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International Journal of Agricultural

Science and Research (IJASR)


ISSN(P): 2250-0057; ISSN(E): 2321-0087
Vol. 4, Issue 6, De c 2014, 119-126
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

EFFECTS OF VAPORS OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM CYMBOPOGON SCHOENANTHUS L.


SPRENG AND ARTEMISIA JUDAICA L.ON CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS
(F.)(COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE)
DEVELOPMENT
WAHIB A AOUS , MOHAMED HAZIT & OUASSILA KHALFI
National School of Agronomy, El-Harrach, A lgiers, Algeria

ABSTRACT
Callosobruchus maculates (Fabricius) is a major insect pest of stored-grain legumes in any countries. In the
present study, fumigant to xicity of essential oils fro m Artemisia judaica L. and Cymbopogon scheonanthus L.Spreng was
assessed on the adults of Callosobruchus maculatus F. at a temperature of 28 2C, 7510% relat ive humidity (r.h.)).
The essential oils vapors were effective and comp letely controlled the biological develop ment of this insect, reduce
fecundity and influence of adults emergence. These oils were used in concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 l/280 ml,
corresponding to 35.71, 71.43, 142.86 and 285.71 l/ l air. The mortality of adults increased with increased concentration
and exposure time. LC50 values for oils fro m A. judaica and C. scheonanthus after 24h exposure were 41.52 and 337.58
l/ l air respectively. Therefore, the results suggest that essential oils fro m the studied plants may be used against
Callosobruchus maculatus in grain storage.

KEYWORDS: Biological-Activity, Callosobruchus maculatus F, Essential Oils, Fu migant Toxicity, Cymbopogon


scheonanthus L, Artemisia judaica L
Rsum
Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) est un insecte ravageur de lgumineuses des grains stockes. Dans la
prsente tude, la to xicit des huiles essentielles dArtemisia judaica L. et de Cymbopogon schoenanthus L.Spreng par
fumigation a t value sur les adultes de Callosobruchus maculatus F. une temprature de 28 2 C, 75 10%
d'humid it relative (HR).
Les huiles essentielles testes par fumigation ont montr une nette action sur la toxicit des adultes et contrlent
parfaitement l'volut ion biologique de cet insecte, inhibent le dveloppement des ufs et lmergence des adultes.
Ces huiles ont t utiliss des concentrations de 10, 20, 40 et 80 l/280 ml, ce qui correspond 35,71, 71,43, 142,86 et
285,71 l/ l air. La mo rtalit des adultes augmente en fonction de la concentration des huiles essentielles et le temps
d'exposition. LC50 pour les huiles de A. judaica L.et C. scheonanthus L. aprs une exposition de 24 heures taient de 41,52
et 337,58 l/ l air respectivement.
Par consquent, les huiles essentielles des plantes tudies peuvent tre utilises contre Callosobruchus maculatus
F. en stock de lgumineuses.

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120

Wahiba Aous, Mohamed Hazit & Ouassila Khalfi

Motscls activit biologique; Callosobruchus maculatus F. ; les huiles essentielles; toxicit de fu migation;
Cymbopogon schoenanthus L.; Artemisia judaica L.

