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Canberra, 23 May 1988

No. 11195
Submission No. 5799

Processing of the Report of the

Committee To Advise On Australia's
Immigration Policies (CAAIP)

The Cabinet agreed that :(a)

the Report of the Committee To Advise On

Australia's Immigration Policies (CAAIP) be
released on Friday 3 June for public comment,
and the Minister for Immigration, Local
Government and Ethnic Affairs organise a program
of consultations;


an inter-departmental committee (IDC) be

established to advise in the first instance on
policy and key administrative aspects of the
report; and


the Minister for Immigration, Local Government

and Ethnic Affairs issue a statement along the
lines of that at Attachment A to the Submission
when tabling the report, but with the ordering

... /2

T his d ocu m ent is the property of the A ustra lian Government and is not to be copied or reprod u ced




No. 11195 (Cont'd)
of points in paragraph 15 changed so that (b)
becomes (a);

(a) becomes (b);

(d) becomes (c)

and (c) (with the words 'continue to' deleted)

becomes (d) .

The Cabinet noted the intention of the Minister

for Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs,

following Cabinet consideration of a further Submission
covering the IDC's proposals,to make a substantive statement
to the Parliament before the end of the Budget Sittings 1988
about the Government's response to the CAAIP report, with
legislative and administrative action to follow in 1989.

Secretary to Cabinet

This document is the property of the Australian Government and is not to be copied or reproduced





Submission No ....


. 4;)c:::
Copy No.

. ~. .





Hon Clyde Holding MP, Minister For Immigration, Local

Government and Ethnic Affairs


To seek Cabinet's approval of procedures for the further

processing of the CAAIP Report.
(Copies of the Report are
available from the Cabinet Office).

established to implement an election commitment to

a broad review of immigration policies.

Relation to
existing policy

Sensitivity /Criticism

Yes. The work of CAAIP has attracted intense public

Some of its views and recommendations may raise
concern in sections of the community including in particular
the ethnic community.


\..., (ical/significant


Is there

Timing/handling of


Early public release of the report is necessary to achieve

informed public debate and feedback on ttre .. complex issues
canvassed in the report.
Prime Minister and Cabinet (PM&C>; Treasury; Finance;
Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT>; Attorney-General's (AGs>;
Employment, Education and Training (DEET>; Social Security
(DSS>; Community Services and Health (DCSH>
There are no objections to the broad procedures
Comments were made on details of the report
(DSS>, its handling (DSS, Treasury, DEET, AG's) and the
tabling statement (DSS, AG's); full comments are at
Tabling and public release of the report is proposed during
the week commencing 23 May.
A draft tabling statement is a
Fin Yr (

87 -


88 )

Fin Yr (

88 -

89 )

Fin Yr (


This document is the property of the Australian Government and is not to be copied or reproduced


89 -


90 )


CAAIP was asked to . make a broad examination of the principles
which should shape a long term immigration policy for Australia,
determine the objectives in terms of the composition and level
of a sustainable program which a rational policy implied and
address the administrative and legislative mechanisms through
which program delivery should be implemented.
Its response to
this brief has been the most far-reaching review of policy in
this sphere which has ever been undertaken and a report which
provides a benchmark against which we can test the depth of
community opinion and thoroughly review, and amend if necessary,
our current policy and the procedures employed to carry it out.
2. Th~ report is in three volumes - the report proper covering
findings and recommendations, a volume containing commissioned
research papers and a third which deals with model legislation.
A good overview of the thrust of CAAIP .'s findings can be
obtained from the executive summary of the report which appears
at ATTACHMENT B and the summary of recommendations at
In line with the span of its terms of reference, the
coverage of the report is wide-ranging.
The issues addressed,
however, fall into two broad categories: (a) matters of
principle which should set the economic and social framework for
the determination of a sustainable migration program which would
attract general community support and <b> matters of procedure
which relate to the administration of a rational program and the
legislative authority required to put it into effect.
Issues in the first category are dealt with ~n the earlier
chapters of the report.
Chapters 1 and 2 and part of Chapter 4
cover the major issues relating to immigration, the principles
and guidelines on which policies should be based and community
attitudes to these questions which CAAIP tested extensively in
the course of its inquiry.
Chapters 3 and 5 address the more
technical issues of the economic and demographic focus of
immigration policy and the translation of these factors into
concrete proposals on the composition and level of a migration






Issues in the second category are dealt with in the

remainder of the report.

The latter part of Chapter 4 covers
arrangements for settlement facilitation while Chapters 6 to 8
deal with the selection of migrants, the administration of the
program and enabling legislation respectively.
6. At this early stage, I have not formed a view on the merits
of the report as a whole much less on any of its many complex
and interdependent recommendations.

I am concerned, however,

to ensure that public discussion of the sensitive matters raised

in the report is launched without diversion by side issues and
proceeds on an informed basis.
Equally importantly, I wish to
ensure that a sound plan is agreed to progress a difficult
policy review through the Government's own deliberative

I am concerned that the debate is kept in perspective.


spite of some critical, and at times emotive language in the

report, the reality is that most of our policy is not in
The report confirms the Government's commitment to
progressive but modest increases to intake level; supports
immediate family reunion and refugee resettlement at around
existing levels; supports our priority to the development of
negotiated arrangements for skilled migrants consistent with
training effort; and supports our priority to business

The area of contention is the discretionary element

of extended family and independent migration.

CAAIP advocates
adjustments to the existing points system, and assigns
priorities for factqrs to be taken into account, but fails to
spell out. detailed weightings and scorings for the new factors.

The irony is that despite the criticism of Government policy by

CAAIP, its actual recommendations mainly confirm present
In a similar vein, the discussion of the social face of
immigration in Chapter 4 includes reference to

a general

misunderstanding of the philosophy of multiculturalism which

CAAIP encountered in the course of its consultations.


expressing concern at this situation, CAAIP ends the discussion

by noting the ideals of justice, equality and esteem on which




multiculturalism is based and the need to affirm these ideals as

part of our commitment to immigrants to this country.

The main matter requiring a decision at this time is

whether to proceed with an evaluation of proposals without

release of the report or to release the report immediately
and monitor public reaction as part of the evaluation

In view of the intense and emotive community interest which

has attended the work of the committee and the wide range of
interests which are potentially affected by our reaction to its
report - ethnic groups, trade unions, employer organisations and
professional associations to name but a few - I believe there is
no question that the immediate release of the report is the only
course to adopt.

This will also generate the feedback which

will guide us to a better decision and facilitate the wide

community consultation which I believe should be undertaken.

As delay would be pointless and would perhaps exacerbate

the political point scoring which could impede the attainment of

bipartisan consensus in this area, I propose to table the report
during the week commencing 23 May, which is -thB last scheduled
week of the current parliamentary .sittings.

I would then thank

CAAIP for its endeavours, invite comment and discussion on their

proposals and explain the processes that the Government will
follow to finalise issues along the lines of the brief draft
tabling statement which appears at ATTACHMENT A.

With regard to further processing within the Commonwealth,

I see this proceeding in two stages i.e. - first settle matters

of principle and policy with a major statement on _immigration
which responds to the report in the Budget Sittings, then
finalise our attitude to outstanding matters of procedure which
depend on these threshold policy questions either by
administrative action or by the introduction of amending
legislation in the Autumn Session of Parliament next year if
this is required.

I believe that consideration of the policy issues would be

facilitated by the early establishment of an inter-departmental

committee <IDC> to


initially on . matters of principle and




policy dealt with in early sections of the report.

This would

be chaired and serviced by my Department which would also be

responsible for the monitoring of public reaction to the report .
Members would be drawn from the departments of PM&C; DFAT;
Treasury; Finance; DEET; DSS; DCSH and AGs with representation
from other portfolios being co-opted as required for particular

The administrative recommendations contained in other

sections of the report <see para 5> are largely matters which
require settlement of a policy framework before they can be
effectively addressed.
The choice of detailed selection
methods for migrants, for example, will depend on policy on the
composition of a program and probably on its general level.
Apart from the matter of legislation, these issues are also
largely of internal interest to my portfolio or amenable to
settlement by agreement between Ministers.

I would therefore

see these matters being managed by my department with a view to

settling as much as possible by the time the statement is made
in the Budget Sittings, through consultation with other
departments or reference to the IDC if necessary.

I believe we should allow at least 3 months for community

response, including consultations which I will hold with major

ethnic groups, unions, employer organisations and other
community bodies.
reactions received.

My Department would monitor and analyse the

Meanwhile the IDC could commence

preliminary work, but clearly could not report before the end of
the community response period.

I would therefore plan on this


community response period to run until end-August




Cabinet Submission to Cabinet in October


statement to Parliament before the end of the Budget 1988


report by end-September on policy issues


legislative and administrative issues to be addressed in a

further IDC report and Submission to Cabinet in the early
months of 1989.





I recommend that Cabinet:


agree that the Report of the Committee To Advise On

Australia's Immigration Policies <CAAIP> be released immediately

for public comment, and that I organise a program of

approve the establishment of an inter-departmental

committee <IDC> to advise in the first instance on policy

aspects of the report;

note my intention that, following Cabinet consideration of

a further Submission from me covering the IDC's proposals, I

would make a substantive statement to the Parliament before the
end of the Budget Sittings 1988 about the Government's response
to the CAAIP report, with legislative and administrative action
to follow in 1989; and

agree that I make a brief statement along the lines of the

draft at ATTACHMENT A when tabling the report.

20 May 1988


Clyde Holding



For the information of Honourable Members, I table the Report of
the Committee to Advise on Australia's Immigration Policies
(CAAIP) entitled "Immigration- a Commitment to Australia".
The Committee to Advise on Australia's Immigration Policies
(CAAIP) was established by my predecessor, the Hen Michael J
Young, in September 1987, in response to a commitment by the
Government during the last elections for a review of immigration
policies, including the points system. There had been no major
review of immigration policies for 10 years.
The terms of reference asked the Committee to address all
pertinent matters including in broad terms, the following:
(a) the relationship between immigration and the economy,
including the effects on the labour market and economic
(b) the relationship between immigration and Australia's social
and cultural development as a multicultural society;
(c) the relationship between immigration and key population
(d) the overall capacity of Australia to receive significant - - immigration intakes; and
(e) the relationship between immigration policies including
compliance, and the administrative and legislative processes
In carrying out its work, the Committee was asked to:
(a) have regard to the principles that Australia's immigration
policies are non-discriminatory in respect of national or
ethnic origin, race, sex and religion and that it is a
sovereign right of the Australian Government to determine
who should enter;
(b) have regard to Australia's continuing commitment to play its
part in providing international humanitarian assistance to
those in need;
(c) note that the Government has ruled out an amnesty for
__ illegal immigrants;




(d) bear in mind settlement experiences insofar as they are
relevant to the framing of immigration policies, noting that
the Government is separately developing a National Agenda
for a Multicultural Australia; and
(e) undertake full consultation with interested parties through
written and oral submissions and other appropriate means;
(f) AND to report on:
the guiding principles which should shape
Australia's immigration policies, looking ahead to
the end of this century;
the balance of objectives which should be
reflected in policies in terms of composition and
level of immigration; and
administrative and legislative mechanisms
necessary for the implementation of immigration
The Committee was chaired by Dr Stephen FitzGerald, a
well-known academic and businessman, our first Ambassador to
China, currently a consultant on relations and trade with China,
Chairman of the Asian Studies council and a member of the
Advisory Council on Languages and Multicultural Education.
Members of the Committee included Mr Tony Bonnici A.M., Melbourne
barrister and Chairman of the Victorian Ethnic Communities
Council; Professor Helen Hughes, Professor of Economics and
Executive Director of the National Centre for Development
Studies, Australian National University; Mr Jim Hullick,
Secretary-General of the South Australian Local Government
Association; Mr Alan Matheson, Ethnic Liaison Officer with the
Australian Council of Trade Unions; Dr Alessandra . Pucci, Managing
Director of Australian Monoclonal Development Pty Ltd, QANTAS
businesswoman of the Year 1985. The Secretary to the Committee
was Mr Peter Eyles, then a senior official with the Department of
Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs.
CAAIP submitted its final report in May 1988. The report
consists of three volumes. Volume I is the report proper. It
consists of eight chapters and makes 73 recommendations.
Volumes II and III are the companion volumes. Volume II contains
reports of the 14 consultancies commissioned by the Committee as




