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Hi all,

I have compiled a series of answers for Mr.Sukumarans oral questions. The answers have been taken
from various references. I do not take any guarantee with the accuracy of answers. This has been
compiled with the sole intention of helping out my friends appearing for orals. Just thought of sharing in
the forum. I hope it helps. Any mistakes and wrong answers please feel free to correct it and implement
the correct answers and inform other members in the forum about the same.
All the best.
Vikram Shamanna.

ORALS QUESTIONS OF Mr. SUKUMARAN


1. What is Hong Kong convention? Is there an initial, annual and renewal survey? how to define
the hazardous material for the survey?

SHIP RECYCLING:The development of the Hong Kong Convention


The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of
Ships, 2009 (the Hong Kong Convention), was adopted at a diplomatic conference held in Hong
Kong, China, from 11 to 15 May 2009, which was attended by delegates from 63 countries.
The Convention is aimed at ensuring that ships, when being recycled after reaching the end of their
operational lives, do not pose any unnecessary risks to human health, safety and to the
environment.

The Hong Kong Convention intends to address all the issues around ship recycling, including the
fact that ships sold for scrapping may contain environmentally hazardous substances such as
asbestos, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, ozone-depleting substances and others. It also addresses
concerns raised about the working and environmental conditions at many of the world's ship
recycling locations.
The text of the Hong Kong Convention was developed over three and a half years, with input from
IMO Member States and relevant non-governmental organizations, and in co-operation with the
International Labour Organization and the Parties to the Basel Convention.
Regulations in the new Convention cover: the design, construction, operation and preparation of
ships so as to facilitate safe and environmentally sound recycling without compromising the safety
and operational efficiency of ships; the operation of ship recycling facilities in a safe and
environmentally sound manner; and the establishment of an appropriate enforcement mechanism for
ship recycling, incorporating certification and reporting requirements.
Upon entry into force of the Hong Kong Convention, ships to be sent for recycling will be required to
carry an inventory of hazardous materials, which will be specific to each ship. An appendix to the
Convention provides a list of hazardous materials the installation or use of which is prohibited or
restricted in shipyards, ship repair yards, and ships of Parties to the Convention. Ships will be

required to have an initial survey to verify the inventory of hazardous materials, additional surveys
during the life of the ship, and a final survey prior to recycling.
Ship recycling yards will be required to provide a "Ship Recycling Plan", specifying the manner in
which each ship will be recycled, depending on its particulars and its inventory. Parties will be
required to take effective measures to ensure that ship recycling facilities under their jurisdiction
comply with the Convention.
The following guidelines have been developed and adopted to assist States in the early
implementation of the Conventions technical standards:

2011 Guidelines for the Development of the Inventory of Hazardous


Materials, adopted by resolution MEPC.197(62);

2011 Guidelines for the Development of the Ship Recycling Plan, adopted
by resolution MEPC.196(62);

2012 Guidelines for Safe and Environmentally Sound Ship Recycling,


adopted by resolution MEPC.210(63); and

2012 Guidelines for the Authorization of Ship Recycling Facilities, adopted


by resolution MEPC.211(63).
Also two further guidelines have been developed and adopted to assist States in the implementation
of the Convention after it enters into force:

2012 Guidelines for the survey and certification of ships under the Hong Kong Convention,
adopted by resolution MEPC.222(64); and

2012 Guidelines for the inspection of ships under the Hong Kong Convention, adopted by
resolution MEPC.223(64).

Entry into force criteria


The Convention is open for accession by any State. It will enter into force
24 months after the date on which 15 States, representing 40 per cent of world merchant shipping by
gross tonnage, have either signed it without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval or
have deposited instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the SecretaryGeneral. Furthermore, the combined maximum annual ship recycling volume of those States must,
during the preceding 10 years, constitute not less than 3 per cent of their combined merchant
shipping tonnage. For more detailed information please refer to resolution MEPC.178(59) on the
calculation of the recycling capacity for meeting the entry-into-force conditions of the Hong Kong
Convention and document MEPC 64/INF.2 on the same topic.

Historic background
IMOs role in the recycling of ships, the terminology used to refer to ship scrapping, was first raised
at the 44th MEPC session in March 2000 following which a correspondence group was established
to research this issue and provide information about current ship recycling practices and suggestions
on the role of IMO.
Guidelines were developed by the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) and finalized
at the MEPC 49th session in July 2003. These guidelines were adopted as the: Guidelines on Ship
Recycling by the 23rd Assembly in November-December 2003 by resolution A.962(23) and were
subsequently amended by resolution A.980(24).
Resolution A.962(23) IMO Guidelines on Ship Recycling give advice to all stakeholders in the
recycling process, including administrations of ship building and maritime equipment supplying
countries, flag, port and recycling States, as well as intergovernmental organizations and
commercial bodies such as shipowners, ship builders, repairers and recycling yards.
The guidelines noted that, in the process of recycling ships, virtually nothing goes to waste. The
materials and equipment are almost entirely reused. Steel is reprocessed to become, for instance,
reinforcing rods for use in the construction industry or as corner castings and hinges for containers.
Ships' generators are reused ashore. Batteries find their way into the local economy. Hydrocarbons
on board become reclaimed oil products to be used as fuel in rolling mills or brick kilns. Light fittings
find further use on land. Furthermore, new steel production from recycled steel requires only one
third of the energy used for steel production from raw materials. Recycling thus makes a positive
contribution to the global conservation of energy and resources and, in the process, employs a large,
if predominantly unskilled, workforce. Properly handled, ship recycling is, without question, a "green"
industry. However, the guidelines also recognized that, although the principle of ship recycling may
be sound, the working practices and environmental standards in the yards often leave much to be
desired. While ultimate responsibility for conditions in the yards has to lie with the countries in which
they are situated, other stakeholders must be encouraged to contribute towards minimising potential
problems in the yards.
The Guidelines on Ship Recycling also introduced the concept of a "Green Passport" for ships. It
was envisaged that this document, containing an inventory of all materials used in the construction
of a ship that are potentially hazardous to human health or the environment, would accompany the
ship throughout its working life. Produced by the shipyard at the construction stage and passed to
the purchaser of the vessel, the document would be in a format that would enable any subsequent
changes in materials or equipment to be recorded. Successive owners of the ship would maintain
the accuracy of the Green Passport and incorporate into it all relevant design and equipment
changes, with the final owner delivering it, with the vessel, to the recycling yard.

Subsequently, at its 53rd session in July 2005, the Marine Environment Protection Committee
(MEPC) agreed that the IMO should develop, as a high priority, a new instrument on recycling of
ships with a view to providing legally binding and globally applicable ship recycling regulations for
international shipping and for recycling facilities. MEPC 53 also agreed that the new IMO instrument
on ship recycling should include regulations for the design, construction, operation and preparation
of ships so as to facilitate safe and environmentally sound recycling, without compromising the
safety and operational efficiency of ships; the operation of ship recycling facilities in a safe and
environmentally sound manner; and the establishment of an appropriate enforcement mechanism for
ship recycling (certification/reporting requirements). MEPC 53 further agreed that the abovementioned instrument should be completed in time for its consideration and adoption in the biennium
2008-2009.
The IMO Assembly in November-December 2005 subsequently agreed that IMO should develop a
new legally-binding instrument on ship recycling. Assembly resolution A.981(24) New legally-binding
instrument on Ship Recycling requested the Marine Environment Protection Committee to develop a
new instrument that would provide regulations for:

the design, construction, operation and preparation of ships so as to facilitate safe and
environmentally sound recycling, without compromising the safety and operational efficiency of
ships;

the operation of ship recycling facilities in a safe and environmentally sound manner; and
the establishment of an appropriate enforcement mechanism for ship recycling, incorporating
certification and reporting requirements.
The resolution referred to the urgent need for IMO to contribute to the development of an effective
solution to the issue of ship recycling, which will minimize, in the most effective, efficient and
sustainable way, the environmental, occupational health and safety risks related to ship recycling,
taking into account the particular characteristics of world maritime transport and the need for
securing the smooth withdrawal of ships that have reached the end of their operating lives.

RESOLUTION MEPC.222(64)
Adopted on 5 October 2012
2012 GUIDELINES FOR THE SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION OF SHIPS
UNDER THE HONG KONG CONVENTION
THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION COMMITTEE,
RECALLING Article 38(a) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization
concerning the functions of the Marine Environment Protection Committee conferred upon it by
the international conventions for the prevention and control of marine pollution,
RECALLING ALSO that the International Conference on the Safe and Environmentally Sound
Recycling of Ships held in May 2009 adopted the Hong Kong International Convention for the

Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009 (the Hong Kong Convention)
together with six Conference resolutions,
NOTING that Article 5 of the Hong Kong Convention prescribes that ships subject to survey and
certification shall be surveyed and certified in accordance with the regulations in the Annex to
the Hong Kong Convention,
NOTING ALSO that regulation 10.2 of the Annex to the Hong Kong Convention requires that
surveys of ships for the purpose of enforcement of the provisions of the Hong Kong Convention
shall be carried out taking into account the guidelines developed by the Organization,
NOTING FURTHER that regulations 11.1 and 11.11 of the Annex to the Hong Kong Convention
require that the International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials and the
International Ready for Recycling Certificate shall be issued taking into account the guidelines
developed by the Organization,
HAVING CONSIDERED, at its sixty-fourth session, the draft 2012 Guidelines for the Survey and
Certification of Ships under the Hong Kong Convention developed by the Working Group on
Ship Recycling,
1. ADOPTS the 2012 Guidelines for the survey and certification of ships under the Hong Kong
Convention, as set out in the annex to this resolution;
2. INVITES Governments to apply the 2012 Guidelines for the survey and certification of ships
under the Hong Kong Convention upon the entry into force of the Convention; and
3. REQUESTS the Committee to keep the Guidelines under review.
***

ANNEX
2012 GUIDELINES FOR THE SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION
OF SHIPS UNDER THE HONG KONG CONVENTION
1INTRODUCTION
1.1 Objective of the guidelines
Article 5 of the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound
Recycling of Ships, 2009, (hereafter referred to as "the Convention") prescribes that each party
shall ensure that ships flying its flag or operating under its authority and subject to survey and
certification are surveyed and certified in accordance with the regulations in the annex to the
Convention. The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for the survey and
certification of ships under the Convention (hereafter referred to as "the guidelines"), covered in
"Part C Survey and certification" of the annex to the Convention (regulations 10 to 14). These
guidelines will assist Administrations and recognized organizations in the uniform application of
the provisions of the Convention and help shipowners, shipbuilders, suppliers, ship recycling
facilities and other interested parties to understand the process of conducting surveys and
issuing and endorsing certificates.
1.2Approach of the guidelines
These guidelines provide the procedures for conducting surveys to ensure that ships comply
with the Convention, and the requirements for issuing and endorsing an International Certificate
on Inventory of Hazardous Materials and issuingan International Ready for Recycling
Certificate.
1.3These guidelines apply to surveys of ships of 500 gross tonnage and above, as specified in
article3 of the Convention.
1.4In the event that a new survey method is developed, or in the event that the use of a certain
Hazardous Material is prohibited and/or restricted, or in the light of any other relevant
experience gained, these guidelines may need to be revised in the future.
2DEFINITIONS
The terms used in these guidelines have the same meaning as those defined in article2 of the
Convention and regulation1 of the annex to the Convention, unless expressly provided
otherwise.
2.1"Date of Construction", as referred to in the forms of the International Certificate on Inventory
of Hazardous Materials and the International Ready for Recycling Certificate, means the date
used by the Administration to determine whether the ship is a "new ship"or an "existing ship"in
accordance with the relevant provisions of regulations 1.3 and 1.4 of the Annex to the
Convention.
3SURVEYS
3.1Initial survey
The aim of the initial survey is to verify whether partI of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials
has been prepared in accordance with the Convention requirements. There are different
requirements for the initial surveys of new ships and for those of existing ships.

3.1.1Initial survey for new ships1


1 In ascertaining whether a ship is a "new ship" or an "existing ship" according to the Convention, the term "a similar stage of construction" in regulation
1.4.2 of the annex to the Convention means the stage at which:

.1 construction identifiable with a specific ship begins; and

.2 assembly of that ship has commenced comprising at least 50 tonnes or one per cent of the estimated mass of all
structural material, whichever is less.

3.1.1.1In the case of a new ship, an initial survey should be conducted before the ship is put in
service.
3.1.1.2Prior to the initial survey for a new ship, a request for the initial survey should be
submitted by the shipowner or shipyard to the Administration or to a recognized organization
along with the ship data required for the International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous
Materials, as follows:
.1name of ship;
.2distinctive number or letters;
.3port of registry;
.4gross tonnage;
.5IMO number;
.6name and address of shipowner;
.7IMO registered owner identification number;
.8IMO company identification number; and
.9date of construction.
3.1.1.3The request for an initial survey for anew ship should be supplemented by PartI of the
Inventory of Hazardous Materials which identifies Hazardous Materials contained in ship
structure and equipment, their location and approximate quantities along with the Material
Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of Conformity in accordance with the2011Guidelines for
the Development of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials (resolution MEPC.197(62), as
amended), and all other documents used to develop the Inventory of Hazardous Materials.
3.1.1.4The survey should verify that partI of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials identifies the
Hazardous Materials contained in the ship structure and equipment, their location and
approximate quantities, by checking the Material Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of
Conformity, and should clarifythat the ship complies with regulations4 and 5of the annex tothe
Convention. The survey should also verify that the Inventory of Hazardous Materials, especially
the location of Hazardous Materials, is consistent with the arrangements, structure and
equipment of the ship, through onboard visual inspection.
3.1.1.5The International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials should be issued either
by the Administration or by any person or organization authorized by it, after successful
completion of the initial survey, to any new ships to which regulation10 of the annex tothe
Conventionapplies.
3.1.2Initial survey for existing ships
3.1.2.1In the case of an existing ship, an initial survey should be conducted before the
International Certificate on Inventoryof Hazardous Materials is issued and not later than five
years after the entry into force of the Convention.The initial survey should be harmonized with
the renewal surveys required by other applicable statutory instruments of the Organization, in
line with regulations5.2 and 10.5 of the annex to the Convention and with the principles
established in resolution A.1053(27), as amended (Survey Guidelines under the Harmonized
System of Survey and Certification (HSSC), 2011).
3.1.2.2Prior to the initial survey for an existing ship, a request for the initial survey should be
submitted by the shipowner to the Administration or to a recognized organization along

with the ship data required for the International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials
as listed in paragraph3.1.1.2above.
3.1.2.3The request for an initial survey for an existing ship should be supplemented by PartI of
the Inventory of Hazardous Materials, and/or the visual/sampling check plan developed in
accordance with the 2011 Guidelines for the development of the inventory of hazardous
materials.
3.1.2.4 Part I of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials which identifies Hazardous Materials
contained and/or potentially contained in shipstructure and equipment, their location and
approximate quantities should be developed through a visual check and/or sampling check
on board the ship, based on the visual/sampling check plan in accordance with the
2011Guidelines for the development of the inventory of hazardous materials. Itshould then
be submitted by the shipowner to the Administration or a recognized organization along with
supporting information such as the report of the visual/sampling check and/or any Material
Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.
3.1.2.5The visual/sampling check plan and PartI of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials should
be prepared by personnel with the requisite knowledge and experience to conduct the assigned
task, in accordance with the 2011 Guidelines for the development of the inventory of hazardous
materials, as may be amended.
3.1.2.6The survey should verify that PartI of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials identifies the
Hazardous Materials contained and/or potentially contained inthe ship structure and equipment,
their location and approximate quantities, by checking supporting information such as the report
of the visual check and/or sampling checkand/or any Material Declaration and Supplier's
Declaration of Conformity.The surveyshould also clarify that the ship complies with regulations4
and5 of the annex to the Convention. Classification as "potentially containing hazardous
materials"should be noted in the remarks column of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials. The
survey should further verify that the Inventory of Hazardous Materials, especially the location of
Hazardous Materials, is consistent with the arrangements, structure and equipment of the ship,
through onboard visual inspection.
3.1.2.7The International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials should be issued either
by the Administration or by any person or organization authorized by it, after successful
completion of the initial survey, to any existing ships to which regulation10 of the annex to the
Convention applies, except for existing ships for whichan initial and a final survey are conducted
at the same time;in such cases, only an International Ready for Recycling Certificate should be
issued.
3.2 Renewal survey
3.2.1 A renewal survey should be carried out at intervals specified by the Administration not
exceeding five years.
3.2.2Prior to the renewal survey, a request for the renewal survey should be submitted by the
shipowner to the Administration or to a recognized organization along with the ship data
required for the International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials as listed in
paragraph3.1.1.2above.

3.2.3The request for a renewal survey should be supplemented by the latest version of partI of
the Inventory of Hazardous Materials, and Material Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of
Conformity regarding any change, replacement or significant repair of structure, equipment,
systems, fittings, arrangements and material since the last survey.
3.2.4The survey should verify that part I of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials is properly
maintained and updated to reflect changes in ship structure and equipment, by checking
Material Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of Conformity, and should clarify that the ship
complies with regulations4 and 5 of the annex to the Convention. The survey should also verify
that the Inventory of Hazardous Materials, especially the location of Hazardous Materials, is
consistent with the arrangements, structure and equipment of the ship, through on-board visual
inspection.Thesurvey should further verify that any decision by the shipowner to delete
equipment, system and/or area previously classed as "potentially containing hazardous
materials"from PartI of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials is based on clear grounds for
believing that the equipment, system and/or area in question contain no Hazardous Materials.
3.2.5A new International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials should be issued either
by the Administration or by any person or organization authorized by it after successful
completion of the renewal survey,in accordance with regulation11 of the annex to the
Convention.
3.3Additional survey
3.3.1 An additional survey, either general or partial according to the circumstances, may be
conducted at the request of the shipowner after change, replacement or significant repair of the
structure, equipment, systems, fittings, arrangements and material, which has an impact on the
Inventory of Hazardous Materials.
3.3.2Prior to the additional survey, a request for the additional survey should be submitted by
the shipowner to the Administration or to a recognized organization along with the ship data
required for the International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials as listed in
paragraph3.1.1.2above.
3.3.3The request for an additional survey should be supplemented by the latest version of partI
of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials, and Material Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of
Conformity regarding any change, replacement or significant repair of structure, equipment,
systems, fittings, arrangements and material since the last survey.
3.3.4The survey should verify that PartI of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials is properly
maintained and updated to reflect changes in ship structure and equipment, by checking
Material Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of Conformity, and should clarify that the ship
complies with regulations4 and 5 of the annex to the Convention. The survey should also verify
that the Inventory of Hazardous Materials, especially the location of Hazardous Materials, is
consistent with the arrangements, structure and equipment of the ship, through on-board visual
inspection.Thesurvey should further verify that any decision by the owner to delete equipment,
system and/or area previously classed as "potentially containing hazardous materials"from PartI
of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials is based on clear grounds for believing that the
equipment, system and/or area in question contain no Hazardous Materials.

3.3.5 The International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials should be endorsed


either by the Administration or by any person or organization authorized by it after successful
completion of the additional survey, in accordance with regulation 11 of the annex to the
Convention.
3.4Final survey
3.4.1 A final survey should be conducted before a ship is taken out of service and before the
recycling of the ship has started.
3.4.2Prior to the final survey, a request for the final survey should be submitted by the
shipowner to the Administration or to a recognized organization along with the ship data listed in
paragraph3.1.1.2above and the Ship Recycling Facility data required for the International Ready
for Recycling Certificate as follows:
.1name of the Ship Recycling Facility(ies);
.2distinctive Recycling Company identity number (as listed on the Document of Authorization to
conduct Ship Recycling (DASR));
.3full address; and
.4date of expiry of DASR.
In cases where multiple Ship Recycling Facilities are involved, the appropriate information for all
the Facilities should be provided prior to the final survey.
3.4.3The request for a final survey should be supplemented by:
.1the International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials, the Inventory of Hazardous
Materials, and Material Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of Conformity regarding any
change, replacement or significant repair of the structure, equipment, systems, fittings,
arrangements and/or material since the last survey;
.2the approved Ship Recycling Plan; and
.3a copy of the DASR.
3.4.4Prior to the final survey:
.1PartI of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials should be properly maintained and updated to
reflect changes in ship structure and equipment, andPartII for operationally generated wastes
and PartIII for stores should be developed by the shipowner taking account of planned or
expectedoperations before the arrival at the Ship Recycling Facility, and of the 2011Guidelines
for the development of the inventory of hazardous materials, as may be amended; and
.2the Ship Recycling Plan should be developed by the authorized Ship Recycling Facility, taking
account of information includingthe Inventory of Hazardous Materials provided by the
shipowner; as required by regulation9 of the annex to the Convention, the Ship Recycling
Planshouldbe either explicitly or tacitly approved by the Competent Authority authorizing the
Ship Recycling Facility.
3.4.5 The survey should verify the following:

.1that the Inventory of Hazardous Materials as required by regulation 5.4 of the annex to the
Convention is in accordance with the requirements of the Convention, including that part I of the
Inventory of Hazardous Materials is properly maintained and updated to reflect changes in ship
structure and equipment since the last survey, and that parts II and III of the Inventory of
Hazardous Materials identify the Hazardous Materials on board the ship, their location and
approximate quantities; planned or expected operations during the period between the final
survey and the arrival at the Ship Recycling Facility should be taken into consideration;
.2that the Ship Recycling Plan, as required by regulation9 of the annex to the Convention,
properly reflects the information contained in the Inventory of Hazardous Materials as required
by regulation5.4 and contains information concerning the establishment, maintenance and
monitoring of Safe-for-entry and Safe-for-hot-work conditions;in the case of tacit approval of the
Ship Recycling Plan, the written acknowledgement of receipt of the Ship Recycling Plan sent by
the Competent Authority in accordance with regulation9.4 and the enddate of the14-day review
period should alsobe verified;
.3that the Ship Recycling Facility(ies) where the ship is to be recycled holds a valid DASR in
accordance with the Convention; and
.4that any decision by the shipowner to delete equipment, system and/or area previously
classed as "potentially containing hazardous materials"from the PartI of the Inventory of
Hazardous Materials is based on clear grounds for believing that the equipment, system and/or
area in question contain no Hazardous Materials.
3.4.6 The International Ready for Recycling Certificate should be issued either by the
Administration or by any person or organizations authorized by it, after successful
completion of the final survey, to any ships to which regulation10of the annex to the
Convention applies.
3.5Flag transfer
3.5.1 The certificates cease to be valid when a ship transfers to the flag of another State and the
Government of the State to which the ship transfers should not issue new certificates until it is
fully satisfied that the Inventory of Hazardous Materials is being properly maintained and that
there have been no unauthorized changes to the structure, machinery or equipment. When so
requested, the Government of the State whose flag the ship was formerly entitled to fly is
obliged to forward as soon as possible to the new Administration a copy of the certificate carried
by the ship before the transfer and, if available, copies of the relevant survey reports and
records. When fully satisfied by an inspection that the Inventory of Hazardous Materials is being
properly maintained and that there have been no unauthorized changes, the new Administration
may, in order to maintain harmonization of the surveys, give due recognition to initial and
subsequent surveys carried out by or on behalf of the former Administration and issue new
certificates having the same expiry date as the certificates that ceased to be valid because of
the change of flag.
3.5.2 The Government of the State to which the ship transfers should also make sure that the
Inventory of Hazardous Materials complies with the legislation, guidelines and any additional
requirements of this State.

