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1.

Simple Present Tense


Simple present tense is used to express habits, general truths, repeated action or unchanging
situation, emotion, and wishes.
A. Verbal Sentence Formula:
Subject (I, You, We, They) + infinitive
Subject (He, She, It) + infinitive + -s/-es
Examples:
1.

I study English.

2.

He plays football.

3.

They go to library.

4.

She passes the exam.

5.

You drink a cup of coffe

B.

Nominal Sentence Formula:

Subject + is/am/are + object


Examples:
1.

I go to school everyday.

2.

I am from Singapore.

3.

You are a nice girl.

4.

She is a writer.

a.

Present Continuous Tense

A. Verbal Sentences Formula:


Subject + is/am/are + verb-ing
Examples:
a)

I am studying English now.

b)

My father is reading newspaper this moment.

B. Nominal Sentence Formula:


Subject + is/am/are + being + object
Examples:
1)

She is being polite to me.

2)

They are being more creative after see Delimas drawing.

b.

Present Perfect Tense

1.

Verbal Sentence Formula:

Subject (I, You, We, They) + have + past participle


Subject (He, She, It) + has + past participle
Examples:
a.

I have just come.

b.

She has just called me.

2.

Nominal Sentences Formula:


Subject (I, You, We, They) + have + been + past participle
Subject (He, She, It) + has + been + past participle
Examples:

a.

Tono has written a letter for his mother.

b.

I have seen that movie.

c. Present Perfect Tense


Verbal Sentence Formula:

1.

Subject (I, You, We, They) + have + been + verb-ing


Subject (He, She, It) + has + been + verb-ing
Examples:
a.

John has been studying in SMA Negeri 22Palangkaraya since 2010.

b.

I have been working in Kuala Kurun for 10

UNIT V
SIMPLE PAST TENSE / PAST TENSE
(Bentuk lampau sederhana)
A. Penggunaan
1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa atau perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa
lampau.
2. Untuk menyatakan kejadian yang berulang-ulang atau yang telah menjadi kebiasaan di
waktu lampau.
B. Keterangan waktu
Adverb of time yang biasa digunakan dalam Simple Past Tense adalah :
1. Yesterday .
-

yesterday morning
yesterday afternoon
yesterday evening
yesterday night
2.

Last
last night
last week
last month
last year
last December

3.
4.
5.
-

The day before yesterday


This morning
ago
few minute ago
an hour ago

last century
last monday
last friday
last January

- three month ago


- a year ago

two days ago


a week ago
6. Just now
7. a moment ago

C. Susunan kalimat
1. Positive (+) : Subject + Verb II
Subject
Verb II (Past)
I
wrote
You
bought
We
cleaned
They
played
He
went
She
gave
It
swam

- a century ago

Object
a story
a shirt
the room
tennis
to school
a present
very fast

2. Negative (-)
(-) Subject + did not + verb I
Subject
did not
I
You
We
They
did not
He
She
It

Verb I
write
buy
clean
play
goes
gives
swims

Object
a story
a shirt
the room
tennis
to school
a present
very fast

3. Interrogative (?)
(?) Did + subject + Verb I ?
Did
Subject
I
You
We
Did
They
He
She
It

Verb I
write
buy
clean
play
goes
gives
swims

Object
a story
a shirt
the room
tennis
to school
a present
very fast

Past Simple Tense


I sang
The past simple tense is sometimes called the "preterite tense". We can use several tenses and
forms to talk about the past, but the past simple tense is the one we use most often.
In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the past simple tense, followed by a quiz to check
your understanding:

How do we make the Past Simple Tense?


To make the past simple tense, we use:

past form only


or
auxiliary did + base form

Here you can see examples of the past form and base form for irregular verbs and regular
verbs:
V1
V2
V3
base
past
past participle
worked
The past form for all
regular
work
worked
regular verbs ends in verb
explode exploded exploded
liked
ed.
like
liked
gone
The past form for
irregular go
went
seen
irregular verbs is
verb
see
saw
sung
variable. You need to
sing
sang
learn it by heart.
You do not need the past participle
form to make the past simple
tense. It is shown here for
completeness only.

The structure for positive sentences in the past simple tense is:
subject + main verb
past
The structure for negative sentences in the past simple tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb
did

base

The structure for question sentences in the past simple tense is:
auxiliary verb + subject + main verb
did

base

The auxiliary verb did is not conjugated. It is the same for all persons (I did, you did, he did etc). And
the base form and past form do not change. Look at these examples with the main
verbs go and work:

subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

went

to school.

You

worked

very hard.

She

did

not

go

with me.

We

did

not

work

yesterday.

