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theologies and cultures

Vol. X. No. 2, December 2013

Biblical Hermeneutics and the Struggle for


Human Freedom

THEOLOGIES AND CULTURES is an academic journal dedicated


to inter-disciplinary research and scholarly exploration in the
field of theology and its interplay with the social, economic,
political and cultural dimensions of people. The journal is
committed to promoting engaged dialogue of different faith
traditions and theological formulations in view of creating
communities of justice and mutual understanding.
Views expressed in this journal are those of the authors, and do
not necessarily reflect, those held by the editorial board of
THEOLOGIES AND CULTURES or of FCCRC or its sponsors.

Copy right @ Chang Jung Christian University & Tainan Theological


College and Seminary
All rights reserved.
Reproduction of articles is allowed with an
acknowledgement of the source.
ISSN no. 1813-7024

Editorial correspondence, submission of articles, book reviews, and


books for review should be send to THEOLOGIES AND CULTURES, FCCRC,
Chang Jung Christian University, Kway Jen, Tainan, Taiwan,
e-mail: mpjoseph@mail.cjcu.edu.tw
Business correspondence should be addressed to THEOLOGIES AND
CULTURES, FCCRC, Chang Jung Christian University, Kway Jen, Tainan,
Taiwan; e-mail: fccrc@mail.cjcu.edu.tw

This periodical is indexed in the ATLA Religion Database , a product of


the American Theological Library Association, 300 S. Wacker Dr., Suite
2100, Chicago, IL 60606, USA. email: atla@atla.com,
www:http://www.atla.com.

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Content

Editorial

A Warrior's Bow with Mercy and Justice: An Interpretation of


"Rainbow" in Genesis 9 / Tzu-Ho Lee
9
The Impact of Postmodern Exegetical Approach on Biblical
Interpretation: Interpreting Abrahams offering Isaac in Genesis 22
as an Example / Ming-Chih Cheng
25
The Conflict of Biblical Interpretations on the Issues of
Homosexuality in Taiwanese Christianity / Hui-Min Yen
45
Pastoral Care for the Solitary Elders / Ching-His Lin
70

Pastoral Care for the Spiritual Needs of the Dying : An Interpretation


on two Narratives in Les Misrables / I-Wen Tsao
86

, Vol. X, No.2
December 2013, pp.5

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theologies and cultures, Vol. X, No.2


December 2013, pp.6-8

Editorial

Reading as Production of Meaning


To encourage constructive conversation among the Chinese readers,
the current issue of THEOLOGIES AND CULTURES is published in
Chinese version. We seek understanding from our esteemed readers.
The main focus of this issue is to revisit the tradition of Biblical
hermeneutics that promotes the human urge to become whole. As
Carlos Mesters has reminded, the primary focus of biblical
hermeneutics is not to locate some hidden information of the past1, but
rather is to seek clarification of the present in the light of the
companionship of God in the living realities of our history. This
observation is reiterated by the foundational principles of African
theology which accentuates that the reading of the text is to reaffirm in
definitive terms our collective consciousness of God-with-us-ness.
That means reading involves an informed reinterpretation of everyday
life with the help of the Bible.
There are four different ways of approaching Bible in the present
traditions of the Church and theological academy.2 The first approach,
which offers primacy to the present context for theological
construction, relegates Bible to a secondary role, as a text of the past
and unable to hold its own with the challenges of the present context.
Second is biblical concordism, where Bible is read as it is and in that
process the essential task is to locate a correspondence between our
situation and the events reported in the Bible. Once similarities are
established, the reader takes it as God speaking through an
archetypical event. Third is the critical methodologies, which attempts
1

Carlos Mesters, Defenseless Flowers: A New Reading of the Bible, (New


York: Orbis Books, 1989)
2
See J. Severino Croatto, Biblical hermeneutics in the Theologies of
Liberation, in Irruption of the Third World, Challenge to Theology, eds.,
Virginia Fabella and Sergio Torres, (New York: Orbis Books, 1983) p.141-2