3.5.3 If the flag transfer takes place after the final survey and after the International Ready for
Recycling Certificate has been issued, the Government of the State to which the ship transfers
should not issue the new certificate until fully satisfied that the conditions on the basis of which
the International Ready for Recycling Certificate had been issued remain valid.
4SURVEYS OF SHIPS PRIOR TO ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE CONVENTION
4.1 Prior to the entry into force of the Convention, an Administration may conduct surveys of
ships in accordance with these guidelines, and may then issue a statement of compliance to
that effect.
4.2Ships capable of documenting full compliancewith the Convention through such a statement
of compliance may be issued with a certificate on that basis upon entry into force of the
Convention, subject to any additional requirements by the Administration.Forthe certificateto be
issued, it may not be necessary for the ships to prepare the visual/sampling check plan required
byregulation5.2 of the annex to the Convention ifthe Inventory of Hazardous Materials has been
developed in accordance with the process stipulated in either paragraph4.1 or 4.2 of the 2011
Guidelines for the Developmentof the Inventory of Hazardous Materialsand has been verified
throughthe process of issuing the statement of compliance.
5 MARKET SURVEILLANCE
5.1 Each party may undertake market surveillance whereby sample analyses are conducted on
equipment or materials which are on their market complete with Material Declaration and
Supplier's Declaration of Conformity and which have not yet been placed on board, in order to
ensure the appropriate enforcement of article 9 of the Convention and the accuracy of the
Material Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.
5.2 Where Material Declaration and Supplier's Declaration of Conformity are detected by market
surveillance to be inaccurate, each party and the Organization should take the necessary
measures by applying articles 10 and 12 of the Convention.
5.3 When conducting market surveillance and taking the necessary measures under these
guidelines, all possible efforts should be made not to impose an excessive burden on suppliers,
ships and ship recycling facilities.
Q.2 What are AFRAMAX and PANAMAX tankers?
The most common answers we all end up giving is the deadweight, for PANAMAX it is 5000080000 DWT and for AFRAMAX it is 80000-120000 DWT. But this is not the answer he is looking
for.
PANAMAX Tankers: These tankers operate in the region of Panama, especially the Panama
Canal. They are designed as per the size specifications and regulations set by the Panama
Canal authority. The size aspect is very important because if the size is not monitored during
the construction stage it could pose a lot of problems when the ship is set in service. The
Panamax tankers are built keeping in mind the entrance and exit points of the Panama Canal.
The dimensions of PANAMAX are strictly monitored during construction stage.
The typical dimension is 950L x 106W x 39.5 Depth.
However the most important aspect of PANAMAX is the dimension of the Panama Canal lock
gate dimension at the entry and the exit points.
The dimension of Panama Canal lock gate is 1050L x 110W x 85 Depth. Based on these
dimensions the PANAMAX is constructed to suit the Lock gate.
The new PANAMAX project: owing to the limitations of size of ship due to above dimension
there was a limitation on traffic mobility, hence a new renovative project called New

PANAMAX has come into existence in the year 2006, this calls for expansion of lock chambers
of Panama Canal. The stipulated new dimension would be as follows.
1400L x 180W x 60 Depth. This proposal has been approved since it would enhance the
business.
The PANAMAX DWT varies between 50000-80000.
AFRAMAX: The name AFRAMAX comes from Average Freight Rate Assessment (AFRA)
system. AFRA is a tanker rating system created by Shell oil in the year 1954 to standardize the
shipping contract terms. The AFRAMAX came into existence because of the size constraint that
were posed when large oil tankers entered the sea routes that were highly prone to traffic.
They generally operate in the region of European waters, Caribbean region, North Sea and
Mediterranean seas.
The countries that export oil on a comparatively lesser level than the Middle East countries rely
on AFRAMAX tankers. Because the level of oil exported from Middle East is high and they
make use of larger naval vessels to cargo oil.
Since large vessels enter the seas there is a tendency for sea routes to get blocked and
AFRAMAX seems to be the ideal solution.
Due to their favourable sixe AFRAMAX can serve most of the ports in the world, they can serve
in the regions which do not have very large ports or off shore terminals to accommodate VLCC,
and in countries where import/export of oil is not great and terminals are small AFRAMAX is the
most feasible solution.
AFRAMAX have deadweight of 80000-120000.
Q3. What is Parametric Rolling?
The Physics Behind Parametric Rolling
Parametric Rolling is a problem related to hullforms that experience considerable change in
submerged volume when a wave passes longitudinally along the ship. This is significantly seen
mostly in hulls having large bow and stern flares, stern overhang, and fine underwater hull form,
that is mostly in container ships, fishing vessels and in some cases, passanger ships too. The
same problem was not encountered in full form hulls like oil tankers and bulk carriers. Why?
In fine form hullforms with large flares and overhangs, the profile of waterlines when the ship
experiences head seas changes rapidly as shown below:

Dotted Line: Waterline in still water


Continuous Line: Waterline when wave troughs at midships

Dotted Line: Waterline in still water


Continuous Line: Waterline when wave crest at midships
If you compare the figures above, you'll note that

When wave trough is at midships, the water plane width is more than that in case of still
water, resulting in increased stability (GM) than still water condition.
When wave crest is at midships, the water plane width is less than that in case of still
water, making the stability (GM) less than that of still water condition.

This results in periodical increase and decrease in metacentric height of the ship. In one
complete passage of a wave along the ship's length the GM increases and decreases once; that
is, stability variation occurs twice in once wave period.
How a parametric roll devolops due to this phenomenon, is a very interesting case to study.
When a container ship is facing head seas and slight roll motions,

In the first quarter (T = 0 to T = 0.25), when the midship experiences a wave trough,
the GM increases (obviously, periodically varying according to the wave profile). So the
roll angle decreases (initial roll degree was present due to small rolling motions in the
ship). Had the ship been in still water, its roll angle at the end of the first quarter would
have been zero. But a higher righting lever now actually causes the ship to end up with a
slight roll angle to the other side! (just concentrate in the first quarter in the figure below)

Curse inertia, because of which the ship begins its roll to the other side. Don't forget,
you've entered the second quarter (T=0.25 to T=0.50) i.e the midship now experiencing
a wave crest. You're right! Decreased stability. And that means reduced righting lever
compared to still water condition. By the end of this quarter, your ship's roll angle to the
other side is more than what it would have been in still water. (refer to the second
quarter in the above diagram)
In short, your ship is in trouble, as this phenomenon will only keep increasing untill it
achieves a resonating condition. Goodbye to containers on the deck!

A container ship after experiencing parametric roll


Q4. How will you explain the small dent in the hull to your superintendent?
Identify the location of the dent by using the ships plan and locate the frame number from aft.
Identify the strake at which the dent has taken place.(Strake numbering is numeric and starts
from Keel plate)
Try and measure the depth of the dent as accurately as possible (using depth gauge, vernier or
any other suitable measuring device)
Measure the length of the dent.
Measure the diameter of dent.
Send a message to the superintendent with the photographic evidence and the drawings
showing the exact location of the dent.
Superintendent will arrange for a class surveyor to attend.
Surveyor will inspect the dent and give his recommendation.
Carry out the repairs as suggested by the surveyor.
Send the message to the superintendent with the details of repairs carried out along with
photographic evidence and associated reports of repairs.
Superintendent will arrange for the repair survey by the class surveyor.
Close the recommendation/condition of class.

Q5. What is Organisational Behaviour?


The concept of Organisational behavior (OB) is a combination of various disciplines like
psychology, anthropology (Study of humankind in all aspects), sociology, politics, economics
etc; (Anything that involves human and his behavior)
OB consists of ideas, theories, concepts and principles borrowed from above disciplines.
It is also known as Behavioral science or Science of human behavior. It is integral part of
modern management theory and practiced all over the world.
It is concerned with what people do in the organization and how that behavior affects the
performance in the organization.
The objective of organizational behavior comprises of the following.
Describe the human behavior (How they behave?)
Understand the behavior (Why they behave that way?)
Predict the behavior (Guessing the future behavior)
Modify the behavior (Altering the human behavior to suit the organizational
requirements)
Control behavior (Regulate the behavior)
OB can be broadly defined as understanding, predicting and managing the human behavior in
an organization.
Characteristics of OB:
Focuses mainly on human behavior at work and on understanding the behavior in an
organization.
It is relatively young and fresh.
It is an art. Successful application of OB to deal with complex elements of human factor
is solely dependent on the ability and skill of manager.
OB is performance oriented, the purpose of study and implementation of OB is to
improve and enhance the performance.
It is a behavioral approach to the management.
It studies the cause-effect relationship- relationship between behavioral cause and
resulting outcome.
It has borrowed the best from various subjects such as psychology, anthropology,
sociology, economics, politics etc;
Knowledge of OB helps in enhancing human behavior and productivity.
It does not solve the issue at hand directly, but it helps in analyzing the issue at hand
and understanding the problem.
It can be applied to any field which involves human behavior.
Limitations of OB:
The approaches and models used to study the behavior varies from human to
human and region to region.
It is not fool-proof, it can be challenged on various fronts.
Knowledge of OB is based on studies carried out on a group of people in western
countries, it cannot be treated same way universally as different people from different
countries behave differently when confronted with the same situation.
Most of the studies have been carried out many years back in a different scenario, it
has not kept pace with the changing times, the behavior of people has changed with
times.

Most of the studies have been conducted on animals like monkeys, cats dogs etc;
same thing cannot be applied to humans.
After a certain point it follows the law of diminishing returns i.e at a particular level
application of OB may not yield positive results.
It only considers the human aspects, it does not take into consideration the totality of
the aspects involved.
It is a combination of various disciplines. A manager cannot be expert in all the
disciplines.
It has a tendency to exploit the employees.
Knowledge of OB is neither sufficient nor upto date.
Application of OB does not assure the absence of conflicts.

Q6. What are the latest developments in Purifier?

