Anda di halaman 1dari 21

Department of the Classics, Harvard University

ARISTOTLE'S "HAMARTIA" RECONSIDERED


Author(s): Ho Kim
Source: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 105 (2010), pp. 33-52
Published by: Department of the Classics, Harvard University
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41429141 .
Accessed: 02/10/2014 17:14
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .
http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

Department of the Classics, Harvard University is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend
access to Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

ARISTOTLE'S

HAMARTIA RECONSIDERED
Ho Kim

issuesinGreekliteraturehavebeenthesubjectofsuchsustained
Fewcontroversy
as Aristotle's
a^apta in Poetics13.Criticsseemto have
consideredit almostimpossibleto decide whatexactlythisold term
means.In tracingthe diachronicaspectof'xapxafromHomerdown
to Aristotle,
the studyofsemanticsrevealsthe rangeofjiapra to be
there
wide- leavingthetermseriouslyunderdetermined.
Accordingly,
is stillgreatuncertaintyabout what Aristotlemeans by 'xapxa in
Poetics13.1
In the Poetics
, as iftakingit forgrantedthathis readersare well
with
the term,Aristotleprovidesno explicationof the
acquainted
meaningof , merelyinsertingit twice into his broad argumenton plot (;).This throwsthe readersintoconfusion;it may,
intimatethatthemeaningis specifiedin hisexpositionofthe
however,
reckonedas theimmediatecontext
complexplot(juGoTreTTeYjivo),
I will
ofthe ajiapria-text(I453a7-16).Followingup on thispossibility,
to
arguethattheproblematic
in 1453a7-16can be interpreted
1I amindebted
tothemany
scholars
whohavepublished
articles
oninPoetics
13.Interpretations
ofjiocptioc
from
offact
atoneendtomoral
defect
or
range
ignorance
error
attheother,
with
scholars
some
itasa general
term
that
embraces
a wide
accepting
ofmeanings.
willnotdealwith
therelationship
ofAristotle's
to
range
Myarticle
opinions
theusage
ofanditscognates
inAristotle
elsewhere
andinearlier
Plato's,
writers,
both
because
these
indepth,
havealready
beenexamined
andbecause
this
etc.,
subjects
article
isgrounded
intheir
contribution:
Hull1993;
Sherman
1992;
1990;
scholarly
Cyzyk
Halliwell
Else1986;
Stinton
Allan
Bremer
Dawe
1989;
1987;
1975;
1971;
1969;
Schiitrumpf
Adkins
Lucas1962;
Ostwald
Else1957;
Glanville
Harsh
1968;
1966;
1958;
1949;
1945;
Hey
Greene
Braam
Butcher
1907.
thesecontributions,
thatofElse
1928;
1918;
1912;
Among
hasbeenparticularly
useful
andthatofOstwald
hashelped
metodistinguish
between
and
asanactorparticular
I amalsograteful
instance.
asa disposition
toMiriam
Griffin
forsome
criticism.
helpful

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

34

HoKim

meanignoranceoftheparticularsofone's action,especiallyincluding
misidentification
ofcloseblood-relatives.
For this purpose,I will firstsurveyAristotle'sargumenton the
and attemptto definethe meaningof |iapra by
|iu0o<;-structure,
exegesisof the textin Poetics13 in lightof the ayvoia-avayvcapiaK;in chapterfourteen.
structure
this
Then,I willsubstantiate

determinate
sensebycomparisonwiththe |iapra describedas ignoin Nicomachean
rance of particulars,includingignoranceof identity,
Ethics3.1.1110bl7-3.1.1111a20,2
whichreflectssituationssimilar,in
termsofpityand fear(orpardon),to the|iapria-textinPoetics13.
I
sectionto the entiretwenty-six
Designedas an introductory
chapters
of the Poetics
, the firstfivechaptersdiscourseon tragedy,epic, and
comedyas the chiefformsof imitativepoetrywhichare assumedto
be imitationofan action(}i|ir|Gi
^;).
Chaptersix presentsthe
definition
oftragedyand the six formative
elementsthatare consideredin chaptersseventhroughtwenty-two.
In his definition,
Aristotle
describesa tragedyas
and
its
ultimate
^;
purposeas
fulfilled
bythetragedy'seffect:
ozivouv|i|ir]aic;
arcouSaaKaizsXsaq
Tip^eoo
;sxoari,
rj5ua|iv(p
Xyco
^ zcvd5cv
v to jiopoi,Spcovrcov
Kai o 5 aTCayyea,
5 Aiou
Kai cpoouTtepavouaarrjvrcvtoioroov^
K0apoiv.
1449b23-28
Thus,thefinesttragedycan be definedas mimesisofan action,evoking
constitupityand fear,whose effectis the resultofthe six formative
ents of tragedy:plot (|u0o), character(rj0o),thought(Siavoia),
diction (i),music (]i07i0ia),and spectacle (). Of these
elements,categorizing
jauBo,rjo,and Siavoia as theobjectsofimitation(a |ii|aouvrai);^iand as the mediaofimitation(o
2 Henceforth
ENfor
Nicomachean
Ethics.

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Aristotle's
HamartiaReconsidered

35

and oijnas the methodofimitation(cb|ii|iovrai),Aris]ii]iovt(xi);


totle attachesmoreweightto the firstcategorythan to the others
(I450a7-12).
In the firstcategory,
the mostessentialcomponentis the plot,the
structureof the events( rcv^pay^rcov),because tragedy
is mimesisnot of men,but of action (I450al4-16: ||];ativ
vGpamcv np^ecov),by which the plot evolves in the play
yGoc;
(l450a3-4: eariv 5 'xvrcp^eoo
r' y^riai).In thisvein,
Aristotleaffirms
thatthe ideal tragedyis possibleonlywhenthe play
has a superbplot. That is whyhe conceivesthe plot to be the first
principleand soul of tragedy(I450a38: pxn }vouv kcxoov
jiGorrjTpayo)5a)as well as the goal of tragedy(l450a22-23:
1 viOGo
rozf'c;rpaycoSa,t 5 rojiyiaTov
forevokinghumanpityand fear,
ivTOv).
Amongthesix ingredients
Aristotlecertainlytreatsthe jiOGo-structure
as the firstand themost
in
one
his
5e rrjvaaraatv eivai
(l450b22-23:
important
argument
tcovnpay|ira)v,]rouroKai Tcpcrov
Kai ^yicjrov rpaycpSa
devoteschaptersseventhrougheighteento eluciarv).He therefore
the jiuGo-structure,
withthe exception
datingrulesforconstructing
ofchaptersfifteen
and sixteen,whichcovertherulesforconveying
the
characterofthedramaticpersonae.
Ofthe chaptersconcernedwithplot,chaptersten throughfourteen (thoughnot chaptertwelve3)focuson the rulesforthe complex
A general surveyof these fourchapters
plot (jGo7iTCY]ivo).
will confirmthattheyclearlyformthe contextof the ajiapria-text
in chapterthirteen.In chapterten, dividingplots into the simple
() and the complex(n7iey|ivoi),
accordingto whethereach
and/orperipeteia
plot is constructedwithrecognition(avayvoopiGK;)
Aristotle
that
the best tragedy
(I452al4-17),
()
emphasizes
shouldbe based uponnota simplebuta complexplot(l452b31-32:rrjv
gi$v6egiv... ' irfjv
K8Ky|iviqv),
whichmusthave organic
ornecessity:4
unityofactionaccordingto thecausallaw ofprobability
3Thischapter
dealswiththequantitative
suchas Prologue,
partsofa tragedy,
andchoral
andStasimon).
Exode,
(Parode
Episode,
portions
4While
itiscertain
that
Aristotle
doesnotlimit
thelawofprobability
ornecessity
to
butrequires
tothelaw,henevertheless
stresses
complex
plots
only,
anyplottoconform

