Anda di halaman 1dari 7


Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur

(An Autonomous Institute Under UGC Act 1956)

Department of Electronics & Telecommunication

Subject: Mobile Communication
Topic review

Submitted By:
1. Piyush Dhakate (29)
Sem/ Section:
8th sem / c

A coding scheme, used as a modulation technique, in which multiple channels
are independently coded for transmission over a single wideband channel.
In some communication systems, CDMA is used as an access method that
permits carriers from different stations to use the same transmission equipment by
using a wider bandwidth than the individual carriers. On reception, each carrier can
be distinguished from the others by means of a specific modulation code, thereby
allowing for the reception of signals that were originally overlapping in frequency
and time. Thus, several transmissions can occur simultaneously within the same
bandwidth, with the mutual interference reduced by the degree of orthogonality of
the unique codes used in each transmission .
CDMA permits a more uniform distribution of energy in the emitted
bandwidth Short for Code Division Multiple Access, a digital cellular technology
that uses spread-spectrum techniques. Unlike competing systems, such as GSM that
use TDMA, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Instead, every
channel uses the full available spectrum. Individual conversations are encoded with a
pseudo-random digital sequence.
Because Qualcomm Inc. created communications chips for CDMA
technology, it was privy to the classified information. Once the information became
public, Qualcomm claimed patents on the technology and became the first to
commercialize it.
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is the ultimate in inside
communications technology. The fastest growing wireless technology, CDMA
already has tens of millions of users throughout the world. The reasons for this are
simple. CDMA supports current voice and data needs while providing a quick, costefficient evolutionary path to tomorrows systems.

CDMA has greater voice quality and call clarity than other technologies
because it filters out background noise, cross-talk and interference. CDMA has fewer
dropped calls because it increases voice and date transmission reliability. CDMA has
greater spectral efficiency because it packs more transmissions into the same space,
resulting in fewer cell sites, which lowers operators' costs. Add to this increased
capacity, enhanced privacy, and improved coverage why would you use any other
wireless technology?

Working of CDMA
The CDMA uses the spread spectrum technology.The spread spectrum refers
to any system that satisfies the following conditions :
1. The spread spectrum may be viewed as a kind of modulation scheme in
which the modulated(spread spectrum) signal bandwidth is much greater than the
message(baseband) signal bandwidth. Thus, spread spectrum is a wideband scheme.
2.The spectral spreading is performed by a code that is independent of the
message signal. This same ode is also used at the receiver to despread the received
signal in order to recover the message signal (from spread spectrum signal). In secure
communication, this code is known only to the preson(s) for whom the message is
The spread spectrum increases the bandwidth of the message signal by a
factor N, called the processing gain. If the message signal bandwidth is B Hz and the
corresponding spread spectrum signal bandwidth is Bss Hz, then
Processing gain N = Bss / B
Thus, the key to CDMA is to be able to extract the desired signal while
rejecting everything else as random noise. A somewhat simplified description of
CDMA follows:

In CDMA each bit time is subdivided into m short intervals called chips.
Typically, there are 64 or 128 chips per bit, but in the example given below we will
use 8 chips/bit for simplicity.

Applications of CDMA Technology

Daily applications possible with CDMA
Daily Downloads :
Real time stock quotes :
of different stock exchanges

Text Communication :
instant messaging
message board
member search

Sending photos over the air :

MMS messages

Position Location Services :

navigation assistance

friend finder

Games and Entertainment :

comic book store

All these services are already being offered in South Korea and Japan.


No SIM card is required.

Improved call quality: CDMA provides better and more consistent sound
quality than systems based on other technologies.
Enhanced privacy when compared to systems using other technologies.
Increased talk time and standby time for mobiles.
They are difficult to intercept for an unauthorized person.
They are easily hidden. For an unauthorized person, it is dufficult to ever
detect their presence in many cases.
They are resistant to jamming.
Capacity increases of 8 to 10 times that of an AMPS Analog system, and 4
to 5 times GSM , because of CDMAs unique spread spectrum technology.
Many users can share the same carrier frequency, and without time-sharing.
This means that mobile phone service providers can handle more customers on a
CDMA network than on a GSM network.
Improved call quality, with better and more consistent sound , CDMA
systems use precise power controlthat is, the base station sends commands to every
mobile phone currently involved in a call, turning down the power on the nearby

ones, and increasing the power of those further away. The result is a nice, even noise
level across the carrier, with lower overall power levels and no spiky interference.

Collision :
In general, the collisions at the channel is a disadvantage of CDMA system
and can be mitigated by careful selection of the sequence and power control that is
close to perfect.

Roaming :
Since most countries have chosen the GSM standard, roaming on CDMA is

M-commerce :
A CDMA doesnt have a SIM card, which makes m-commerce difficult.

After these wonderful particulars of CDMA technology I arrive at the
conclusion as follows:

Where CDMA scores

Where CDMA needs to scores

CDMA is probably the most interesting multipal access method provided by

spread spectrum technology.CDMA 2000 and other 3g technology bring
telecommunication into the packet switched domin, adding a host of new
services and network complexities in the process.

1 . Mobile communication- Design fundamentals by William c.y.lee,
{john willey}

2. Scribd