Volume III includes

well as summaries of workshop proceedings.

proposals for a Model Migration Bill.
In the preparation of its report, the Committee undertook an
extensive process of consultations. To maximise access to these
consultations, CAAIP established a toll-free telephone line.
More than 900 calls were received and comments were recorded. It
advertised widely through local, national and specialist media
outlets and distributed 5,000 copies of a specially prepared
booklet "Understanding Immigration". The Chairman and Secretary
wrote to about 1,200 organisations and individuals inviting them
to lodge submissions.
Face-to-face consultations were conducted in all capital
cities and four regional centres with 587 people representing
ethnic community groups (162), employer, business and unions
(110), service deliverers, churches and community groups (103),
government (98), academics (32), legal/advocacy (15), political
(5), Aboriginals (13) and other, including the RSL, arts and
culture, opinion makers and students (45).
The Committee received 970 written submissions, from 570
individuals, and from 400 organisations including business (40),
ethnic communities (100), church and refugee groups (50),
bureaucracy (30), service providers (35), community groups (25),
government/politics (25), legal/advocacy (25), professional
associations (20), unions (10), and others, including academic
and conservationists (40).
10. In addition, four workshops were held to begin trialling and
analysing options. These were attended by over 150 individuals
and organisations.
11. I now turn to the report.
12. Overall, it provides support for much of the present
direction of our immigration and multicultural policies. A
number of its recommendations already are in place and CAAIP
merely seeks their continuation or re-affirmation.
13. We are on the right track- we have been gradually adjusting
and modifying our policies over the years in line with rapid
economic and social change - mastering the art of fine-tuning.
14. I anticipate and welcome broad community participation in
discussion of the report's recommenda~ions. However, without





pre-empting community discussion of the report, I wish to say at
the outset that the Government remains committed to certain basic
principles in the development of its immigration policies .
15. These are that:
(a) immigration policy will remain non-discriminatory in terms
of national or ethnic origin, race, sex or religion;
(b) immigration policy will continue to be based on the national
(c) economic considerations - including domestic training and
retraining requirements - will continue to feature
prominently in any expansion of the immigration program;
(d) family migration will remain a vital component;
(e) policy will continue to take proper account of Australia's
human resources.
16. The Government's commitment to the fostering and development
of a multicultural society remains within the Australian culture
a cornerstone of its social justice policies and an important
element of its economic strategy by creating a climate in which
we can make full and effective use of all our human resources,
irrespective of linguistic and cultural background. It is thus
an essential domestic policy to complement our non-discriminatory
immigration policy.
17. There are many elements of the Committee's report which
offer constructive opportunities for debate.
18. For example, the Government remains concerned that so many
permanent residents fail to take up the option of citizenship.
We believe that citizenship is a legitimate expression of
national commitment and wish to provide positive encouragement to
immigrants to take up Australian citizenship. We would welcome
community views on this question.
19. The report raises a wide range of other issues which provide
legitimate ground for debate and discussion. This includes a
"Model Migration Bill" which contains radical proposals in
relation to the role of the Minister, enforcement, external
review and determination of refugee status procedures. The
policy and administrative implications of these proposals are
substantial. They require careful examination and appropriate
consultation, especially with State G~vernments on all matters
raised in the report which affect their functions.





20. In commissioning this review the Government was conscious
that there was a level of concern in the community about
immigration policies, numbers, composition of the intake and the
immigrant's role in a changing Australian society.
21 . The Committee's report identifies many of these concerns and
sets them in a broader national context.
22. We share the Committee's view that immigration should occupy
a central place in national policy formulation and that its
essential contribution to Australia's social and economic
development should be more strongly promoted.
23. It argues that immigration policy must be for all
Australians and must be in the mainstream of government
decision-making. That immigration policies must be identified
with public interest, be based on a coherent philosophy and be
given a convincing rationale.
24. The report identifies this rationale as principally an
economic one but one that must be in harmony with social and
humanitarian objectives.
25. Immigration in itself cannot be a tool for economic
adjustment. Its value is that it can contribute to structural
adjustment by having a positive impact on economic growth and
living standards, contributing to improvements in productivity
and maintaining an appropriate balance in the age profile of the
26. Arising from this, the Committee argues for a sharper
economic focus through an increase in the size of the program to
accommodate a larger new Open category where the selection
process would favour skilled, entrepreneurial and youthful
immigrants. Language skills and kinship or other . links with
Australia would also weigh in selection. Procedures and barriers
in the labour market which discourage skilled immigrants from
fulfilling their potential must also be removed.
27. The report also makes recommendations in regard to
settlement policy, the administration of the program and
proposals for new legislative requirements.




28. It should also be noted that, while the Committee
encountered widespread misunderstanding of the concept of
multiculturalism, it observed that the need for multiculturalism
ought not to be disputed, and recognised a need to reaffirm the
ideals upon which mul ticul is based.
29. The Government emphasises that it has made no decision in
relation to CAAIP's proposals. It intends that a period of some
three months should be set aside for public evaluation and
comment. During that time State Governments, major ethnic
bodies, the trade union movement, key industry organisations and
Australians with an interest in this issue will be able to
contribute their views on the report and the future direction of
immigration policy. My Department will monitor and evaluate the
comments made, and report to me. The Government will also
establish an interdepartmental committee to commence an
evaluation of the report's proposals, and I have asked the
National Population Council to advise me on some of the important
issues that arise.
30. Following on these processes, I shall put to Cabinet my
recommendations regard~ng the report, with the intention that I
would announce the Government's decisions on the main policy
issues during the forthcoming Budget Sittings. At that time I
would also indicate the Government's attitude towards the
Committee's proposals for legislative and administrative change,
and a timetable for implementation of agreed reforms.
31. The Committee has undertaken a far-reaching review of our
immigration policies and programs. Its proposals deserve, and
will receive, thorough and careful consideration. As the
timetable I have announced makes clear, there will be neither
rush to decide nor unnecessary delay. I might mention here that,
for planning purposes, I must shortly be in a position to
announce the Government's proposals for the 1988/89 immigration
intake. Clearly there will be only very limited opportunity to
take account of the Committee's proposals, many of which would
require a significant lead time if they were to be implemented.