INTRODUCTION
Synthetic chemical insecticides have been used since past years to control stored grain pests. The continuous uses
of chemical insecticides are the result of serious situations, including the development of resistance by insects, pollution of
environment and side effects on human health.
Essential oils and their derivatives are recognized at an alternate means of controlling many harmfu l insects which
are rapid ly degradable in the environ ment and harmless to no target organisms .
The insecticidal activ ity of a large number of essential oils and other plant extracts has been assessed against
several major agricultural pests (Regnault-Roger et al, 1993; Regnault-Roger and Hamraoui, 1993; Go lob et al, 1999;
Weaver and Subramanyam, 2000; K ita et al, 2001; Lee et al, 2001; Andronikashvili, and Reich muth, 2002; Kalinovic et
al, 2002; Papachristos and Stamopoulos, 2002; Kim et al, 2003; Park I.K. et al, 2003).
Therefore, the aim of the present study was carried out to determine the insecticidal activity of the essential oils
fro m two p lants in Algeria, Artemisia judaica and Cymbopogon scheonanthus against Callosobruchus maculatus F.under
Laboratory conditions.
The work described here extends the previous studies by investigating whether the fumigant toxic effect of these
oils on Callosobruchus maculatus F. adults might be enhanced by a second toxic effect involving inhibit ion of
reproduction through disruption of oviposition , i.e. whether a double effect would be induced an immed iate lethal effect
on the adults, complemented by inhibition of reproduction of any survivors. Such a combined effect would increase
interest in the use of essential oils in the management of this beetle. Weaver and Subramanyam (2000), suggested that
fumigant activity in botanicals could have a greater potential use than grain protectants in future on the basis of their
efficacy, economic value and use in large-scale storages.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Plant Materi als
Plant materials of two species were used in the experiments. Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng (Poaceae) was
collected in the southern region of Algeria (Ouarg la) while Artemisia judaica material was harvested in the Djanet reg ion.
Insects
Callosobruchus maculatus F. adults were collected fro m stores and mass -reared on a local variety of chickpea
weevil under laboratory conditions (28 2C, 7510% relat ive humidity (r.h.)). Th is insect is cosmopolitan and infests
stored products of economic importance in Algeria, and may be easily cult ivated in laboratory.
Experi mental Procedure
Concentrations of 35.71, 71.43, 142.86 and 285.71 l/l air of Artemisia judaica and Cymbopogon scheonanthus
were infused on the filter paper disk of 6 cm in diameter that was attached to the caps of glass vials of 280 ml volume.
Fifteen pairs of C. maculatus adults were introduced into each jar containing 50 g seeds. In control containers no essential
oil was used. The experiment was replicated four times. Mortality was recorded after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure time.

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3594

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

121

Effe cts of Vapors of Essential Oils from Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. spreng and
Artemisia judaica L.on Callosobruchus Maculatus(F.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development

The dose-response data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 values for a 24-h exposure
under constant climat ic conditions .
Weevils Adult having survived the treatment oils are maintained on chickpea seeds until they die. The laid eggs
were counted under a binocular microscope from the 5th day and then incubated until adult emergence. Nu mber of adults
that emerged from 25th to 45th day after day treatment was counted. Insects are removed fro m the Petri dishes as they
leave chickpea seeds.
Statistical Anal ysis
Data of toxicity studies were corrected for control mortality acco rding to Abbotts formula (Abbott, 1925), when
mortalities in the control ranged between 5 and 20%. Probit analysis according to Finney (1971) was employed in
analyzing the dose-mortality response. LC50and LC90 values were estimated.
Results
The results showed that insect mortality varied with the essential oils type, concentration and the exposure time.
The essential oil extracted fro m A. judaica and C. scheonanthus were high ly toxic after 24 h against
Callosobruchus maculatus at higher doses (142.86 l/ l and 285.71 l/l air) (Figure 1, 2). After 48h, the two oils had a very
significant effect with 100% at a concentration of 142.86 l/l.
The LC50and LC90 values presented in Table 2 revealed that A. judaica was more to xic to C. maculatus adults
than C. scheonanthus (LC50s were respectively 54.11 and 102.44 l/l air).
The number of eggs laid by females under treatment conditions indicated that essential oil affected oviposition
during the treatment. Essential oils of A. judaica inhibited the development of C. maculatus eggs at 71.42 l/ l, but 142.86
l/ l was necessary with C. scheonanthus oil (Figure 3).
These oils exerted greater insecticidal activity and ovicidal activ ity compared with that in the control.
The oils of these plant species had a significant effect on adults emergence (Figure 4).
Table 1: Mortality Rate (Mean S E) among Adult C. maculatus after Exposure
to Essential Oils Vapors for Different Doses and Periods

Essential Oils

C.
schoenanthus

A. judaica

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Exposure
Ti me (Hours)

24h
48h
72h
96h
24h
48h
72h
96h

Cumulati ve Mortality Rate (% )


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

35,71
3.3 0.8
6.6 3.3
55 4.9
100.0 0.0
23.3 1.8
44.1 3.8
100.0 0.0
100.0 0.0

Doses (l/L Air)


71,42
142,86
9.1 1.5
62.5 2.06
18.3 3.78 87.5 2.36
100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0
100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0
40.8 3.7
56.6 2.9
60.0 2.5
79.1 2.7
100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0
100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0