Editorial 7

to rediscover the historical and cultural horizons against which


biblical message was formed first with an intention to contextualize
the message in the present time. This approach has not only broken
the nave reading of the above models but significantly contributed to
widen the exploration of meaning of the text. And the fourth one is the
hermeneutic approach.
The hermeneutical approach however, reiterates few primary
assumptions. According to Severino Croatto the act of reading is a
production of discourse and hence of production of meaning.3 Every
reading of a text is done from and in a given situation, and in that
process the reader interrogates the text from and in the readers own
being and concerns.
Secondly, text is the interpretation of an event. When text of the Bible
is taken as Gods revelation to a sacred writer, it failed to comprehend
the production process. But what is important to recall is that behind
the text stands an event, or dialectically interlined events; before it
was Gods word it was Gods event.. The salvific experience of the
event is interpreted, not as a film of the event but an exploration of
its significance as message. Later this report or interpretation is
incorporated into a tradition, which is a living interpretation bound up
with praxis. And the very conflict of interpretations leads the fixing
of event-report-tradition in the form of a canon. Canonization is a
closure, a phenomenon that excludes other readings in the past
traditions and closed the space for new creative readings by setting
parameters for the interpretations.
Thirdly, it should be recalled that Bible as it is today is the product of
a long hermeneutical process. Neither revelation not inspiration
should be considered in isolation. Rather they complement and
recreate each other dialectically. The word of God is generated in the
salvific event. Then the event is interpreted and enriched by the word,
which takes it up and transmits it in the form of a message.
Bible is the faith reading of paradigmatic events of salvation history,
and in Jesus it is the paradigmatic reading of an unfinished salvation
history. Thus the present hermeneutical challenge is to help seeing the
face of God as God enters in the present history of women and men to
3

Ibid. p. 145.

8 theologies and cultures

continue the reductive salvific process. Croatto asserts: the process of


liberation that we are experiencing today are historical facts in which
faith is able to re-cognize the presence of God.4

Ibid., p. 164

, Vol. X, No.2
December 2013, pp.9-24

C.S. Song

10

A Warrior's Bow with Mercy and Justice: An Interpretation of "Rainbow" in Genesis 9


Tzu-Ho Lee
Abstract
For most people who live in Taiwan, it is hard to prevent to experiencing typhoons during summer time. For the passing years, typhoons caused floods and brought disasters such as mudflows, landslide, house collapse, and etc.. These disasters, not only caused material damages, but probably also caused fear and nightmare to some
people. Speaking of fear and nightmare, this article then would try not
only talking about natural disasters, but would also try to talking about
disasters which were caused by human (such as war).
Facing the flood, it is easy for people to recalling "the flood story" in Genesis chapter 9. In that story, according to the Bible, God set
a sign in the sky to help people who survived after the flood. Now a
day, the sign is still up there as a rainbow. However, one might wonder that for those people who face the disasters in Taiwan, would the
sign or a rainbow be misinterpreted and therefore be helpless to those
people? The question above, therefore, motivated this article to try to
find out a possible interpretation of the "rainbow" in Genesis 9.
In order to get one of the hermeneutics for "rainbow" in Genesis
9, this article used C.S. Songs story theology and Archie Lee's
cross-textual hermeneutics as main researching method. By using
the method, the story of the flood in Genesis 9 would be read backward. In other words, the ending part of the story would be treated as
the starting point for the implied author of Genesis 9 to beginning
her/his writing.
Also, from a border horizon, the battle between Abel and Cain in
Genesis 3 would be taken into account. Moreover, from an even wider
perspective, the ancient near eastern literature would be used in the
cross-textual reading. By bringing the battle in Genesis 3 and the ancient near eastern literature into the account of the flood story, one
might see the murderer would eventually faced justice trial and punishment. Even more, one might see Mercy in the Justice. Therefore,
one might then see that the warriors bow is not merely a justice dominate weapon but also a mercy promise.
Keywords: flood, rainbow, bow

9 11

6-9
9 -
Westermann
1-17
1 9
horizon
2
1

Claus Westermann, Genesis 1~11: A Commentary. Translated by John J. Scullion


S.J., Minneapolis: Augusburg Publishing House, 1990, 461.
2
-
2010263-278

12

1.
3 2.
4

educated guessing
implied author

2011403504

4
2007469-471
5
-
20102
6
Bernhard Lang, Introduction: Anthropology as a new Model for Biblical Studies.
in Anthropological Approaches to the Old Testament (ed. Bernhard Lang; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985), 1-3. Lang

9 13

/
9

P 10

4:7

3
-
7

Claus Westermann, Genesis 1~11: A Commentary, 461.