32. I wish to express the Government's thanks to the members of
the Committee for this signific~nt and forthright report which
may well be considered as the most far-reaching review of
Australia's immigration policies ever undertaken. I commend the
CAAIP report for the consideration of the House. I present the
following paper:
"Immigration - A Commitment to Australia" - Report of the
Committee to Advise on Australia's Immigration Policies Ministerial Statement, 26 May 1988.




Executive Summary

Chapter One. Central Issues in Immigration Reform

Immigration, worldwide, is under pressure. At present,
Australia's immigration policies are not managing the
increasing demand. Without immediate reform, current
selection mechanisms will deliver many tens of thousands of
immigrants more than the planned immigration program.
Problems with current immigration policies are not
limited to the numbers. Widespread mistrust and failing
consensus threaten community support of immigration. The
program is not identified in the public mind with the
national interest, and must be given a convincing rationale.
Selection methods need a sharper economic focus, for
the public to be convinced that the in
Australia's interests. Without it, the core principles of
current immigration policy, non-discrimination, and family
immigration plus the need for opportunities for non-English
speakers, are clearly at risk.
Research commissioned by the Committee indicates that
the skills profile of some groups of immigrants has fallen.
Improving the skills level of immigrants is critical if
immigration is to contribute to enhanced economic
performance and improvements in living standards in the
longer term.
Many Australians are not convinced that immigrants are
making a commitment to their new country. Inevitable changes
to their society, brought by immigration, trouble them. Poor
rates for the taking up of citizenship di"sturb them.
The status of~citizenship is seriously undervalued. One
million immigrants'have declined to take it. Citizenship
should reflect a commitment to Australia and its
institutions and principles.
Immigration must be a two-way commitment between the
immigrant and Australian society. Key Australian principles
and institutions must have the support of the immigrant, and
citizenship must be a watershed in the immigrant experience.



Government should move to restrict the non-survival
benefits and privileges available to non-citizens.
Non-citizens should not be able to. sponsor immigrants,
except in certain compassionate circumstances.
Immigration policy is for all Australians, not for
sectional interest groups. It must not be allowed to slide
into the margins of government decision-making. It must be
~n the mainstream.
A coherent philosophy of immigration is needed. Such a
philosophy should emphasise the Australian context of
immigration and the commitment required of all Australians
to Australia and its future, and allow Australians to
understand how immigration affects them now and in the
future, how it can contribute to a positive harmony of
economic and social benefits, to a culturally enriched
Australia, to openness, tolerance and sophistication, to
economic independence, to creativity, and to a racially
diverse, harmonious community.
Chapter Two. Community Views and Perspectives.
Australians want to be heard and to be informed on
immigration matters. The Committee has heard and read views
representing hundreds of thousands of Australians, and
commissioned three independent studies of community
attitudes towards immigration. We have taken them into
account in formulating the recommendations of this Report.
Major issues of concern to the community included
immigration numbers, composition of the intake and the
immigrant's role in changing Australian society. Race did
not come through as a major concern, although the Committee
recognised it as an issue attracting widespread publicity,
and one requiring attention.

Economic issues underpinned much anxiety, as did the

widespread belief that the community was not being consulted
or informed about immigration policy. Great diversity, but
also considerable consensus, of opinion emerged on the right
balance of economic and social objectives in immigration.
Confusion and mistrust of multiculturalism, focussing
on the suspicion that it drove immigration policy, was very
broadly articulated. Many people, from a variety of
occupational and cultural backgrounds, perceived it as
divisive. The majority of these people also expressed
concern about immigrants' commitment to Australia and to
Australian principles and institutions.



English language emerged as another central issue of
concern, many people arguing strongly for its inclusion in
the immigration selection criteria, some others asserting
that it should not be part of selection but should be the
first priority of settlement facilitation.
Chapter Three. The Economic Focus and Population Issues

The sharper economic focus for which the Government has

called is the most central issue in immigration reform. The
composition of the immigration program, and of skill levels,
are critical if immigration is to contribute to enhanced
economic performance. The skills profile of some groups of
immigrants has fallen. The median age is rising.
Immigration can have a positive impact on economic
growth and living standards, although it cannot work in
isolation from other economic policies. Together with these
policies, carefully formulated, it can contribute to
improvement in the productivity of the workforce and
retarding of the ageing of the population.
The budget costs of immigration are relatively low.
But immigration alone cannot be seen as a solution to
industry development and environmental problems, nor can it
be engineered to decentralise population.
To realise its potential economic benefits to
Australia, the immigration program needs a high proportion
of skilled, entrepreneurial and youthful immigrants, with
English and other language skills playing a part in
selection. Procedures and barriers in the labour market,
particularly non-recognition of qualifications, which
discourage skilled immigrants from fulfilling their
potential must be removed.
Selection of skilled immigrants cannot be at the
expense of the obligation on employers and education
authorities to provide training and re-training programs.
Chapter Four. Immigration and Society .
Immigration is not just about economics. Because it is
about people, immigration policy must also be recognised as
having a considered social dimension. For immigration to be
successful, we need to ensure that we have both aspects
The social dimension of immigration requires a two-way
commitment between Australia and the immigrant. A harmony of
outcomes for both is the goal.



