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MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

Lectures on Selected Topics


Class 1
Prepared by:
Adnan Morshed & Kazi Arafat Rahman

"In the beginning, there was man. And for a time, it was good.
But humanity's so-called civil societies soon fell victim to vanity and corruption.
Then man made the machine in his own likeness.
Thus did man become the architect of his own demise.
-The Second Renaissance , Part I

ME 362
Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

Topics to be Covered

BJT: From a beginners perspective


DC Power Supply
Relays
General H-Bridge Configuration
Analog Speed Control

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

BJT: Things You Should Already Know (But Probably Dont)


Two Basic Modes of Operations:
1. Use as an amplifier
2. Use as a switch (plus amplifier)

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

Which Transistor Shall I Use?


-Depends on your system configuration. Do some maths and consult Datasheets.
Take an Example, for NPN BJTs and Darlington Packages:
Type

Voltage (Vce)

Current (Ic)

Gain (hFE)

BC547/549

45/30 V

100 mA

110-800/200-800

BD135/137/139

40/60/80 V

1.5 A

40-250

BD433/437

22/45 V

4A

85-475/85-375

TIP120/121/122

60/80/100 V

5A

1000

TIP140/141/142

60/80/100 V

10 A

1000

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

A Last Note on Transistors


Transistors are very sensitive to voltage spikes such as the ones generated by
inductive loads. Many types of transistors used in switching include internal
protective diodes. However, it is recommended that you add them as shown

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

A Voltage Regulated Power Supply: Something to Start With

Large electrolytic capacitors must be added in parallel with the power supply
to mitigate current shortage when it is heavily loaded and safeguard against
any current or voltage spikes. These capacitors are commonly known as
decoupling capacitors.

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

Relays: When Mechanical Meets Electromagnets


General Construction:

Relays are electromechanical switches. They are formed by a coil and one or more
pair of contacts. When a voltage is applied to the coil, the current flow creates a
magnetic field that attracts the contacts and closes them. If the current across the
coil is cut, the magnetic field disappears, and the contacts open.
ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

Relays: So is this age old switch worth the penny?


Well before getting judgmental, lets point out two important properties:
1. The controlled circuit is completely isolated from the control circuit.
2. We can apply low voltage and low current to the relays coil to control highvoltage and/or high-current circuits

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

Relays: Careful with that Axe, Eugene


As before, one must be careful with the inductive kick relays generate.
Often, they are much more expensive than their electronic counterparts. And
cases might arise where appropriate characteristics required by the circuit might
be impossible for it to deliver.
We seek alternatives to relay switching for one prime reason: It is mechanical
and hence has finite lag time in response. Moreover, de-bouncing effects and
much limited speed of operation makes it less suitable in certain cases.
From the current perspective, we now move towards a different motor control
techniques without using relays.

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

H-Bridge: Electronics Comes Up with Yet Another Nifty Way

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

H-Bridge: Real-Life Scenario

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

H-Bridge: Live from..

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

Analog Speed Control: Welcome to the Jungle

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

Analog Speed Control: Primetime

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION SESSIONAL

For the Next Class: (Spoilers)


Study the pin configurations of the parallel port
Take a Look around the datasheet of ATmega8 , specially the pin
configuration. (www.atmel.com/atmel/acrobat/doc2486.pdf)

References:
David G Alciatore, Michael B Histand; Introduction to Mechatronics and
Measurement Systems; McGraw Hill
Newton C Braga; Robotics, Mechatronics and Artificial Intelligence; Newnes
Robert L Boylestad; Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory; Prentice-Hall

ME 362: Lectures on Selected Topics, Class 1


Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET