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Battery Sizing &

Discharge

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

When does a battery kick in?


Load in DC System exceeds the battery
charger capacity
Output of the battery charger is interrupted
AC P
Power iis llostt [[generally
ll th
the worstt case
scenario]

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 2

IEEE 485- Definitions


Battery Duty Cycle
The load that the battery is expected to supply for a
specified period of time (sum of all individual loads)

Cell Size
Rated capacity of a lead acid battery or number of
positive plates in a cell

Period
Time interval for which the load is assumed to be
constant

Vpc
Volts per cell (individual cell voltage)
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 3

Types of Loads
Constant Power
As battery voltage decreases, their current increases.

Constant Resistance
As battery voltage decreases, their current also
decreases.

Constant Current
Load current is invariant to battery voltage changes.

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 4

Duty Cycle Classification


Continuous Load (Non-Random)
Non-random
N
d
lloads
d
Normally carried by the battery charger
Includes lighting, converters, indicating lights,
communications systems, continuously operating motors

Non-Continuous
N
C ti
L
Load
d (Random
(R d
or N
Non-Random)
R d )
Emergency pumps
MOV operations
Critical ventilation system motors
Fire protection systems actuators
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 5

Duty Cycle Classification


Momentary Loads (Random or Non-Random)
Loads
L d with
ith d
duration
ti th
thatt d
do nott exceed
d more th
than
one minute
MOV with stroke of less than a minute
Field flashing
g of g
generators
Motor starting currents
Inrush
I
h currents
t (solenoids,
( l
id relay
l coils,
il etc)
t )

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 6

Individual Load Duty Cycles


Static Loads
Motor loads
DC Lump Loads
Elementary Elementary Diagram
DC to AC Inverters

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 7

Guidelines for Battery Duty


C l
Cycles
All duty cycle periods (constant load) must
be higher or equal to one minute
First identify the non-random load battery
duty cycle
Find worst case scenario
Include the random load duty cycle
Final battery duty cycle becomes a
conservative combination of the two
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 8

Duty Cycle Example A

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 9

Duty Cycle Example B

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 10

Battery Modeling
Battery voltage based on manufacturer
battery discharge characteristic curves
Enter battery
y characteristic curves in battery
y
library
IInterpolation
l i / extrapolation
l i iis performed
f
d to
obtain battery size and discharge voltage
profile
fil
Different interpolation methods to obtain Vpc
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 11

Characteristic Curves
Battery Characteristic Curves
1.5

1000.00

1.6
Tim e (min.)

1.67
1.75

100.00

1.78
1 81
1.81
10.00

1.84
1.88
1.92

1.00
10.00

100.00

1000.00

1.96

Amps per Positive Plate

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 12

Interpolation Methods

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 13

Battery Sizing Study Case


Load Summation
Adds
Add allll th
the lload
dd
duty
t cycles
l
Generally more conservative for systems with more
constant resistance loads

Load Flow Method


Adds all the load duty cycles, but performs a load flow
calculation at every time step to account for system
losses ((more realistic results))
Generally more conservative for systems with more
constant power loads
Load model type based on load type or duty cycle type
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 14

Load Duty Cycles


5 diff
differentt system
t
duty
d t cycles
l

Correction factors
Battery minimum temperature
Aging compensation
Initial capacity
Design margin

Voltage Requirements
Maximum system voltage deviation (charging voltage)
Minimum system voltage deviation (depends on final
Vpc)
Battery minimum discharge voltage (final Vpc)
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 15

Battery Discharge Page


Vd Calculation Parameters
Time step and maximum voltage limit

Correction Factors
Same as battery sizing (no design margin)

Load Flow Parameters


Iterations
Precision
Initial conditions and motor load handling
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 16

Duty Cycle Span Options


Options
Two Existing Options Moved from Ini File to Study Case
New Option Added One-minute Span for Battery only

One-minute Span for Battery only


Calculating
Calculating Battery Discharging Current Use One-Minute
One Minute
Spanned Duty Cycle To Get Conservative Battery Voltage
Calculating System Voltage Use Battery Voltage Calculated
above to Run Load Flow with User Specified Duty Cycle for
Individual Loads To Get More Accurate System Voltage
Profile

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 17

Displayed Results
Tabulated results for battery voltage, bus
voltage and power flows through the entire
system
One-line diagram displayed results (similar
to DC load flow)
Complete set of plots that include battery
voltage current,
voltage,
current discharged AH and system
flows

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 18

Things to Consider
Obtain as many battery characteristic curves
as possible
Obtain specific curves for battery model and
type
Understand limitations of interpolation
methods
Use most conservative approach for your
system (load flow method or load
summation)
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Battery Sizing & Discharge

Slide 19