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Software :- software is generic term for organized collection of computer data

instructions often broken into two major categories they are,

1) Application software

Application software is a set of one or more programs designed to carry out operations for
a specific application. Application software cannot run on itself but is dependent on system
software to execute. Examples of application software include MS Word, MS Excel, a console
game, a library management system, a spreadsheet system etc.
1) Opera (web browser)

Fig 1.1. Opera 22.0 displaying its About page on

Windows 8.1

Opera is a web browser developed by Opera Software. The latest version currently runs
on Microsoft Windows and Operating and uses the Blink layout. An earlier version using the

Presto layout engine is still supported, and additionally runs on Linux and FreeBSD systems. As
of September 2014, a Blink-based Linux version is available on the beta stream. Editions of
Opera are available for devices running the Android, ions, Simian, Memo, Bade, BlackBerry and
Windows Mobile operating systems, and for Java ME capable devices.
According to Opera Software, the browser had 350 million users worldwide (275 million users
on mobile versions) in July 2014. Opera has been noted for originating many features later
adopted by other web browsers. A prominent example is Speed Dial.
1 History
2 Features
3 Opera developer and Opera beta
4 Devices

Hkon Wium Lie, chief technical officer of the Opera Software company and co-creator of the
CSSweb standard
Main article: History of the Opera web browser

A new JavaScript engine called Caravan, after the Japanese alphabets , was introduced
with version 10.50. According to Opera Software, Caravan makes Opera 10.50 more than seven
times faster in sun spider than Opera 10.10. On December 16, 2010, Opera 11 was released,
featuring extensions, tab stacking, visual mouse gestures, and changes to the address bar. Opera
12 was released on 14 June 2012.
Main article: Features of the Opera web browser
Opera includes built-in tabbed browsing, a bookmarks bar, add-ons, and a download
manager. Opera has "Speed Dial", which allows the user to add an unlimited number of pages
shown in thumbnail form in a page displayed when a new tab is opened. Speed Dial allows the
user to more easily navigate to the selected web pages.
When the Opera Turbo mode is enabled, Opera compresses requested web pages (but not
HTTPS secure pages) by up to 80%, depending upon content, before sending it to the user. This
process reduces the total amount of data sent and is particularly useful with slower Internet
connections, making pages load faster, or when there are restrictions or costs dependent upon the
amount of data transferred. This technique is also used in Opera Mini for mobile telephones.
Opera developer and Opera beta
Opera Software introduced a new release cycle consisting of three "streams" that can be
downloaded and installed independently of each other: Opera developer, Opera beta and the
Opera final release. New features are first introduced in the developer build, then, depending on
user feedback, progress to the beta version and eventually to the official release.
Opera developer allows early testing of new features, mainly targeting developers,
extension creators, and early adopters. Opera developer is not intended for everyday browsing as
it is unstable and is prone to failure or crashing, but enables advanced users to try out new
features still under development, without affecting their normal installation of the browser. New
versions are released frequently, generally a few times a week.

Opera beta is a feature complete phase, allowing stability and quality to mature before
the final release. A new version is released every couple of weeks.
Both versions can be installed alongside the official release without interference. Each has a
different icon to help the user distinguish between the variants.
See also: History of the Opera web browser Discontinued versions for devices

When a user browses the web using Opera Mini, the request is sent via the General Packet Radio
Service (GPRS) to one of the Opera Software Companys servers, which retrieves the web page,
processes it, compresses it, and sends it back to the user's mobile phone.

2) Word processor

A word processor will manage and display font faces, such that "what you see is what you get"
in the printed version.
A word processor is an electric or electronic device, or computer software application,
that, as directed by the user, performs word processing: the composition, editing, formatting, and
sometimes printing of any sort of written material. Word processing can also refer to advanced
shorthand techniques, sometimes used in specialized contexts with a specially modified

typewriter. The term was coined at IBM's Bollinger, West Germany Laboratory in the 1960s.
Typical features of a modern word processor include font application, spell checking, grammar
checking, a built-in thesaurus, automatic text correction, Web integration, and HTML exporting,
among others. In its simplest form, a word processor is little more than a large expensive
typewriter that makes correcting mistakes easy.
Word processors are descended from the Friden Flexowriter, which had two punched
tape stations and permitted switching from one to the other (thus enabling what was called the
"chain" or "form letter", one tape containing names and addresses, and the other the body of the
letter to be sent). It did not wrap words, which was begun by IBM's Magnetic Tape Electric
Typewriter (later, Magnetic Card Electric Typewriter). Word processing was one of the earliest
applications for the personal computer in office productivity.

1 Characteristics

2 Typical usage

3 History

Word processors, once they became software programs rather than dedicated machines,
have evolved dramatically over the past thirty years (1980-2010). They can usefully be
distinguished from their software predecessor, the text editor.

More advanced features found in recent word processors include:

Collaborative editing, allowing multiple users to work on the same document.

Indexing assistance. (True indexing, as performed by a professional human indexer, is far

beyond current technology, for the same reasons that fully automated, literary-quality
machine translation is.)

Creation of tables of contents.

Management, editing, and positioning of visual material (illustrations, diagrams), and

sometimes sound files.

Automatically managed (updated) cross-references to pages or notes.

Version control of a document, permitting reconstruction of its evolution.

Non-printing comments and annotations.

Generation of document statistics (characters, words, readability level, time spent editing
by each user).

"Styles", which automate consistent formatting of text body, titles, subtitles, highlighted
text, and so on.

Typical usage
Word processors have a variety of uses and applications within the business world, home,
education, journalism, publishing, and the literary arts.
Within the business world, word processors are extremely useful tools. Typical uses include:

legal copies

letters and letterhead


reference documents

Business tend to have their own format and style for any of these. Thus, versatile word
processors with layout editing and similar capabilities find widespread use in most business.

While many homes have word processors on their computers, word processing in the
home tends to be educational, planning or business related, dealing with school assignments or
work being completed at home. Occasionally word processors are used for recreational purposes,
e.g. writing short stories or personal correspondence. Some use word processors to create
rsums and greeting cards, but many of these home publishing processes have been taken over
by desktop publishing programs specifically oriented toward home uses. The rise of email and
social networks has also reduced the home role of the word processor as uses that formerly
required printed output can now be done entirely online.
Novelists, poets, playwrights, screenwriters, and essayists naturally gravitated toward
word processing once the technology became widely available. Notable early adopters in the
mid- or late-1970s included science fiction author (and BYTE Magazine columnist) Jerry
Pournelle, Larry Given, Stanley Elkin, James Fallows, and Michael Crichton. However the first
novel generally credited as having been written on a word processor is Dightons Bomber, which
was composed on an IBM MT/ST in London in 1968-9; Dightons typist and assistant, Ms. Ellen
or Handley, was the person to actually operate the machine.[6] Some writers such as Cory
Doctorow and Neil Stephenson prefer text editors to word processors.
IBM Selectric

A 4-user Autotype system using a DEC PDP minicomputer and IBM Electric terminals.

The term word processing was invented by IBM in the late 1960s. In 1969, two software
based text editing products (Autotype and Astrocompass) were developed and marketed by
Information Control Systems (Ann Arbor Michigan). Both products used the Digital Equipment
CorporationPDP-8 mini computer, Dictate (6 reel) randomly accessible tape drives, and a
modified version of the IBM Electric typewriter (the IBM 2741 Terminal). These 1969 products
preceded CRT display-based word processors. Text editing was done using a line numbering
system viewed on a paper copy inserted in the Electric typewrite.

3) Adobe Photoshop (Graphics Software)

Adobe Photoshop
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Photoshop" redirects here. For other uses, see Photoshop (disambiguation).
Adobe Photoshop

Fig :3 Adobe Photoshop CC Running on Windows

Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems
for Windows and OS X.
Photoshop was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, it has become the
de facto industry standard in raster graphics editing, such that the terms "photo shopping" and
"Photoshop" were born. It can edit and compose raster images in multiple layers and supports
masks, alpha compositing and several color models including RGB, CMYK, Lab color space
(with capital L), spot color and duotone. Photoshop has vast support for graphic file formats but
also uses its own PSD and PSB file formats which support all the aforementioned features. In
addition to raster graphics, it has limited abilities to edit or render text, vector graphics
(especially through clipping path), 3D graphics and video. Photoshop's feature set can be
expanded by Photoshop plug-ins, programs developed and distributed independently of
Photoshop that can run inside it and offer new or enhanced features.
Alongside Photoshop, Adobe also develops and publishes Photoshop Elements,
Photoshop Light room, Photoshop Express and Photoshop Touch. Collectively, they are branded
as "The Adobe Photoshop Family".