P
8

2011298-300
412
10
(Arthur Weiser)(The Old Testament: Its Formation and Development) 199880

J. Wellhausen.
9

14

41-211
43-7

12

413-15

13

417-24

11

200475189
Brown, Francis S. & Driver, R. & Charles A. Briggs Ed., The New Brown Driver
Briggs Gesenius - Hebrew Aramaic English Lexico.,(Indiana: Book Publishers
Press, 1981),884211 !yIq
; lb,h'

12
(R. Keesing)
1989355

13
3 Brown, Francis S. & Driver, R. &
Charles A. Briggs Ed., The New Brown Driver Briggs Gesenius - Hebrew Aramaic
English Lexico.,1063 !yIq-; lb;WT

9 15

425

5
521-24
xl;v,Wtm
laev'Wtm14
%m,l
%m,l 15

horizon
9

14

198 Brown, Francis S. & Driver, R.


& Charles A. Briggs Ed., The New Brown Driver Briggs Gesenius - Hebrew Aramaic English Lexico., 607
15
112 Brown, Francis S. & Driver, R.
& Charles A. Briggs Ed., The New Brown Driver Briggs Gesenius - Hebrew Aramaic English Lexico., 541

16

1. 2.
/3.

vs.

6:9

9:20

P /
vs.

tv,q, The New Brown Driver Briggs


Gesenius - Hebrew Aramaic English Lexicon rainbow bow

9 17

16

rainbowbow
Marduk

Tiamat17
9

16

Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, Charles A. Briggs eds., The New Brown Driver Briggs
Gesenius - Hebrew Aramaic English Lexicon, 905.
17
George Arthur Buttrick, Walter Russell Bowie, Paul Scherer, John Knox, Samuel
Terrien, Nolan B. Harmon, ed., The Interpreters Bible Volume I. (Nashville: Abingdon, 1982), pp 550-552.

18

128
/18

19
Mesopotamian
Atrahasis Epic
Gilgamesh Epic
20

18

Madla T. Kronholm, tvq, pages 202-208 in Botterweck, G. Johannes and


Ringgren, Helm and Fabry, Heinz-Josef eds., Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Translated by David E. Green. vols.13. (Cambridge: William B. Werdmans
Publishing, 2004), 206-207. 1:4
1:24
1:26

1:1-3:15 /

19
Alexander Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis (Chicago: The University of Chicago
Press, 1951), 82.
20
Claus Westermann, Genesis 1~11: A Commentary, 48. Pritchard James B. ed.,
Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament.(New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, 1969), 42-44, 72, 93-96.

9 19

21
22Utnapishtim -

23

20024

-
21

James B. Pritchard ed.,ANET, 93-97.


Victor H. Matthews and Don C. Benjamin Ed., Old Testament Parallels Laws and
Stories from Ancient Near East (Mahwah, New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1997), 19.
Ashurpanipal
668-626 B.C.E
Akkadian cuneiform
3000-2000

2000-1500B.C.E.
23

20067581
24
Victor H. Matthews and Don C. Benjamin Ed., Old Testament Parallels Laws and
Stories from Ancient Near East (Mahwah, New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1997), 19.
1848-49 Austin Henry Layard
Gilgamesh Epic
22

20

Ishtar

25

1. 2.
3.

