August 2005
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ii
Contents
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410
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5114
5123
5127
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5136
5138
5144
5148
5153
5159
5168
Linear Devices
BIP (Bipolar Transistor with Alpha Current Gain) .....................................................
BIPB (Bipolar Transistor, with Beta Current Gain) ....................................................
DFET (DualGate Field Effect Transistor) .................................................................
FET (Field Effect Transistor) .....................................................................................
FET2 (Field Effect Transistor with Source Resistance) ............................................
FETN1 (FET Noise Model (Van der Ziel)) ................................................................
FETN2 (FET Noise Model (Statz, et al))...................................................................
FETN3 (FET Noise Model (Fukui))...........................................................................
FETN4 (FET Noise Model (Podell))..........................................................................
FETN4a (FET Noise Model (Podell))........................................................................
FETN5 (FET Noise Model Gupta, et al)) ..................................................................
HYBPI (HybridPi Bipolar Transistor with Alpha Current Gain).................................
PIN (PIN Diode, Chip Model)....................................................................................
PIN2 (PIN Diode, Packaged Model) .........................................................................
62
64
66
68
610
612
614
616
618
620
622
624
626
627
vi
71
73
75
76
78
710
711
713
715
Multiplicity Parameter _M
The multiplicity feature provides a way to scale components or entire subcircuits
containing many components and subcircuits. Given a component with a multiplicity
value M, the simulator treats this component as if there were M such components all
connected in parallel. Subcircuits within subcircuits will be appropriately scaled.
The _M parameter is available at the component level as shown here. (For
components that do not explicitly have a Multiplicity parameter, the same
functionality can be achieved by placing the component in a subcircuit and using the
subcircuits Multiplicity parameter, as described next.)
For subcircuits, the parameter is enabled by selecting File > Design Parameters from
the Schematic window. In the dialog box, select the Parameters tab. To add the
Multiplicity parameter, click Add Multiplicity Factor_M.
11
Netlist Syntax
Models for the ADS circuit simulator have the following syntax:
model
modelname
modeltype [param=value]*
where model is a keyword, modelname is the userdefined name for the model and
modeltype is one of the predefined model types (e.g., Diode, BJT, MOSFET). After
these three required fields comes zero or more param=value pairs. param is a model
keyword and value is its userassigned value. There is no required order for the
param=value pairs. Model keywords that are not specified take on their default
values. Refer to documentation for each model type to see the list of model
parameters, their meanings and default values.
The model statement must be on a single line. Use the backslash (\) as a line
continuation character. Instance and model parameter names are case sensitive;
most (not all) model parameters have their first character capitalized and the rest are
lower case. Scale factors (e.g., p=1012, n=109, u=106, m=103, k=10+3, M=10+6) can
be used with numbers for numeric values. For more information about the circuit
simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits, variables and equations,
refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit Simulators manual.
A netlist translator is available for translating models and subcircuits from Pspice,
Hspice, and Spectre syntax to the form used by the ADS Circuit Simulator. Refer to
the Netlist Translator for SPICE and Spectre manual for more information.
Parameter Aliases
For compatibility with other simulators, some models accept two or more different
keywords for the same parameter. For example, the Diode model accepts both model
12
Netlist Syntax
keywords Is and Js for the saturation current. In the documentation, the parameter
Name column lists the aliases in parentheses after the main parameter name. The
main parameter name is the one that appears in the ADS dialog box for the model.
Tnom
All nonlinear device models have a parameter that specifies the temperature at
which the model parameters were extracted. Normally called Tnom, some models
may use Tref, Tr, or Tmeas. The default value for Tnom is specified on the Options
item in the Tnom field. If Options.Tnom is not specified it defaults to 25oC. This is
true for all nonlinear devices.
It is strongly suggested that the user explicitly set Tnom in each model and not
depend on its default value. First, this provides a selfdocumenting model; other
users of the device will not have to guess at what Tnom should be. Second, different
users of the same model would get different results for the same circuit if they
simulate with different values of Options.Tnom.
Tnom
13
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
name of Diode_Model
Area
Periph
(Perim)
Units Default
1.0
Scale
Region
on
Temp
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
Each instance parameter whose dimension contains a power of meter will be multiplied by the Scale
to the same power. For example, a parameter with a dimension of m will be multiplied by scale1 and a
parameter with a dimension of m2 will be multiplied by scale2. Note that only parameters whose
dimensions contain meter are scaled. For example, a parameter whose dimension contains cm instead
of meter is not scaled.
Range of Usage
Area > 0
Periph 0
Scale > 0
14
Notes/Equations
1. The size of the diode may be specified geometrically using the Width and
Length parameters if the Area and Periph parameters are not explicitly
specified. Default values for the width and length are taken from the width and
length specified in the model if they are not specified in the instance. The model
parameters Shrink and Dwl are also used. Exact area and periphery
calculations are described in the model Notes section.
The area must be greater than 0. The periphery can be 0, in which case the
sidewall components are not simulated.
2. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device. If this is different than the temperature at which the model parameters
are valid or extracted (specified by the Tnom parameter of the associated
Diode_Model), certain model parameters are scaled such that the device is
simulated at its operating temperature (refer to Diode_Model (PNJunction
Diode Model) on page 17) to see which parameter values are scaled).
3. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
4. Table 11 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 11. DC Operating Point Information
Name
Description
Units
Id
Diode current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Rd
ohms
Rdsw
ohms
Cd
Junction capacitance
farads
Cdsw
Sidewall capacitance
farads
Vd
Anodecathode voltage
volts
15
16
Available in
Description
Units
Default
Level
Is (Js),
1014
Rs
ohmic resistance
ohm
0.0
Gleak
1.0
Tt
transit time
sec
0.0
Cd
linear capacitance
Cjo,
0.0
Vj (Pb)
junction potential
1.0 V
grading coefficient
0.5
Fc
0.5
Parameter value is scaled with Area specified with the Diode device.
Value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Area.
Value 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Parameter value is scaled with the Periph specified with the Diode device.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Periph.
17
Name
Description
Units
Default
Imax
1.0
Imelt
1.0
Isr,
0.0
Nr
Ikf (Ik)
infinity
Ikr
IkModel
Bv
infinity
Ibv
0.001
Nbv (Nz)
Ibvl
Nbvl
1.0
Kf
0.0
Af
1.0
Ffe
1.0
Jsw (Isw),
0.0
Rsw
ohm
Gleaksw
Ns
Ikp
Parameter value is scaled with Area specified with the Diode device.
Value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Area.
Value 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Parameter value is scaled with the Periph specified with the Diode device.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Periph.
18
2.0
1.0
A
0.0
I (when
Level=11)
N (when Level
11
A
Ikf
Name
Description
Units
Default
Cjsw,
0.9
Msw (Mjsw)
Vjsw (Pbsw)
Fcsw
0.5
Fc (when Level
= 11)
Area
Periph (Perim)
Width
Length
Etch
Etchl
Etch
Dwl
Shrink
1.0
AllowScaling
no
Tnom
oC
25
Trise
Tlev
Tlevc
Xti
3.0 PN junction
diode
2.0 Schottky
barrier diode
0.33
V
Vj
1 (when
Level=11)
Parameter value is scaled with Area specified with the Diode device.
Value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Area.
Value 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Parameter value is scaled with the Periph specified with the Diode device.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Periph.
19
Name
Description
Units
Eg
Default
1.11
0.69 Schottky
barrier diode
0.67 Ge
1.43 GaAs
eV/oK
7.02e4
EgBeta (Gap2)
1108
Tcjo (Cta)
1/oC
Tcjsw (Ctp)
1oC
Ttt1
1/oC
Ttt2
1/(oC)2 0
Tm1
1/oC
Tm2
1/(oC)2 0
Tvj (Pta)
1/oC
Tvjsw (Ptp)
1/oC
Trs
1/oC
Trs2
1/(oC)2 0
Tgs
1/oC
Tgs2
1/(oC)2 0
Tbv (Tbv1)
1/oC
Tbv2
1/(oC)2 0
wBv (Bvj)
Parameter value is scaled with Area specified with the Diode device.
Value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Area.
Value 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Parameter value is scaled with the Periph specified with the Diode device.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Periph.
110
infinity
Name
Description
Units
Default
wPmax
infinity
AllParams
Parameter value is scaled with Area specified with the Diode device.
Value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Area.
Value 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Parameter value is scaled with the Periph specified with the Diode device.
Parameter value is scaled with 1/Periph.
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
Diode [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword diode. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by diode components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is Diode. The rest of the
model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign.
