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1048

CHAPTER 31 Alternating Current

31.51 .. A High-Pass Filter. Figure P31.51


One application of L-R-C series
circuits is to high-pass or lowC
Vs
pass lters, which lter out
R
L
either the low- or high-frequency
components of a signal. A highpass lter is shown in Fig.
Vout
P31.51, where the output voltage is taken across the L-R combination. (The L-R combination
represents an inductive coil that also has resistance due to the large
length of wire in the coil.) Derive an expression for Vout>Vs, the
ratio of the output and source voltage amplitudes, as a function of
the angular frequency v of the source. Show that when v is small,
this ratio is proportional to v and thus is small, and show that the
ratio approaches unity in the limit of large frequency.
31.52 .. A Low-Pass Filter. Figure P31.52 shows a low-pass
lter (see Problem 31.51); the output voltage is taken across the
capacitor in an L-R-C series circuit. Derive an expression for
Vout>Vs, the ratio of the output and source voltage amplitudes, as a
function of the angular frequency v of the source. Show that when
v is large, this ratio is proportional to v-2 and thus is very small,
and show that the ratio approaches unity in the limit of small
frequency.
Figure P31.52

Vs
R

Vout

31.53 ... An L-R-C series circuit is connected to an ac source of


constant voltage amplitude V and variable angular frequency v.
(a) Show that the current amplitude, as a function of v, is
V
I =
2
2R + 1vL - 1>vC22
(b) Show that the average power dissipated in the resistor is
P =

V 2R>2

R + 1vL - 1>vC22
2

(c) Show that I and P are both maximum when v = 1> 2LC, the
resonance frequency of the circuit. (d) Graph P as a function of v
for V = 100 V, R = 200 , L = 2.0 H, and C = 0.50 mF. Compare to the light purple curve in Fig. 31.19. Discuss the behavior of
I and P in the limits v = 0 and v S q .
31.54 .. An L-R-C series circuit is connected to an ac source of
constant voltage amplitude V and variable angular frequency v.
Using the results of Problem 31.53, nd an expression for (a) the
amplitude VL of the voltage across the inductor as a function of
v and (b) the amplitude VC of the voltage across the capacitor
as a function of v. (c) Graph VL and VC as functions of v for
V = 100 V, R = 200 , L = 2.0 H, and C = 0.50 mF. (d) Discuss the behavior of VL and VC in the limits v = 0 and v S q .
For what value of v is VL = VC ? What is the signicance of this
value of v?
31.55 .. In an L-R-C series circuit the magnitude of the phase
angle is 54.0, with the source voltage lagging the current. The
reactance of the capacitor is 350 , and the resistor resistance is
180 . The average power delivered by the source is 140 W. Find

(a) the reactance of the inductor; (b) the rms current; (c) the rms
voltage of the source.
31.56 .. The L-R-C Parallel Circuit. A resistor, inductor, and
capacitor are connected in parallel to an ac source with voltage
amplitude V and angular frequency v. Let the source voltage be
given by v = V cos vt. (a) Show that the instantaneous voltages
vR, vL, and vC at any instant are each equal to v and that
i = i R + i L + i C, where i is the current through the source and i R,
i L, and i C are the currents through the resistor, the inductor, and the
capacitor, respectively. (b) What are the phases of i R, i L, and i C
with respect to v? Use current phasors to represent i, i R, i L, and i C.
In a phasor diagram, show the phases of these four currents with
respect to v. (c) Use the phasor diagram of part (b) to show that the
current amplitude I for the current i through the source is given by
I = 2I R2 + 1IC - IL22. (d) Show that the result of part (c) can be
written as I = V>Z, with 1>Z = 21>R2 + 1vC - 1>vL22 .
31.57 .. Parallel Resonance. The impedance of an L-R-C parallel circuit was derived in Problem 31.56. (a) Show that at the resonance angular frequency v0 = 1> 2LC, IC = IL, and I is a
minimum. (b) Since I is a minimum at resonance, is it correct to
say that the power delivered to the resistor is also a minimum at
v = v0? Explain. (c) At resonance, what is the phase angle of the
source current with respect to the source voltage? How does this
compare to the phase angle for an L-R-C series circuit at resonance? (d) Draw the circuit diagram for an L-R-C parallel circuit.
Arrange the circuit elements in your diagram so that the resistor is
closest to the ac source. Justify the following statement: When the
angular frequency of the source is v = v0, there is no current
owing between (i) the part of the circuit that includes the source
and the resistor and (ii) the part that includes the inductor and the
capacitor, so you could cut the wires connecting these two parts of
the circuit without affecting the currents. (e) Is the statement in
part (d) still valid if we consider that any real inductor or capacitor
also has some resistance of its own? Explain.
31.58 .. A 400- resistor and a 6.00-mF capacitor are connected
in parallel to an ac generator that supplies an rms voltage of 220 V
at an angular frequency of 360 rad>s. Use the results of Problem
31.56. Note that since there is no inductor in the circuit, the 1>vL
term is not present in the expression for Z. Find (a) the current
amplitude in the resistor; (b) the current amplitude in the capacitor;
(c) the phase angle of the source current with respect to the source
voltage; (d) the amplitude of the current through the generator.
(e) Does the source current lag or lead the source voltage?
31.59 .. An L-R-C parallel circuit is connected to an ac source of
constant voltage amplitude V and variable angular frequency v.
(a) Using the results of Problem 31.56, nd expressions for the
amplitudes IR, IL, and IC of the currents through the resistor, inductor,
and capacitor as functions of v. (b) Graph IR, IL, and IC as functions of v for V = 100 V, R = 200 , L = 2.0 H, and
C = 0.50 mF. (c) Discuss the behavior of IL and IC in the limits
v = 0 and v S q . Explain why IL and IC behave as they do in
these limits. (d) Calculate the resonance frequency (in Hz) of the
circuit, and sketch the phasor diagram at the resonance frequency.
(e) At the resonance frequency, what is the current amplitude
through the source? (f ) At the resonance frequency, what is the
current amplitude through the resistor, through the inductor, and
through the capacitor?
31.60 .. A 100- resistor, a 0.100-mF capacitor, and a 0.300-H
inductor are connected in parallel to a voltage source with amplitude 240 V. (a) What is the resonance angular frequency? (b) What
is the maximum current through the source at the resonance