2000-3000

25

James B. Pritchard,ed.,ANET, 93-97. Raymond Abba


1970174
James George Frazer
(Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative
Religion, Legend and Law)201269

9 21

26

26

-59

Naramsin()

22

9
educated guess

educated guess
9
9

9 23

27
9

28

29


30
-

27

2007469-471

20084-79

29

201250-63
30
37
28

24

31

31

Archie C.C.Lee

6-9 B BA
A BA
B A

BA A

, Vol. X, No.2
December 2013, pp.25-44

26

27

The Impact of Postmodern Exegetical Approach on


Biblical Interpretation: Interpreting Abrahams
offering Isaac in Genesis 22 as an Example
Ming-Chih Cheng
Abstract
In some respects, postmodernism is a reaction to modernism
or rationalism that has monopolized prevailing academic thought
since the Enlightenment. Modernism emphasizes on rationality and
believes in absolute truth. It claims that absolute truth can be reached
by rational and objective searching. However, postmodernism
challenges the idea of absolute truth claimed by modernism.
Postmodernism argues that truth is relative; therefore, to inteprete the
truth by using diverse and subjective approach is approvable.
Postmodern thinking has caused great influence on many
academic disciplines including biblical study. Many biblical scholars
regard postmodernism that advocates pluralism as a threat to church
authority and biblical interpretation. However, I think the impact
brought by postmodernism on biblical interpretation is of great value.
Traditional Bible interpretation has the inclination to weaken and
domesticate the biblical text, often echoes to knowledge mode of the
prevailing system and reinforces the power structure of the prevailing
system. Traditional Bible interpretation conveys messages that reflect
humans hope but also contains arrogance, prejudice and oppression
structure. Such kind of interpretation could bring liberation hope to
the oppressed, but also could further oppression to the oppressed.
Postmodern thinking breaks traditional authority and encourages
voices from different communities that were neglected to spring up.
When we respect for pluralism and start to interpret Bible from the
culture and history of our own community, we will see the trace of
Gods presence in indigenous culture and history.
In this article I will state the impact of postmodern exegetical
approach on biblical interpretation and use three postmodern scholars
interpretations of the story of Abrahams offering Isaac to illustrate
how postmodern exegesis releases rich message from the biblical text.
Keywords: Postmodern, Biblical Interpretation

28

1960 Hans-Georg Gadamer

(Kevin J. Vanhoozer)( Is There a Meaning in This


Text?)2007174
2
(Kevin J. Vanhoozer)( Is There a Meaning in This
Text?)153-154.

29

readerresponsedeconstruction
3
reader-response

4
Wolfgang
Iser

5
6

(Grant R. Osborne)
(The Hermeneutical Spiral-A Comprehensive Introduction to Biblical
Interpretation)1999500
4
(Grant R. Osborne)
(The Hermeneutical Spiral-A Comprehensive Introduction to Biblical
Interpretation)500
5
Wolfgang Iser, The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response(Baltimore:
John Hopkins University Press, 1978), 19.
6
Ibid., 24-25.
7
Ibid.,37.
8
Ibid., 65-68.

30

10

11

12
Stanley Fish

13

14

Stanley Fish, Is There a Text in This Class?:The Authority of Interpretative


Community(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980), 3.
10
Bible & Culture Collective, The Postmodern Bible(New Heaven: Yale University
Press, 1997), 30.
11
Ibid., 131.
12
Stanley Fish, Is There a Text in This Class?: The Authority of Interpretative
Community, 5.
13
Ibid., 14.
14
Stanley Fish, Is There a Text in This Class?: The Authority of Interpretative
Community, 14.

31

(deconstruction)

Jacques Derrida
15

16

17
1819
origin
signifiedsignified
signifier

20

15

(Kevin J. Vanhoozer)( Is There a Meaning in This


Text?)69
16
(Kevin J. Vanhoozer)( Is There a Meaning in This
Text?)76
17
Bible & Culture Collective, The Postmodern Bible, 129.
18
(Kevin J. Vanhoozer)( Is There a Meaning in This
Text?)76-77
19
Ibid., 90.
20
Bible & Culture Collective, The Postmodern Bible, 130.

32

21

22

23

24
Nathan Scott

Brian Ingraffia

25
Robert Carroll

26
logocentrism

21

(Kevin J. Vanhoozer)( Is There a Meaning in This


Text?)134-135
22
V. P. Long, The Art of Biblical History (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing
House, 1994), 158-159.
23
W. C. Kaiser and M. Silva, An Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics : The
Search for Meaning (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1994), 33.
24
(Kevin J. Vanhoozer)( Is There a Meaning in This
Text?)320
25
Ibid.,78.
26
John Barton, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation
(Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1998), 58.