Although settlement philosophy is much more welcoming
today than it was 40 years ago, the community is still not
convinced we have it right. The philosophy of
multiculturalism is not widely understood, and the
uninformed ensuing debate is damaging the cause it seeks to

Settlement facilitation on a day-to-day level must give

overriding priority to English teaching, skills recognition
and bridging and upgrading, support to immigrant women who
are often isolated and discriminated against, and
translation and interpreter services.
So that overseas-born Australians are not treated as
exceptions for the rest of their lives, a line of
distinction in the delivery of services must be drawn
between the first two years following immigration and later
government responsibilities, when DILGEA's responsibility
should be handed over to other agencies.
The importance of the family and immigrant networks and
communities in facilitating settlement is critical, and
should be encouraged.
Although we have a more welcoming philosophy of
immigration and better settlement facilitation services,
discrimination and racism are still realities in the
community and public structures. To supplement
anti-discrimination legislation, we must extend affirmative
action policy to combat discrimination against overseas-born
Australians have come a long way in their attitudes to
immigration since the demise of the White Australia policy.
It is no longer seen as respectable institutionally to
espouse racist views. Racism is no basis for immigrant
selection. But racism exists throughout the society and
government must recognise it and provide leadership in
combating it.
Australia's more welcoming stance on immigration is
best illustrated in its support for the refugee program.
This element of immigration is also our finest example of
the two-way commitment between immigrant and society, and
should provide a positive outlook for Australia's capacity
to absorb immigrants.
Chapter Five. The Size and Composition of the Immigration
Immigration planning has been ad hoc, leading to
unmanageable pressure on numbers control, services and




The program needs perspective planning in a 10 year

timeframe. Annual program size targets for the first three
years and indicative targets for the next seven years should
be formulated in advance.
The annual target for the years 1988/89 to 1990/91
should be 150 000, beginning half way through 1988/89.
Targets for the following seven years will depend on social
and economic conditions.
Chapter Six. Selection.
Selection in immigration is about rationing and
choosing. That means limiting the numbers to available
places arinually and, in the appropriate immigration
categories, choosing immigrants in Australia's national
The current points test is serving neither of these
The Committee's proposed system has three categories,
Family Immigration, Refugee and Humanitarian and a new Open
category. The proposed Family Immigration category has much
the same qualifying criteria as the current category for
close family reunion <i.e. as distinct from extended
family>, with some loosening. The proposed Refugee and
Special Humanitarian category is divided into two elements,
one established for people identified by the Australian
Government and the other for people identified by community
organisations able to provide settlement support.
For the proposed new third category an Open Immigration
Selection System should be adopted, based on seven sets of
criteria weighted in the following priority order: labour
market skills, entrepreneurial and special talents, age,
language capacity, including English, as an employability
factor, kinship in Australia, other links with Australia and
attributes of spouse.
The new system should adopt a global assessment of all
applicants and select only the highest scorers, abandoning
the present system whereby everyone who reaches a pass mark
is eligible, irrespective of numbers, which has resulted in
the current blowout in numbers and the creation of a queue.
Under the Committee's proposals, extended family, in the
kinship factor, continues to count, but only as secondary to
skills, entrepreneurship, age and language, and only if the
kinship is with an Australian citizen.
The separate Grant of Residence Status policy should be



Chapter Seven. Administration.
Policy reform must be complemented by administrative
reform. The new administration of DILGEA has this in hand
but inherits a serious image problem.
Administrative .reform is needed in the areas of
selection and training of staff, consulting and planning
mechanisms, research, public education and recognition of
overseas . qualifications.

Staff selection and training must be improved to create

a more professional immigration service. Consulting and
planning mechanisms must be related to broad national
objectives and involve the whole community.
A Minister's Committee on Immigration should be
established, with a substantive role in policy formulation,
and a well-resourced Bureau of Immigration Research must be
set up within DILGEA.
Fundamental to all aspects of reform is community
education. The Australian public is demanding to be informed
on immigration matters. Information distribution should not
be limited to specific interest groups.
In developing its recommendations the Committee was
conscious that there is a need to balance the long-term
economic benefits of immigration against current budgetary
constraints. Accordingly, the Committee believes its
recommendations should be substantially implemented through
the reallocation of existing resources or through the
introduction or extension of user-pays arrangements.
However, we recognise that a number of recommendations
could not be implemented without some additional costs to
the budget, especially increased post arrival costs
associated with program increases. On the advice of the
Department and the Secretariat, it is estimated that the
direct portfolio costs of the recommendations would be
approximately S11 million in 1988/89, $8 million in 1989/90
and S9 million in 1990/91.
Chapter Eight. Legislation.
A more positive foundation to immigration policy and
administration has been constructed in the form of a new,
model Bill.






That the Australian Bureau of Statistics' definition of
Asia be revised to exclude the countries west of India,
Pakistan and Afghanistan.
That the Government affirm its commitment to immigration
policies which are non-discriminatory in respect of national
or ethnic origin, race, sex or religion, and that this
principle be asserted in all relevant published information.
That the Government affirm a commitment to an immigration
philosophy which will produce as we enter the 21st century
such outcomes in society as are outlined in Chapter 1 of the
Report, and that immigration philosophy be further developed
and refined on this basis and communicated broadly to the
Australian community.
That immigration policies be developed in the national
interest and for all Australians, and that in the philosophy
of immigration emphasis is given to Australia, the Australian
identity and commitment to Australia.
That immigration be dealt with centrally, to ensure that
it is brought properly within the mainstream of government
deliberations and dealt with as an aspect of mainstream
policy. making and strategic thinking on important economic and
social issues.
That the principle whereby immigration policies are not
determined by bilateral relations be reaffirmed, and that we
should continue to pursue our international obligations and
humanitarian objectives through the established international
That immigration not be used to ease the economic or
political problems of particular countries or communities,
recognising, however, that refugee policies and programs may
be based on an assessment of the situation in a particular
That government develop and explain to the public a
rationale for immigration, proceeding from the philosophy
outlined in this Report and .addressing the contribution of
immig_ration to national economic and social objectives and the
link between the two, and the national and international
context in which immigration takes place.

That the following be adopted as the guiding




principles for immigration policies and that they be

publicised extensively in the community.

The Australian Government alone will determine who

will be admitted to Australia consistent with laws
enacted by the Federal Parliament to regulate


Only an Australian citizen or holder of a valid

resident visa has a right to enter Australia.

iii. Immigration policies will be determined by

Australia's national interests as defined by major
government policies and strategies for Australia's
social, economic and cultural development. Policies
will seek a harmony of outcomes between economic and
social interests.

Immigration will respond to the needs of individuals

by upholding close family reunion and humanitarian


In selecting between one individual and another,

immigration policy will be non-discriminatory on
grounds of race, colour, descent or national or
ethnic origin, sex and religion.