The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model SimpleDiode Diode \
Is=1e9 Rs=4 Cjo=1.5e12
111
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
112
Otherwise
if Length and Width in device or model (in this order) are specified and > 0,
Area = Weff Leff
where
Weff = Width  Etch
Leff = Length  Etch1
otherwise use model Area if it is specified and > 0
otherwise, Area = 1 (default)
Device Periph will be used if it is specified and > 0
Otherwise,
if Length and Width in device or model (in this order) are specified and > 0,
Periph = 2 (Weff + Leff)
where
Weff = device Width  Etch
Leff = device Length  Etch1
otherwise use model Periph if it is specified and > 0
otherwise, Periph = 0 (default)
If model parameter Allowscaling is set to yes, the diode geometry parameters
Periph, Width, and Length are multiplied by Scale, while Area is multiplied
by Scale Scale (for Level = 11 only).
4. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current ExplI which is used
in the following equations. Imax and Imelt can be specified in the device model
or in the Options component; the device model value takes precedence over the
Options value. If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is
increased to the Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) ExplI = Imelt; otherwise, if
Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) ExplI = Imax; otherwise, ExplI =
model Imelt default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
5. Currents and Conductances
Is and Isr in the following equations have been multiplied by the effective area
factor aeff.
113
If vd > vmax
idexp = [Imax + (vd  vmax) gmax]
gdexp = gmax
where
ExplI
vmax = N vt ln  + 1
Is
ExplI + Is
gmax = N vt
vt is thermal voltage
If vmax vd  10 N vt
vd

N vt
1
idexp = I s e
vd

N vt
Is
gdexp =  e
N vt
If vd < 10 N vt
10
idexp = [ Is ( e
1 ) + gdexp ( vd + 10 N vt ) ]
10
Is
gdexp =  e
N vt
Breakdown current contribution is considered if Bv is specified and Ibv is not
equal to zero.
If (vd + Bv) > vbmax
ib= {ExplI + [(vd + Bv)  vbmax] gbmax  ibo}
gb = gbmax
where
ExplI
vbmax = Nbv vt ln 
Ibv
ExplI
gbmax = 
Nbv vt
114
ib = Ibv e
ib
gb = Nbv vt
+ ibo
Otherwise
ib = 0
gb = 0
For ibo
If (vd+ Bv) < MAXEXP Nbv vt
ibo = I bv e
Bv
Nbv vt
Otherwise
ibo = 0
MAXEXP is the maximum exponent supported by the machine; value range is
88 to 709.
Low level reverse breakdown current is considered if Ibvl is specified and not
equal to zero.
If (vd + Bv) > vlbmax
ilb = {ExplI + [(vd + Bv)  vlbmax] glbmax  ilbo}
glb = glbmax
where
ExplI
vlbmax = Nbvl vt ln 
Ibvl
ExplI
glbmax = 
Nbvl vt
If vlbmax (vd + Bv) >  MAXEXP bvl vt
ilb = Ibvl e
( vd + Bv )
Nbvl vt
+ ilbo
115
ilb
glb = Nbvl vt
Otherwise
ilb = 0
glb = 0
For ilbo
If (vd + Bv) < MAXEXP Nbvl vt
ilbo = Ibvl e
Bv
Nbvl vt
Otherwise
ilbo = 0
Recombination current is considered if Isr is specified and not equal to zero.
If vd > vrmax
ir = ExplI + (vd  vrmax) grmax
gr = grmax
where
ExplI
vrmax = Nr vt ln  + 1
Isr
ExplI + Isr
grmax = N r vt
If vrmax vd  10 Nr vt
Vd

N r vt
1
ir = Isr e
vd

N r vt
Isr
gr =  e
N r vt
If vd <  10 Nr vt
116
10
ir = [ Isr ( e
1 ) + gr ( vd + 10 N r vt ) ]
10
Isr
gr =  e
N r vt
iexp = idexp + ib + ilb
gexp = gdexp + gb + glb
There are two ways to model highinjection effect.
When IkModel is set to ADS/Libra/Pspice and when Ikf 0 and iexp > 0.
idh = iexp
Ikf
Ikf + iexp
1
Ikf
Ikf
gdh = gexp  1 +  2
Ikf + iexp Ikf + iexp
When IkModel is set to Hspice:
If Ikf is not equal to zero and iexp > 0
1
idh = iexp iexp
1 + Ikf
iexp

1
Ikf
gdh = gexp  1 
iexp
iexp
2 1 + 
1 + 
Ikf
Ikf
Otherwise if Ikr is not equal to zero and iexp < 0
1
idh = iexp  i exp
1 + Ikr
i exp

1
Ikr
gdh = gexp  1 
i exp
i exp
2 1 + 
1 + 
Ikr
Ikr
The total diode DC current and conductance
117
id = idh + ir
Id = id + Gleak vd + Gmin vd
gd = gdh + gr
Gd = gd + Gleak + Gmin
where Gmin is minimum junction conductance.
Sidewall diode:
Sidewall diode equations have been multiplied by Periph, Isw, Ibv, Ikp, Gleaksw.
If vdsw > vmaxsw
idexpsw = [ExplI + (vdsw  vmaxsw) gmaxsw]
gdexpsw = gmaxsw
where
vdsw is sidewall diode voltage
ExplI
vmaxsw = Ns vt ln  + 1
Isw
ExplI + Isw
gmaxsw = Ns vt
vt is thermal voltage
If vmaxsw vdsw  10 Ns vt
vdsw

Ns vt
1
idexpsw = I sw e
vdsw

Ns vt
Isw
gdexswp =  e
Ns vt
idexpsw = [ Isw ( e
1 ) + gdexpsw ( vdsw + 10 Ns vt ) ]
10
Isw
gdexpsw =  e
Ns vt
Breakdown current contribution is considered if Bv is specified and Ibv 0 and
Level 11.
If (vdsw + Bv) > vbmaxsw
118
ibsw = Ibv e
ibsw
gbsw = Nbv vt
+ ibosw
Otherwise
ibsw = 0
gbsw = 0
For ibosw
If (vd + Bv) < MAXEXP Nbv vt
ibosw = I bv e
Bv
Nbv vt
Otherwise
ibosw = 0
MAXEXP is the maximum exponent supported by the machine; value range is
88 to 709.
iexpsw = idexpsw + ibsw
gexp = gdexp + gb
There are two ways to model sidewall diode highinjection effect.
When IkModel is set to ADS/Libra/Pspice and when Ikp 0 and iexp > 0.
Ikp
idsw = iexpsw Ikp + iexpsw
119
1
Ikp
Ikp
gdsw = gexpsw  1 +  2
Ikp + iexpsw Ikp + iexpsw
When IkModel is set to Hspice:
If Ikp 0 and iexp > 0
1
idsw = iexpsw iexpsw
1 + Ikp
iexpsw

1
Ikp
gdsw = gexpsw  1 
iexpsw
iexp
2 1 + 
1 + 
Ikp
Ikp
The total diode DC current and conductance
Idsw = idsw + Gleaksw vdsw + Gmin vdsw
Gdsw = gdsw + Gleaksw + Gmin
6. Diode Capacitances
Vj
If Vd > Fc Vj
Cjo
M
Cj = Area  1 +  ( vd Fc Vj )
V j ( 1 Fc )
M
1 Fc
Total main capacitance
Cdj = Cdiff + Cj + Cd Area
For sidewall capacitance
120
7. Temperature Scaling
Parameters Is, Jsw, Isr, Cjo, Cjsw, Vj, Vjsw, Bv, Tt, and Rs are temperature
dependent.
Note Expressions for the temperature dependence of the energy bandgap and
the intrinsic carrier concentration are for silicon only. Depletion capacitance for
nonsilicon diodes may not scale properly with temperature, even if values of Eg
and Xti are altered from the default values given in the parameters list.
The model specifies Tnom, the nominal temperature at which the model
parameters were calculated or extracted. To simulate the device at
temperatures other than Tnom, several model parameters must be scaled with
temperature. The temperature at which the device is simulated is specified by
the device item Temp parameter. (Temperatures in the following equations are
in Kelvin.)