33

27

Vanhoozer

28
Robert Carroll

29

30

31

32

33

27

Bible & Culture Collective, The Postmodern Bible, 135-136.


(Kevin J. Vanhoozer)( Is There a Meaning in This
Text?)136
29
John Barton, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation, 61.
30
John Barton, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation, 62.
31
John Barton, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation, 62.
32
James E. Brenneman, Canons in Conflict: Negotiation Texts in True and False
Prophecy(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 13.
28

34

34

35

James Sanders
36

37

38

33

James A. Sanders, The Integrity of Biblical Pluralism, in Not in Heaven:


Coherence and Complexity in Biblical Narrative, ed. Jason P. Rosenblatt and Joseph
C. Sitterson, Jr. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991), 162-163.
34
Walter Brueggemann, Texts Under Negotiation: The Bible and Postmodern
Imagination(Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993), 8-10.
35
Ibid., 12
36
James E. Brenneman, Canons in Conflict: Negotiation Texts in True and False
Prophecy, 25.
37
Ibid., 25-26.
38
(Kevin J. Vanhoozer)( Is There a Meaning in This
Text?),91.

35

39

40

41
22

42
43

44

Elie Wiesel

Midrash

39

Bible & Culture Collective, The Postmodern Bible, 120.


Jacques Derrida, Dissemination, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), xiv.
41
John Barton, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation, 62.
42
James Barr, The Scope and the Authority of the Bible(Philadelphia: Westminster
Press, 1981), 11.
43
James E. Brenneman, Canons in Conflict: Negotiation Texts in True and False
Prophecy, 29.
44
Ibid., 43.
40

36

45

46

47

48

49

45

(Elie Wiesel)(Messengers of God: Biblical


Portraits and Legends)20006-7
46
Ibid., 9.
47
Ibid., 86.
48
(Elie Wiesel)(Messengers of God: Biblical
Portraits and Legends)91
49
Ibid., 95.

37

22:19
50

51

52

53

54
50

Ibid., 111.
Ibid., 112.
52
Ibid., 86.
53
(Elie Wiesel)(Messengers of God: Biblical
Portraits and Legends)114
54

51

38

55

56
57

58
59
55

2011iv-v
56
Ibid., 40.
57

24
58
Ibid., 28-29.
59
Ibid., 41.

39

15:2-4
17:18-20

60

61

62

63
60

Ibid., 34.
Ibid., 35-36.
62
3739
63

39
61

40

64

65

66

64

Jacques Derrida, The Gift of Death, trans. David Wills, (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1995), 70-71.
65
Ibid., 59-62.
66
Ibid., 95.

41

67

68

69

(Martin Buber)

70

71

67

Jacques Derrida, The Gift of Death, trans. David Wills, (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1995), 93.
68
Jacques Derrida, The Gift of Death, trans. David Wills, 95.
69
Ibid., 96.
70
(Martin Buber)(Ich und Du)
199185
71

2007122

42

72

like73

John D. Caputo

74

75

76

77

72

(the Wholly Other)

73
Jacques Derrida, The Gift of Death, trans. David Wills, 87.
74
John D. Caputo, "The Good News about Alterity: Derrida and Theology", Faith
and Philosophy 10, no.4(October 1993), 453-454.
75
(Martin Buber)(Ich und Du)85
76
Ibid., 85
77
114

43

78

79

80

(truth)

(truthfulness)(humanity)

78

shema 6:4-5!

79
115
80
John D. Caputo, ThePrayers and Tears of Jacques Derrida: Religion without
Religion (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1997), 190-205.

44

81

25:35-40

81

Walter Brueggemann, Texts Under Negotiation: The Bible and Postmodern


Imagination, vii.