285,71
76.6 2.44
89.1 2.5
100.0 0.0
100.0 0.0
70 2.5
85 3.31
100.0 0.0
100.0 0.0

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Wahiba Aous, Mohamed Hazit & Ouassila Khalfi

Table 2: Mean Values of LC50 and LC 90 of Essential Oils on Adul ts of C. maculatus


C. schoenanthus

A. judaica

LC 50 (l/ L Air)

102.44

LC 50 (l/ L Air)

54.11

LC 90 (l/ L Air)

175.42

LC 90 (l/ L Air)

98.87

Figure 1: Suscepti bility of C . maculatus Adults to A. judaica Essential


Oil after 24, 48, 72 and 96 H Exposure Ti me

Figure 2: Suscepti bility of C . maculatus Adults to C. schoenanthus


Oil after 24, 48, 72 and 96 H Exposure Ti me

Figure 3: Reducti on of Ovi position by C. maculatus Females duri ng Treatment


wi th Doses of A. j udaica and C . shoenanthus Essential Oils

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3594

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

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Effe cts of Vapors of Essential Oils from Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. spreng and
Artemisia judaica L.on Callosobruchus Maculatus(F.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development

Figure 4: Effects of Essential Oils on Adults Emergence of C . maculatus

DISCUSSIONS
The mortality of adult C . maculatus has increased with increasing of concentrations of Ocimu m basilicum,
O. gratissimum, A. scoparia and A. sieberioils (Kita et al, 2001; Sanon et al, 2002. Negahban et al, 2006).
Similar results were reported by (Ketoh et al, 2005), the essential oil from Cymbopogon schoenanthusb(Poaceae)
showed development inhibit ion in all stages of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).
The essential oils fro m Artemisia annua, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia selengensis and Artemisia sieversiana
(Asteraceae) oils showed strong fumigant and contact activity against Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
(Yuan et al, 2007).
A mortality of 100% was obtained with essential oils of C. martini, P. aduncum and L. gracillis at all
concentrations, at 30 to 50 ml/ 20 g. The reduction in viable eggs and emerged insects was observed (Pereira et al, 2008).
The fu migant activity of Carum copticum (Apiaceae) and Vitex pseudo-negundo (Lamiaceae) essential oils against
eggs, larvae and adults of C. maculatus was tested. The lethal concentration of the essential oil to kill 50% of the
population (LD50) for egg, larvae and adult was found to be 0.90, 1.01 and 2.5 l L-1 air of C. copticum oil, fo llowed by
2.20, 8.42 and 9.39 l/ L air essential oil of V. pseudo-negundo, respectively.(Sahaf and Moharramipour, 2008).
The essential oils extracted of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae) and Melaleuca
quinquenervia (Myrtaceae) was tested by fumigation on the flightless form of the C. maculatus.These oils presented an
insecticidal activ ity and induced, in the females of C. maculatus, a very significant reduction of lay ing (4.79 0.75 with C.
aurantifolia, 3.75 0.28 with A.conyzoides and 1.81 0.53 with M. quinquenervia at the lower concentration (6.7l/ L)
compared to that in the control (51.23 0.32). (Nondenot et al, 2010).

CONCLUSIONS
The essential oils fro m the aro matic p lant Artemisia judaica and Cymbopogon scheonanthus, have insecticidal
properties which on the one hand exert a lethal effect on adults and also exhibit inhibition of reproduction: decrease
fertility. The results obtained on Toxicity of essential oils, they show have an insecticidal effect on C. maculatus studied,
which varied depending on the dose used oils and the exposure time.
The use of essential oils in suitable control insect pests in countries developing could be a complementary
alternative approach to conventional insecticides treatments. There have been numerous research studies on plant products
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124

Wahiba Aous, Mohamed Hazit & Ouassila Khalfi

as fumigants against insect pests of stored products. Besides toxicity tests, attention has been focused to elucidate their
mode of act ion in insects.
Despite the achievements encouraging, the effectiveness of these oils essential remains to b e demonstrated in real
situations. Further experiments are needed to clarify the nature of (or) co mpou nd (s) responsible (s) of th is activity to
optimize the effect ive doses because it is well known that the individual co mponents and purified act at low doses .

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Effe cts of Vapors of Essential Oils from Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. spreng and
Artemisia judaica L.on Callosobruchus Maculatus(F.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Development

125

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