The energy bandgap EG varies as:
4 2
7.02 10 T
E G ( T ) = 1.16  if Tlev = 0, 1
T + 1108
2
EgAlphaT
E G ( T ) = Eg  if Tlev = 2
T + EgBeta
The intrinsic carrier concentration ni for silicon varies as:
32
E G ( 300.15 ) E G ( T )
10
T
n i ( T ) = 1.45 10 
exp  
300.15
2k300.15 q 2kT q
121
NEW
Isr
Temp
Xti
Eg
Eg
= Is exp   +  ln 
NkTnom q N kTem p q N Tnom
NEW
Jsw
Xti
Temp
Eg
Eg
= I sr exp   +  ln 
NrkTnom q N rkTem p q Nr Tnom
NEW
Xti
Temp
Eg
Eg
= Jsw exp   +  ln 
NkTnom q N kTem p q N Tnom
else if Tlev = 2
Is
NEW
Isr
E G ( Tnom )
E G ( Temp ) Xti
Temp
= I s exp   +  ln 
NkTnom q N kTem p q N Tnom
NEW
Jsw
E G ( Tnom )
E G ( Temp )
Xti
Temp
= I sr exp   +  ln 
NrkTnom q N rkTem p q Nr Tnom
NEW
E G ( Tnom )
E G ( Temp ) Xti
Temp
= Jsw exp   +  ln 
Tnom
NkTnom q N kTem p q N
NEW
if Tlev = 1 or Tlev = 2
Bv
NEW
NEW
NEW
The depletion capacitances Cjo and Cjsw and the junction potentials Vj and
Vjsw vary as:
122
if Tlevc = 0
Vj
V jsw
Cj
NEW
NEW
NEW
Cjsw
4
Vj
= Cj 1 + M 1 + 4 10 ( Temp Tnom ) 
Vj
NEW
NEW
4
Vjsw
= Cjsw 1 + Msw 1 + 4 10 ( Temp Tnom ) 
Vjsw
if Tlevc = 1
Vj
NEW
V jsw
Cj
NEW
C jsw
NEW
NEW
if Tlevc = 2
Vj
NEW
V jsw
Cj
NEW
NEW
C jsw
M
Vj
= Cj 
NEW
Vj
NEW
Msw
Vjsw
= Cjsw 
NEW
V jsw
if Tlevc = 3
if Tlev = 2
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2EgBeta
dVjdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( Eg E G ( Tnom ) )  Vj 
Tnom
q
Tnom + EgBeta
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2EgBeta
dVjswdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( Eg E G ( Tnom ) )  Vjsw 
Tnom
q
Tnom + EgBeta
123
if Tlev = 0 or Tlev = 1
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2 1108
dVjdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( 1.16 E G ( Tnom ) )  Vj 
Tnom
q
Tnom + 1108
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2 1108
dVjswdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( 1.16 E G ( Tnom ) )  Vjsw 
Tnom
q
Tnom + 1108
Vj
NEW
V jsw
Cj
NEW
C jsw
NEW
2Vj
NEW
2Vjsw
NEW
<i >
4kT
 = f
Rs
Shot noise and flicker noise (Kf, Af, Ffe) generated by the DC current flow
through the diode is characterized by the following spectral density:
2
Af
ID
< id >
 = 2qI D + Kf Ffe
f
f
In the preceding expressions, k is Boltzmanns constant, T is the operating
temperature in Kelvin, q is the electron charge, Kf, Af, and Ffe are model
parameters, f is the simulation frequency, and f is the noise bandwidth.
9. The sidewall model parameters model a second ideal diode that scales with the
instance parameter Periph, in parallel with the main diode that scales with the
instance parameter Area. The series resistance Rs scales only with Area, not
with Periph.
124
10. To model a Zener diode, the model parameters Bv and Ibv can be used. Bv
should be set to the Zener reverse breakdown voltage as a positive number. Ibv
is set to the breakdown current that flows at that voltage as a positive number;
typically this is in the range of 1 to 10 mA. The series resistance Rs should also
be set; a typical value is 1 Ohm.
References
[1] Antognetti and G. Massobrio. Semiconductor device modeling with SPICE, New
York: McGrawHill, Second Edition 1993.
Equivalent Circuit
If Rsw is not given
Anode
Rs
id
Gleak
Cdj
Cd
Gmin
idsw
Gleaksw
Cjsw
Cathode
If Rsw is given
Anode
Rs
id
Cdj
Gleak
Rsw
Gmin
idsw
Cjsw
Cd
Gleaksw
Gmin
Cathode
125
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
Default
Area
junction
1.0
_M
Range of Usage
Area > 0
Notes/Equations
1. Table 12 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 12. DC Operating Point Information
126
Name
Description
Units
Id
Diode current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Rd
Series resistance
ohms
Cd
Junction capacitance
farads
Vd
Anodecathode voltage
volts
Available in
Description
Default
File
name of rawfile
Rs
series resistance
Ls
parasitic inductance
Tt
0.0
All Params
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for an ADSDiode device.
2. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). Note that model parameters that are explicitly specified
take precedence over those via AllParams.
3. Because this model is measurementbased, extrapolation warning messages
may occur if the Newton iteration exceeds the measurement range. If these
messages occur frequently, check that the measurement data is within the
simulation range.
References
[1] D. Root, Technology independent large signal non quasi static FET model by
direct construction from automatically characterized device data, in 21st
EuMC, 1991, p. 927.
[2] D. E. Root, S. Fan, and J. Meyer, Technologyindependent largesignal FET
models: A measurementbased approach to active device modeling, in Proc.
15th ARMMS Conf., Bath, U.K., Sept. 1991, pp. 121.
ADS_Diode_Model (ADS_Root Diode Model)
127
128
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
Ab
diffusion area
Units
Default
m2
1.0e12
Ls
length of sidewall of the diffusion area that is not under the gate meters
1.0e 6 m
Lg
1.0e 6 m
meters
on
Temp
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
Each instance parameter whose dimension contains a power of meter will be multiplied by
the Scale to the same power. For example, a parameter with a dimension of m will be
multiplied by scale1 and a parameter with a dimension of m2 will be multiplied by scale2. Note
that only parameters whose dimensions contain meter are scaled. For example, a parameter
whose dimension contains cm instead of meter is not scaled.
Notes/Equations
1. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
2. Table 13 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
129
Description
Units
Id
Diode current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Rd
Series resistance
ohms
Cd
Junction capacitance
farads
Vd
Anodecathode voltage
volts
130
Available in
Description
Units
Default
Tr (Tnom)
Trise
Vr
volts
0.0
Jsgbr
1.0e3
Jsdbr
A/m2
1.0e3
Jsgsr
A/m
1.0e3
Jsdsr
1.0e3
Jsggr
A/m2
1.0e3
Jsdgr
A/m
1.0e3
Cjbr
bottomjunction capacitance at V = Vr
F/m2
1.0e12
Cjsr
sidewalljunction capacitance at V = Vr
F/m
1.0e12
Cjgr
F/m
Vdbr
1.0
Vdsr
1.0
Vdgr
1.0
Pb
0.4
Ps
0.4
Pg
0.4
25
1.0e12
131
Name
Description
Units
Default
Nb
Ns
1.0
Ng
1.0
Gmin
Siemens 1.0e15
Imax
All Params
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
1.0
1.0
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
Juncap [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by diode components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is Juncap. The rest of the
model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign.
The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model DSpar
Jsbgr=3e4
Juncap \
Cjbr=1e4
Tr=25
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
132
1. The JUNCAP model is used to describe the behavior of diodes that are formed
by the source, drain, or welltobulk junctions in MOS devices. The model is
limited to the case of reverse biasing of these junctions. Similar to the MOS
model, the current equations are formulated and ac effects are modeled via
charge equations using the quasistatic approximation. In order to include the
effects from differences in the sidewall, bottom and gateedge junction profiles,
these contributions are calculated separately in the JUNCAP model. Both the
diffusion and the generation currents are treated in the model, each with its
own temperature and voltage dependence.
In the JUNCAP model a part of the total charge comes from the gateedge
junction very close to the surface. This charge is also included in the
MOSmodel charge equations, and is therefore counted twice. However, this
results in only a very minor error.
2. More information about the model can be obtained from:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/philips_models/additional/juncap/
133
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
name of a PinDiodeModel
Area
junction area
Units Default
on
Temp
Mode
Nonlinear
_M
25
Range of Usage
Area > 0
Notes/Equations
1. The Region parameter is used to give the DC simulator a good initial guess to
enhance its convergence properties.
2. The Temp parameter is used to calculate the noise performance of this device
only. Temperature scaling of model parameters is not performed for this device.
3. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
4. Table 14 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
134
Description
Units
Id
Diode current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Rd
Series resistance
ohms
Cd
Junction capacitance
farads
Vd
Anodecathode voltage
volts
135
Available in
Description
Units
Default
Is
saturation current
amperes
1014
Vi
Un
electron mobility
cm2/(VS)
900
Wi
Iregion width
106
Rr
ohm
Cmin
Tau
sec
107
Rs
ohmic resistance
ohm
Cjo
Vj
junction potential
1.0
grading coefficient
0.5
Fc
0.5
Imax
explosion current
A/m2
1.0
Imelt
1.0
Kf
flickernoise coefficient
Af
flickernoise exponent
1.0
Ffe
wBv
136
1.0
V
0.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
wPmax
0.0
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a PinDiode device.
2. PinDiodeModel is based on its highfrequency characteristics and does not
include its DC characteristics. The following assumptions have been made in
this model derivation and, therefore, its usefulness.
You must first bias the PIN diode in either forward or reverse condition and
determine its characteristic.
Periods of all timevariant signals applied to the circuit in transient analysis
are much shorter than the ambipolar lifetime in the Iregion.
In reverse bias, the Iregion is punchthrough.
3. Limitations of PinDiodeModel:
After the DC condition of the diode model has been determined (that is,
under forward or reverse bias condition), the PIN diode intrinsic resistance R
is fixed for all subsequent analyses.
For subsequent analyses, the depletion capacitance is not fixed at DC bias; it
will vary with its voltage (Vc). However, the pin diode DC condition
determines whether depletion capacitance or Cmin will be used in
subsequent analyses.