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

36

HoKim
5 rjc;|avayvcopia|io]nspmezeiaqrj
7TTCY|ivr]v
ariv.rauta 5 5yva0ai aurf^
^icpovrj|iT(xaai(;
Trjovazosc;to |30, tcvKpoyYvri|ivcov
rj kc;
au|iaiviv]avayKiqc;
yyva0ai*
KoXv

5i
xbe
rj'xexx5e.
yap
51
yyva0ai
1452al6-21

This organicunityimpliesan inwardprinciplethatrevealsitself


in the formof an outwardwhole (ov,i.e. pxtl-Viaov-TUTrj),
in
whichthe successiveincidentsare connectedbyan inwardand causal
with
bond (I450b23-1451al5).5The strandsoftheplotare interwoven
The effectof
suchcomplexity
thattheycannotbe clearlydisentangled.
thiscomplexity
can be perceivedbyrecognition
and peripeteia,which
Aristotle
believestobe tragedy's
mostpotentmeansofemotionaleffect

(l450a33-35:;5 jiytGTa
rjTpaycoSa
o ijjuxaycoyd
a

Kai
|0'ipr'arv,
1 vayvcopaa).
In chaptereleven,definingrecognitionas yvoac;d yvcoaiv
|iTaoq (I452a30-3l) and peripeteiaas vavTov tcv
(145222-23),Aristotle
KpaTTO|iva)v
|iTaori
stipulatesthatthebest
formofrecognition
is coincidentwithperipeteia
(l452a32-33:''
5 avayvcopiaic;,
orav a|ia 1yvryrai),
in whichthe latter
attendsupontheformer.
The reasonis thatsuchrecognition,
combined
withperipeteia
, will produceeitherpityor fear (I452a38-1452bl: rj
Kai nepmxeiarjeXeove^ei rjepoov).Here,
yap TOiauTri
avayvcopiaic;
is thechangefromignorance
Aristotle
that
explains
recognition
ofidentityto knowledge:6
ltd 5r' rj avayvcopiaic;
tivcvativ avayvcopiaic;,
ai ^v
iai0;tv Tpov
jivov,TavrSrjoc;
;
5vayvcopaai,oov f' jiv
tic;ativ,xe 5e jicpOTpouc;
thatrecognition
andperipeteia
should
ensuefrom
thepreceding
events
or
bynecessity
probability.
5 Cf.Butcher
1907:274-301.
6Aristotle
intheimmediate
ofinanimate
context
ignores
recognition
objects
eovjivouvaai
koc
1
(l452a33-38),
//;'
yp7ip
cfyuxa
saying:
Tuxvm
egtv pr|Tai
eotiv
ei Tiipay
ne; ||nnpayev
aujiaivei,
A'
|50
r'|
gtv
r'
rjpr)javr|
Tr<;
vayvcopGai.
Tipec

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

37

Aristotle's
HamartiaReconsidered
rrj|0)(;
rrjc;
cpiyveia 'OparflveyvcopaGr]
kevou 5 ;rrjvcpiyveiavar|5ei
Kiatorc;,
vccyvoopasGo.
1452b3-8

In thisdefinition
ofrecognition(yvoad yvcoaivjisraoi]),
in which,whentheunknown
ignorancesignifies
ignoranceofidentity,
within
and
is
identity recognized(i.e. avayvcopiaic;) one stateofaffairs
theplayis changedtoitsoppositeintheprobableornecessarysequence
ofevents(i.e. nepuie), reversaloffortune() takes
place in thelifeofthehero.7Thus,theforegoing
argumentleadsto the
that
the
(l451all-15)
complexplotcomprisesthe following
corollary
at an event- recogstages(;yiyvojivoov):
ignoranceofidentity
-
nitionand peripeteia reversaloffortune.
Fromthiscorollarywe can
deducethatjiapra willserveas the causal linkmovingthe protagonist fromignoranceto recognition,and fromfortuneto ruin.8This
as an integralpart
argumentresumesin chaptersthirteenand fourteen
ofthediscussionofthecomplexplot.
Followingthe |iapra-text (14537-1), chaptersthirteenand
fourteenconsiderhowpoetsshouldconstructcomplexplotsto arouse
In the passage (l452b27-30) which
tragicemotionsmosteffectively.
servesas an introductory
remarkto both chapters,Aristotlereveals
threeconcernsthatpoets shouldkeep in mindin constructing
tragic
plots:(l) whatto aim at, (2) whatto avoid,and (3) how to fulfillthe
fromthefactthatbothchaptersdeal withthe
tragedy'seffect.
Judging
same topic (i.e. 'ivQoc;TtETiEyjivoc;)
forthe same purpose(i.e. maxi7 From
Aristotle's
itisdifficult
characterization
todetermine
theprecise
compressed
nature
ofperipeteia
itcannot
beequated
withreversal
offortune,
in
; however,
simply
thattheformer
isdistinctive
tocomplex
isrequired
inanytragic
plotsbutthelatter
5anXflv
plot.Aristotle
fjyivo^vric;
says:yo)
yvTipcxiv

oSpiatai
ouvexo
Kailiicx
ctvu
5rj
rjvayvcopia^o
rj^eraaGic;
TiEpiTiereac;
yvetai,
TtETtEyi^vriv
the
Thus,
r]nepinexeac;
r]^ov rj^taaaic;axiv(I452al4-18).
vayva)pi|ioO
involved
inrecognition
andperipeteia
arespecific
for
|ixaoai
techniques
implementing
a change
from
orviceversa,
forthose
canoccur
without
goodtobadfortune
recognition
andperipeteia.
8 Sherman
1992:182.
Shesaysthatyaptoc
isthemechanism
thatinitiates
themovements
ofreversal
andrecognition.