GEA Westfalia Separator is launching a new


control generation
Simple, efficient, reliable and remote-enabled: GEA Westfalia Separator IO

The new control generation GEA Westfalia Separator IO reduces complexity and focuses on
user-friendliness
The new control generation GEA Westfalia Separator IO reduces complexity and focuses on
user-friendliness. Accordingly, the initial consideration when developing the human machine
interface was not what the implemented logical controller or the centrifuge are able to do;
instead, the focus was on what the user needs, either the operator, the commissioner or the
companys own service engineer. Who needs what information and functionalities in which
situation and what is not required, or in short: user-friendliness. This was the motto of the
developers at GEA Westfalia Separator Group when they started to develop the new IO control.
The aim was to make it simple because, in a world which is becoming more and more complex
and difficult to understand, simplicity is the real sophistication to quote Steve Jobs.
For the customer, this has enormous benefits: operating personnel are quickly able to understand
and handle the control units of the centrifuge, the familiarisation is relatively short. This
increases flexibility in production. The reliability of the production processes also improves
because, if the system only displays what the user needs, the error potential declines
automatically. The equation is simple: the fewer the buttons, the lower the probability to hit the
wrong one. However, this does not mean that the new generation of control units has less

functionality. On the contrary, IO offers much more than today`s control units. It is the user
guidance facility which has been consistently reduced to the essentials to make sure that the user
is not consistently overloaded with useless options or information. The benefit for the customer
is that the wide range of functionalities is now available in a much more intuitive manner.
Indeed, who of us is fully aware of all functions of our TV or digital camera? Nobody likes to
wade through inch-thick instruction manuals with the result that we familiarize ourselves with
the basic operations while everything else remains disregarded, including genuinely useful
functions.
Control, display and evaluate
Thats why GEA Westfalia Separator IO aims to be as intuitive as possible. Displays have been
consistently streamlined, the symbols are self-explanatory, and the colour code is based on
international standards, either traffic signal colours for statuses or the standard which is used in
plant construction for identifying pipework. One glance, and the operator knows not only what is
running through the centrifuge but also whether the conditions are good or bad in this particular
situation. IO is able not only to control and display, it is also able to evaluate. Because, in order
to provide optimum operation of production processes, it is not sufficient merely to display the
status of a machine; it is also necessary for the data to be interpreted. And this is where IO
proves to be of great assistance for the customer. The customer is able to see how efficient the
centrifuge is running in relation to energy consumption, performance or separation efficiency.
Assistance by efficiency programmes
However, the experts of GEA Westfalia Separator Group are still not satisfied. Because the
knowledge that something is not operating perfectly is one thing; the other side of the coin is to
know what needs to be done. What settings have to be changed now, and how? IO also provides
assistance to the customer with regard to this question, namely by way of the optional efficiency
programs. The only thing left to do now for the operator is to decide what his optimum status of
the centrifuge is: maximum separating efficiency or performance, minimum energy consumption
or auxiliary materials? The user only needs to push a button, and the centrifuge automatically
adjusts to the desired status. This demonstrates the major advantage of installing a centrifuge and
control unit as a complete solution. Because the efficiency programmes comprise the know-how
and decades of knowledge regarding the control of centrifuges which only the OEM has.
In view of the wide range of advantages, it almost goes without saying that IO also features
remote capability. The operator is thus able to access his centrifuge via his tablet or smartphone.
Even remote diagnosis by the experts from Oelde or the subsidiary is possible. This means that
the centrifuges are ready to be deployed again as quickly as possible. With GEA Westfalia
Separator IO, the entire potential of our centrifuges can be fully utilized: Simple, intuitive,
reliable, user-friendly, with all these benefits provided even from home. The new operating
system will be initially used for the CF decanter series of GEA Westfalia Separator. The process
of changing over to cover all products is expected to be completed by mid-2014.
Q7. What is the Latest development in turbochargers?

Lately, the maritime sector has been investing heavily in R & D to cut down harmful emissions
from the ship, along with reducing fuel consumption and operating cost. Maritime market has
seen several developments in the past mainly for developing waste energy recovery systems such
as economiser, turbocharger etc. A marine technology innovation has taken the research to all
new level and to a step ahead. It is called the Hybrid Turbocharger.
Hybrid turbocharger is developed by Mitsubishi heavy industries and it differs from conventional
turbochargers in terms of both waste recovery and fuel saving. Exhaust gas energy is recovered
to turn the compressor, which supplies scavenge air to the main engine and also generates
electricity through an alternator attachment incorporated in the turbocharger known as MET
hybrid turbocharger

The turbine and compressor does the heat energy recovery work and the alternator is used to
generate electrical power without consuming any extra fuel as it is driven by the shaft power of
the turbocharger.
Requirements for setting up hybrid turbocharger
For a hybrid turbocharger, three basic things required are:
1. Conventional turbocharger with extended shaft to accommodate alternator at blower end.
2. A specially designed very compact alternator to run at very high speed of around 9000rom.
3. A cooling system for alternator as heat generated will be more due to its compact size for
given rpm.

Construction of hybrid turbocharger


A two part shell made form cast steel is fitted to the blower side scroll, which is built up with
higher rigidity, in order to support alternator within the turbocharger silencer.
The lower half shell is attached first and is made such that it acts like a sump to collect
lubricating oil discharged from the alternator.

Intake filter and silencer are mounted above the alternator assembly with sufficient gap to allow
air to pass over the shell in to the compressor blades.
Cooling water jacket made up of aluminium is provided around the rotor winding and external
cooling air is also supplied at extreme ends and centre of the windings.
The alternator and compressor are connected by special designed flexible coupling.
The length and weight of the Hybrid T/C is 313mm and 4600kg more as compare to
conventional system.
Working of Hybrid Turbocharger
The working is similar to any other generator, the only difference here is the prime mover which
is turbocharger it self.
The speed of prime mover governs the voltage and frequency of the generator. An initial D.C
power is provided so that the required output voltage and frequency can be achieved.

At 9500 KW, the hybrid system can generate about 756 KW which is enough to take up full sea
load of a normal size merchant vessel.
Advantages

With only little increase in the dimensions, enough power can be generated from main engine
operation.

Fuel saving as the heat recovery system is used for driving the alternator.

The generator can function as motor at low load operation to drive blower for maintaining
scavenge air pressure of the main engine.

Eliminate the installation of auxiliary blower for main engine.

As no extra fuel is used, it helps in emission cut down from ship.

Application
MV Shin Koho, a 292 m long 180,000 dwt bulk carrier with a draft of 24.5m is the worlds first
merchant vessel to successfully equipped with the hybrid turbocharger technology.

Q8.What is the latest development in Fresh Water Generator?

AQUA freshwater
generator

AQUA uses vacuum distillation to convert


seawater into high-quality freshwater for
domestic and process utilization on ships, rigs,
as well as in remote onshore locations.
Desalination of seawater is an economically
feasible and reliable solution.
The AQUA freshwater generator is a major advance based on proven Alfa Laval expertise. AQUAs
optimized process cuts seawater needs in half, which minimizes pipework and allows the installation of
smaller seawater pumps. This in turn reduces installation costs, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
AQUA makes use of 3in1 plate technology, which enables desalination in a single plate pack with one type
of titanium plate. Since the plate pack also contains the process vacuum, AQUA has no outer shell and is
smaller than other freshwater generators. The plate pack slides open for easy access to the interior without
an additional service area.
The use of corrosion and erosion-resistant titanium, combined with an optimized process that inhibits
natural scaling, ensures that AQUA needs little maintenance. The system has been fully tested both on and
off shore, and is designed to last the lifetime of the ship.
Application
AQUA uses vacuum distillation to convert seawater into high-quality freshwater for domestic and process
utilization. By providing a constant supply of low-salinity water and continuously controlling the water
quality, it eliminates the need for bunker water.
AQUA is designed for automatic operation in periodically unmanned engine rooms and other automated
operations. Jacket water, steam injection or a Hot Water Loop can all be used as heating media.
Features and benefits

Half the seawater flow


Compared to other freshwater generators only half the seawater is needed, which means smaller
seawater pumps can be used. Optimized distribution prevents dry spots and inhibits the natural
scaling process.

Lower costs and emissions


The reduction in seawater pumping needs has a corresponding effect on the consumption of
electrical energy. Less fuel has to be burned, which reduces both operating costs and CO2
emissions.

3-in-1 plate technology


AQUA incorporates the evaporation, separation and condensation processes into a single type of
titanium plate. Desalination is handled within a single plate pack that also contains the process
vacuum. No outer shell is necessary.

Simple, compact installation


With no outer shell and no additional service area, AQUA has a minimal weight and footprint.
Assembly can be handled on site and installation is simplified by the ability to use smaller
seawater pumps and pipes.
Since AQUA is not sensitive to roll and pitch motions of ships, it can also be installed in any
direction on board a ship.

Easy operation and maintenance


AQUA offers start-and-forget operation, which saves time for the crew. Maintenance intervals are
long and the plate pack slides open for easy access to the interior.

Long product lifetime


High-grade materials that resist corrosion and erosion, including titanium for the plates and other
wetted parts, ensure that AQUA will last as long as a ship.

Low-salinity water
The fresh water supplied has a lower content of salt and other dissolved solids than that supplied
by other freshwater generators. It can be used directly by the steam boilers.

Continuous quality control


AQUAs salinometer-equipped control system continuously monitors the quality of the outgoing
fresh water.

Capacity range
The AQUA series covers a capacity range from 3.1 to 60 m3/24 h, depending on the heating medium and
cooling water temperatures. An AQUA freshwater generator can be dimensioned to suit any jacket water
temperature from 55-95C at any cooling water temperature.
Basic equipment
The AQUA freshwater generator consists of a single plate pack containing a flexible number of titanium
process plates. These plates are suspended within a frame, which comprises a carrying bar, frame plate and

pressure plate. Evaporation, separation and condensation all occur within the same plate pack.
Among the plate pack features are gaskets with rubber flaps that indicate correct plate assembly, as well as
distance pipes that ensure proper plate alignment and correct tightening.
Connected to the plate pack is a combined system for feed water, condenser cooling water and ejector
water. The freshwater system consists of a freshwater pump and a freshwater control sensor that ensures a
stable outgoing flow.
Additional equipment

Combined cooling and ejector water pump with electric motor


Control panel with motor starters and salinometer
Anti-scale chemical dosing unit for feed water

Optional equipment

Steam heating system with direct steam injection


Equipment for steam boosting and hot water loop system
Extended control panel with motor starters and salinometer
Freshwater pH adjustment equipment
Freshwater disinfection equipment
Connections according to DIN, JIS and ANSI standards
Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) unit

Q9. With respect to steel plate renewal, how will you decide how much steel plate to renew??
Normally steel renewal is carried out if we have a loss of thickness (t reserve) known from thickness
gauging report, buckling, erosion, fracture, crack etc.
1. Repair plan is made, checked and approved by class surveyor. Plan should be made according to class
rules.
2. Checking of material from yard and equivalent steel to be used. The grade of steel should be as far
possible same or higher grade.
3. Steel plate renewal is in form of insert size of which is on discretion of the surveyor and size of damage.
The full length can be renewed if the damage is > (plate length - 200 mm).
For small damage or corrosion the size of plate is normally double in area.
4. The smallest insert allowed is of 450 mm in width as per IACS unified requirements.
5. R (radius) of corners of the insert plate= 15mm or 3 x t thickness of plate.
6. Minimum 100 mm distance shall be left on both sides from stiffeners.
7. Thickness of insert plate = original plate thickness but not more than T+ (10% of thickness.) These rules
are more or less same for different classifications and are found in the rule book.
8. On completion surveyor checks by NDT etc depending on place of damage. Also workshop doing the
work shall be class approved and work done in front of class surveyor.
Quantity required will be area of plate x thickness need or expected to renew found by dimension in shell
exp plan added for each grade required and multiplied by density of steel approximately 7.854 tons/ m3 if
all dimensions taken in m
Calculate for each grade separately and order.
Grades of steel used in Chemical tankers

Grades of steel used for chem tanker tanks are DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL - (austenitic + ferrite)
corossion resistant, high temprature upto 300 c and high on cr ( cr- 21%, ni - 6%). ASTM 240 m and uns
31803 are widely used having very high tensile strength of more than 750 and proof stress of less than 0.2
%.
Q10. What are the SOLAS and LSA code Requirements for lifeboat:
-The size, number and the capacity of the lifeboat for a merchant vessel is decided by the type of the ship
and number of ships crew, but it should not be less then 7.3 m in length and minimum two lifeboats are
provided on both side of the ship (port and starboard).
-The requirement for lifeboat of a cargo ship with 20,000 GT is that the boat must be capable of launching
when the ship is heading with a speed of 5 knots.
-The lifeboat must carry all the equipments described under SOLAS which can be used in survival at sea.
It includes rations, fresh water, first aid, compass, distress signalling equipments like rocket etc.
-The ship must carry one rescue boat for rescue purpose along with other lifeboats. One lifeboat can be
designated as a rescue boat if more then one lifeboat is present onboard ship.
-The gravity davits must be hold and slide down the lifeboat even when the ship is heeled to an angle of 15
degree on either side. Ropes are used to hold the lifeboat in stowed position with cradle. These
ropes
are called gripes.
-The wires which lift or lower the lifeboat are known as falls and the speed of the lifeboat descent should
not be more then 36m/ min which is controlled by means of centrifugal brakes.
-The hoisting time for the boat launching appliance should not be less then 0.3 m/sec with the boat loaded
to its full capacity.
-The Lifeboat must be painted in international bright orange color with the ships call sign printed on it.
-The lifeboat station must be easily accessible for all the crew members in all circumstances. Safety
awareness posters and launching procedures must be posted at lifeboat station.
-Regular drills must be carried out to ensure that the ships crew members are capable of launching the
boat with minimal time during real emergency.