Periods of all time variant signals applied to the circuit in transient analysis
must be shorter compared to the ambipolar lifetime in the Iregion;
otherwise, a regular diode should be used.
The model does not vary with temperature.
4. The equivalent circuit of the intrinsic PIN diode:
R=Ri,
R=Rr,
where
137
Ri=Vi/Idc
Idc is the DC current through the pin diode when R is replaced by a DC voltage
source with Vi volt.
If the Iregion forward bias voltage drop Vi is not specified or equal to zero,
2
3
Wi
Vi =  4 U n 10 4 Tau
In DC sweep analysis under forward bias, because Vi remains constant and Idc
varies with the sweep source, the intrinsic resistance R will vary; however, the
dI/dV term will remain constant.
5. Depletion capacitance:
If
Vc < Fc Vj
Vc M
C = Cjo 1 
Vj
If
Vc Fc Vj
1 Fc ( 1 + M ) + M Vc

Vj
C = Cjo 
(1 + M )
( 1 Fc )
6. Noise Model
Thermal noise generated by resistor Rs is characterized by the spectral density:
2
4kT
<i >
 = f
R
Shot noise and flicker noise (Kf, Af, Ffe) generated by DC current flow through
the diode is characterized by the spectral density:
2
af
ID
< i ds >
 = 2qI D + k f f fe
f
f
138
C
Vc
139
140
Multiplicity Parameter _M
The multiplicity feature provides a way to scale components or entire subcircuits
containing many components and subcircuits. Given a component with a multiplicity
value M, the simulator treats this component as if there were M such components all
connected in parallel. Subcircuits within subcircuits will be appropriately scaled.
The _M parameter is available at the component level as shown here. (For
components that do not explicitly have a Multiplicity parameter, the same
functionality can be achieved by placing the component in a subcircuit and using the
subcircuits Multiplicity parameter, as described next.)
For subcircuits, the parameter is enabled by selecting File > Design Parameters from
the Schematic window. In the dialog box, select the Parameters tab. To add the
Multiplicity parameter, choose Add Multiplicity Factor_M.
21
Netlist Syntax
Models for the ADS circuit simulator have the following syntax:
model
modelname
modeltype [param=value]*
where model is a keyword, modelname is the userdefined name for the model and
modeltype is one of the predefined model types (e.g., Diode, BJT, MOSFET). After
these three required fields comes zero or more param=value pairs. param is a model
keyword and value is its userassigned value. There is no required order for the
param=value pairs. Model keywords that are not specified take on their default
values. Refer to documentation for each model type to see the list of model
parameters, their meanings and default values.
The model statement must be on a single line. Use the backslash (\) as a line continuation character. The instance and model parameter names are case sensitive; most,
(not all) model parameters have their first character capitalized and the rest are
lower case. Scale factors (e.g., p=1012, n=109, u=106, m=103, k=10+3, M=10+6) can
be used with numbers for numeric values. For more information about the circuit
simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits, variables and equations,
refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit Simulators manual.
A netlist translator is available for translating models and subcircuits from Pspice,
Hspice, and Spectre syntax to the form used by the ADS Circuit Simulator. Refer to
the Netlist Translator for SPICE and Spectre manual for more information.
Parameter Aliases
For compatibility with other simulators, some models accept two or more different
keywords for the same parameter. For example, the Diode model accepts both model
22
Netlist Syntax
keywords Is and Js for the saturation current. In the documentation, the parameter
Name column lists the aliases in parentheses after the main parameter name. The
main parameter name is the one that appears in the ADS dialog box for the model.
Tnom
All nonlinear device models have a parameter that specifies the temperature at
which the model parameters were extracted. Normally called Tnom, some models
may use Tref, Tr, or Tmeas. The default value for Tnom is specified on the Options
item in the Tnom field. If Options.Tnom is not specified it defaults to 25oC. This is
true for all nonlinear devices.
It is strongly suggested that the user explicitly set Tnom in each model and not
depend on its default value. First, this provides a selfdocumenting model; other
users of the device will not have to guess at what Tnom should be. Second, different
users of the same model would get different results for the same circuit if they
simulate with different values of Options.Tnom.
Tnom
23
Available in
ADS
Parameters
Model parameters must be specified in SI units
Name
Units
Default
Tnom
25
Re
Emitter resistance
ohms
Rci
ohms
Rcx
ohms
Rbi
ohms
15
Rbx
ohms
Is
amperes
1.00e25
Nf
Isr
Nr
Ish
Nh
Ise
Ne
Isrh
Nrh
Isc
1.00e13
Nc
24
1.00
amperes
1.00e15
2
amperes
1.00e27
amperes
1.00e18
2
amperes
1.00e15
Name
Units
Default
Abel
Vaf
volts
500
Var
volts
1000
Isa
amperes
1.00e+10
Na
Isb
1.00e+10
Nb
Ikdc1
amperes
Ikdc2Inv
1/amperes 0
Ikdc3
Soft knee effect: Critical current at which soft knee effect occurs at amperes
Vcb=VJC
VkdcInv
0.1
Nkdc
Gkdc
Ik
amperes
Cje
farads
4.00e14
Vje
volts
1.3
Mje
Cemax
farads
1.00e13
Vpte
volt
Mjer
0.05
Abex
Cjc
farads
5.00e14
Vjc
volts
1.1
Mjc
Ccmax
farads
9.00e14
Vptc
volts
Mjcr
Abcx
Tfb
1/volts
0.3
0.3
0.03
0.75
seconds
1.00e12
25
Name
Units
Default
Fextb
Tfc0
seconds
2.00e12
Tcmin
seconds
5.00e13
Itc
amperes
6.00e03
Itc2
amperes
8.00e03
Vtc0Inv
Collector transit time: rate of change of TFC0 with Vcb (in inverse
voltage)
1/volts
0.3
Vtr0
volts
Vmx0
volts
0.2
VtcminInv Collector transit time: rate of change of TCMIN with Vbc (in inverse 1/volts
voltage)
0.5
Vtrmin
volts
Vmxmin
volts
VtcInv
Collector transit time: rate of change of ITC with Vcb (in inverse
voltage)
1/volts
0.1
Vtc2Inv
Collector transit time: rate of change of ITC2 with Vcb (in inverse
voltage)
1/volts
0.1
Fextc
Tkrk
seconds
1.00e12
Ikrk
amperes
2.50e02
Ikrktr
amperes
1.00e06
Vkrk
volts
Vkrk2Inv
Kirk effect: rate of change of TKRK with Vcb (in inverse voltage)
1/volts
0.2
Gkrk
Vktr
volts
Vkmx
volts
26
0.8
Name
Units
Default
Fexke
Tr
seconds
1.00e09
Cpce
farads
1.00e15
Cpbe
farads
1.00e15
Cpbc
farads
1.00e15
Lpc
Henries
Lpb
Henries
Lpe
Henries
Xrb
Xrc
Xre
Tvje
volts/Kelvin 0
Tvpe
volts/Kelvin 0
Tvjc
volts/Kelvin 0
Tvpc
volts/Kelvin 0
Ege
volts
Tnf
Xtis
Xtih
Xtie
Egc
Tnr
Xtir
Xtic
Xtirh
Xtik3
Eaa
volts
Eab
volts
Xtfb
Xtcmin
0.2
volts
1.55
1.5
27
Name
Xtfc0
Xitc
Xitc2
Xtkrk
Xikrk
Xvkrk
Rth1
Thermal resistance #1
Kelvin/watt 1000
Cth1
Thermal capacitance #1
secA/Volts 5e10
Xth1
Rth2
Thermal resistance #2
Kelvin/watt 0
Cth2
Thermal capacitance #2
secA/Volts 0
Xth2
Kf
Af
Ffe
Kb
Ab
Fb
hertz
Imax
Explosion current
amperes
10
wBvbe
volts
wBvbc
volts
wVbcfwd
volts
wIbmax
amperes
wIcmax
amperes
wPmax
watts
Version
28
Units
Default
2.0
Notes
1. This model supplies values for AgilentHBT_NPN and AgilentHBT_NPN_Th
devices.
2. AgilentHBT model is based on the general concepts from the UCSD HBT model
[1], http://hbt.ucsd.edu (in which the charge model is originally based on [2]),
and the GummelPoon BJT model [3].
3. The charge model contains a flexible collector transit time formulation that
empirically accounts for the electric field dependent electron drift velocity in
GaAs and InP collectors (based on the work from [4]). This enables accurate fits
of ft vs. bias over a wide range of bias points, which improves linearity
predictions [5]. The depletion and highcurrent charges are leveraged from
HICUM [6,7] (http://www.iee.et.tudresden.de/iee/eb/comp_mod.html).