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

HoKim

38

mizationofpityand fear),theyhave somethingin commonwitheach


other(I452b30-32: )ouv 5e rr)vavGeaivevai xf<;Kaarri
1
;'ir' aKArjv nenXeyjivrivkotauriqv cpoepoov
eXeewCv
eivai ). Bothchaptersfocuson how complexplots
can best producehumanemotions;both explainwhat poets should
abandon and what theyshould adopt in the constructionof events
(auvGeau;rv/);bothdeal withhowthe]ieraoTi
>of
the complexplot can be arrangedin such a way thatthe poets treat
the primordial
cause ofthoseterribleincidentswhichmovethe audiin stipulating
ence to pityand fear.In thisvein,chapterthirteen,
how
the particularconditionsofperipeteia
maximizethe tragedy'seffect,
can be viewedas complementing
whichdelineates
chapterfourteen,
theparticularkindsofincidentthatfulfill
thesamepurpose.Thusthe
formerchapterin whichthejiapra-textappearscan be construedin
lightofthe latterone. Now,an attemptto determinethe meaningof
a'iapxia willbe made by exegesisofthe jiapra-text(14537-1)in
lightofchapterfourteen.
II
Withina discussionin chapterthirteenof the sortof reversalsthat
best arousepityand fear,Aristotledeals withwho is the mostappropriatesortof characterto sufferthe reversalsthatwill excitetragic
emotions.9
To thisend,firstofall,he beginswithwhatthepoetsshould
aimat in theconstruction
oftheplot(l452b30-32).As an overallstipulationforthebesttragedy,
he emphatically
stressesthesetwinrequisites:jiGoTTSTreyiivoc;
and
kcxeeicv.
That is,
cpoepoov
theplotmustnotonlybe constituted
and
, but
byrecognition peripeteia
also imitatean actioncapableofmaximizing
and
For
fear.
Aristotle
pity
xa eeioovmustbe a controllingconceptforthe
cpoepoov
best tragedy,
because it is invariablyin accordancewiththisconcept
thathe classifiesthe various|iO0o-structures
germaneto reversalof
fortunein 1452b33-53a7.
In 1452b33-53a7,Aristotleindicatesthreepossiblepatternsto be
avoidedin orderto obtainthebesttypeofreversal.Two typesofmen
9 Cf.Sherman
1992:181-184.

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

s HamartiaReconsidered
Aristotle

39

(eithergood orbad) encountertwotypesofchanges(eitherfromprosor fromadversity


to prosperity).10
The firstone to be
perityto adversity
avoidedis the!(;evzvxac;ei 5uoTuxav)ofmorallyvirtuous
men(TtieiKSc;
avSpa),forthistypedoes notproducepityand fearbut
The secondpatternto be rejectedis the jieraori
revulsion(jiiocpov).
ofa morallyviciousman(|iox0r|po)>
forthis
(;octuxoc
ei eTUXiav)
nor arouses
typeneithersatisfieshumanfeeling( cpivGpomov)
The
to
is
the
and
fear.11
third
one
be
abandoned
pity
jiSTaori(
for
eTUXa SuGTUxiav)of the uttervillain( ccpSpaTiovrip),
this typeprovokesneitherpitynor fear,albeit stillappealingto
Whatthe rejectionofthisthirdtypeintimatesis that,
cpivGpomov.
whilethe cpictvGpomov
can be arousedwhenanyhumanbeingsuffers
and
fear
can
be arousedonlywhena certainkindofman
adversity,
pity
suffers
it
is
obviousthattheforegoing
Here,
adversity.12
typesare evaluatedbyAristotle's
kcx
Xeex
u)v.
controlling
concept:jijiriou;
cpoepcov
Withregardto thispitifuland fearfulmimesis,then,in orderto
maximizethe tragedy'seffect,what kind of man should the tragic
heroindeedbe and whatkindofreversalshouldhe be facedwith?As
faras the firstquestionis concerned,in 1453a7-16the moralstatus
of the hero is specifiedas the man "betweenthese" (
TOUTGOv
out).That is, the heroshouldbe neithera morallyvicious
nor
an uttervillain,nor a preeminently
virtuousman ( 'xr'ze
man,
1 SiKaioavfl),but a man likeourselves( 5 irsp
apsTfjSiacpspoov
tv ^oiov). But whyshouldAristotlespecifythisstateas the indispensable prerequisiteforarousingpityand fear?This questioncan
be answeredby the doctrineofthe mean (jieaTri),
whose extremes
cannotbe addressedby|.13Forthe mustnothappento
a morallyperfectpersonbecause,evenifit shouldhappento him,this
would evokenot pityand fear,but disgust(jiiapv); and,at the same
time,it cannotbe appliedto a wickedpersonbecause he acts |it5
10Cf.Else1957:367-371,
422-439.
11Else(1957:368)
introduces
twomainlinesofinterpretation
oftcpivpomov:
"either
a general
ofsympathy
with
ourfellow-men,
orthesenseofjustice
which
feeling
makes
usgrieve
atthedownfall
ofthegoodandtheprosperity
ofthewicked."
12Cf.Else1957:368-371.
13Cf.Stinton
1975:222-224.

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

40

HoKim

Whatfollowsdefines
jiaprav riva 5i Kaxiav Kai jioxOripav.
the hero's moralstatusas neitherveryfarabove nor veryfarbelow
the usual morallevel,but above average:rvev |iyr|
vroov
5<yr'
Kai eruxa,oov OiSTiou
Kai 0uarriKai oi rcvroioroov
yevv
rcicpavaavSpe (I453al0-12); f' oou expirair]eriovoc;
jiovr'
theheromustbe good,althoughhe is
(I453al6-17). Certainly,
Xetpovo
notmorallyperfect.
As faras the second question is concerned,the hero's reversal
should not be jieraoArj ruxa eie;eruxiav but |iraoAiqe^
eruxiasic;Suaruxav(I453al4), in whichthe Suaruxiathatthe hero
undergoesshould be modifiedby nepi tv v^iov (Suaruxovra)
(l453a4). Accordingto what follows,the hero's Suaruxia shouldbe
caused'ir'ze5i KaKavKai]iox0rjp^v
c
5 jiapravrivainorder
thathis Suaruxiamaybe unmerited(l453a8-9).14This factleads the
readersto twoconclusions:first,
thatocjiapriahas no connectionwith
KaKaand jioxripia*
withtheresultthattheprimalcause ofSuaruxia
can be said to have nothingto do withthe moralor culpableaspect;
second,the |iapra-contextdoes notlay on the heromoralresponsiIn fact, is notso muchthehero'saction
bilityforhisperipeteia.
or tragicmisfortune
as his innercondition,forhis tragicmisfortune
is the consequenceof actioncaused by his innerstate,i.e. ignorance
of a certainfactthathe needs to know.15
Besides,the expression5
in 1453al5 impliesthatqaapria is somethinggreat
jiaprav jieyriv
and important,
whichmakesit impossibleforthe heroto escape the
Thus,the hero's'xapxiamustbe somethingserious
tragicperipeteia.16
enoughto entanglehimin horrificincidents,withthe resultthathe
is drivenintoundeservedadversity.
In sum,judgingfromAristotle's
of
and
fearsome
mimesis,the tragichero
controllingconcept pitiful
14InRhetoric
thatpity
canarisewhen
weseethetragic
hero
2.8,Aristotle
explains
suffer
undeserved
misfortune:
asa feeling
ofpaincaused
"Pity
maybedefined
bythe
ofsomeevil,destructive
orpainful,
which
onewhodoesnotdeserve
it,and
sight
befalls
which
wemight
tobefall
ourselves
orsome
friend
ofours,
andmoreover
tobefall
expect
ussoon"(I385bll-15).
15Ostwald
forthedistinction
inhisarticle.
between
and
argues
uapxa
16Cf.Else1957:383.

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Aristotle
'sHamartiaReconsidered

41

mustnot only be a man like ourselves,but also sufferundeserved


misfortune
5 jiaprav because ofXeoqjivnepi tv viov,cpooc;
5 Tieprovojioiov(14535-).17
Fromthispointofview,in 1453al6-23,Aristotlerepresentsas the
finesttragediesthe storiesofAlcmaeon,Oedipus,Orestes,Meleager,
Thyestes,Telephus,and those otherswho have happened eitherto
undergoor to do fearfulthings.If all of these storiesappeared in a
singleworkand/orin a singleauthor,thenthislistcouldplaya decisive
role in discoveringthe meaningof jiapTa. In an attemptto analyze
them,however,we facetwo problems:first,manyancienttragedians
to
dealt withthese heroes in theirworks,so that it is verydifficult
to each hero
discernwhose worksAristotlehad in mindin referring
as a modelforthebesttragedy;second,amongthe worksmentioned,
On the
some survivein fragments
and othersare no longerextant.18
otherhand,froman analysisof chapterthirteenwe see thatconsiderationsof pityand fearalreadyrestrictwho can cause 'xapza (i.e.
the "who" aspect ofthe hero) but not whatsortofqiapria the tragic
herocan cause (i.e. the "what"aspectofthe hero),19
so thatthosesix
heroes mustsatisfyrestrictions
on the "who" aspect of the hero. In
chapterfourteenAristotledisclosesthe "what"aspectofthe jiapra
by illustrating"what sortsof incidentsstrikeus as terribleor pitiable" (I453bl3-14), underthe stipulationthatthe poet has to elicit
the tragicpleasure (pityand fear)fromthe eventsthat he imitates
theschemaofthedreadfulincidentsspecified
(l453bll-13), describing
in 1453bl4-1454al5.
To begin with, in surveyingchapter fourteen,one findsthat
Aristotleencouragesthe poets to createhumanpityand fearnot by
mise-en-scne
, butbyplot(l453bl-13).20Then,he depictsas followsthe
kindsofactsthatstrikepeopleas terribleand pitiful:

17Cf.Arist.
Rhet.
2.8.1385bl3-15.
2.5.1383a8-12;
18Cf.Else1957:391-398;
Lucas1968:145-146.
19Cf.Sherman
1992:181-184.
20Especially
1453bll-14:
enei5tt|vnXov
cpoou
5i
5er|5ovr|v
tv7ioir|Triv,
roro
vtoTipy^aaiv
TcapaaKsueiv
ob
cpavspv
yiTioiriTov.

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

42

HoKim
Orav5' v cpiai
7i0ri,oov i' Secp
yyviqrai
Secpv' ui nazpa ri ' uiv f] ui 'xr'xepa
noKXEvr'
r]'x''r' ri oroiorov5pa,raralj'xx'xov.
1453bl9-22

Aristotleintroducesfourtragiccases involvingclose
Subsequently,
withfullknowledgeof
blood-relatives:
(l) whenmurderis committed
when
murder
is
but
not
committed
withfullknowl(2)
planned
identity;
edge ofidentity;(3) whenmurderis committedin ignoranceofidenbut,becauseof
tity;(4) whenmurderis plannedin ignoranceofidentity
Aristotle
not
committed
(I453b25-54a8).
saysthatthedeed
recognition,
orunwittingly
musteitherbe doneornotdone,andwittingly
(I453b3637:rjyapTCpcc^ai
avayKiqi' 'xr'kociera'|ajeira).
Aristotleclassifiesthose fourcases fromworstto best: first,the
worstcase is to intendto kill a blood-relativewithfullknowledge
and thennot to do it; forinstance,in Antigone
of his or her identity,
butleavesthedeed
Haemonis aboutto killCreonwithfullknowledge,
undone(I453b38-1454al).Second,a bad case is to commita crimewith
fullknowledgeof identity,
such as Medea's deliberatekillingof her
childrenin Euripides'play (I454a2; 1453b26-28).Third,a bettercase
and
(Oedipus-structure
) is to commita crimein ignoranceof identity,
thento recognizeit afterwards,
suchas Sophocles'Oedipus,Alcmaeon
in Astydamas,or Telegonusin Odysseus
Wounded
(l454a2-3; 1453b29the
best
case
is to intend
33). Fourth,
structure)
(Iphigenia/Merope/Hellein ignoranceofidentity,
a murderofa blood-relative
andthennotto do
ituponrecognizing
them(l453b34-36),suchas Merope,Iphigenia,and
Helle:
rv uiv
r|]
yo)5 oov v reoKpeacpvrri
jaei
5 ou, XX veyvcapiae,
xa v rf
aTTOKrdvei
aTioKrdveiv,
rv Secpv,
kcxv rfj"Efl
uic;
cpiyeveiar' Secpri
rrjv'ir'xpak5i5vcxi
|ia>v
veyvcapiaev.
1454a5-9
The noteworthyfacthere is that the inferiorcases are those in
which,withfullknowledge
ythe murderof a blood-relativeis
ofidentity
or
the
cases
are thosein which,inignorance
not;
of
performed
superior