Applicants may be considered for immigration as

family units but will not be considered as community

vii. Immigrants will be required to respect the

institutions and principles which are basic to
Australian society, including parliamentary
democracy, the rule of law and equality before the
law, freedom of the individual, freedom of speech,
freedom of the press, freedom of religion, equality
of women, universal education. Reciprocally,
Australia will be committed to facilitating the
equal participation of immigrants in society.
viii.Citizenship will be given due recognition as a
symbol of commitment to Australia .and its future,
and be associated with a requirement to respect
Australia's institutions and principles.

Australia will encourage the entry of visitors to

Australia for the purpose of fostering trade and
commerce, tourism, cultural and scientific
activities and international understanding.





Immigration policies will be determined and

implemented in such a way as to maintain and protect
_the health, safety and good order of Australian

Training/Retraining Obligations
10. That in the adoption and implementation of any of the
measures proposed in this Report for the selection of skilled
immigrants, there should be concomitant measures, including
particularly negotiated arrangements, to ensure that the
commitment and the obligation of employers and education
authorities to train and retrain Australians are fully and
properly discharged.
Settlement Facilitation
11. That the Department adopt as an objective a shift in
priority in settlement services to those who have been here
for less than two years, and that the needs of immigrants who
have been here for more than two years become the
responsibility of other service delivery and appropriate
policy departments: Social Security; Health and Community
Services; Employment, Education and Training; Industry,
Technology and Commerce; and Industrial Relations.
12. That in public spending, priority be given to four areas
which the Committee identifies as critical to the settlement
English, skills recognition and bridging and
upgrading, support for women immigrants and interpreting and
translation services.
13. That responsibility for adult immigrant edu~at:ion b"e
transferred to the Department of Employment, Education and
Training for immigrants who have been in Australia for more
than two years.
14. That much greater use be made of distance learning for
the teaching of English, in particular by making maximum use
of the Special Broadcasting Service <radio and television>,
including provision of funding for new SBS programs, which
should also be offered for use by the ABC and on non
prime-time commercial television in regional areas.
15. That resources be made available to allow for 12 months
of intensive English - as a Second Language for every immigrant
child who has the need.




16. That English language programs be an integral part of all

appropriate industry restructuring plans which require the
skills of workers to be further developed and enha~ced.
17. That as a further phase in the current affirmative action
legislation, the Government take the necessary legislative
action to ensure equal employment opportunities for immigrants
in the private sector.
18. That government examine ways of restricting public
benefits to non-citizens as a means of enhancing the value of
citizenship, beginning with non-survival benefits.
That entitlement to sponsor immigrants be limited to
Australian citizens, except in instances where those being
sponsored are spouses, dependent children, or
refugee/humanitarian cases
20. That citizenship ceremonies be made more meaningful by
linking the grant of citizenship with a declaration to respect
fundamental institutions and principles in Australian society,
and that this declaration be foreshadowed when immigrants are
Possible Citizenship Declaration
I undertake to respect the laws of Australia and fulfil
my duties as an Australian citizen.
I will endeavour to inform myself about the principles
upon which these laws, and related institutions, are
I undertake to accept and respect the institutions and
principles of Australian society, including parliamentary
democracy, the rule of law and equality before the law,
freedom of the individual, freedom of speech, freedom of
the press, freedom of religion, equality of women,
universal education.
I undertake to accept and respect the principle of
non-discrimination on grounds of race, colour, descent
and national or ethnic origin which informs the laws and
institutions of Australian society and the immigration policy of Australia and under which I have taken up
residence in Australia and thereby become entitled to
Australian citizenship.
That a group of eminent Australians be appointed to
advise on further ways of making citizenship a more meaningful
commitment to Australia and of encouraging its acquisition.




Time frame and Program Size
22. That pla~ning be in the form of a 10 year rolling
forecast. At any one time there should be a fixed intake for
the first three years with an indicative intake for the
following seven years.
23. That there be a program of 150 000 per annum from 1988/89
until 1990/91.
Until such time as the changes to immigration
categories and selection have been effected, the program
should be in pro rata terms. The first full year at
150 000 would be 1989/90, and this would be maintained for
24. That until the Government assesses that it has the
program right, more substantial increases not be contemplated.
25. That the immigration program in the period to June 1991
be carefully monitored to assess whether the introduction of
perspective planning, improved selection, <that is the
emphasis on youth, skill and entrepreneurship>, and better
targeted post-arrival services, has increased the impact of
immigration on economic growth and improved Australia's
capacity to absorb immigrants.
26. That the composition of the program for the three years
from 1988/89 <beginning in January 1989> to 1990/91 be as

Category A <Family Immigration> to remain

self-determining, but likely to increase to about
40 000;
ii> Category B <Refugee/Humanitarian> be increased to 15 000;
iii> Category C <Open Category> to form the balance of around
95 000.


Immigration Categories
27. That the immigration program consist of three categories:
Family Immigration, Refugee and Humanitarian, and Open.
Family Immi g ration
28. That the Family Immigration Category be expanded to cover
grandparents of Australian citizens, 55 years of age or older,
that the job offer requirement be dropped for parents 55 years
of age and over, and that parents under 55 be processed in the
Open category.




Refug ee and Humanitarian Prog ram

29. That the Refugee and Humanitarian category remain as a
humanitarian provision to respond to resettlement demands
which arise overseas.
30. That two distinct but complementary programs be
established for refugee and humanitarian cases. One would be
for people identified by the Australian Government as needing
resettlement on humanitarian grounds. The other would be for
humanitarian cases identified by community organisations with
international agency affiliations and with the capacity to
verify such cases and provide settlement support.
In all
cases, it will remain the responsibility of the Australian
Government to decide who will be accepted for resettlement in
31. That in 1988/89 the government and community programs
number a total of 15 000 places, in which there should be a
flexible contingency figure.
The size of the program should
be reviewed after one year and the number of places reduced if
the program has not been filled.
The Government should pay .
the travel costs to Australia of a total of 7 500 people, of
which up to 1 000 places would be available for agency
sponsorship. This latter arrangement should also be reviewed
at an agreed time.
32. That funding go to those in most humanitarian need,
namely refugees and in-co~ntry rescue cases.
33. That the existing Community Refugee Settlement Scheme be
expanded to offer support to all refugees including agency
sponsored cases.
34. That from 1988/89 Australia gradually disengage itself
from Indochinese resettlement, in line with the decreasing
outflow and diminishing numb~r of refugees from Indochina and
in the context of positive strategies for solutions to this
35. That the allocations in the refugee program for refugees
from different regions in the world cease to be regarded as
quotas or targets.
36. That Australia work in multilateral forums towards a
separatB-program of measures, including a legal framework, for
the orderly and humane management of mass movements of
undocumented migrants.