4. The ideal baseemitter current has its distinct saturation current (Ish) and
ideality factor (Nh), similar to HICUM and VBIC [8,9]
(http://www.designersguide.com/VBIC/references.html). Therefore, the
parameter Bf in the GummelPoon and UCSD HBT models is not used. This is
required for a IIIV HBT model because the mechanism of base current is not
necessarily proportional to the collector current (due to the presence of a
heterojunction between the base and emitter). The current gain (Beta) at a bias
point can be viewed from the DC operating point information under
Simulate > Detailed Device Operating Point.
5. Dynamic selfheating is implemented (Version 2) and can be activated
(deactivated) by setting the device instance parameter SelfTmod=1
(SelfTmod=0). For more information, refer to SelfHeating Model on
page 225. Static temperature scaling of parameters with operating
temperature (Temp in the device instance) applies to both cases.
6. Heterojunction effects on DC current (from the UCSD HBT model) is taken into
account by ISA and NA (through VBEi dependent Ica) in the baseemitter
junction and ISB and NB (through VBCi dependent Icb) in the basecollector
junction. Ica typically models the barrier effects that occur at the baseemitter
heterojunction, which modifies the relationship between the collector current
and VBEi. Icb typically models the influence of the barrier for electrons at the
basecollector junction (which is present at zero bias and is gradually removed
with reversebias of the basecollector junction).
29
7. The softknee observed in the commonemitter ICE vs. VCE curve in single
heterojunction bipolar transistors at high currents and low voltages [10] can be
taken into account by the parameters of q3mod. For the softknee observed in
double heterojunction bipolar transistors, for example the Tiwari effect [11]
(which is separate from the basecollector blocking accounted by ISB and NB),
q3mod can also be used. Gkdc can be used to empirically fit the increase in base
current. If a softknee is not apparent, q3mod can be turned off by setting
Ikdc2Inv=0
8. Inverse parameters for several of the model parameters are used to enable
flexibility. For example, the parameter Vkrk2Inv is used in the manner,
TKRK ( 1 V BCi VKRK 2Inv )
If the standard way of normalizing VBCi were used with a parameter called
Vkrk2 (which does not exist in this model), it would look like,
V BCi
TKRK 1 
VKRK 2
Although the latter method is more intuitive because the parameter VKRK2 is
in the familiar units of voltage, it is numerically inconvenient because a
dividebyzero occurs when VKRK2 is set to 0, which prevents parameter
sweeps crossing 0. Therefore, by defining an inverse parameter, this numerical
problem is circumvented. Another advantage of using inverse parameters is
that setting that particular parameter to 0 can turn off its effect. Otherwise,
parameters must be set to a high value to turn off the effect (e.g., Forward early
voltage, Vaf). The only inconvenience for using inverse parameters is that the
units of these parameters are the reciprocal of the units of the variable that it is
modifying, which may be difficult to conceptualize.
9. Resistances (Re, Rci, Rcx, Rbi, Rbx). When set to 0, the nodes connected by
resistors collapse to a single node. When set to a value greater than 0, the
effective resistance (after temperature and area scaling) is limited to be greater
than or equal to MinExtR, which can be specified in the General Simulation
Options.
When Re, Rci, Rcx, Rbi or Rbx is initially set to 0 and then swept to nonzero
values, the circuit response will not change due to the node collapsing described
above.
10. Zero bias junction capacitances (Cje and Cjc). When set to 0, the depletion
charge is set to 0. Note that Ccmax and Cemax must be >0.
210
11. Junction capacitance builtin voltages (Vjc and Vje). When temperature scaled
values go below 1e6, these parameters are set to 1e6.
12. Imax specifies the PN junction explosion current. Imax can be specified in the
device model or in the General Simulation Options; the device model value
takes precedence over the Options value.
13. For the Version parameter, the default setting is 2. Setting Version=1 selects the
first AgilentHBT model release (without dynamic selfheating) in ADS2003C,
for backwards compatibility. Note however, there have been a few minor bug
fixes to the Version=1 model, so it is possible that simulation results will not
always be exactly identical with the ADS2003C release. If the Version
parameter is within the range [1,2], and set to any value other than 1.0 or 2.0,
then it will default to 2.0 with a warning. Outside of this range, an error is
returned.
Note that the dynamic selfheating option is available only in Version=2. The
following is a brief list of enhancements for Version=2.
Dynamic selfheating (selfconsistent electrothermal interaction) effects on
currents, capacitances, delays, and resistances.
Temperature scaling of NF, NR, VPTE, VPTC, VKRK
Parameters NKDC and GKDC can be real values
Parasitic inductances included at the electrical terminals
14. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). Note that model parameters that are explicitly specified
take precedence over those via AllParams.
Netlist Syntax
Model
model model_name AgilentHBT list_of_parameters
model_name is the user defined name for the particular AgilentHBT model which can
be used in multiple instances. list_of_parameters is the list of the model parameters
and values.
Example:
model hbt1 AgilentHBT Re=2 Rci=1 Rcx=5 Rbi=15
211
Model name hbt1 is an AgilentHBT model with the corresponding listed parameters.
hbt1 can be used in multiple instances with its area and temperature scaled
independently for each instance.
Device
When the device specified by model_name is called, the syntax below is used:
model_name:deviceID Cnode Bnode Enode list_of_parameters
deviceID is the unique identification given to the particular instance with the
corresponding listed parameters.
Example:
hbt1:q1 2 1 0 Area=1 Temp=25
Figure 21.
212
Figure 22.
The intrinsic model can be expressed in general as a 2port network as shown in
Figure 23.
This 2port circuit representation of the intrinsic device facilitates the calculation of
the intrinsic elements of the smallsignal model. This is because the intrinsic
Yparameters can be expressed using the 2 port circuit elements as follows:
213
[ Y int ] =
Y 11 Y 12
Y 21 Y 22
I BB
 V BEi
Q BB
+ j  V BEi
V CEi
V CEi
I BB
 V CEi
Q BB
+ j  V CEi
V BEi
V BEi
I CC
 V BEi
Q CC
+ j  V BEi
V CEi
V CEi
I CC
 V CEi
Q CC
+ j  V CEi
V BEi
V BEi
Figure 24.
214
In Figure 24
dI BCi 1
r BCi = 
dV BCi
dI BEi 1
r BEi = 
dV BEi
Q BB
C BCi = V CEi
Q BB
C BEi = V BEi
r BCx
V BEi
Q BB
+ V
V CEi
CEi
V BEi
dI BCx 1
= 
dV BCx
dI BEx
r BEx = 
dV BEx
dQ BCx
C BCx = dV BCx
dQ BEx
C BEx = dV BEx
I CE
g mo = V BEi
I CE
r o =  V CEi
Q CC
C o = V CEi
Cm
SS
V CEi
V BEi
Q BB
+ V
V BEi
CEi
Q CC
= V BEi
V BEi
Q BB
+ V
V CEi
CEi
V BEi
Cm
= g mo
215
empirically models the drop in current gain at high currents and low collector
voltages that results in a softening of the knee behavior of a commonemitter IV plot.
In the following equations, T represents Tdev, defined in terms of the ambient or
dynamical temperature, as described in SelfHeating Model on page 225.
I CE = I cf I cr
I cf
qV BEi
IS exp  1
NF k T
=  (total forward collector current)
DD q3mod
I cr
qV BCi
ISR exp  1
NR k T
=  (total reverse emitter current)
DD
DD = qb + Ica + Icb
q1 ( 1 + 1 + 4 q2 )
qb = 2
1
q1 =  (Early effect)
V BEi V BCi
 + 1 VAR VAF
216
qV BEi
q3 = trans2 IS exp  1 t rans2 ( 0 ) + 1
NF k T
Explanation of q3mod
Because q3mod divides the forward collector current (Icf), it remains a value of 1
when its effect is not present. Figure 25 shows the behavior of q3mod versus the
collector current at various VBCi values.
217
GKDC
GKDC
qV BEi
qV BEi
ISH exp  1 + ISE exp  1
NH k T
NE k T
qV BEx
qV BEx
ISH exp  1 + ISE exp  1
NH k T
NE k T
q3mod is in the IBE equations to empirically model any increase in base current due
to the softknee effect, which occurs at high collector currents and low collector
voltages. If this feature is not needed, set Gkdc=0 (default).
Abel is used as a partitioning factor of the total baseemitter current to separate
extrinsic and intrinsic components.
BaseCollector Current Equations
In the following equations, T represents Tdev, defined in terms of the ambient or
dynamical temperature, as described in SelfHeating Model on page 225.
qV BCi
qV BCi
I BCi = ( 1 ABCX ) ISRH exp  1 + ISC exp  1
NRH k T
NC k T
qV BCx
qV BCx
I BCx = ABCX ISRH exp  1 + ISC exp  1
NRH k T
NC k T
Abcx is used as a partitioning factor for the total basecollector current to separate
the extrinsic and intrinsic components. It is also the same parameter that is used to
partition the intrinsic and extrinsic basecollector depletion charges.
Depletion Capacitance/Charge
The depletion charge functions for both the baseemitter and basecollector junctions
are based on the formulation from HICUM. This formulation and its derivatives are
fully continuous for all regions of bias, and therefore appropriate for a largesignal
model for CAD. The original documentation
(http://www.iee.et.tudresden.de/iee/eb/comp_mod.html) describes this function in
more detail.
Modifications made for the AgilentHBT_Model from the original HICUM formulation
are:
218
(forwardbias case)
dQ jxm
jxm MJx d ( jxm )
 = CJx 1 
dV x
dV x
VJx
(partiallydepleted case)
dQ jxr
jxr MJxR d ( jxr )
= C jx0r 1  
dV x
dV x
VJx
(fullydepleted case)
(correction term)
where,
1
2
2
jxm =  ( jxr V jPxi + ( V jPxi + jxr ) + V r )
2
k Temp
V r = 0.1V jPxi + 4 
q
V jPxi = VPTx VJx
219
k Temp
2
jxr = 0.5 V x V fxi + ( V fxi V x ) + 
q
2
CxMAX ( 1 MJx )
V fxi = VJx 1 
CJx
VJx
C jx0r = CJx 
VPTx
MJx MJx
d ( jxr )
V
V
1
x
fxi

 =  1 
2
dV x
k Temp 2
2
( V x V fxi ) + 
q
d ( jxr ) 1
V jPxi + jxr
d ( jxm )

 =   1 + 2
dV x
dV x
2
2
( V jPxi jxr ) + V r
220
Figure 26.
Delay Charge Equations
The delay (or diffusion) charge equations account for the intrinsic delay of the device.
They are grouped into three separate components: base delay charge (QtB), Kirk
effect charge (Qkrk), and collector delay charge (QtC). They are expressed in terms of
the bias dependence of the forward collector current (Icfq) and the intrinsic
basecollector voltage (VBCi). Icfq is a slightly modified version of the DC forward
collector current (Icf), which is used to improve computational robustness by avoiding
negative values for any bias voltage.
The base transit time (Tfb) is assumed to be constant due to the highly doped
metallurgical base region of IIIV HBTs. The increase in transit time at high currents
is accounted for by Qkrk. The general form of Qkrk is leveraged from the HICUM
model with some modifications. Note that Qkrk should generally account for any
increase in transit time at high currents; for example, the ft rolloff in DHBTs (which
is not necessarily due to Kirk effect (or base pushout) ).
The collector delay charge, QtC, is a flexible function that empirically models the
fielddependent electron drift velocity in the collector depletion region (modified from
[4] for computational robustness). Because the depletion charge function of the
basecollector junction does not contain a current dependence, QtC (in addition to Qkrk
at very high currents) should be used to fit the current dependence of the intrinsic
AgilentHBT_Model (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Model)
221
V BCi
I cfq gKRK
= TKRK ( 1 V BCi VKRK 2Inv ) 
Ikirk2
V BCiKE
Ikirk2 = IKRK 1  VKRK
Note that IKRKtr is used in the implementation of Ikirk2 to define the transition
width in current to a 0 value. By default, IKRKtr is set to 1e6; it is recommended to
not change this parameter.
V BCiKE = trans3 ( V BCi, VKT R, VKMX )
2
( x + x max ) + x tr + x x max
trans3 ( x, x ir, x max ) = 2
Q IC
C = I cfq
= 0.5
V BCi
222
Figure 27.
A very simple reverse delay charge is implemented by a constant reverse transit time
parameter TR. The charge associated with this delay is equal to:
Q tR = TR I crq
The delay charges (Qtb, Qtc, and Qkrk) reside only in the intrinsic region of the device
(because they physically represent the time it takes for electrons to traverse the
intrinsic base region and the intrinsic portion of the collector depletion region). These
delay charges can be independently partitioned between the baseemitter and
AgilentHBT_Model (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Model)
223
basecollector junctions by the partitioning factors Fextb, Fextc, and Fexke. These
partitioning factors play an important role in defining the phase characteristics of the
device at high frequencies [1,12].
The total intrinsic baseemitter and basecollector charges are defined as:
Q BEi = Q BEid + ( 1 FEXTB )Q tB + ( 1 FEXTC )Q tC + ( 1 FEXKE )Q krk
Q BCi = Q BCid + FEXTB Q tB + FEXTC Q tC + FEXK E Q krk + Q tR
The total charge at the intrinsic base (QBB) and collector (QCC) branches (as
illustrated in Figure 23) are defined as:
Q BB = Q BEi + Q BCi = Q BEid + Q BCid + Q tB + Q tC + Q krk + Q tR
Q CC = Q BCi = Q BCid F EXTB Q tB F EXTC Q tC F EXKE Q krk Q tR
Noise Model
Thermal noises generated by resistors Rbi, Rbx, Rci, Rcx, and Re are represented by
the spectral densities:
2
i Rbi
4kT
 = RBI
f
2
i Rci
4kT
= f
RCI
2
i Re
4kT
 = RE
f
2
i RBx
4kT
= RBX
f
2
i Rcx
4kT
 = f
RCX
The DC collector current generates shot noise represented by the spectral density:
2
ic
 = 2qI C
f
The DC base current generates shot noise represented by the spectral density:
2
ib
= 2qI B
f
224
The DC baseemitter currents (IBEi and IBEx) generate flicker (1/f) noise (parameters
Kf, Af, Ffe), and burst noise (parameters Kb, Ab, Fb) which are represented by the
spectral densities:
AF
AB
AF
AB
I BEi
I BEi
i bei
= ( KF ) + ( Kb ) 2FFE
f
f
f
1 + 
FB
2
I BEx
I BEx
i bex
 + ( Kb )  = ( KF ) FFE
f
f 2
f
1 + 
FB
SelfHeating Model
In an isothermal model (e.g., Version 1), the electrical constitutive relations, such as
the collector forward current function, and their associated parameter values, such as
IS (for details, refer to CollectorEmitter Current Equations on page 215), depend
on temperature only through the static value specified by Temp (defined at the device
instance, AgilentHBT_NPN (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor, NPN)
AgilentHBT_NPN_Th (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor w/ Thermal Node,
NPN) on page 233).
In a real device, temperature is constantly changing in time. This is due to the
interplay between electrical energy conversion into heat, as a function of signal (level
and frequency, waveform, and load), and the diffusion and other mechanisms of heat
transfer, including thermal coupling to other heat sources or sinks. This changing of
temperature with time, in turn, changes the electrical behavior of the device, which
modifies the generation of heat etc., all in a selfconsistent way.
In order to model these important effects, the selfheating (dynamic electrothermal)
model (Version 2) treats temperature as a dynamical variable, on the same footing as
the timedependent voltages and currents of the electrical part of the model. To select
the selfheating model, set SelfTmod=1 at the device instance. The default is
SelfTmod=0. That is, selfheating is not invoked as the default. Specifically, the
selfheating switch behaves in the following way:
If SelfTmod=0 Then
Tdev=Temp
(selfheating is OFF. The ambient temperature, Temp, is used)
ElseIf SelfTmod=1 Then
Tdev=Temp+deltaT
225
Figure 28.
The electrical constitutive relations depend on the dynamical variable Tdev = Temp +
deltaT(t), when SelfTmod=1, rather than just Temp, when SelfTmod=0. deltaT(t)
represents the timedependent temperature rise above ambient temperature. It is
computed by a thermal evolution equation, which relates the total dissipated
electrical power to the generation of heat, which then causes a timedependent
temperature rise based on thermal resistance and thermal capacitance. The thermal
evolution equation is modeled by a thermal equivalent circuit, shown in Figure 28.
The circuit is in general a twopole approximation to the diffusion equation, which
governs the propagation of heat. A minimum of two poles has been shown to be
needed in many practical cases for IIIV devices [14].
The current source element of the thermal equivalent circuit is set equal to the total
dissipated power in the device model, including contributions from the intrinsic and
extrinsic active device, and all parasitic resistors. The thermal node voltage
represents the timedependent deltaT(t). A voltage probe attached to the thermal
node will return the value of deltaT(t). A (dc) voltage source added between the
thermal node and ground will fix the value of deltaT. If the thermal node voltage is
shorted to ground, the selfheating model is deactivated, which is equivalent to
setting SelfTmod=0.
226
The electrical constitutive relations and their associated electrical parameters are
evaluated at the temperature LimitT(Temp + deltaT(t)). The LimitT function limits
the timedependent temperature to a range [200, 500] in degrees centigrade. This
limiting function prevents the device model from thermally running away to infinity,
and hence notconverging. If the device instance senses a temperature at the limits, a
warning will be returned indicating that the device being modeled is potentially
thermally unstable at the operating conditions being simulated. It should be noted
that the model is not necessarily accurate over such a wide temperature range.
Typically, the model is extracted from measurements over a temperature range
approximately from 20 to 100 degrees centigrade, but is typically accurate over a
wider range (e.g., 50 to 150 degrees centigrade).