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

HamartiaReconsidered
Aristotle's

43

or not.Hence,the
is performed
, themurderofa blood-relative
identity
case hingesupon
betweenthesuperiorcase andtheinferior
distinction
whetherthe protagonisthas fullknowledgeof identityor complete
means
Now,it becomesclearwhatdvayvcopiaic;
ignoranceofidentity.
the
in
of
fourteen:
the
changefrom
complexplot chapter
specifically
ignoranceofidentityto knowledge;the termnarrowsdownto recognizingthe identityof those who are intimatelyrelatedto the hero.
Accordingto an analysisof chapterfourteen,considerationsof pity
and fearalreadyrestrict
whatsortof'xapzathetragicherocan make,
so thatthe "what"aspect ofthe heromustbe deeplyboundup with
ofcloseblood-relatives.
completeignoranceoftheidentity
Ifthatis the case, can the 'xapxaof chapterthirteenbe equivaoftheclose relativesin chapterfourlentto theayvoia oftheidentity
teen? For chapterthirteenexplicitlyrestrictsthe primordialcause
ofthe hero'sundeservedmisfortune
rivet,
by the phrase5 <x|icxptav
cause of
whilechapterfourteenalso implicitly
confinestheprimordial
incidentbythe phrasebyignorance
This
the hero'shorrific
ofidentity.
questionwillbe examinedby subjectingthe textto twotests:first,I
willinvestigatewhetherthe six playsthatAristotlenamesin chapter
thirteenas thefinesttragedieshavethesametheme-ignorance
ofidenin
it
is
almost
which
works
common.
to
tityClearly,
impossible judge
in
Aristotle
has
Yet
it
will
ancient
mind.
be of
amongmany
tragedies
greatinterestifthe six heroesin chapterthirteenhave ignoranceof
identityin common,sincetheirstoriessatisfyboththe "who" aspect
of the hero in chapterthirteenand the "what"aspect of 'xapxa in
wherea criterionfordiscriminating
betweensupechapterfourteen,
riortragedyand inferior
and thebest
tragedyis ignoranceofidentity,
plotis also groundedon ignoranceofidentity.
Second,on theassumptionthatthe ofchapterthirteenhas
butalso moralculpanothingto do withnotonly and }iox0ripia,
countas undeserved),I
bility(because it makesthe hero'smisfortune
will investigatewhether,as withthe of chapterthirteen,(l)
ignoranceof identityis freeofmoralculpability;(2) pain and repentanceattendanton peripeteia
happento thehero,upon hisrecognition
in
ofthe horrific
actionsdone ignorance;and (3) theseactionsarouse
pityand fearin the audience.Thistestwillbe performed
by compar-

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

44

HoKim

ison with the |iapra-text in EN. 3.1.1110bl7-3.1.1111a20dealing


withactionsdone out ofignorance.Ifthesetwotestsyieldaffirmative
to mean
answers,the jiapra ofchapterthirteencan be interpreted
of
ignorance identity.
Accordingto what is known about Aristotle'sfirstexample,21
Alcmaeonkilledhis mother(Eriphyle)in obedience to a command
fromhis father(Amphiaraus)at the timeofthe latter'sdeparturefor
Thebes.Butthe ancienttragedianAstydamasmade Alcmaeonkillhis
motherin ignoranceofheridentity,
onlyto discoverhis mistakeafterwards(I453b33).Oedipusis in completeignoranceofwho his parents
are; he killshis fatherand marrieshis mother;he recognizesit afterOrestesis one ofAristotle'sfavorite
wards;he fallsinto misfortune.
in Tauris
, he goes to
examplesof recognition(l452b3-8). In Iphigenia
a foreigncountrywherethe customis to sacrificeall strangersto the
goddesswhosepriestessis his sister.Capturedafterhis arrival,and on
he causes his recognition
the pointofbeingsacrificed,
by sayingthat
it is notjust his sister's,but also his own fateto be sacrificed,and is
subsequentlyrescued(l454a6-7; 1455b2-ll). Meleageris killedbyhis
motherAlthaea,eitherby a curse or by burningthe half-burnt
log
whichcontainedhis sparkof life,because Meleagerkilledhis mother's brothers.Meleager'sstatementto Heraclesin Hades showsthat
in ignoranceof who
his killingof his uncles happenedaccidentally,
his opponentswere and duringa fiercefight,in whichit was hard
to recognizea dear one. In one of Sophocles' two tragediesnamed
, Thyestessleptwithhis daughterPelopia in ignoranceofher
Thyestes
Later,whenThyestesis aboutto be killedin prisonbyhisown
identity.
son Aegisthus,
who has been rearedbyAtreus,he recognizesbothhis
withtheresultthat
son and his daughter,
who is also his son's mother,
Atreus
withthe same
kills
herself
and
Pelopia
Aegisthusdispatches
sword.In Sophocles'Aleadae, Telephus,havingbeen exposedat birth
and broughtup bykingCorythus,
does notknowthesecretofhisbirth
and killsthesonsofkingAleos- hisuncles-becausetheyhavetaunted
himforhisbastardy.
WhenAleoscomesto avengethem,he recognizes
21Cf.Apollodorus
Else
TheLibrary
7.36-37;
1.8.2-3;
3.5.7-9;
2.10-16,
6.26-27,
Epitome
1957:391-399.

