fracture

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Fracture: fatigue fracture

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Fracture: thermal cracking


6.1. Forced fracture

6. Fracture

6.2. Fatigue fracture


6.3. Thermal cracking

High sliding and / or


insufficient lubrication
High friction heat
Cracks at right angle
to sliding direction

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Fracture: thermal cracking


6.1. Forced fracture

6. Fracture

6.2. Fatigue fracture


6.3. Thermal cracking

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Classifications: securing evidence


Collect operating data, monitoring data
Collect lubricant samples
Check bearing environment
Assess bearing in mounted condition
Mark mounting position
Remove, mark and bag bearing and parts
Check bearing seats
Lubricant condition (color, presence of water, viscosity,
consistency, distribution in the bearing, etc.)

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Classifications: conducting the analysis


Examine bearing and parts
Record visual observations
Record pictures of bearing and pertinent parts
Use the failure modes to eliminate improbable causes and
determine the original cause of the failure
Use external resources such as SKF Bearing Inspector at
@ptitudeXchange.com or SKF Bearing Installation and
Maintenance Guide #140-710
Contact external resources for assistance, if needed
Initiate corrective action, if desired.
Consider SKF analysis services ($)
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Available training courses


WE201: Bearing Maintenance and Technology
WE202: Bearing in Rotating Machinery Applications
WE203: Lubrication in Rolling
Element Bearings

WE204: Root Cause Bearing


Damage Analysis

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Thank you!
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