1 Early history

2 File format

Early history
In 1987, Thomas Knoll, a PhD student at the University of Michigan began writing a
program on his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale images on a monochrome display. This
program, called Display, caught the attention of his brother John Knoll, an Industrial Light &
Magic employee, who recommended that Thomas turn it into a full-fledged image editing
program. Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in 1988 to collaborate with his brother
on the program. Thomas renamed the program Imager, but the name was already taken. Later
that year, Thomas renamed his program Photoshop and worked out a short-term deal with

scanner manufacturer Barneyscan to distribute copies of the program with a slide scanner; a
"total of about 200 copies of Photoshop were shipped" this way.

File format
Photoshop files have default file extension as .PSD, which stands for "Photoshop
Document." A PSD file stores an image with support for most imaging options available in
Photoshop. These include layers with masks, transparency, text, alpha channels and spot colors,
clipping paths, and duotone settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats (e.g. .JPG or
.GIF) that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a
maximum height and width of 30,000 pixels, and a length limit of 2 Gigabytes

2) System Software :- system software that provides the basic non-task-specific

function of the computer .

1) Windows xp

Fig : 1 Screenshot of Windows XP

Windows XP is a computer operating produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT
family of operating systems. The operating system was released to manufacturing on August 24,
2001, and generally released for retail sale on October 25, 2001.
Upon its release, Windows XP received generally positive reviews with critics noting
increased performance (especially in comparison to Windows ME), a more intuitive user
interface, improved hardware support, and its expanded multimedia capabilities. Despite poor
initial public reception, often centered on driver support and security restrictions, Windows XP
eventually proved to be popular and widely used. It was estimated that at least 400 million copies
of Windows XP were sold globally within its first five years of availability, and at least one
billion copies were sold overall by April 2014.

New and updated features

New and updated features

Main article: Features new to Windows XP

User interface

Updated start menu, now featuring two columns

While retaining some similarities to previous versions, Windows XP's interface was
overhauled with a new visual appearance, with an increased use of alpha compositing effects,
drop shadows, and "visual styles", which completely change the appearance of the operating
system. The amount of effects enabled are determined by the operating system by the computer's
processing power, and can be enabled or disabled on a case-by-case basis. XP also added Clear
Type, a new sub pixel rendering system designed to improve the appearance of fonts on LCD
displays. A new set of system icons were also introduced. The default wallpaper, Bliss, is a photo
of a landscape in the Napa Valley outside Napa, California, with rolling green hills and a blue
sky with stratocumulus and cirrus clouds.
The Start menu received its first major overhaul on XP, switching to a two-column layout
with the ability to list pin and display frequently used applications, recently opened documents,
and the traditional cascading "All Programs" menu. The taskbar can now group windows opened
by a single application into one taskbar button, with a popup menu listing the individual
windows. The notification area also hides "inactive" icons by default. The taskbar can also be
"locked" to prevent accidental moving or other changes. A "common tasks" list was added
Windows Explorer's sidebar was updated to use a new task-based designs with lists of common
actions; the tasks displayed are contextually relevant to the type of content in a folder (i.e. a
folder with music displays offers to play all the files in the folder, or burn them to a CD).

The "task grouping" feature introduced in Windows XP showing both grouped and individual
Fast user switching allows additional users to log into a Windows XP machine without
existing users having to close their programs and logging out. Although only one user at the time
can use the console (i.e. monitor, keyboard and mouse), previous users can resume their session
once they regained control of the console.