The temperature limiting function may cause a very slight (e.g., 103) fractional
modification to the value Temp + deltaT(t). Therefore the temperature value used to
evaluate the electrical constitutive equations and parameters is not exactly equal the
value Temp + deltaT(t). The actual value of the limited temperature is reported by
the DC Operating Point parameter Teff, in Table 21.
By default, the general twopole thermal equivalent circuit is reduced to a single pole
thermal equivalent circuit. That is, by default, Cth2 and Rth2 are zero. Cth2 and
Cth1 can be set equal to zero, even if Rth2 and Rth1 are nonzero. Rth1 can be set to
zero, but this completely deactivates the selfheating model and is equivalent to
setting SelfTmod=0.
Under some conditions, it may be desirable to use a more complicated thermal
network for the device than provided by the twopole thermal equivalent circuit. This
can be done by setting Rth2=0, Cth2=0 (making sure the second pole is removed),
setting Cth1=0, and setting Rth1 to a very large resistance (e.g., 109) (to make it
irrelevant once a substitute thermal network is added). Then users can attach their
own thermal network from the thermal terminal (fourth device terminal) to ground
and/or to any other thermal terminals of other device instances.
It is important to note that the thermal resistance parameters, Rth1 and Rth2,
themselves are functions of the timedependent temperature variable Tdev = Temp +
deltaT(t). The temperature dependence of thermal resistance is an important
property of IIIV HBTs, and the modeling of it enables improved model fits.
227
XRB
RB X Temp = RB X ( rTemp )
RCI Temp = RCI ( rTemp )
XRB
XRC
RC X Temp = RC X ( rTemp )
RE Temp = RE ( rTemp )
ZeroCKelvin = 273.15
XRC
XRE
( XTIS NF )
( EGE )
exp ( 1 rTemp ) 
NF k Tdev
( EGE )
exp ( 1 rTemp ) 
NH k Tdev
( XTIH NH )
( XTIE NE )
( EGE )
exp ( 1 rTemp ) 
NE k Tdev
( XTIR NR )
( EGC )
exp ( 1 rTemp ) 
NR k Tdev
228
( XTIC NC )
( EGC )
exp ( 1 rTemp ) 
NC k Tdev
( XTIRH NRH )
( EGC )
exp ( 1 rTemp ) 
NRH k Tdev
( XTIS NF )
( EGE )
EAA
exp ( 1 rTemp )  + 
NF k Tdev k Tdev
( XTIS NF )
( EGE )
EAB
exp ( 1 rTemp )  + 
NF k Tdev k Tdev
XTIK 3
XTFB
XTCMIN
XTFC0
XITC
XITC2
XIKRK
XTKRK
XVKRK
XTH1
XTH2
229
230
References
[1] UCSD HBT model: http://hbt.ucsd.edu.
[2] L.H. Camnitz, S. Kofol, T.S. Low, and S. R. Bahl, An Accurate, Large Signal,
High Frequency Model for GaAs HBTs, GaAs IC Symposium Technical Digest,
pp. 303306, 1996.
[3] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio, Semiconductor Device Modeling with SPICE,
New York: McGrawHill, Second Edition, 1993.
[4] M. Iwamoto, D.E. Root, J.B. Scott, A. Cognata, P.M. Asbeck, B. Hughes, D.C.
DAvanzo, Largesignal HBT Model with Improved Collector Transit Time
Formulation for GaAs and InP Technologies, 2003 IEEE MTTS International
Microwave Symposium, June 2003.
[5] M. Iwamoto, P.M. Asbeck, T.S. Low, C.P. Hutchinson, J.B. Scott, A. Cognata, X.
Qin, L.H. Camnitz, D.C. DAvanzo, Linearity Characteristics of InGaP/GaAs
HBTs and the Influence of Collector Design, Transactions on Microwave
Theory and Techniques, vol. 48, pp. 23772388, Dec. 2000.
[6] HICUM: High Current Model:
http://www.iee.et.tudresden.de/iee/eb/comp_mod.html.
[7] M. Schrter and T.Y. Lee, Physicsbased Minority Charge and Transit Time
Modeling for Bipolar Transistors, Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 46, pp.
288300, Feb. 1999.
[8] VBIC: Vertical Bipolar InterCompany Model:
http://www.designersguide.com/VBIC/references.html
[9] C.C. McAndrew, J.A. Seitchik, D.F. Bowers, M. Dunn, M. Foisy, I. Getreu, M.
McSwain, S. Moinian, J. Parker, D.J. Roulston, M. Schrter, P. van Wijnen, L.F.
Wagner, VBIC95, The Vertical Bipolar InterCompany Model, Journal of
SolidState Circuits, vol. 31, no.10, pp14761473, Oct. 1996.
[10] Jongchan Kang, Youngoo Yang, Sungwoo Kim, and Bumman Kim, A
Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Largesignal Model Focused on the
Saturation Region, 32nd European Microwave Conference Digest, vol. 3, pp.
147150, Sep., 2002.
[11] S. Tiwari, A New Effect at High Currents in Heterostructure Bipolar
Transistors, Electron Device Letters, pp142144, vol. 9, March 1999.
231
232
4
th
Available in
ADS
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
Units
HBTM1
Default
Area
Temp
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
AgilentHBT_NPN (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor, NPN) AgilentHBT_NPN_Th (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor w/ Thermal Node, NPN) 233
Notes/Equations
1. The Area factor scales the device capacitances, currents, and resistances. The
parasitic capacitances (Cpbe, Cpbc, Cpce) and inductances, (Lpb, Lpc, Lpe) are
not scaled by this factor. For more information on area scaling dependence, refer
to the section Area Scaling Equations on page 230 of the AgilentHBT_Model
component documentation.
2. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device; if different from the temperature at which the model parameters are
extracted (specified by Tnom in the model), certain model parameters are scaled
such that the device is simulated at its operating temperature. For more
information on the temperature scaling relationships, refer to the section
Temperature Scaling Equations on page 228 of the AgilentHBT_Model
component documentation.
3. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
4. DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the dataset are listed in
Table 21.
Table 21. DC Operating Point Parameters
Name
Description
Units
Ic
amperes
Ib
amperes
Ie
amperes
Power
watts
Temp
celsius
Vbe
volts
Vbc
volts
Vce
volts
Description
BetaDC
Ic
 : DC current gain
Ib
Gm_ext
Gm_int
 :
Re+Rbi + Rbx
1 + Gm_int Re + 
BetaDC
Units
siemens
Ft_ext
Fmax
I CE
I BEi
: Intrinsic transconductance
siemens
V cei
1
 : Estimated extrinsic fT
2 ( Tau_ext )
f t_ext
where
8 RCeff
hertz
hertz
gm_int
This estimate of Fmax (from unilateral gain) based on Vaidyanathan and
Pulfrey
Tau_ss
seconds
Cm
 : Smallsignal delay. This modifies the overall intrinsic transconductance
Gm_int
to gm = Gm_int exp( j Tau_ss)
Rpi
1
 : Total baseemitter resistance for hybrid model
Gbei + Gbex
ohms
Rmu
1
 : Total basecollector resistance for hybrid model
Gbci + Gbcx
ohms
Ro
1
: Output resistance
I CE
V CEi V BEi
ohms
Re
ohms
Rbi
ohms
Rbx
ohms
AgilentHBT_NPN (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor, NPN) AgilentHBT_NPN_Th (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor w/ Thermal Node, NPN) 235
Description
Units
Rci
ohms
Rcx
ohms
Cpi
farads
Cmu
farads
Q BB
+ V BEi V CEi
Co
Q CC
V CEi
Gbei
dI BEi
: Intrinsic baseemitter conductance
dV BEi
siemens
Gbci
dI BCi
: Intrinsic basecollector conductance
dV BCi
siemens
Gbex
dI BEx
: Extrinsic baseemitter conductance
dV BEx
siemens
Gbcx
dI BCx
: Extrinsic basecollector conductance
dV BCx
siemens
Cbei
Q BB
V BEi
Q BB
+ V CEi V CEi
:
V BEi
farads
farads
Q BB
V CEi
farads
: Total intrinsic basecollector capacitance (diffusion + depletion)
V BEi
Cbex
dQ BEx
: Extrinsic baseemitter depletion capacitance
dV BEx
farads
Cbcx
dQ BCx
 : Extrinsic basecollector depletion capacitance
dV BCx
farads
Cbei_depl dQ BEid
: Intrinsic baseemitter depletion capacitance
dV BEi
farads
Cbci_depl dQ BCid
 : Intrinsic basecollector depletion capacitance
dV BCi
farads
Description
Q CC
V BEi
Q BB
+ V CEi V CEi
Units
:
V BEi
farads
volts
Vbci
volts
Vcei
volts
BetaAC
Tau_int
Q tC
TFB (@ Tem p ) + I cfq
Q krk
+ I cfq
Vbci
Vbci
seconds
seconds
Ft_int
1
 : Estimated intrinsic fT
2 ( Tau_int )
hertz
Teff
celsius
Rth1
Kelvin/watt
Cth1
Thermal capacitance #1
sec
watt/Kelvin
Rth2
Kelvin/watt
Cth2
Thermal capacitance #2
sec
watt/Kelvin
Gmdc_int
DI CE
 Intrinsic DC transconductance. Includes modulation of temperature
DV BEi
siemens
DI CE
 Extrinsic DC transconductance. Includes modulation of temperature
DV BEx
siemens
AgilentHBT_NPN (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor, NPN) AgilentHBT_NPN_Th (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor w/ Thermal Node, NPN) 237
Description
Units
Godc_int
DI CE
 Intrinsic DC output conductance. Includes modulation of temperature
DV CEx
siemens
with bias.