Open Category
37. That selection for the Open category be based on three
fundamental elements:

self-assessment, or the assessment by applicants of

their prospects prior to formal assessment, a
process which should help to eliminate frivolous


scoring on the basis of factors which reflect

Australia's economic, demographic, social and
cultural. interests;


an order of merit approach which, by taking the top

scorers from around the world, selects only enough
to meet the proposed size of the program, replacing
the present system whereby everyone who scores 70
points or more is el~gible.

38. That a task force comprising relevant government,

employer and union representatives be established to
facilitate the introduction of negotiated arrangements.
39. That the renewal of negotiated arrangements continue to
be conditional on the relevant industry demonstrating a record
of commitment to training and retraining.
40. That seven groups of factors should form the basis of the
selection procedure in the following order of priority:
labour market skills; entrepreneurship and special talents;
age; language capacity including English as an employability
factor; kinship in Australia; links with Australia; attributes
of spouse.
41. That tripartite negotiated agreements <government,
employers, trade unions> be central to the allocation of
points to different skills under the labour market skills
They should largely determine where the skill
shortages are and which skills should receive the -highest
points. These negotiated arrangements should supersede the
existing OSS and ENS sub-categories.
42. That the contribution of people with entrepreneurial
skills to Australia's economic development be recognised by
awarding a significant number of points for entrepreneurship,
including a component on capital transfer insofar as it
relates to a business venture.
43. That for business immigrants the grant of Australian
citizenship be contingent on provision qf proof of a business
venture having been set up.





44. That an effective monitoring and auditing system be

established to cover both the investment of funds by business
immigrants and the activities of accredited business
immigration agents.
45. That a greater emphasis be placed on youth in the
immigration program, not only because of the demographic
argument, but also because of the dynamism and innovation
which youthful immigrants can bring to this country. The
actual points allocation for age should be determined on the
basis of which age groups have the most impact in reducing the
median age of the immigrant intake while maximising skill
46. That applicants be able to score on
either by having a knowledge of English,
multilingual or by being proficient in a
importance, for example, the language of

the language factor

by being bilingual or
language of national
a major trading

47. That the kinship factor give more points to siblings,

adult children, nieces and nephews, parents and grandparents
of Australian citizens, and fewer points to more distant
relatives. No points on this factor should be allocated to
applicants whose kin in Australia are not Australian citizens.
That an adjustment be made to the score of applicants on
the basis of skills and other relevant attributes of spouses
for example, by the allocation of bonus points.
That the highest weightings go to the skills and
entrepreneurship factors.
People covered by negotiated
agreements should be given maximum points on the skills factor
and this should ensure their selection provided they score
adequately on the age and language factors.
The weightings
for entrepreneurship/special talents should be sufficiently
high to facilitate the entry of business immigrants and the
exceptionally talented, once their eligibility has been
established. The age factor should receive the next highest
weighting so as to deliver a low median age in the Open
category. Language capacity should have the next highest
weighting, close in importance to the age factor.
The order
of priority of the remaining factors, which are of lesser
importance than the above, should be kinship, other links with
Australia, and attributes of spouses. The latter three
factors must - be weighted to support the broad objectives of
the Open category.
50. That infectious diseases continue to be taken as a basis
for excluding immigrants but that applicants with disabilities




be assessed in the light of economic and family circumstances

and taking account of the public health costs involved in
their care and treatment.
Settlement Assessment
51. That the settlement assessment be dropped for all
immigration categories.
Elig ibility for Sponsorship
52. That entitlement to sponsor immigrants, including through
the kinship factor in the Open category, be limited to
Australian citizens, except in instances where those being
sponsored are spouses, dependent children or
refugee/humanitarian cases.
Nexus between Temporary and Permanent Stay
53. That the criteria whereby people temporarily in Australia
are assessed for permanent residence be the same as for
immigration applicants overseas. Accordingly, the practice of
granting resident status to people temporarily in Australia
<change of status> should be discontinued, but applications
within all entry categories should be accepted from people
while in Australia.
54. That people app~ying in Australia under the Open category
not be permitted to extend their visas pending decisions and
not have access to review rights. Sponsors would be entitled
to seek review. Anyone who is illegally in Australia by
unauthorised stay beyond the expiry of a visa, or by illegal
entry, should forfeit the right to apply for immigration while
here or be automatically rejected if they have already
55. That existing entry provisions for special need
' relationships be expanded to cover cases of emotional
inter-dependency between an overseas applicant and an
Australian citizen, currently dealt with by the grant of
resident status provisions. This should include widowed
in-laws of Australian citizens (but only those people formerly
married to brothers, sisters or adult children of their
Australian sponsors> who have young children, and are without
family or other means of emotional support in the horne

To deal with temporary residents equitably, that:


spouses and children accompanying parents be permitted to






where the head of the family and/or spouses or children

are working and thus paying taxes, the members of the
immediate family accompanying parents to Australia should
have the same access to education as other Australian

57. That early steps be taken to protect the integrity of the

total immigration program where it might be compromised by the
unintended consequences of other government programs, for
example, by certain schemes for temporary entrants such as
Australia and New Zealand:

Immigration Policies

58. That in the longer term, steps be taken to align

Australian and New Zealand immigration policies.
A Professional Immig ration Service
59. That the Department recruit a greater mix of highly
qualified staff, including demographers, economists,
psychologists, sociologists, statisticians, lawyers, political
scientists and business graduates.
60. That proficiency in a language or languages other than
English should be emphasised in the appointment of officers to
the Department.
61. That there be continued and enhanced commitment at all
levels of the Department including Regional Offices to the EEO
Program, and to close monitoring of its progress.
numerical targets should be set for representation of women
and people of non-English speaking background in key positions
in the Department, while ensuring that the merit system
continues to prevail.
62. That further efforts be made to increase the
representation of women in the immigration service overseas.
63. That the objective of a new approach to the service
should be a more professional, more integrated immigration
service, from the enquiry counters at Regional Offices, to the
operations of our posts overseas, and the provision of policy
advice to government.
64. That there be established an independent Minister's
Committee on Immigration with a substantive role in policy
65. That the proposed Minister's Committee on Immigration be
able to draw on a well-resourced resea~ch capability through a
new and independent body to be called the Bureau of
Immigration Research.