Did

you

go

to London?

Did

they

work

at home?

Exception! The verb to be is different. We conjugate the verb to be (I was, you were, he/she/it was,
we were, they were); and we do not use an auxiliary for negative and question sentences. To make a
question, we exchange the subject and verb. Look at these examples:
subject

main verb

I, he/she/it

was

here.

You, we, they

were

in London.

I, he/she/it

was

not

there.

You, we, they

were

not

happy.

Was

I, he/she/it

right?

Were

you, we, they

late?

How do we use the Past Simple Tense?

We use the past simple tense to talk about an action or a situation - an event - in the past. The event
can be shortor long.
Here are some short events with the past simple tense:
The car exploded at 9.30am yesterday.
She went to the door.
We did not hear the telephone.
Did you see that car?
past

present

future

The action is in the past.

Here are some long events with the past simple tense:
I lived in Bangkok for 10 years.
The Jurassic period lasted about 62 million years.
We did not sing at the concert.
Did you watch TV last night?
past

present

future

The action is in the past.

Notice that it does not matter how long ago the event is: it can be a few minutes or seconds in the
past, or millions of years in the past. Also it does not matter how long the event is. It can be a few
milliseconds (car explosion) or millions of years (Jurassic period). We use the past simple tense
when:

the event is in the past

the event is completely finished

we say (or understand) the time and/or place of the event

In general, if we say the time or place of the event, we must use the past simple tense; we cannot
use the present perfect.
Here are some more examples:

I lived in that house when I was young.

He didn't like the movie.

What did you eat for dinner?

John drove to London on Monday.

Mary did not go to work yesterday.

Did you play tennis last week?

I was at work yesterday.

We were not late (for the train).

Were you angry?

Note that when we tell a story, we usually use the past simple tense. We may use the past
continuous tense to "set the scene", but we almost always use the past simple tense for the action.
Look at this example of the beginning of a story:

"The wind was howling around the hotel and the rain was pouring down. It was cold. The
dooropened and James Bond entered. He took off his coat, which was very wet, and ordered a drink
at the bar. He sat down in the corner of the lounge and quietly drank his..."
This page shows the use of the past simple tense to talk about past events. But note that there are
some other uses for the past simple tense, for example in conditional or if sentences.
The simple past tense is used to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. You
state when it happened using a time adverb.
You form the simple past of a verb by adding -ed onto the end of a regular verb but, irregular verb
forms have to be learned.
To be
To be
Statements Statements
+
-

Questions ?

I was.

I wasn't.

Was I?

He was.

He wasn't.

Was he?

She was.

She wasn't.

Was she?

It was.

It wasn't.

Was it?

You were.

You weren't. Were you?

We were.

We weren't. Were we?

They were. They weren't. Were they?


Regular Verb (to work)
Statements
+

Regular Verb (to work)


Statements
-

Questions

Short
answer
+

Short
answer
-

I worked.

I didn't work.

Did I work?

Yes, I did.

No, I didn't.

He worked.

He didn't work.

Did he work? Yes, he did.

No, he
didn't.

She worked.

She didn't work.

Did she
work?

Yes, she did.

No, she
didn't.

It worked.

It didn't work.

Did it work?

Yes, it did.

No, it didn't.

You worked.

You didn't work.

Did you
work?

Yes you did.

No, you
didn't.

We worked.

We didn't work.

Did we work? Yes we did.

No, we
didn't.

They worked.

They didn't work.

Did they
work?

No, they
didn't.

Yes they
did.

Simple Past Timeline


For example:

"Last year I took my exams."


"I got married in 1992."
It can be used to describe events that happened over a period of time in the past but not now.
For example:
"I lived in South Africa for two years."
The simple past tense is also used to talk about habitual or repeated actions that took place in the
past.
For example:
"When I was a child we always went to the seaside on bank holidays."

UNIT I
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE / PRESENT TENSE
( Bentuk Sekarang Kebiasaan / kenyataan )
A. Penggunaan
1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa atau perbuatan yang berlangsung setiap hari / berulang-ulang /
kebiasaan sehari-hari (habitual action).
2. Untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang merupakan kebenaran umum
(general truth).
B.

Keterangan waktu

Keterangan waktu yang menunjukkan tenses adalah :


1.
-

2.
3.
-

4.
5.
6.
7.

Adverb of frequency
always
usually
generally
habibually
normally
often
frequency

sometimes
occasionally
seldom
rarely
never
ever

every night
every Sunday
every Monday
every Wednesday
every Saturday
every January
every December

Every
every hour
every day
every week
every month
every year
every morning
every afternoon
every evening
Once
once a day
once a week

Twice
three times
four time
at noon

- once a month
- once a year

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

at night
at midnight
on Sunday, Monday
in the morning
in the afternoon
in the evening

C. Susunan kalimat
1.

Positive (+) : Subject + Verb I (s/es)


Subject
I
You
We
They
He
She
It

2.