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Aristotle
'sHamartiaReconsidered

45

Telephusand realizesthatthisis the fateprophesiedby Delphi,that


his sonsshoulddie at thehandsofhisgrandson.In Sophocles'Mysians
,
Telephus,the son ofHeraclesand Auge,has been separatedfromhis
mother.KingTeuthrasofMysiawelcomeshimand letshimmarrythe
whois noneotherthanTelephus'ownmother,
king'sadopteddaughter,
beforekillinghernewbrideAuge.Ontheweddingnight,immediately
groomoutofloyaltyto Heracles,Augerecognizeshisidentity.
In chapter fourteen,Aristotleappends OdysseusWoundedand
to the above list of exemplarytragedies(I453b30-54a8).
Cresphontes
Telegonus,the son of Odysseusby Circe,lands in Ithaca by nightin
searchofhis father.Mistakinghis son fora marauder,Odysseusfights
himand is fatallywoundedbyhis son'sspear.However,
Telegonusdoes
notrealizewhomhe has woundeduntilafterhis father'sdeath.In the
ofheryoungest
, Meroperegardsa strangeras themurderer
Cresphontes
son, Aepytus(but the strangeris actuallyAepytushimself).Merope
thereforeplans to avengeher son in ignoranceofthe stranger'strue
Justbeforeshe killshimin bed withan ax, her manservant,
identity.
his
seeing faceilluminatedbymoonlight,
perceivesthe strangerto be
Aepytus,the son ofhis mistress.Meropealmostmurdersherown son
on accountofherignoranceofwhothestrangeris.
This studyhas attemptedto interpret
the jiapra-textin lightof
fourteen
of
the
As
a
Poetics
.
result
of investigating
whether
chapter
the six exemplaryheroesin chapterthirteenare involvedin horrible
occurrences,killingtheirrelativesin ignoranceof theiridentityas
discussedin chapterfourteen,we findthe case in whichmurderis
correplannedorperformed
bybrotheron brother(Secp
Secpv)
spondingto Orestesin Iphigeniain Tauris;or by son on father(ui
to Oedipusand Thyestes;or bymotheron son
),
corresponding
to Meleagerand Telephus;or by son on
uiv),
(viirrip
corresponding
mother(ui jiryrpa),
to Alcmaeon(I453bl8-2l). This
corresponding
correspondencesuggeststhe possibilitythatthe of chapter
thirteencan be interpreted
in lightofthe fourcases ofkillinga close
blood-relative
discussedin chapterfourteen.
However,Aristotledoes not limithis referenceto the six named
examples,but makesopen-endedreferenceto manyotherswho have
sufferedor perpetratedterriblethings(I453a21: ... ' aoi

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

46

HoKim

aujieriKevf' iiaGev5eiva r]noirjoai),cases which do not always


involveignoranceof identityas a'iapxia. For example,in Trachiniae
Deianeirasends Heraclesa robe anointedwiththe love potiongiven
to her as a dyingpresentbythe centaurNessos,who wantednothing
morethanto be revengedupon Heraclesforhis own death.Herignorancethatthegarmentis soakedin poisonis exposedonce herunwittingchoice() bringsaboutitsdisastrousconsequence:Heracles
being consumedby the cloak's poisonousflamesupon donningit.22
in manyotherancientworksin whichthosesix heroes
Furthermore,
appear,theirjicxptais not limitedto ignoranceof identityonly,
but includesvariousotherkindsof error.Forinstance,Thyesteswas
invitedto feaston thefleshofhis sons,buthe did notrecognizewhat
he was eating;and one hopes that he would have been horrifiedat
Forthat
eatinghumanfleshevenifithad notbeenhisownchildren's.23
is but
reason,it is necessaryto examinewhetherignoranceofidentity
one instanceofthe multivocalterma'xapxiabyexploringthe interrelationshipbetween|in chapterthirteenand ayvoia ofidentity
in chapterfourteenin lightofthe jiapxa describedas ignoranceof
inFN3.1.
particulars
Ill
Now,the focuswill be on the second test,the comparisonwiththe
in 3.1.1110bl7-3.1.1111a21.
In EN3.1-3 and 5.8 Aristotle
cjiapra-text
between
kinds
in
of
action
ofa contrastbetween
terms
distinguishes
In EN5.8.1135a20-23
skcovand ckgov.
he arguesthatwhetheran action
is one ofinjustice(or ofjustice)dependson itsvoluntariness
or involcharactermakestheagentculpablewhen
untariness;foritsvoluntary
theactionis an act ofinjustice,so thatabsenceofvoluntariness
makes
it possibleforan act to be unjustwithoutbeingan act ofinjustice.The
criterionfordifferentiating
betweenskoovand cckoov
is, respectively,
the knowledgeor ignoranceofdecisivefactorspertainingto action.24
22Apol.
Lib.2.7.5-7;
cf.Sherman
1992:190.
23Apol.
Lib.
2.10-13.
Epitome
24Cf.Schtrumpf
1989:146.

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

HamartiaReconsidered
Aristotle's

47

the actionis givenas


Knowledgeofall the circumstances
surrounding
action(EN5.8.1135a23-24);
theprerequisite
forvoluntary
ignoranceof
thosecircumstances
is givenas thatforinvoluntary
action(a32-34).
In EN 3.1 Aristotlesets out a distinctionbetweenvoluntary(
) and involuntaryactions ( ): the formeractions
are praisedor blamed,whereasthe latterare pitiedor pardoned(EN
As far as involuntaryactions are concerned(EN
3.1.1109b31-32).25
3.1.1109b35-3.1.1111a.2l),actionswhichtake place under compulsion (ia) or throughignorance(5 ayvoiav) are regardedas involuntary(cf.EN5.8.1135a32-34).Here,compulsory(iaioc;)meansthatthe
movingprincipleor the initialcause (rj t ama) is outsidethe
agent (e^co0v)and the personcompelledcontributesnothingto its
However,actionsthat
originor cause (EN3.1.1110al-4;3.1.1110b2-17).
are performed
fromfearofgreaterevils,or forsomenobleobject,are
morelikevoluntary
actions,fortheyare subjectto choice(npoapeai)
at thetimewhentheyareperformed
(EN3.1.1110a5-33).
Aristotleclassifiesactionsperformed
by reasonofignoranceinto
and
(cckoov) non-voluntary
(ox skoov);whilethe former
involuntary
producepain and repentance,thelatterare notaccompaniedbythese
emotions(EN 3.1.1110bl8-25).He then goes on to distinguishacts
in a
performed
throughignorance(5 ayvoiav) fromacts performed
stateofignorance(ayvocov),forthosewho are drunkor in a rageare
or rage
thoughtto act as a resultnotofignorance,butofdrunkenness
(EN3.1.1110b26-28). He also dividesignoranceintoignoranceofthe
universal(rj)and ignoranceofparticulars(rj0' ). He
setsforththetwotypesofignorance:
ayvosi |iv ouv ; jioxripa 5e TiprreivKai gov
5i TrjvToiaTiqv
cpKT80v,
jiapnav Kai oco
! yvovTai. 5' ockougiov
zi tic;
ouETai
eyeaGai
ou yap rjv zf'irpoaipaeiyvoia
yvoe aujicpepovTa*
ama Kovoov(XXTrjc;
o5' rj
jaoxOripaX
25In5.8(H36a5-9)
Aristotle
5' kougcov
}ivotiauyyvAj^oviK
r5'
says:tcv
oauyyvaivioviKa*
ooa|ivyp|]|avov

