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Bhushan Shankar Kamble

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Material Types

There are four classes of materials studied in this course:Metals

Steels

There are many metals which you are familiar with - copper pipes and wire, aluminium saucepans and cast iron stoves. Metals may be mixed with other
elements especially other metals to produce alloys which will have improved properties. Heat treatment can also be used to change the properties of alloys
e.g. hardening and tempering of high carbon steel.
All metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. Copper is a particularly good conductor but is not very strong, it is also fairly dense. Aluminium is a
good conductor has a low density and when alloyed has a high tensile strength. Some alloys such as pewter and zinc alloys have a low melting point and can
be easily formed by casting or moulding but they have a low tensile strength.
Metals in common use are corrosion resistant except iron and steel which rust quickly. Corrosion resistance is achieved by electroplating to add a layer of
corrosion resistant material such as chromium or zinc, painting, plastic coating, and coating with an oil or grease. The alloy stainless steel is very rust
resistant.
When choosing a metal for a particular job the properties must be carefully considered. For example aluminium could be used for overhead power lines as
its lower density and good tensile strength offset its slightly lower electrical conductivity.
Carbon steel is sometimes referred to as 'mild steel' or 'plain carbon steel'. The American Iron and Steel Institute defines a carbon steel as having no more
than 2 % carbon and no other appreciable alloying element. Carbon steel makes up the largest part of steel production and is used in a vast range of
applications.
Typically carbon steels are stiff and strong. They also exhibit ferromagnetism (i.e. they are magnetic). This means they are extensively used in motors and

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Mild steel
Cast iron

High speed steel


High and medium
carbon steel
Silver Steel
Brass
Copper
Pewter and solder

Dept.of Production Engineering

METALLURGY I

electrical appliances. Welding carbon steels with a carbon content greater than 0.3 % requires that special precautions be taken. However, welding carbon
steel presents far fewer problems than welding stainless steels. The corrosion resistance of carbon steels is poor (i.e. they rust) and so they should not be
used in a corrosive environment unless some form of protective coating is used.
Advantages: Cheap
Wide variety available with different properties
High stiffness
Magnetic
Most carbon steels are easy to machine and weld
Disadvantages - Poor corrosion resistance (i.e. rusts)
A low carbon steel which can only be hardened by case hardening. Easy to work and generally strong. Used for the manufacture of steel products e.g. car
bodies, washing machines, oil drums,filing cabinets etc.
All cast irons consist of more than 2% carbon. This high carbon content makes them excellent materials to use for casting and at much lower temperatures
than those required to cast steel. They also have better flow characteristics when molten helping them to fill the mould more easily. Grey cast iron,
commonly used in engineering, is brittle and not very ductile. It can be machined reasonably easily but cannot be welded easily. Cast iron has been used for
many applications are engine blocks and gears.
Advantages - Better corrosion resistance than steels in most environments.
Very high strength in compression
Very easy to cast
Disadvantages - Very brittle
Poor weldability
A high carbon steel which can be hardened and tempered to produce tools. e.g. drill bits are H.S.S.
These are also tool steels which can be hardened and tempered.
A shiny silver coloured tool steel. We use silver steel for screw driver blades. The tip is hardened to take the wear but the shank is left unhardened to take
the strain without being brittle.
An alloy of copper and zinc. Yellow or gold in colour. Used for decorative effect. Used to produce bushes as it is resistant to wear. Bronze (copper and tin)
is also used for bushes. Brass spelter and wire is used when brazing.
A reddish or pink metal. Very good conductor of heat and electricity. Ductile and is used to manufacture wire for electrical use. PCBs have copper tracks on
them.
Originally made from lead and tin. Lead free versions contain over 90% tin with various other metals such as copper, silver and antimony. These low
melting point alloys are used for electronics and jewellery respectively. Solder is manufactured in a range of forms but solder wire used for electronics
contains a resin flux inside the wire.

Zinc Alloy

A low melting pont alloy of zinc used to produce components which do not need high tensile strength such as die cast model cars.

Aluminium

Aluminium is a strong silver metal. It turns easily being softer than steel. Aluminium has a low melting point and it is the metal used for sand casting.

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Composites

Are mixtures of materials which give improved properties. One of the materials is the matrix or binding chemical and the other is the reinforcer. A good
example is GRP - glass reinforced polyester(plastic) resin. where the glass fibres increase the strength of the polyester resin. Carbon fibre reinforced epoxy
resin is stronger and lighter than steel.
Concrete is a composite (the cement is the matrix and the gravel and steel rods are the reinforcer) as are bricks made from clay reinforced with straw.
Natural composites include wood, shell and bone.
Applications
Car bodies - especially sports cars, F1 racing cars, boat hulls, lightweight struts and supports in bridge building and the construction industry. Aerospace use of carbon fibre composites as well as high tech ceramic parts has revolutionised this industry.

Ceramics

This class of material includes plates and cups, bricks, earthenware pots, engineering ceramics, glasses [glasses are non-crystalline and not normally classed
as ceramics], and refractory (furnace) materials. Ceramics are made by heating together materials such as silica, chalk and clays. Other chemicals may be
included to act as flux and to change colour etc.
Engineering Ceramics Include
Silicon carbide Zirconia
Silicon nitride
Diamond
Cubic boron nitride
Tungsten Carbide
Properties
Engineering ceramics are ideally suited for high performance applications where a combination of properties such as wear resistance, hardness,
stiffness and corrosion resistance are important. In addition to these properties, engineering ceramics have relatively high mechanical strength at high
temperatures. They are good electrical insulators, They often have a close thermal expansion coefficient to metals (they can be bonded to metals - e.g.
carbide tipped tools).
Ceramics have been regarded as hard but brittle, however modern ceramics have been developed which are viable alternatives to metals and their
alloys in many applications - engineering ceramic parts and components are more durable and have longer life-spans under given operational conditions.
Ceramic cutting tools, for instance, require less sharpening or replacement due to wear, and will last at least 60 to 100 times longer than steel blades.
Engineering ceramics are chemically resistant to most acids, alkalis and organic solvents and can withstand high temperatures. Metals weaken
rapidly at temperatures above 816 degrees C while engineering ceramics retain a good degree of their mechanical properties at much higher temperatures.
Applications
Mechanical components include wear plates and thermal barriers, bearings for high speed and high stiffness spindles, bushes, gears.
Process components include pump shafts, seats, bearing surfaces, gears and even complete pump bodies, valve guides and seats.
Ceramics are used for cutting tools including razor blades for film and tape cutting to 300mm diameter circular slitters for the paper industry.
Ceramic turbine blades are used in most turbochargers providing lighter units than the steel alternatives allowing improved performance at higher
temperatures.

Polymers

Polymers are made from long chain molecules which may have cross linking bonds affecting flexibility/stiffness.
There are three groups of polymer:Thermoplastics which may be reformed with heat. e.g. PVC, HIPS, nylon, polycarbonate, PET, acrylic.
Thermosetting plastics which once moulded or formed cannot be reformed by heat. e.g. Melamine(MF), epoxy resin, Urea formaldehyde (UF).
Elastomers - rubbers long chain elastic molecules. e.g. neoprene, natural rubber. Used for car tyres and elastic bands.
Applications

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Nylon is used for bearings and the cases for power tools also used for fishing line and ropes. Nylon is very strong and wear resistant it is also slippery
without the need for lubrication. Originally used as a silk substitute - stockings and climbing ropes.
PVC is used for casings for electical consumer items and is also used in its flexible form as the insulating sheath on electrical cable and flex.
Melamine is used as the protective layer on worksurfaces and laminated flooring.
UF is used to make electrical components when a good insulator is needed such as plug tops and switch buttons.
Acrylic is used for safety shields but is not as tough as polycarbonate. Polycarbonate is used for the lenses in safety eye protection e.g. goggles.

Plastics - engineering plastics are usually very strong or tough. And may be self lubricating.
The properties of polymers may be altered by the addition of plasticisers which improve flexibility, and fillers which increase opacity (stop light
passing through), change density, change thermal properties, decrease cost if filler material is cheap e.g. talc.
Nylon

Acrylic

PVC and uPVC

Very strong, nylon can be machined and will take a fine thread. It is also slippery and can be used to make washers, spacers and bushes.
Nylon was originally developed as a textile but is available in many forms with vastly different properties. Engineering nylon grades are easy to machine
with good resistance to biological attack.
Unfortunately nylons can absorb moisture from the atmosphere and can degrade in strong sunlight (they are unstable in ultraviolet light) unless a stabilising
chemical is added at the initial manufacture of the plastic. Nylons are easy to mould. Nylons also have a natural 'oily' surface that can act as a natural
lubricant. Nylons are used for everything from clothes through to gears and bearings.
Comes in a range of thicknesses, colours and can be opaque or transparent. There are two type of acrylic extruded which is cheaper and very "plastic" and
cast which machines better but is harder and less flexible.
Acrylics are available in a range of colours and can be opaque, translucent or transparent. They are available in sheet, rod, and tube for use in injection
moulding, extrusion and vacuum forming. Acrylics withstand weather and are stable in sunlight. Almost any colour can be produced. Transparent acrylic
can be as clear as the finest optical glass, this led them to be used in optical equipment such as cameras. It is possible to significantly strengthen the acrylic
when it is being made, these high grade acrylics are used use for aircraft windows.
Stiff, hard,tough lightweight plastic. uPVC is stabilised for outside use and is used for plastic windows and plastic pipes. Plasticised PVC is used for flexible
applications such as insulating - cables.

Polythene

This plastic has a range of uses from food packaging to gas pipes. The plastics can be injection moulded or extruded and is available in two forms. Highdensity polyethylene (HDPE) is a hard rigid plastic. A low-density grade ( LDPE )is tough and flexible.

Polypropylene

Polypropylene is a tough, cheap plastic, it has a slightly waxy feel. It can be bent repeatedly without breaking. Used for Medical equipment such as
syringes, stacking chairs (chair shell is polypropylene), suitcases with integral hinges,

Polycarbonate
Bakelite

Used for making eye protection, machine guards and riot shields. It is not as hard as acrylic and can be cut easily but it will absorb impacts.
A thermosetting plastic. Dark brown. Used as a composite reinforced with paper or cloth. Used to make circuit boards and heat proof insulated parts in the
electronics industry.
A two part mix which can be used as a glue (ARALDITE)or be reinforced with carbon fibre to produce a very strong and light composite materials which is
used in aerospace and Formula 1
A thermoset very tough and heat resistant. White but can be produced in a full range of colours.

Epoxy resin
Melamine

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