Consulting and Planning

66. That every two years there should be an Immigration
Outlook Conference, supported by professional papers, .with the
first conference to be held in late 1989.
Keeping the Community Informed
67. That an integrated and coherent approach to public
education be undertaken to dispel community misconceptions.
Distribution of Staff Overseas
68. That the distribution of staff overseas be related to the
number of immigration decisions likely to be made at each
overseas post after applicants have been pre-selected.
Providing Better Service to Clients
69. That there be a comprehensive review of recruitment,
training and supervision of locally engaged staff, but that
where possible and appropriate, Australians living or
travelling abroad be recruited as immigration aides at
Australian overseas missions.
70. That in any information materials prepared for clients,
the Department ensure that due emphasis is placed on the
position and rights of women in Australia and on Australia's
commitment to giving women the same access and opportunity as
men to the immigration process. Where possible, women
immigration officers should be available to counsel women
Immigration Fees
71. That fees continue to be applied to immigration services
and be extended to fund services such as the provision of
information kits to facilitate self-selection. Fees should be
waived in cases of extreme hardship.
Recognition of Qualifications
72. That as a priority the National Board of Employment,
Education and Training take responsibility for developing a
strategy to integrate accreditation procedures within the
relevant Federal body responsible for labour market planning.



31 .

Model Migration Bill
73. That a draft Bill, drawing on the Committee's model, be
introduced into Parliament as soon as possible to replace the
existing Migration Act.




"The Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet supports the
recommendations proposed by the Minister."

"The Department of Community Services and Health supports

the procedure proposed by the Minister for Immigration, Local

Government and Ethnic Affairs for dealing with the report, and
the proposed departmental participation on the IDC."

"The Department of Social Security supports the

recommendations in the draft Cabinet Submission.

It recognises

that the timing of the period for consultation is largely

determined by the desire to make a substantive statement to the
Parliament before the end of the Budget sittings.
Nevertheless, given the complexity and breadth of the issues to
be resolved and the intense public interest in these matters, a
period of three months for community consultations may be seen
to be somewhat short.
There will also be matters of administrative complexity to be
finalised, e.g. the selection criteria, before final decisions
can be taken on the matters raised in the CAAIP report.


experience suggests that it can take a considerable time to work

out precise criteria and administrative arrangements for
applying them.
It is unnecessary to canvass substantive matters in the CAAIP
report at this stage but DSS suggests that the ministerial
statement might note that the level of migrant intakes has to
take account of Australia's absorptive capacity.

This does not

seem to be covered at present.

It notes also that the report does not seem to cover the need
for a process of evaluation of the immigration settlement

Perhaps the report does canvass the question of

whether consideration should be given to means of increasing

domestic population growth, vis-a-vis immigration intakes, but




there is no indication of that in the Executive Summary.

Finally, DSS considers that some issues will need very careful
attention, e.g. the proposal to change the roles of the
Minister, enforcement, external review and refugee status
determination procedures as well as the question of
determination of applications for permanent residence by people
already in Australia and incentives to become citizens."
"Treasury supports the thrust of the recommendations.


the emphasis of the CAAIP report on the relationship between

immigration and the economy, including the effects on the labour
market and economic development, it would be appropriate to
refer consideration of these aspects at least to the Structural
Adjustment Committee <SAC> to ensure consistency <and
continuity> with its recent work on the labour market and skills

In particular, it would be appropriate for the

proposed IDC to report to the SAC on recommendations related to

these areas.
The same IDC, if appropriate, could report
separately to the Minister for Immigration, Local Government and
Ethnic Affairs on other aspects of the report and its

"The Department is in broad agreement with the procedures

outlined in the Submission for carrying forward consideration of

the CAAIP report.

However in relation to the proposed IDC,

DEET believes that its initial terms of reference should not

. necessarily be restricted to matters of principle and policy

In particular, policy considerations of the composition

and size of the program cannot be divorced from consideration of

selection methods.

The Department considers that the economic

elements of the CAAIP report could be considered by the

Structural Adjustment Committee in view of their importance to
economic development in Australia . in the medium term.
DEET has a keen interest in detailed selection methods for
migrants in 'economic' categories, and would wish to be involved





in the development of any new points system."

"Whilst the Attorney-General's Department understands the

need for dissemination of the report for public comment, it

believes that it would be most imprudent to do so without the
Government clearly stating in the tabling statement that it has
made no decisions on the recommendations of the Committee
relating to the criminalisation of the deportation process and
would not make those decisions . without full consultation with
the States and the Northern Territory.

As mentioned in earlier

advice to the Department of Immigration, Local Government and

Ethnic Affairs, this proposal would add a significant burden to
the States and Territories Magistrates Courts, as well as to
their correctional services institutions and would undoubtedly
lead to claims by them for increased Commonwealth funding.
Additionally, it would be imprudent to lead the States and
Territories to believe that such significant additional burdens
would be imposed unilaterally by the Commonwealth.
The Attorney-General's Department also disagrees with the
statement at page 2 that "a good overview of the thrust of
CAAIP's findings can be obtained from the executive summary of
the report which appears at ATTACHMENT B ... ".


criminalisation of the deportation process, something not known

to be done by any other country in the world, is not adverted to
in the summary. "

"Finance has no objection to the procedures outlined in the


"The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade does not wish

to comment on the procedural aspects of handling the CAAIP

report but notes that there is likely to be considerable
international interest in any Government statement on this
question and in the report itself.
to ensure_ t~at overseas posts are

Arrangements will be made


with information

which will enable them to respond to this interest."




<r- ~
f'- 1