Kai5ayvoiav
yvoovrE;
jaaprvouai,
5]5i'ayvoiav,
'
5'ir'zeualv
auyyva)|ioviKa,
yvoovTe
jav5i;
oauyyvco^oviKa.
' vGpcnivov,

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

HoKim

48

XK r|0' , v o Kai
(ijjyovrai
yp5i yerarr]v),

a rjTip^i*
v roroiyap Xeoq auyyvoaiiry
Ttep
ti
totgov
npzzei.
yvocovaKouoio
yp
EN3.1 H10b28-3.1.1111a2
As faras generalignorance(rj)is concerned,all wicked
peopleare ignorantofwhattheyshoulddo and fromwhattheyshould
abstain,as a resultofwhichtheybecome unjustand in generalbad.
tendsto be used notofpeoplewho are ignorantof
The termockougio
whatis to theiradvantage-forthiskindofignorance(in theirchoice)
actions-butofwickednessand ofinjusis notthecause ofinvoluntary
tice in general,forwhichpeople are blamed.Thus,the ayiapriaof a
wickedmanis ignoranceofgeneralprinciplesand residesin his choice
so thatpainand repentancedo notattenduponitat all.
OipoapEGi),
In contrastwithgeneralignorance,
(r'0'
ignoranceofparticulars
and
the
of
the
action
of
the
circumstances
) signifiesignorance
objectswithwhichit is concerned.Thiskindofignoranceis thecause
ofinvoluntary
actions,forwhichpeople are notblamed;it is notthe
cause ofwickedness.Thus,pain and repentanceare alwaysproduced
in an agentwho recognizessomethingdone in thiskindofignorance.
Aristotlesaysthat,sincethe personwho is ignorantofanyparticular
circumstancesacts involuntarily,
pityand pardonarise in thissituahe definesthenatureand numberofthesecircumtion.Subsequently,
stances:
ggoouv o xepov5iopoai aura, riva Kai at, r
5ri zi nepzi r]v riviuprrei,vore5 Kai rivi,
Kai ttc,
oov
Kai vKarvoc;,
oovacoTiqpa,
oovpyvco,
|rjacpSpa.

EN3.1 1111-6

of
Thatis to say,ignoranceofparticularsrelatesto anycircumstances
actionin whicha manmaybe ignorantofwho he is,whathe is doing,
he is using,to what
whator whomhe is actingon, whatinstrument
end his act will lead, and how he is performing
it, whethergently
or violently.Accordingto Aristotle'sillustrationof these particular
circumstances,

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Aristotle's
HamartiaReconsidered

49

anavza |iv ov rara ou5eiav ayvoriaeie'xr'yaiviievo,


SflAov5' ; o5 rv Tiparrovra*
ttoyap aurv ye;
0 5 Ttprrei,yvoiaeiev av ri, oov yovrcx
cpaaiv
ektieoeivaro,i] ouK eiSvai on qv,
Aiaxor j^uarix,] Sellai ouojievoqcpevai,co
rov KaTomiTriv
oir|0er|5' av Kai rv uiv TtoX^uov
eivai r' , Kai acpaipwcGai
r AeAoyxcopievov
rv
0OV
eivai'
1
aoorripa
5pu, ]
Kaaripiv
av*
iroKrevai
Kai
noroac;
5p;ai ouAovievoc;,

01 aKpoxeipivievoi,
nax^eiev av. pi Ttvra5| rara
yvoa oori,v rj^, rorcovri yvoriaac;
cckgov
5rceTrpaxvai,
Kai jidiarav ro *
5'
eivai
ro
5,v r|^;,Kai /.
Kupicorara
ri 5e
5| rrjvroia'3rr|v
ayvoiav eyojivou
eivai Kai v jierajieAea.
rrjvTtpiv
uKripv
EN3.1 11116-21
In sum,sincean involuntary
actionis performed
undercompulsionor
the
twofold
condition
for
a
act is that(l)
throughignorance,
voluntary
theoriginoftheactionmustresidewithintheagent,and (2) theagent
musthave knowledgeofthe particularcircumstancesin whichhe is
ovro5' ro ia Kai 5 ayvoiav,r
acting(EN3.1.1111a22-24:
KoaiovS^eiev av eivai ou r' v eiSrir 0' ' v
o rj^).
betweenthe ajaapria of
Here,in consideringthe interrelationship
Poetics13 and the ayvoia of identityin Poetics14 in lightofthe argumentinEN3.1.1110bl7-lllla21,we can confirm
thatAristotle
uses the
termajiapria forignoranceofparticularcircumstances,
whichincludes
ignoranceof identity,
especiallyin the case of misidentifying
people
who are close: oiriGeiiq
5' ccv Kai rv uiv Tiojiiov
eivai r|
thisparticularignorancehas nothingto do with
Furthermore,
MepTiri.
wickednessand theallocationofblame;rather,
whentheagentsrecognize theirerror,it provokesin thempain and repentance,withthe
resultthatit engenderspityand pardon.Thisparticulartypeofignoranceis congruouswithajiapria in Poetics13,whichalso has nothing
to do with( and jioxOripia
becauseit makesthehero'smisfortune

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

50

HoKim

is suffered
undeserved,causes pain and repentancewhenperipeteia
by
thehero(uponrecognizing
hishorrific
actionsdonein ignorance),
and
evokespityand pardon.
In addition,thephrase5i djaapriavjisyccAriv
in Poetics1453al5 has
been
examined
and
found
to
already
implythat'iapxia is something
great and importantwhichcan make it impossibleforthe hero to
The adjective]iyr|
can be comparedwith
escapethetragicperipeteia.
thesuperlative
in
the
ri dyvoiqaa