, Vol. X, No.2
December 2013, pp.45-69

1992

18:22, 20:13,
1:26-27, 6:9, 1:10 19 1-2

/
/
/

46

The Conflict of Biblical Interpretations on the Issues of


Homosexuality in Taiwanese Christianity
Hui-Min Yen
Abstract
This thesis is focused on the Biblical Interpretations of the Issues
of Homosexuality in Taiwanese Christianity. In the past, Taiwan
Churchs position was undoubtedly anti-gay and there was no different
opinion until 1992. Then, some pastors and Bible scholars of Taiwan
Presbyterian Church started to notice this issue and to take care of Gay
and Lesbian church members. In 1996, the first Gay Church in Taiwan
was established. It pushed the traditional Church to take this issue
seriously. From then on, the conflict between different points of view
became more and more strong.
The major argument on this issue in Christianity is biblical
interpretation. It especially focuses on the seven Scriptures in the
Bible, including Genesis1-2,19;Leviticus18:22,20:13; Romans1:26-27;
Corinthians6:9-10; Timothy1:9-10. Therefore, this article will discuss
the hermeneutics of these Scriptures as presented by the supportive
and opposing Christian communities in Taiwan to see if there is any
possibility that the dialogue could keep going on a rational base.
Secondly, this thesis discusses the impacts from Postmodernism.
Postmodernism has changed the statement of LGBT community. It
goes from Gay to Queer, and is accompanied by multiple radical
viewpoints of sex. This panics Christianity and makes the issue more
complicated.
For this reason, the article will also discuss three major fierce
debates regarding Postmodernism, including: (1) the argument

47

betweenEis-egesisandEx-egesis.What are the theological


presuppositions of each opposing side?(2)Is the homosexual issue
merely a cultural wave or a serious life issue?(3)What is the difference
between the Gay and Lesbian Christians value of sex as compared to
that of radical Queer theology? After dealing with the aforementioned
problems, the author hopes to make this issue more clear and
eliminate some misunderstanding about the LGBT community.
Finally, this essay discloses the difficulty in harmonizing the
diversity of viewpoints on the issue of Homosexuality in Taiwanese
Christianity at present. Though there is hope for the future, we need to
get through a hard time right now. Therefore, the conclusion of this
study also tries to pull this dispute back to the real situation: As a
Christian, how should we respond to our gay and lesbian brothers and
sisters in Christ when we meet each other in Church? Most gay and
lesbian Christians never leave the traditional church. Consequently,
we must take this issue seriously, because what we debate seriously
affects the lives of real people.
Keywords: homosexuality; Bible; interpretation; Taiwanese
Christianity; postmodernism; Queer

48

1992
1 1996
2004
2
2010

3
Jeremiah EMI

1992P161-181
2

2004
3
Encounter Missions Internationalhttp://emiglobal.org/ 2014/1/7
EMI 1999

49

18:22 20:13 1:26-27 6:9-10 1:9-10


1:7 1-2 19

()

18:22

20:13

18:22
20:13
4

2012 12 10~12
P23-28

50

7
23:17

8
5

2008P235-236 26 1 2001 1
http://www.ttcs.org.tw/~church/26.1/26-1.htm2014/03/13
6


2012
12 10~12 P 8-18
7

2014/03/22
EMI Sandra Turnbull
Cracking the
Code

GODs GAY AGENDA


U.S.A.: Glory publishing2012p113-132,
L. Robert Arthur , The Sex Texts: Sexuality, Gender, and Relationships in the
Bible, p78
8

2012 12 10~12
P21-22

51

Rictor Norton

23:7


()

7
18

19

10

11

1992P161-181Rictor Norton, The Biblical Roots of Homophobia, Malcolm


Macourt, ed., Towards a Theology of Gay Liberation, op, cit., p40
10

12
2006/12P316-326
11

2008P241-242

52

12

Richard Hays

13

18 19

yada`
/

19:5

12

2012 12
10~12 P47-53(Richard Hays)

2011P503-532
13
13:1-2
23:3

53

14

(Philo):7
2:6-8
King James 19:5 (engage
15

homosexuality)
()

()

( 1:26)

()
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14

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1992P161-181
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54

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16

natural
against
nature

17
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natural

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P23-28
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55

( 11:14)


( 11:24)