Q11. What are the various Sampling methods for Bunker.


ANNEX 7
RESOLUTION MEPC.182(59)
Adopted on 17 July 2009
2009 GUIDELINES FOR THE SAMPLING OF FUEL OIL FOR DETERMINATION OF
COMPLIANCE WITH THE REVISED MARPOL ANNEX VI

THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION COMMITTEE,


RECALLING Article 38(a) of the Convention on the International Maritime Organization
concerning the functions of the Marine Environment Protection Committee conferred upon it by
international conventions for the prevention and control of marine pollution,
RECALLING ALSO that MARPOL Annex VI entered into force on 19 May 2005,
RECALLING FURTHER resolution MEPC.96(47) by which the Committee adopted the
Guidelines for the sampling of fuel oil for determination of compliance with Annex VI of
MARPOL 73/78,
NOTING that the revised MARPOL Annex VI was adopted by resolution MEPC.176(58)
which is expected to enter into force on 1 July 2010,
NOTING ALSO that regulation 18.8.1 on fuel oil quality within the revised MARPOL
Annex VI requires that the bunker delivery note shall be accompanied by a representative sample
of the fuel oil delivered taking into account guidelines to be developed by the Organization,
RECOGNIZING the need to amend the Guidelines for the sampling of fuel oil for determination of
compliance with Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78, in accordance with provisions of the revised MARPOL
Annex VI,
HAVING CONSIDERED the amendments to Guidelines for the sampling of fuel oil for
determination of compliance with Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78 prepared by the Sub-Committee
on Bulk Liquids and Gases at its thirteenth session,
1. ADOPTS the 2009 Guidelines for the sampling of fuel oil for determination of compliance with the
revised MARPOL Annex VI, as set out in the Annex to this resolution;
2. INVITES Governments to apply the Guidelines, as amended, from 1 July 2010; and
3. REVOKES the Guidelines adopted by resolution MEPC.96 (47), as from this date.
2009 GUIDELINES FOR THE SAMPLING OF FUEL OIL FOR DETERMINATION
OF COMPLIANCE WITH THE REVISED MARPOL ANNEX VI
1.Preface
The primary objective of these Guidelines is to establish an agreed method to obtain a representative
sample of the fuel oil for combustion purposes delivered for use on board ships.
2 Introduction
The basis for these Guidelines is regulation 18.5 of Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78, as amended by
resolution MEPC.176 (58), which provides that for each ship subject to regulations 5 and 6 of that Annex,
details of fuel oil for combustion purposes delivered to, and used on board the ship, shall be recorded by
means of a bunker delivery note which shall contain at least the information specified in appendix V to that
Annex. In accordance with regulation 18.8.1 of Annex VI, the bunker delivery note shall be accompanied
by a representative sample of the fuel oil delivered. This sample is to be used solely for determination of
compliance with Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78.
3 Definitions
For the purpose of these Guidelines:
3.1
Suppliers representative is the individual from the bunker tanker who is responsible for

the delivery and documentation or, in the case of deliveries direct from the shore to the ship, the
Person who is responsible for the delivery and documentation.
3.2
Ships representative is the ships master or officer In charge who is responsible for receiving bunkers and
documentation.
3.3
Representative sample is a product specimen having its physical and chemical characteristics identical to
the average characteristics of the total volume being sampled.
3.4
Primary sample is the representative sample of the fuel delivered to the ship collected throughout the
bunkering period obtained by the sampling equipment positioned at the bunker manifold of the receiving
ship.
3.5
Retained sample is the representative sample in accordance with regulation 18.8.1 of Annex VI to
MARPOL 73/78, of the fuel delivered to the ship derived from the primary sample.
4 Sampling methods
4.1 The primary sample should be obtained by one of the following methods:
manual valve-setting continuous-drip sampler; or
time-proportional automatic sampler; or
Flow-proportional automatic sampler.
4.2 Sampling equipment should be used in accordance with manufacturers instructions, or guidelines, as
appropriate.
5 Sampling and sample integrity
5.1 A means should be provided to seal the sampling equipment throughout the period of supply.
5.2 Attention should be given to:
the form of set up of the sampler;
the form of the primary sample container;
the cleanliness and dryness of the sampler and the primary sample container prior to use;
the setting of the means used to control the flow to the primary sample container;
The method to be used to secure the sample from tampering or contamination during the bunker
operation.
5.3 The primary sample receiving container should be attached to the sampling equipment and
sealed so as to prevent tampering or contamination of the sample throughout the bunker delivery
Period.
6 Sampling location
For the purpose of these Guidelines a sample of the fuel delivered to the ship should be obtained at the
receiving ships inlet bunker manifold and should be drawn continuously throughout the bunker delivery
period.
7 Retained sample handling
7.1 The retained sample container should be clean and dry.
7.2 Immediately prior to filling the retained sample container, the primary sample quantity should be

thoroughly agitated to ensure that it is homogeneous.


7.3 The retained sample should be of sufficient quantity to perform the tests required but should not be less
than 400 ml. The container should be filled to 90% 5% capacity and sealed.
*
The phrase be drawn continuously throughout the bunker delivery period in paragraph 6 of the
Guidelines should be taken to mean continuous collection of drip sample throughout the delivery of bunker
fuel covering each bunker delivery note. In case of receiving an amount of bunker fuel necessitating two or
more delivery notes, the sampling work may be temporarily stopped to change primary sample container
and then resumed as necessary.
Page 4
8 Sealing of the retained sample
8.1 Immediately following collection of the retained sample, a tamper proof security seal with a unique
means of identification should be installed by the suppliers representative in the presence of the ships
representative. A label containing the following information should be secured to the retained sample
container:

location at which, and the method by which, the sample was drawn;
date of commencement of delivery;
name of bunker tanker/bunker installation;
name and IMO number of the receiving ship;
signatures and names of the suppliers representative and the ships representative;
details of seal identification;
bunker grade.

8.2 To facilitate cross-reference details of the seal, identification may also be recorded on the bunker
delivery note.
9 Retained sample storage
9.1 The retained sample should be kept in a safe storage location, outside the ships accommodation,
where personnel would not be exposed to vapours which may be released from the sample. Care should be
exercised when entering a sample storage location.
9.2 The retained sample should be stored in a sheltered location where it will not be subject to elevated
temperatures, preferably at a cool/ambient temperature, and where it will not be exposed
to direct sunlight.
9.3 Pursuant to regulation 18.8.1 of Annex VI of MARPOL 73/78, the retained sample should
be retained under the ships control until the fuel oil is substantially consumed, but in any case
for a period of not less than 12 months from the time of delivery.
9.4 The ships master should develop and maintain a system to keep track of the retained
samples.
(Sorry guys!! Could not find any other material for various methods of sampling for bunkers)
***
Q12. What is III Code?
DRAFT IMO INSTRUMENTS IMPLEMENTATION CODE (III CODE)
Table of Contents
PART 1 COMMON AREAS 2
PART 2 FLAG STATES 4
PART 3 COASTAL STATES 12

PART 4 PORT STATES 13


PART 1 COMMON AREAS
Objective
1. The objective of this Code is to enhance global maritime safety and protection of the
marine environment and assist States in the implementation of instruments of the
Organization.
2. Different States will view this Code according to their own circumstances and will be
bound only for the implementation of those instruments to which they are Contracting
Governments or Parties. By virtue of geography and circumstance, some States may have a
greater role as a flag State than as a port State or as a coastal State, whilst others may have
a greater role as a coastal State or port State than as a flag State.
Strategy
3. In order to meet the objective of this Code, a State should:
.1 develop an overall strategy to ensure that its international obligations and
responsibilities as a flag, port and coastal State are met;
.2 establish a methodology to monitor and assess that the strategy ensures
effective implementation and enforcement of relevant international
mandatory instruments; and
.3 continuously review the strategy to achieve, maintain and improve the
overall organizational performance and capability as a flag, port and coastal
State.
General
4. Under the general provisions of treaty law and of IMO conventions, States are
responsible for promulgating laws and regulations and for taking all other steps which may
be necessary to give those instruments full and complete effect so as to ensure safety of life
at sea and protection of the marine environment.
5. In taking measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine
environment, States shall act so as not to transfer, directly or indirectly, damage or hazards
from one area to another or transform one type of pollution into another.
Scope
6. The Code seeks to address those aspects necessary for a Contracting Government
or Party to give full and complete effect to the provisions of the applicable international
instruments to which it is a Contracting Government or Party, pertaining to:
.1 safety of life at sea;
.2 prevention of pollution from ships;
.3 standards of training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers;
.4 load lines;
.5 tonnage measurement of ships; and
.6 regulations for preventing collisions at sea.
7. The following areas are to be considered and addressed in the development of
policies, legislation, associated rules and regulations and administrative procedures for the

implementation and enforcement of those obligations and responsibilities by the State:


.1 jurisdiction;
.2 organization and authority;
.3 legislation, rules and regulations;
.4 promulgation of the applicable international mandatory instruments, rules
and regulations;
.5 enforcement arrangements;
.6 control, survey, inspection, audit, verification, approval and certification
functions;
.7 selection, recognition, authorization, empowerment and monitoring of
recognized organizations, as appropriate, and of nominated surveyors;
.8 investigations required to be reported to the Organization; and
.9 reporting to the Organization and other Administrations.
Initial actions
8. When a new or amended instrument of the Organization enters into force for a
State, the Government of that State shall be in a position to implement and enforce its
provisions through appropriate national legislation and to provide the necessary
implementation and enforcement infrastructure. This means that the Government of the
State shall have:
.1 the ability to promulgate laws, which permit effective jurisdiction and control
in administrative, technical and social matters over ships flying its flag and,
in particular, provide the legal basis for general requirements for registries,
the inspection of ships, safety and pollution-prevention laws applying to
such ships and the making of associated regulations;
.2 a legal basis for the enforcement of its national laws and regulations
including the associated investigative and penal processes; and
.3 the availability of sufficient personnel with maritime expertise to assist in the
promulgation of the necessary national laws and to discharge all the
responsibilities of the State, including reporting as required by the
respective conventions.