3.Ubuntu (operating system)


Fig : 3 screen of ubuntu desktop 14.04 trusty tahr

Bunt(unbent of) is a Debi an-based Linux operating, with Unity as its default desktop
environment (GNOME was the previous desktop environment). It is based on free software and
named after the Southern African philosophy of bunt (literally, "human-nests"), which often is
translated as "humanity towards others" or "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that
connects all humanity".
Development of Bunt is led by Canonical Ltd..

a company owned by South African

entrepreneur. Canonical generates revenue through the sale of technical support and other
services related to Ubuntu. The Ubuntu project is publicly committed to the principles of open
source development; people are encouraged to use free software, study how it works, improve
upon it, and distribute it.
1 Features
2 History

A default installation of Ubuntu contains a wide range of software that includes
LibreOffice, Firefox, Empathy, Transmission, and several lightweight games such as Sudoku and
chess. Many additional software packages, including titles no longer in the default installation
such as Evolution, GIMP, Pidgin, and Synaptic, are accessible from the built in Ubuntu Software
Center as well as any other APT based package management tool. Execution of Microsoft Office
and other Microsoft Windows applications can be facilitated via the Wine compatibility package
or through the use of a virtual machine such as Virtual Box or VMware Workstation.
The Ubiquity installer allows Ubuntu to be installed to the hard disk from within the Live CD
For increased security, the suds tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing
administrative tasks, allowing the root account to remain locked, and preventing inexperienced
users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security holes Policy
Kit is also being widely implemented into the desktop to further harden the system through the
principle of least privilege.
Ubuntu can close its own network ports using its own firewall software. End-users can
install Guff (GUI for Uncomplicated Firewall) and keep it enabled.
Ubuntu compiles its packages using GCC features such as PIE and buffer overflow
protection to harden its software.

These extra features greatly increase security at the

performance expense of 1% in 32 bit and 0.01% in 64 bit.

However, Ubuntu's developers acknowledged battery life problems from version 10.04 and
sought to solve the issues of power consumption in the 12.04 LTS release. The 14.04 release
improved the situation, but still lagged other operating systems in the battery life metric.
Beginning with Ubuntu 5.04, UTF-8 became the default character encoding
allows for support of a variety of non-Roman scripts.


History and development process

Ubuntu is built on Debens architecture and infrastructure, to provide Linux server,
desktop, phone, tablet and TV operating systems. Ubuntu releases updated versions predictably
every six months and each release receives free support for nine months (eighteen months
prior to 13.04) with security fixes, high-impact bug fixes and conservative, substantially
beneficial low-risk bug fixes. The first release was on October 2004.
It was decided that every fourth release, issued on a two-year basis, would receive longterm support (LTS). Long term support includes updates for new hardware, security patches and
updates to the 'Ubuntu stack' (cloud computing infrastructure). The first LTS releases were
supported for three years on the desktop and five years on the server; since Ubuntu 12.04 LTS,
desktop support for LTS releases was increased to five years as well. LTS releases get regular
point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the updates published in that
series to date.
Ubuntu packages are based on packages from Debens unstable branch: both distributions
use Debian'sdebpackage format and package management tools (APT and Ubuntu Software
Center). Debi an and Ubuntu packages are not necessarily binary compatible with each other,
however; packages may need to be rebuilt from source to be used in Ubuntu. Many Ubuntu
developers are also maintainers of key packages within Debi an. Ubuntu cooperates with Debi an
by pushing changes back to Debi an, although there has been criticism that this does not happen
often enough. Ian Murdock, the founder of Debi an, has expressed concern about Ubuntu
packages potentially diverging too far from Debi an to remain compatible. Before release,
packages are imported from Debi an Unstable continuously and merged with Ubuntu-specific
modifications. A month before release, imports are frozen, and packagers then work to ensure
that the frozen features interoperate well together.
Ubuntu is currently funded by Canonical Ltd. On 8 July 2005, Mark Shuttle worth and
Canonical Ltd. announced the creation of the Ubuntu Foundation and provided an initial funding
of US$10 million. The purpose of the foundation is to ensure the support and development for all

future versions of Ubuntu. Mark Shuttle worth describes the foundation as an "emergency fund"
(in case Canonicals involvement ends).
On 12 March 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for 3rd party cloud
management platforms, such as for those used at Amazon EC2.
Beginning with version 10.10, Ubuntu Net book Edition used the Unity desktop as its
desktop interface. Starting with Ubuntu 11.04, the net book edition has been merged into the
desktop edition and Unity became the default GUI for Ubuntu Desktop.
Mark Shuttle worth announced on 31 October 2011 that Ubuntu's support for smart
phones, tablets, TVs and smart screens is scheduled to be added by Ubuntu 14.04. On 9 January
2012, Canonical announced Ubuntu TV at the Consumer Electronics Show.