20

KJV effeminate

11:8 7:25

Boswell
soft
/
1946
effeminate
homosexualsodomites
20

Jeremiah

2001p148-169

56

21

KJV abusers of themselves with mankind

20:13
22

23
()

( 1:27-28)

( 2:18,21,24)
21

2014/03/22
Sandra Turnbull
Cracking the Code

GODs GAY
AGENDA
U.S.A.: Glory publishing2012p113-132, Boswell, Christianity,
Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality, p.108-112
22

P23-28
23
Jeremiah

2001p148-169

57

24


25
2004
26


27

28

29

24

P23-28
25

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2004P49-51
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P8-18
28

2004P49-51
29


P8-18

58

30

31

1974

32

33


34


30

P47-53
31
Jeremiah

2001P106-126
32


2011 6 P3-30
33

P19-20
34
Kinsey AC, Pomeroy WB, Martin CE1984
Sexual behavior in the human

59

35

36

37

()

male .Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, p.659


P 8-18
36

2008P235-236
37

82 2004/6/10p35-38
35

60

38

Foucault

Foucault

39
Foucalt /
40

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80

90 []
[GayleRubin]2000

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1997
39
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2002P18,49
40

2007

61

41

41

( Roger E. Olson )

2002P710

62

42

()/

1(Eis-egesis)(Ex-egesis)
/

43

42

Jeremiah

2001p249-268
43
W.W.C.L.R.L.

2011P200

63

44

45

46

eis-egesis
2

44

2008P301-306
45

22 1999P2-3
46

Ex-egesis or Eis-egesis?

2012 12 10~12
P29-30

64

47

48

47

12
2006/12P257-280
48
(Richard Niebuhr)
(Christ and
Culture)1965P97-98

65

49

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582 1996/07/28

66

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67

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132
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51

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53

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55

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69

57

18

57

Alan Brash

2007p107-120

, Vol. X, No.2
December 2013, pp.70-85

2017 14%
2011 49,786
23,512 26,274

71

Pastoral Care for the Solitary Elders


Ching-His Lin
Abstract
It has become an aging society that Taiwans population will be
added to 14% to the total population of the elderly in 2017.In 2011
statistics of government, a total of 49,786 elders living alone, there are
23,512 people male and 26,274 people female.
Most of the elders living alone are in the forms of self-reliance, selfcare, self-support forms, "alone" does not mean isolation, but not
abandoned, nor should it be the burden of the social.
The daily needs of elders living alone are more than ordinary
elderly people but get less resources from families. We must
understand the problems and needs of the elderly population to make
to get better care, in order to become a valuable life. However, due to
the growing elderly physiology degradation, if they live alone,
vulnerable to poverty, social isolation, loneliness, health and other
factors affecting the situation worse overall health functions.
Keyword: Solitary Elders, pastoral care.

72

1993 65 7%
(Aging Society) 2009 2017
14%(Aged Society)2025
20.1%(Super-aged Society)
12
65 2051 38.2%
2060 47 784.4 41.6%1

3
2011 49,786 23,512
26,274 2,528,249 1.96%
11,986
25.36%, 4,384 9.28% 30,885
4
65.36%, 2,531 5.36%

2012
2

1987
3
65

73

71:9

71:18

( 2)

10~11

74

92:14

73:26

90:12

46:3~4

75

20:29

17:6

()(Erik H. Erikson)

()5
(ego integrity)(despair)
5

Erikson, E. H., Erikson, J. M., &Kivnick, H. Erikson,


(1994)

76

6
()Abraham Maslow7
(Physiological needs)

(Safety needs)

(
2012)
7
(2012)

77

(Love and belonging needs)

(Esteem needs)

(Self-actualization)

78

(Over actualization)
1969
Z

(peak experience)
8

( 11)
()

(2012)408

79

:...,
,(
4:16~17),
,
9

()
(Spirituality)spiritus
breath,make alive

10

11


38
10
http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E9%9D%88%E6%80%A7( 2014)
11

2009

80

()

12

1.
(1)

(2) 98

(3)

1,800 21 6,000

(4) 65 55
50

(1) 65

1.5 6,000
1.5 2.5 3,000
12

http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/04/01.htm
101/03

81

(2)

5,000
3

13
()

1.