following
passage: rourcov
aKoov5oknenpaxvaiy
Kai jidiarav to *
5'
eivai 5ok,v o r'^;, ou evekol(EN3.1 llllal7-19). In Poetics
has something
1453al5, 'ieyXr'makingan actioninvoluntary
in commonwiththesuperlative
which
into
reliefignojiiara,
brings
rance of particularcircumstancesin the contextof ekgovand axcov.
In the Oedipus-structure
the
exemplifiedas the finestplot-structure,
originof the tragichero's parricideand incestlies solelywithhim
because it is not done undercompulsion,so thatwe maythinkofhis
actionas voluntary.
On the otherhand,sincehis actionis committed
throughignoranceofthemostimportant
points(i.e.thecircumstances
ofthe actionand its end),it is definedas an involuntary
action(<xkov
with
the
result
that
the
feels
sorrow
and
Thus,
|),
agent
regret.26
just as thehero'sjaapriamustbe greatenoughto landhimin terrible
so ignoranceofthemostimportant
circumstances,
pointscan also land
himin circumstances
terribleenoughto provokesorrowand regret.
CONCLUSION
I have examinedhow the jiapra ofPoetics13 can be understoodin
termsofAristotle'sown argument.In the hope of discoveringa clue
26In Sophocles'
at Colonus,
defends
himself
blamefor
Oedipus
Oedipus
against
hisfather
andmarrying
hismother:
(bvs'Spcov
murdering
;uvii
|
|ar]5sv
eoux eSpcov.
av Kov
cxv
ETiaiGxvri
S,tr|iov,
Ttc
| ||0;
ektgo
'
;
|
;
| oou
rx''oypouvGiyrGO|iai,
ouGiq
ojc;
|icx|aou
'i vayKov
| aoy'
Xyeiv
pc
r5'eevto,
vaiov
| etikte
ot|oc.
| okeStok
yp'i etiktev,

/,
KaiTEKoGa
ge|ev
ESua,
'xe| atri
oveiSo
rcaSa
cpuo
'ioi.' XXevypouv'oiSa,
ekvt]
5uGGTO|iv
syr^a,cpEyyojiai
CKCaV
IKEvrjv
sy)Seviv| cK)v
tSE
(976-987).

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

'sHamartiaReconsidered
Aristotle

51

to the interpretation
oftheterm'iapzia in thebroadcontextofplot,
I have confirmed
in whatcontextthe cjiapta-text
is used.As a result,
in Poetics13 has been foundto have a complementhe ]iocpT(x-text
in
withPoetics14,so thatthetextcan be interpreted
taryrelationship
I
immediate
context
of
fourteen.
have
also
asked
of
the
chapter
light
whetherthe jiapra ofPoetics13 can includetheyvoocofidentityin
Poetics14 by means oftwotests:(l) whetherthe six heroesin Poetics
13 are involvedin horribleoccurrences-killingtheirrelativesin ignorance of identityin Poetics14; and (2) whetherthe natureand functionofjiapra in Poetics13 appearequallyin ignoranceofidentityin
Poetics14,bycomparisonwiththepiapriathatconsistsin ignoranceof
in EN 3.1.The affirmative
particulars,
includingignoranceofidentity,
resultofthesetwotestsvindicatesthe thesisthatignoranceof identity(i.e. the primordialcause ofkillingclose friendsand relatives)in
Poetics14 is a case ofthe ignoranceofparticularsdiscussedin EN3.1,
in whichthe ignoranceis also expressedbythe term.ConseI concludethatwhatAristotle
meansby inPoetics13 is
quently,
ignoranceofparticularsas perEN3.1.Thisignoranceis exemplified
by
in Poetics14,bywhichthetragicherois involved
ignoranceofidentity
in parricide,matricide,
and the like,and as a resultfallseie;
fratricide,
5
trvva^av Sucnruxav jaaprav.
Korean Baptist Church of Waco (Texas)
WORKS CITED
and theBestKindofTragedy"CQ,
Adkins,ArthurW.H. 1966."Aristotle
n.s.,16:78-102.
." CQ,n.s.,21:81Allan,D.J. 1971."Some Passagesin Aristotle'sPoetics
92.
Trans.J.G.Frazer.2 vols.Loeb Classical
Apollodorus.1921.TheLibrary.
MA.
Library.
Cambridge,
Aristotle.2003 [1926]. Nicomachean
Ethics.Trans. H. Rackham.Loeb
ClassicalLibrary.
MA.
Cambridge,
. 2005 [1995]. Poetics.Trans. StephenHalliwell.Loeb Classical
MA.
Library.
Cambridge,

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

52

HoKim

. 1968. Poetics.Introduction,commentaryand appendixesby


DonaldW.Lucas.Oxford.
Trans.JohnHenryFreese.Loeb Classical
. 1991 [1926].Rhetoric.
MA.
Cambridge,
Library.
Use of A^apta."CQ6:266-272.
Braam,P.van.1912."Aristotle's
Error
inthePoetics
Bremer,
JanMaarten.1969.Hamartia:
ofAristotle
Tragic
Amsterdam.
andinGreek
Tragedy.
andFineArt:
Butcher,SamuelH. 1911[1907].Aristotle's
ofPoetry
Theory
4th
London.
ed.
TextandTranslation
With
a Critical
ofthePoetics.
Cyzyk,Mark. 1990. "Hamartia,Akrasia: Ignorance,and Blame in
Aristotle'sPhilosophy."Kinesis:Graduate
Journalin Philosophy
18:17-35.
." HSCP72:89on Ateand Hamartia
Dawe,R. D. 1968."SomeReflections
123.
onPoetry.
Else,GeraldF.1986.PlatoandAristotle
ChapelHill.
MA.
TheArgument.
. 1957.Aristotle's
Poetics:
Cambridge,
Error."
43:47-56.
I.
M.
1949.
CQ
Glanville,
"Tragic
HSCP29:1-75.
Greene,WilliamChase.1918."Plato'sViewofPoetry."
Halliwell,Stephen.1987.ThePoetics
ofAristotle.
ChapelHill.
Harsh,PhilipWhaley.1945."A]iaptiaAgain."Transactions
oftheAmerican
76:47-58.
Association
Philological
Hey,0. 1928. "AMAPTIA:Zur Bedeutungsgeschichtedes Wortes."
83:1-18,137-163.
Philologus
"Hamartiaand Heroic
Robert.
1993.
Hull,
Nobilityin OedipusRex"
17:286-294.
and
Literature
Philosophy
."CQ,n.s.,12:52-60.
andPeripeteia
Terror,
Lucas,D. W.1962."Pity,
Ostwald,Martin.1958."Aristotleon jiapra and Sophocles'Oedipus
In Festschrift
Ernst
Kappy93-108.Hamburg.
Tyrannus."
"Traditional
Elementsin the Conceptof
Eckart.
1989.
Schitrumpf,
inAristotle's
PoeticsHSCP92:137-156.
Hamartia
"
Sherman,Nancy.1992. Hamartiaand Virtue."In EssaysonAristotle's
177-196.Princeton,
Poetics,ed. AmlieOksenberg
NJ.
Rorty,
"Hamartiain Aristotleand Greek
C.
W.
1975.
T.
Stinton,
Tragedy."CQ,
n.s.,25:221-254.

This content downloaded from 161.116.100.129 on Thu, 2 Oct 2014 17:14:27 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Minat Terkait