3.

Verb I (KK I)
write
buy
clean
play
goes
gives
swims

Object
a story
a shirt
the room
tennis
to school
a present
very fast

Negative (-) : Subject + do/does + not + verb I


Subject
do/does
Not
I
You
do
We
They
Not
He
She
does
It
Interrogative (?)
Do/does

Do

Does

Subject
I
You
We
They
He
She
It

Verb I
write
buy
clean
play
goes
gives
swims

Verb I
write
buy
clean
play
goes
gives
swims

Object
a story
a shirt
the room
tennis
to school
a present
very fast

Object
a story|
a shirt?
the room?
tennis?
to school?
a present?
very fast?

Present Simple Tense


I sing
How do we make the Present Simple Tense?
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
do

base

There are three important exceptions:


1. For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.
2. For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary.
3. For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.
Look at these examples with the main verb like:
subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

I, you, we, they

like

coffee.

He, she, it

likes

coffee.

+
I, you, we, they

do

not

like

coffee.

He, she, it

does

not

like

coffee.

Do

I, you, we, they

like

coffee?

Does

he, she, it

like

coffee?

Look at these examples with the main verb be. Notice that there is no auxiliary:

subject

main verb

am

French.

You, we, they

are

French.

He, she, it

is

French.

am

not

old.

You, we, they

are

not

old.

He, she, it

is

not

old.

Am

late?

Are

you, we, they

late?

Is

he, she, it

late?

How do we use the Present Simple Tense?


We use the present simple tense when:

the action is general


the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
the action is not only happening now
the statement is always true
John drives a taxi.
past
Present
future
It is John's job to drive a taxi. He does it every day. Past, present and future.
Look at these examples:

I live in New York.


The Moon goes round the Earth.
John drives a taxi.
He does not drive a bus.
We meet every Thursday.
We do not work at night.
Do you play football?
Note that with the verb to be, we can also use the present simple tense for situations that are not
general. We can use the present simple tense to talk about now. Look at these examples of the verb
"to be" in the present simple tense - some of them are general, some of them are now:

Am I right?
Tara is not at home.
You are happy.
past

present

future

The situation is now.

I am not fat.
Why are you so beautiful?
Ram is tall.
past

present

future

The situation is general. Past, present and future.

This page shows the use of the present simple tense to talk about general events. But note that
there are some other uses for the present simple tense, for example in conditional or if sentences,
or to talk about the future. You will learn about those later.
The simple present tense is used to discuss permanant situations and the frequency of events.
To have

Short form Other Verbs (to work)

I have

I've

I work

he has

he's

He works

she has

she's

She works

it has

it's

It works

you have you've

you work

we have we've

we work

they have they've

they work

Statements Statements
+
-

Questions

Short answer Short answer


+
-

I work.

I don't work.

Do I work?

Yes, I do.

He works.

He doesn't work. Does he work? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.

No, I don't.

She works. She doesn't work. Does she work? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't.
It works.

It doesn't work.

Does it work?

Yes, it does.

No, it doesn't.

You work.

You don't work.

Do you work?

Yes you do.

No, you don't.

We work.

We don't work.

Do we work?

Yes we do.

No, we don't.

They work. They don't work. Do they work? Yes they do.

No, they don't.

Regular or permanent situations


When something happens regularly or is a permanent situation we usually use the simple present
tense. When using the simple present the verb (with the exception of the auxiliary verbs) remains in
the dictionary form (verb + swith he/she/it).
Simple Present Timeline
For example:
Q) "Where do you live?" A) "I live in Germany."
Q) "Where does he live?" A) "He lives in Germany."
Q) "What do you do?" A) "I'm a teacher."
Q) "What does he do?" A) "He's a teacher."
Frequency
The simple present tense is also used to show how often something happens with adverbs of
frequency - always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely, never, etc.... And when
discussing daily, weekly, monthly etc. routines.

For example:
"I always get up at 6.00."
"I never drink coffee before 12.00."
"I work on my website every day."
"Every Monday and Thursday I go to the gym."
We also use the simple present to ask for and give instructions or to discuss a series of actions.
For example:
Q) How do I make pancakes?" A) Well, first you take 4 eggs and crack them into a bowl, then you
weigh out 4 oz. of flour and sieve it into the eggs. etc.
The simple present tense can also be used to discuss future events.