Communication of information
9. The State shall communicate its strategy, as referred to in paragraph 3, including
information on its national legislation to all concerned.
Records
10. Records, as appropriate, shall be established and maintained to provide evidence of
conformity to requirements and of the effective operation of the State. Records shall remain
legible, readily identifiable and retrievable. A documented procedure shall be established to
define the controls needed for the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, retention time
and disposition of records.
Improvement
11. States shall continually improve the adequacy of the measures which are taken to
give effect to those conventions and protocols which they have accepted. Improvement shall
be made through rigorous and effective application and enforcement of national legislation,
as appropriate, and monitoring of compliance.

12 The State shall stimulate a culture which provides opportunities for improvement of
performance in maritime safety and environmental protection activities, which may include,
inter alia:
.1 continual training programmes relating to safety and pollution prevention;
.2 regional and national drills on safety and pollution prevention, which
engage a broad spectrum of maritime related national, regional and
international organizations and companies and seafarers; and
.3 using reward and incentive mechanisms for shipping companies and
seafarers, regarding improving safety and pollution prevention.
13. Further, the State shall take action to identify and eliminate the cause of any
non-conformities in order to prevent recurrence, including:
.1 review and analysis of non-conformities;
.2 implementation of necessary corrective action; and
.3 review of the corrective action taken.
14. The State shall determine action needed to eliminate the causes of potential
non-conformities in order to prevent their occurrence.
PART 2 FLAG STATES
Implementation
15. In order to effectively discharge their responsibilities and obligations, flag States
shall:
.1 implement policies through the issuance of national legislation and
guidance, which will assist in the implementation and enforcement of the
requirements of all safety and pollution prevention conventions and
protocols to which they are parties; and
.2 assign responsibilities within their Administrations to update and revise any
relevant policies adopted, as necessary.
16. A flag State shall establish resources and processes capable of administering a
safety and environmental protection programme, which, as a minimum, shall consist of the
following:
.1 administrative instructions to implement applicable international rules and
regulations as well as develop and disseminate any interpretative national
regulations that may be needed including certificates issued by a
classification society, which is recognized by the flag State in accordance
with the provisions of SOLAS regulation XI-1/1, and which certificate is
required by the flag State to demonstrate compliance with structural,
mechanical, electrical, and/or other requirements of an international
convention to which the flag State is a party or a requirement of the flag
State's national regulations;
.2 compliance with the requirements of the applicable international
instruments, using an audit and inspection programme, independent of any
administrative bodies issuing the required certificates and relevant
documentation and/or of any entity which has been delegated authority by
the State to issue the required certificates and relevant documentation;
.3 compliance with the requirements related to international standards of
training, certification and watchkeeping of seafarers. This includes,
inter alia;
.1 training, assessment of competence and certification of seafarers;

.2 certificates and endorsements that accurately reflect the


competencies of the seafarers, using the appropriate terminology
as well as terms which are identical to those used in any safe
manning document issued to the ship;
.3 impartial investigation to be held of any reported failure, whether
by act or omission, that may pose a direct threat to safety of life or
property at sea or to the marine environment, by the holders of
certificates or endorsements issued by the State;
.4 that certificates or endorsements issued by the State can be
effectively withdrawn, suspended or cancelled when warranted,
and when necessary to prevent fraud; and
.5 administrative arrangements, including those involving training,
assessment and certification activities conducted under the
purview of another State, are such that the flag State accepts its
responsibility for ensuring the competence of masters, officers and
other seafarers serving on ships entitled to fly its flag;
.4 the conduct of investigations into casualties and adequate and timely
handling of cases of ships with identified deficiencies; and
.5 the development, documentation and provision of guidance concerning
those requirements that are to the satisfaction of the Administration, found
in the relevant international instruments.
17. A flag State shall ensure that ships entitled to fly its flag are sufficiently and
efficiently manned, taking into account relevant and existing measures such as the Principles
of Safe Manning adopted by the Organization.
Delegation of authority
18. With regard only to ships entitled to fly its flag a flag State authorizing a recognized
organization to act on its behalf, in conducting the surveys, inspections and audits, issuing of
certificates and documents, marking of ships and other statutory work required under the
conventions
of the Organization or under their national legislation, must regulate such
authorization(s) in accordance with the applicable requirements of the international
mandatory instruments to:
.1 determine that the recognized organization has adequate resources in
terms of technical, managerial and research capabilities to accomplish the
tasks being assigned, in accordance with the "Minimum Standards for
Recognized Organizations Acting on Behalf of the Administration" set out in
the relevant guidelines of the Organization1;
.2 have as its basis a formal written agreement between the Administration
and the recognized organization which, as a minimum, includes the
elements set out in the relevant guidelines of the Organization2, or
equivalent legal arrangements, and which may be based on the model
agreement for the authorization of recognized organizations acting on
behalf of the Administration;
.3 issue specific instructions detailing actions to be followed in the event that a
ship is found unfit to proceed to sea without danger to the ship or persons
on board, or is found to present an unreasonable threat of harm to the
marine environment;
.4 provide the recognized organization with all appropriate instruments of

national law and interpretations thereof giving effect to the provisions of the
conventions and specify, only for application to ships entitled to fly its flag,
whether any additional Administration's standards go beyond convention
requirements in any respect; and
.5 require that the recognized organization shall maintain records, which will
provide the Administration with data to assist in interpretation of
requirements contained in the applicable international instruments.
19. No flag State shall mandate its recognized organizations to apply to ships, other
than those entitled to fly its flag, any requirement pertaining to their classification rules,
requirements, procedures or performance of other statutory certification processes, beyond
convention requirements and the mandatory instruments of the Organization.
20. The flag State shall establish or participate in an oversight programme with
adequate resources for monitoring of, and communication with, its recognized
organization(s) in order to ensure that its international obligations are fully met, by:
.1 exercising its authority to conduct supplementary surveys to ensure that
ships entitled to fly its flag in fact comply with the requirements of the
applicable international instruments;
.2 conducting supplementary surveys as it deems necessary to ensure that
ships entitled to fly its flag comply with national requirements, which
supplement the international mandatory requirements; and
.3 providing staff who have a good knowledge of the rules and regulations of
the flag State and the recognized organizations and who are available to
carry out effective oversight of the recognized organizations.
21. A flag State nominating surveyor(s) for the purpose of carrying out surveys, audits
and inspections on its behalf shall regulate such nominations, as appropriate, in accordance
with the guidance provided in paragraph 18, in particular subparagraphs .3 and .4.
Enforcement
22. A flag State shall take all necessary measures to secure observance of international
rules and standards by ships entitled to fly its flag and by entities and persons under their
jurisdiction so as to ensure compliance with their international obligations. Such measures
shall include, inter alia:
.1 prohibiting ships entitled to fly their flag from sailing until such ships can
proceed to sea in compliance with the requirements of international rules
and standards;
.2 the periodic inspection of ships entitled to fly its flag to verify that the actual
condition of the ship and its crew is in conformity with the certificates it
carries;
.3 the surveyor ensuring, during the periodic inspection referred to in
subparagraph .2, that seafarers assigned to the ships are familiar with:
.1 their specific duties; and
.2 ship arrangements, installations, equipments and procedures;
.4 ensuring that the ship's complement, as a whole, can effectively coordinate
their activities in an emergency situation and in performing functions vital to
safety or to the prevention or mitigation of pollution;
.5 providing, in national laws and regulations, for penalties of adequate
severity to discourage violation of international rules and standards by
ships entitled to fly its flag;

.6 instituting proceedings
against ships entitled to fly its flag, which have violated international rules
and standards, irrespective of where the violation has occurred;
.7 providing, in national laws and regulations, for penalties of adequate
severity to discourage violations of international rules and standards by
individuals issued with certificates or endorsements under their authority;
and
.8 instituting proceedings after an investigation has been conducted
against individuals holding certificates or endorsements who have violated
international rules and standards, irrespective of where the violation has
occurred.
23. A flag State shall develop and implement a control and monitoring programme, as
appropriate, in order to:
.1 provide for prompt and thorough casualty investigations, with reporting to
the Organization as appropriate;
.2 provide for the collection of statistical data, so that trend analyses can be
conducted to identify problem areas; and
.3 provide for a timely response to deficiencies and alleged pollution incidents
reported by port or coastal States.
24 Furthermore, the flag State shall:
.1 ensure compliance with the applicable international instruments through
national legislation;
.2 provide an appropriate number of qualified personnel to implement and
enforce the national legislation referred to in subparagraph 15.1, including
personnel for performing investigations and surveys;
.3 provide a sufficient number of qualified flag State personnel to investigate
incidents where ships entitled to fly its flag have been detained by port
States;
.4 provide a sufficient number of qualified flag State personnel to investigate
incidents where the validity of a certificate or endorsement or competence
of individuals holding certificates or endorsements issued under its
authority are questioned by port States; and
.5 ensure the training and oversight of the activities of flag State surveyors
and investigators.
25. When a State is informed that a ship entitled to fly its flag has been detained by a
port State, the flag State shall oversee that appropriate corrective measures to bring the ship
in question into immediate compliance with the applicable international instruments are
taken.
26. A flag State, or a recognized organization acting on its behalf, shall only issue or
endorse an international certificate to a ship after it has determined that the ship meets all
applicable requirements.
27. A flag State shall only issue an international certificate of competency or
endorsement to a person after it has determined that the person meets all applicable
requirements.
Flag State surveyors

28 The flag State shall define and document the responsibilities, authority and
interrelation of all personnel who manage, perform and verify work relating to and affecting
safety and pollution prevention.
29. Personnel responsible for, or performing, surveys, inspections and audits on ships
and companies covered by the relevant international mandatory instruments shall have as a
minimum the following:
.1 appropriate qualifications from a marine or nautical institution and relevant
seagoing experience as a certificated ship officer holding or having held a
valid management level certificate of competency and have maintained
their technical knowledge of ships and their operation since gaining their
certificate of competency; or
.2 a degree or equivalent from a tertiary institution within a relevant field of
engineering or science recognized by the State; or
.3 accreditation as a surveyor through a formalized training programme that
leads to the same standard of surveyor's experience and competency as
that required in paragraphs 29.1, 29.2 and 32.
30. Personnel qualified under paragraph 29.1 shall have served for a period of not less
than three years at sea as an officer in the deck or engine department.
31. Personnel qualified under paragraph 29.2 shall have worked in a relevant capacity
for at least three years.
32. In addition, such personnel shall have appropriate practical and theoretical
knowledge of ships, their operation and the provisions of the relevant national and
international instruments necessary to perform their duties as flag State surveyors obtained
through documented training programmes.
33. Other personnel assisting in the performance of such work shall have education,
training and supervision commensurate with the tasks they are authorized to perform.
34. Previous relevant experience in the field of expertise should be considered an
advantage; in case of no previous experience, the Administration shall provide appropriate
field training.
35. The flag State shall implement a documented system for qualification of personnel
and continuous updating of their knowledge as appropriate to the tasks they are authorized
to undertake.
36. Depending on the function(s) to be performed, the qualifications shall encompass:
.1 knowledge of applicable, international and national, rules and regulations
for ships, their companies, their crew, their cargo and their operation;
.2 knowledge of the procedures to be applied in survey, certification, control,
investigative and oversight functions;
.3 understanding of the goals and objectives of the international and national
instruments dealing with maritime safety and protection of the marine
environment, and of related programmes;
.4 understanding of the processes both on board and ashore, internal as well
as external;
.5 possession of professional competency necessary to perform the given

tasks effectively and efficiently;


.6 full safety awareness in all circumstances, also for one's own safety; and
.7 training or experience in the various tasks to be performed and, preferably,
also in the functions to be assessed.
37. The flag State shall issue an identification document for the surveyor to carry when
performing his/her tasks.
Flag State investigations
38. Marine safety investigations should be conducted by qualified, impartial and
objective investigators, knowledgeable in matters relating to the casualty. Subject to any
agreement on which the State or States will be the marine safety investigating State(s), the
flag State shall provide qualified investigators for this purpose, irrespective of the location of
the casualty or incident.
39. The flag State should ensure that individual investigators have working knowledge
and practical experience in those subject areas pertaining to their normal duties.
Additionally, to assist individual investigators in performing duties outside their normal
assignments, the flag State should ensure ready access to expertise in the following areas,
as necessary:
.1 navigation and the Collision Regulations;
.2 flag State regulations on certificates of competency;
.3 causes of marine pollution;
.4 interviewing techniques;
.5 evidence gathering; and
.6 evaluation of the effects of the human element.
40. Any accidents involving personal injury necessitating absence from duty of three
days or more and any deaths resulting from occupational accidents and casualties to ships of
the flag State should be investigated, and the results of such investigations made public.
41. Ship casualties are to be investigated and reported in accordance with the relevant
international instruments, taking into account the Casualty Investigation Code, as may be
amended, and guidelines developed by the Organization4. The report on the investigation
shall be forwarded to the Organization together with the flag State's observations, in
accordance with the guidelines referred to above.
Evaluation and review
42. A flag State shall, on a periodic basis, evaluate its performance with respect to the
implementation of administrative processes, procedures and resources necessary to meet its
obligations as required by the international instruments to which it is a party.
43. Measures to evaluate the performance of flag States shall include, inter alia, port
State control detention rates, flag State inspection results, casualty statistics, communication
and information processes, annual loss statistics (excluding constructive total losses (CTLs)),
and other performance indicators as may be appropriate, to determine whether staffing,
resources and administrative procedures are adequate to meet its flag State obligations.
44. Areas to be regularly reviewed may include, inter alia:

.1 fleet loss and accident ratios to identify trends over selected time periods;
.2 the number of verified cases of detained ships in relation to the size of the
fleet;
.3 the number of verified cases of incompetence or wrongdoing by individuals
holding certificates or endorsements issued under its authority;
.4 responses to port State deficiency reports or interventions;
.5 investigations into very serious and serious casualties and lessons learned
from them;
.6 technical and other resources committed;
.7 results of inspections, surveys and controls of the ships in the fleet;
.8 investigation of occupational accidents;
.9 the number of incidents and violations that occur under the applicable
international maritime pollution prevention regulations; and
.10 the number of suspensions or withdrawals of certificates, endorsements,
approvals, etc.
PART 3 COASTAL STATES
Implementation
45. Coastal States have certain rights and obligations under various international
Instruments. When exercising their rights under those instruments coastal States incur
Additional obligations.
46. In order to effectively meet its obligations, a coastal State shall:
.1 implement policies through the issuance of national legislation and
guidance, which will assist in the implementation and enforcement of the
requirements of all safety and pollution prevention conventions and
protocols to which it is a party; and
.2 assign responsibilities to update and revise any relevant policies adopted,
as necessary.
47. A coastal State shall ensure that its legislation, guidance and procedures are
established for the consistent implementation and verification of its rights, obligations and
Responsibilities contained in the relevant international instruments to which it is a party.
48 Those rights, obligations and responsibilities may include, inter alia:
.1 radiocommunication services;
.2 meteorological services and warnings;
.3 search and rescue services;
.4 hydrographic services;
.5 ship routeing;
.6 ship reporting systems;
.7 vessel traffic services; and
.8 aids to navigation.
Enforcement
49. A coastal State shall take all necessary measures to ensure their observance of
international rules when exercising their rights and fulfilling their obligations.
50. A coastal State shall consider, develop and implement a control and monitoring
programme, as appropriate, in order to:

.1 provide for the allocation of statistical data so that trend analyses can be
conducted to identify problem areas;
.2 establish mechanisms for timely response to pollution incidents in its
waters; and
.3 co-operate with flag States and/or port States, as appropriate, in
investigations of maritime casualties.
Evaluation and review
51. A coastal State shall periodically evaluate its performance in respect of exercising its
rights and meeting its obligations under the applicable international instruments.
PART 4 PORT STATES
Implementation
52. Port States have certain rights and obligations under various international
instruments. When exercising their rights under those instruments, port States incur
additional obligations.
53. Port States can play an integral role in the achievement of maritime safety and
environmental protection, including pollution prevention. The role and responsibilities of the
port State with respect to maritime safety and environmental protection is derived from a
combination of international treaties, conventions, national laws, as well as in some
instances, bilateral and multilateral agreements.
54. In order to effectively meet its obligations, a port State shall:
.1 implement policies through the issuance of national legislation and
guidance, which will assist in the implementation and enforcement of the
requirements of all safety and pollution prevention conventions and
protocols to which it is a party; and
.2 assign responsibilities to update and revise any relevant policies adopted, as necessary.
55. A port State shall ensure that its legislation, guidance and procedures are
established for the consistent implementation and verification of its rights, obligations and
responsibilities contained in the relevant international instruments to which it is a party.
56 Those rights, obligations and responsibilities include, inter alia:
.1 provision of appropriate reception facilities or capability to accept all waste
streams regulated under the instruments of the Organization;
.2 port State control7; and
.3 keeping a register of fuel oil suppliers.
Enforcement
57. Port States shall take all necessary measures to ensure their observance of
international rules when exercising their rights and fulfilling their obligations.
58. Several international maritime instruments on safety and maritime pollution
prevention contain specific provisions that permit port State control.
59. Also, a number of those instruments obligate port States to treat non-parties to
those conventions no more favourably than those that are parties. This means that port
States are obliged to impose the conditions of those instruments on parties, as well as on

non-parties.
60. When exercising its right to carry out port State control, a port State shall establish
processes to administer a port State control programme consistent with the relevant
resolution adopted by the Organization.
61. Port State control shall be carried out only by authorized and qualified port State
control officers in accordance with the relevant procedures adopted by the Organization*.
62. Port State control officers and persons assisting them shall be free from any
commercial, financial, and other pressures and have no commercial interest, either in the
port of inspection or the ships inspected, in ship repair facilities or any support services in the
port or elsewhere nor shall the port State control officers be employed by or undertake work
on behalf of recognized organizations or classification societies. Further procedures shall be
implemented to ensure that persons or organizations external to the port State cannot
influence the results of port State inspection and control carried out.
Evaluation and review
63. A port State shall periodically evaluate its performance in respect of exercising its
rights and meeting its obligations under the applicable instruments of the Organization.

Q13. What are the various duties of Coastal state as per III Code?
46. In order to effectively meet its obligations, a coastal State shall:
.1 implement policies through the issuance of national legislation and
guidance, which will assist in the implementation and enforcement of the
requirements of all safety and pollution prevention conventions and
protocols to which it is a party; and
.2 assign responsibilities to update and revise any relevant policies adopted,
as necessary.
47. A coastal State shall ensure that its legislation, guidance and procedures are
established for the consistent implementation and verification of its rights, obligations and
Responsibilities contained in the relevant international instruments to which it is a party.
48 Those rights, obligations and responsibilities may include, inter alia:
.1 radiocommunication services;
.2 meteorological services and warnings;
.3 search and rescue services;
.4 hydrographic services;
.5 ship routeing;
.6 ship reporting systems;
.7 vessel traffic services; and
.8 aids to navigation.
Enforcement
49. A coastal State shall take all necessary measures to ensure their observance of
international rules when exercising their rights and fulfilling their obligations.
50. A coastal State shall consider, develop and implement a control and monitoring
programme, as appropriate, in order to:

.1 provide for the allocation of statistical data so that trend analyses can be
conducted to identify problem areas;
.2 establish mechanisms for timely response to pollution incidents in its
waters; and
.3 co-operate with flag States and/or port States, as appropriate, in
investigations of maritime casualties.
Evaluation and review
51. A coastal State shall periodically evaluate its performance in respect of exercising its
rights and meeting its obligations under the applicable international instruments.
Q14. What is VIMSAS? What is Indias stand on it? Has India undergone VIMSAS?
VIMSAS stands for Voluntary IMO Member states Audit Scheme. The IMO member states were
subjected to audits by the IMO to ensure that the instruments ratified by the member states have been
effectively implemented. They check that the ratified instrument has been enacted as a national law and it
has been effectively implemented and strictly adhered to. Earlier the audit scheme was just voluntary. But
at the 66th MEPC session it was decided that the member state audit will no longer be voluntary and itll be
mandatory.
As on August 6, 2014, 19 member states are ready to undergo their mandatory audits.
India has undergone VIMSAS recently and the outcome of the audit was not in favour of India. (As per
discussion in the Forum)
Q15. What is difference between Act and Rule?
An Act is a statute law, it is the law enacted by the parliament.
Rule is a set of conditions that has to be followed to make a law effective.

Q16. What are Various Ballast Water Management techniques?


The technology used to treat ballast water has generally been derived from other industrial applications,
such wastewater treatment systems, in which forms of solid-liquid separation and disinfection processes
were applied. The separation process concerns the removal of solid suspended material from the ballast
water by sedimentation or straining by means of a filter. This produces a waste stream that comprises
backwash water from the filtering or a hydrocyclone operation. The waste stream is discharged during
ballasting.
Disinfection may be achieved in a number of ways. Chemical treatment uses oxidizing biocides that
interfere with the microorganisms
organic structure or non-oxidising biocides that interact with reproductive or metabolic functions. Physicochemical treatment systems use UV light, heat or cavitation. Deoxygenation is another method, in which
the organism is asphyxiated.
There are three fundamental ballast water treatment technologies, which are generally combined within
one system.
These are
1.mechanical, which consists of filtration or cyclonic separation;
2. physical disinfection, comprising ultrasound, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, heat, cavitation, deoxygenation,

and coagulation;
3. chemical treatment and biocides, comprising electro-chlorination, ozonation, chlorination, chlorine
dioxide, and advanced oxidation.
Most systems employ a two-stage approach involving mechanical separation at the first stage, followed by
a second-stage physical/chemical treatment. At this stage some systems use a combination of two or more
treatments.
Operational implications, extended ballasting time as a result of pressure drops, consumables needed, and
energy requirements all need to be assessed. Shipowners and operators should consider the design of the
ballast system pipe layout as some systems make use of
components that can be placed at various locations around the ship.
For those systems that use active substances to treat micro-organisms, sufficient stocks of those substances
will have to be carried on board to satisfy the number of units installed and the frequency and quantity of
ballast operations.
Those that use the effect of UV on water or the properties of seawater to generate electric currents to
generate active substances, do not
require carriage of further substances.
Disinfection by-products are an issue, and this is central to the approval of systems that employ an active
substance. Generally, these systems treat on uptake only, with the exception of those that use neutralizing
agents before discharge.
>>Treatment technology type
Mechanical
1. Cyclonic separation
(hydrocyclone)
2. Filtration
Chemical treament and biocides
1. Chlorination
2. Chloride dioxide
3. Advanced oxidation
4. Residual control
(sulphite/bisulphate)
5. Peraclean Ocean
Physical disinfection
1. Coagulation/
flocculation
2. Ultrasound
3. Ultraviolet
4. Heat
5. Cavitation
6. Deoxygenation
7. Electro-chlorination/
electrolysis
8. Electro-catalysis
9. Ozonation`
Physical, mechanical or chemical?
Solid-liquid separation
The filtration process uses discs or fixed screens with automatic backwashing and is generally effective for

larger organisms and particles. The low membrane permeability means surface filtration is not practical, so
backwashing is required to maintain flow because of the pressure drop. As a means of removing larger
particles, hydrocyclones are a good alternative. These separate the particles through high-velocity
centrifugal rotation of the water.
Both filtration and cyclonic separation can be improved by pre-treatment in the form of coagulation, but
this needs extra tank space and an ancillary powder to generate the flocs.
Oxidising biocides
When diluted in water, chlorine destroys cell walls of organisms, while electro-chlorination creates an
electrolytic reaction using a direct current in the water. Both methods are well established municipally and
industrially, but are virtually ineffective against cysts unless a concentration of at least 2mg/litre is used.
Ozone gas, which is bubbled through the water, is effective at killing micro-organisms. It produces a
bromate by-product and requires an ozonate generator.
Chlorine dioxide is effective, particularly in high-turbidity waters. It has a half-life of 612 hours but,
according to suppliers, can be safely discharged within 24 hours.
Physical disinfection
When ultraviolet irradiation is used, amalgam lamps surrounded by quartz sleeves produce UV light,
which changes the molecular structure of the organism and thereby prevents it from reproducing.
The deoxygenation method relies on reducing the pressure of oxygen in the space above the water by
injecting an inert gas or inducing a vacuum. The removal of oxygen may also lead to a reduction in
corrosion.
If heat is employed to treat the ballast water, the water can be used to provide engine cooling while being
disinfected.

Q17. What are active substances? What is the main requirement about the treatments which use
active substances?
Active Substances means a substance or an organism including virus or a fungus that has a general or a
specific action against harmful pathogens and aquatic organisms.
The ballast water treatment technique which uses the active substance has to be approved by the IMO
directly. The IMO has constituted a special group called as Ballast Water Working Group (BWWG) for
this purpose. They carry out extensive research to evaluate the best way of treating a ballast water and also
they play a key role of approving the techniques developed in the industry which makes use of ctive
substances.
They use guidelines as adopted by IMO before giving out their approval for any method which is making
use of active substance.
Q18 What is SBI??
SBI Stands for Seafarers Biometric Identity.

Q19. What are the advantages and disadvantages of High Tensile Steel? What is the major
disadvantage that led to a disaster and which in turn gave rise to ESP Code? What is that Disaster?
Advantages: As the ship size increases the thickness of the plating for main longitudinal strengthening
member also increases, but if we use high tensile steel the thickness can be reduced as the HTS have
ultimate yield strength ranging from 490 MN/mm2-620 MN/mm2. Since the thickness is reduced the light
weight of the ship reduces and the dead weight can be increased (the cargo carrying capacity can be
increased)
Disadvantages: The HTS needs a preheat treatment before welding is carried out and it requires use of
special low hydrogen electrodes.
The major disadvantage is Springing Effect, because of the less thickness the flexibility is more, and
hence the material is subjected to fatigue conditions and this when supplemented with corrosion causes
the premature failure of the material.
When viewed towards Forward from aft, it can be observed that the whole ships structure is vibrating at
very low amplitude due to the varying wave pressure. This effect is called springing effect.
There was a huge loss of bulk carriers due to springing effect which eventually led to cracking of the ship
into 2 pieces. (The name of the ship which suffered this casualty I could not get, but please find out as Mr.
Sukumaran would be interested to know). This eventually led to establishment of ESP Code.
Q20. What is hoop stress? Why is a Boiler manhole door elliptical in shape?
The stress along the circumference of the cylinder is called Hoop Stress. It is denoted by the relation
= pd/2t.
Where p= pressure
D= diameter of the vessel
T= thickness of the vessel.
= Stress (Hoop Stress)
The stress along the longitudinal joint is 2 times the stress along the circumferential joint. Since the
greatest stress will be along the longitudinal joint care should be taken when the material is cut for
providing an opening.
If the opening is cut into circular shape the area of the cut would be large, this leads to loss of strength of
the pressure vessel.
When the circular cut is made it has to be supplemented with sufficient strengthening members from
inside by providing doubler plates. Also the circular opening should be large enough so as to facilitate
human entry. And the strengthening members should be strong enough to withstand the internal
pressures.
If the door is circular the door cannot be opened to inside of the shell. Itll have to be closed from outside
and there will not be a positive sealing effect.
To overcome the above disadvantages the boiler manhole door is cut into elliptical shape in such a way
that the major axis of the elliptical opening is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pressure vessel
so that the area of cut along the longitudinal axis is reduced and the loss of strength due to cut is reduced.
The reduction in strength is less since the area of cut is small.
With elliptical shape opening it can be opened to the inside of the shell and closed from inside, it gives a
positive sealing effect due to the vessels own operating pressure.
With elliptical opening it is convenient for a man entry even with small opening.

Q21. What are the different methods for obtaining a sampling of paints to check if they are free
from tin based organotin compounds and complying with AFS regulations?

RESOLUTION MEPC.104(49)
POSSIBLE METHODS FOR BRIEF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS
OF ANTI-FOULING SYSTEMS ON SHIPS
- ORGANOTIN METHOD 1

1 Purpose of this method concerning brief sampling and analysis of anti-fouling


systems
1.1 This method has been developed in order to describe a rapid methodology
appropriate for
the identification of anti-fouling systems on ship hulls containing organotin compounds
acting as
biocide. This method has been designed such that sealers should not be affected, and
any
underlying anti-fouling agent (or primer) is not taken up in the sampling procedure. The
method
is not recommended for silicon-based anti-fouling systems.
1.2 This method is based on a two-step analysis. The first step detects total tin as an
indicator
for organotin; the second step, detecting specific organotin compounds, is only
necessary in the
case of the first step proving positive.
2 Sampling device and materials
2.1 The sampling device is constructed in a way that only the upper layer of paint is
removed,
thereby and should leave any underlying paint (sealer, primer etc.) intact. This result is
achieved
through the use of a moving disk, (eccentric rotation) which is covered by an abrasive
material
like quartz or glass fibre fabric. This abrasive material has to be suitable for its use as a
supporting material for the removed paint.
2.2 The device fulfils the following requirements:
.1 the device has to work independently from any stationary power supply. The
device may be driven by an electrical motor (battery-driven) or may be
mechanically driven by a clockwork-like spring, provided it is able to sustain the
movement over the required time period;
.2 the applied force has to be constant during the operation, and the area for paint
removal has to be defined;
.3 the abrasive material has to be inert against chemical solvents and acids and must
not contain more than trace amounts of tin or tin compounds; and
.4 the amount of paint removed after a regular operation of the device has to be

shown to exceed 20 mg per sample.


2.3 The device as described in the following section has been shown to be suitable for
the
brief sampling procedure. Any other device may be used however, provided such a
device has
proven to meet all the above-mentioned requirements.
2.4 The sampling device described here consists of a polyethylene disk, on which fibre
glass
fabric can be mounted by the use of an O-ring. The disk is moved on an eccentrically
rotating
axis.
3 Sampling procedure
3.1 The sampling procedure should be performed in the following manner:
.1 control samples should be taken through the entire sampling and analytical
process to account for possible contamination;
.2 the mass of the fibre glass pads is weighed with a precision of at least 1 mg. The
weight should be documented for each sample;
.3 the fabric should be moistened thoroughly with isopropanol (0.7ml per sample)
immediately before sampling;
.4 when a sample point on the hull has been selected, any fouling present should be
removed with water and a soft sponge/cloth before taking a specimen of the
anti-fouling system (to avoid contamination of sample). Where possible, if
carried out in dry-dock, sampling should be carried out after the hull has been
water-washed;
.5 the sampling device is then held against the surface to be sampled for a period of
5 seconds, prior to the sampling device being switched on;
.6 the sampling device is switched on, thereby removing paint by the circular motion
of the fibre glass fabric against the surface of the ship;
.7 the sampling device should be applied to the surface of the hull for a suitable
period of time, such that at least 20 mg of paint is taken up by the pad. As a
general rule, if the pad colour after sampling matches the colour of the hull
coating a sufficient sample has been taken;
.8 the two-step analysis procedure requires that every sample should be taken in
triplicate. Two of the specimens should be labelled Specimen A and Specimen
B. In addition a third specimen for storage/back-up should be taken. These
specimens should be taken as close to each other as possible, but without overlap;
and
.9 upon completion of the sampling, the fibre glass fabric pads should be left to dry,
and re-weighed.
3.2 Samples should be stored in appropriate sealed packaging, which will not react with
or
contaminate the sample.

DIAGRAM A: Schematic cross section of the sampling device


The indicated points A and B are to be pressed against the surface. The polyethylene
disk,
covered with the glass fibre fabric, is moved with an amplitude of 2 r (r = 1,0 cm) on the
surface.

Specific data:
Force applied on the paint surface: 25N (Newton)
Effective diameter of the disk: 5cm
Frequency of rotation: 6 rotations/s
Solvent used isopropanol (0.8ml per sample).
4 Sampling strategy
4.1 Sampling should be conducted in accordance with paragraph 4 of the Guidelines.
4.2 For inspection purposes in most cases accessibility to all parts of the hull will not be
given. A minimum number of eight independent samples should be taken from different
accessible parts of the hull.

METHOD 2
1 Purpose of this method
1.1 This method provides sampling and analysis procedures to identify the presence of
organotin compounds in the anti-fouling systems on ships. The method is designed
such that the
sampling and the first stage analysis could be carried out by ship surveyors or port
State control
officers (PSCOs) on the survey/inspection site, e.g. at a dry dock.
1.2 This method is based on a two-stage analysis. The first stage detects total tin as an
indicator for the presence of organotin and the second stage is necessary only in the
case that the
first stage analysis providing a positive result to detect specific organotin compounds.
2 Sampling
2.1 The sampling is carried out by using abrasive paper rubbing on the surface of the
anti-fouling system. This results in collection of paint fragment of the anti-fouling system
from
thin area, less than several micrometer in depth from the surface, which do not affect
the coatings
lying underneath such as sealers.
2.2 Abrasive paper is pasted on a disc of approximately 10 mm in diameter. Rubbing
the
surface of the anti-fouling system with the disc collects several milligrams of the sample
on to
the abrasive paper.
2.3 The sampling device consists of an electric motor, two (or three) rotating rods on
each of
which a disc is attached, and a battery for electric power supply. The discs are pressed
on to the surface of ships hull by spring coils. The disks rotate counter-clockwise while
the rods turn clockwise around the centre of the device. Schematic diagram is illustrated
in figure 1.
2.4 Sampling point is selected such that the anti-fouling system is intact over an area of
approximately 50 cm 50 cm or more. At each sampling point, three sets of sampling,
or more
if necessary, should be carried out to obtain at least six specimens.
2.5 The device is pressed on the ships hull where it is appropriate to be sampled and
held by
hand. The electric motor is switched on to slide along the painted surface to lightly
scrape off the
fragments of the paint onto the abrasive paper. After the sample collection, each disc is
removed
from the device and stored in an inert container.
2.6 Sampling should normally be carried out with the sampling device. However, in the
case

that accessibility to the sampling point is poor, it is acceptable to collect samples with
the discs
by hand if necessary.

spring coils
gears
motor unit
120mm 150mm
battery
discs (abrasive paper on top)