13

(2012)

82

2.

83

()

emailLinefacebook

Skypefacetime

84

()

14

15

14

(2012)410
Marlee Alex , (Complete Guide to Caring for
Aging Loved Ones)(2006)338

15

85

8-9

, Vol. X, No.2
December 2013, pp.86-108

87

Pastoral Care for the Spiritual Needs of the Dying : An


Interpretation on two Narratives in Les Misrables
I-Wen Tsao
Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore spiritual problems of the dying and
how pastors provide spiritual care by Christian faith.
This is a qualitative research. Based on the secondary datatwo parts
about the death in the movie musical "Les Misrables " ,this
study analyzes and explores the needs in the deep mind and
spirituality of the dying.
From the viewpoint of life and death in Christianity, this study,
connecting the death with Jesus parable of the Prodigal Son,
expresses that the death is going back to the origin of life, that is, the
house of God.
The recommendations for the spiritual care are as follows:
1.

Helping the dying to recon ciliate with God and himself, to


understand the meaning of suffering, to restore relationships and
to fulfill expectations.

2.

Pastors should be a spiritual guide, be sensitive to the spiritual


needs of the dying, help them on the journey to home spiritually.

Keywords: Hospice care, The dying, Pastoral care, Spiritual care

88

2012 1861
1

Jean Valjean
19

Fantine
Cosette

2012 12 25
-
1980 1862

89

Come to me

1995 108 Royal Albert Hall, London


Fantines Death
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h8Ir1ED3o7I oct 18, 2010 - Uploaded by
yenjanw(Accessed 2014 5 15 )

90

...

Epilogue

(Fantine's spirit)

Epilogue-Finale
www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwcqbXtWp3o oct 18, 2010 - Uploaded by
yenjanw(Accessed 2014 5 15 )
http://paulayehpu.pixnet.net/blog/post/235789835-%E2%99%ACles-mis%C3%A9rab
les-%E6%82%B2%E6%85%98%E4%B8%96%E7%95%8C%E2%99%AC-epilogue(
finale)(Accessed 2014 5 15 )

91

...

!
!

(Dying)

92

(Elisabeth Kubler Ross)

10
1993 11
1.

2.
4

(:1998)74

(:2007)58
7

(:
2010)267
8

9
268
10
269
11

44~46
5

93

3.

20

4.

5.

12

13

12

75

(:
2004)95
13

94

14

1970 1990
(appropriate death)(good death)(dying
with peace and dignity)(healthy dying)(tame
death)15 1.
2.
3.

(D.A.Carson)

16
17 Carson

()
(spiritual well-being)18
19

14

96

59
16

(pp.15-21)
: 2000
17

http://ir.fy.edu.tw/ir/retrieve/14238(Accessed 2013 5 5 )
18

1999,vol.3,no.1, 8-19
19

84 12 36~39
15

95

1.

20

()

2.
21

20
21

96

22

23

3.

24

4.

25

22

Sheila Cassidy

(:1997)
241
23

120
24

36~39
25

(:2001)
141~42

97

5.

26

27

26

36~39

(2010)
238
27

98

( 15:50~52)

28

29

30
devekut
31
15

32

28
29
30
31
32

238~39
261

387
321
302~03

99

8:37~39

33

33

305~06

100

34

35

36

37

34
35
36
37

57

(pp.15-21)

120

101

/ /

38

Viktor E. Frankl
39

1.

()2.
3.

12

38

()
http://www.hospice.org.tw/2009/chinese/share_view.php?cate=1&info=87(Accessed
2013 5 24 )
39

223

102

40

12

41

(spiritual well-being)
...

42

43

40
41
42
43

(:1996)138~39

(:2003)94

77
()

103

(
)()44
44

148~49

104

45

1965
46
1. :

2.

3.

4.

45

40

http://ap97125343.pixnet.net/blog/post/42966505 (Accessed 2013 6 3 )


46

56~57

105

70

47

48

49

47
48
49

(:2000)185

80~82

57

106

50

50

(:1994)332~33

107

51

51

126

108