Gth
Dthi
Dthx
I CE
T
amp/Kelvin
Rate of change in intrinsic collector current with temperature
V BE, V CE
T
V BEi
T
V BEx
Kelvin/volt
Rate of change in temperature with intrinsic baseemitter voltage
V CE
Kelvin/volt
V CEx
Ibb
ampere
Icc
ampere
Qbb
coulombs
Qcc
coulombs
5. The operating point parameter calculations do not account for the parasitic
capacitances (Cpbe, Cpbc, Cpce) and inductances (Lpb, Lpc, Lpe).
The DC operating point results can be used to construct an accurate
smallsignal representation of the largesignal topology.
gmo = Gm_int
SS = Tau_ss
ro = Ro
Co = Co
7. The DC operating point parameters can be also used to construct a standard
hybrid model.
REE = Re
RBB = Rbi + Rbx
RCC = Rci + Rcx
r = Rpi
r = Rmu
C = Cpi
C = Cmu
gmo = Gm_int
SS = Tau_ss
ro = Ro
Co = Co
8. Figure 29 and Figure 210 show the accuracy of the two smallsignal models.
Note the limited accuracy of the hybrid model topology at high frequencies.
Figure 29.
(Default parameters of AgilentHBT_Model: VBE=1.39V and VCE=3V)
AgilentHBT_NPN (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor, NPN) AgilentHBT_NPN_Th (Agilent Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor w/ Thermal Node, NPN) 241
Figure 210.
(Default parameters of AgilentHBT_Model: VBE=1.39V and VCE=3V)
9. This device has no default artwork associated with it.
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NPN
yes
PNP
no
Is (Js)
saturation current
Bf
forward beta
100
Nf
1.0
Vaf (Vbf)
Ikf (Jbf)
infinity
Ise (Jle)
1.5
C2
Ne (Nle)
1.5
Br
reverse beta
1.0
Nr
infinity
Var (Vbr)
infinity
Ikr (Jbr)
infinity
243
Name
Description
Units
Default
Ke
1/V
0.0
Kc
1/V
0.0
Isc (Jlc),
0.0
C4
Nc (Nlc)
2.0
Cbo
0.0
Gbo
0.0
Vbo
0.0
Rb
ohms
0.0
Irb (Jrb)
Rbm
ohms
Rbnoi
ohms
Rb
Re
emitter resistance
ohms
fixed at 0
Rc
collector resistance
ohms
fixed at 0
Rcv
ohms
0.0
Rcm
ohms
0.0
Dope
1/cm3
1e15
Cex
Cco
1.0
Imax
1.0
Imelt
1.0
Cje,
0.0
1.0
244
Name
Description
Units
Vje
0.75
Mje
0.33
Cjc,
0.0
Vjc
0.75
Mjc
0.33
Xcjc (Cdis)
1.0
Cjs,
0.0
Vjs
0.75
Mjs
0.0
Fc
0.5
Tf
ideal forward transit time (Tr and Tf, along with the
sec
depletionlayer capacitances model base charge storage effects;
Tf may be biasdependent)
0.0
Xtf
0.0
Default
Vtf
infinity
Itf (Jtf)
highcurrent effect on Tf
0.0
Ptf
degrees 0.0
245
Name
Description
Units
Default
Tr
ideal reverse transit time (Tr, Tf, and depletionlayer capacitances sec
model base charge storage effects)
0.0
Kf
flickernoise coefficient
0.0
Af
flickernoise exponent
1.0
Kb (Bnoisefc)
0.0
Ab
Fb
hertz
1.0
Iss ,
0.0
Ns
1.0
Nk
0.5
Ffe
1.0
Lateral
no
RbModel
MDS
Approxqb
yes
Tnom
25
Trise
1.0
Tlev
Tlevc
Eg
eV
1.11
V/C
7.02e4
EgBeta (Gap2)
1108
Tbf1
1/C
Tbf2
1/(C)2
Tbr1
1/C
Tbr2
1/(C)2
246
Name
Description
Units
Default
Tcbc (Ctc)
1/C
Tcbe (Cte)
1/C
Tcbo
1/C
Tccs (Cts)
1/C
Tgbo
1/C
Tikf1
1/C
Tikf2
1/(C)2 0
Tikr1
1/C
Tikr2
1/(C)2 0
Tirb1
1/C
Tirb2
1/(C)2 0
Tis1
1/C
Tis2
1/(C)2 0
Tisc1
1/C
Tisc2
1/(C)2 0
Tise1
1/C
Tise2
1/(C)2 0
Tiss1
1/C
Tiss2
1/(C)2 0
Titf1
1/C
Titf2
1/(C)2 0
Tmjc1
1/C
Tmjc2
1/(C)2 0
Tmje1
1/C
247
Name
Description
Units
Tmje2
1/(C)2 0
Tmjs1
1/C
Tmjs2
1/(C)2 0
Tnc1
1/C
Tnc2
1/(C)2 0
Tne1
1/C
Tne2
1/(C)2 0
Tnf1
1/C
Tnf2
1/(C)2 0
Tnr1
1/C
Tnr2
1/(C)2 0
Tns1
1/C
Tns2
1/(C)2 0
Trb1
1/C
Trb2
1/(C)2 0
Trc1
1/C
Trc2
1/(C)2 0
Tre1
1/C
Tre2
1/(C)2 0
Trm1
1/C
Trm2
1/(C)2 0
Ttf1
1/C
Ttf2
1/(C)2 0
248
Default
Name
Description
Units
Default
Ttr1
1/C
Ttr2
1/(C)2 0
Tvaf1
1/C
Tvaf2
1/(C)2 0
Tvar1
1/C
Tvar2
1/(C)2 0
Tvjc
1/C
Tvje
1/C
Tvjs
1/C
Tvtf1
1/C
Tvtf2
1/(C)2 0
Txtf1
1/C
Txtf2
1/(C)2 0
Xtb (Tb)
0.0
Xti (Pt)
3.0
wVsubfwd
(Vsubfwd)
wBvbe (Bvbe)
wBvbc (Bvbc)
wVbcfwd
(Vbcfwd)
wIbmax
wIcmax
wPmax
249
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
BJT [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by transistor components to refer to the model. The
third parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is BJT. Use either
parameter NPN=yes or PNP=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the model
contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign. The
name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model Npn1 BJT \
NPN=yes Is=1.5e15 Cjc=2.0e13
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
Is, Br, Ikr, Nr, Isc, and Nc, which determine reversecurrent gain
characteristics
Vaf and Var, which determine output conductances for forward and reverse
regions.
Is (saturation current). Eg and Xti partly determine temperature dependence
of Is.
Xtb determines base current temperature dependence.
Rb, Rc, and Re are ohmic resistances. Rb is current dependent.
The nonlinear depletion layer capacitances are determined by:
Cje, Vje, and Mje for the baseemitter junction.
Cjc, Vjc, and Mjc for the basecollector junction.
Cjs, Vjs, and Mjs for the collectorsubstrate junction (if vertical BJT), or for
the basesubstrate junction (if lateral BJT)
The collector or base to substrate junction is modeled as a PN junction.
2. Substrate Terminal
Five model parameters control the substrate junction modeling: Cjs, Vjs and
Mjs model the nonlinear substrate junction capacitance; Iss and Ns model the
nonlinear substrate PN junction current.
When BJT4_NPN or BJT4_PNP devices are used, explicitly connect the
substrate terminal as required. When 3terminal BJT_NPN or BJT_PNP
devices are used, the substrate terminal is implicitly grounded. This should not
affect the simulation if the substrate model parameters Cjs and Iss are not
specified, as they default to 0.
The model Lateral parameter changes the connection of the substrate junction.
At its default setting of no, the substrate junction models a vertical bipolar
transistor with the substrate junction connected to the collector. When
Lateral=yes, a lateral bipolar transistor is modeled with the substrate junction
connected to the base.
3. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
BJT_Model (Bipolar Transistor Model)
251
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
DC Equations
There are two components of base current associated with the bias on each junction.
For the emitter junction, an ideal exponential voltage term Ibei arises due to
recombination in the inactive base region and carrier injected into the emitter. A
nonideal exponential voltage term Iben predominates at low bias due to
recombination in the emitter junction spaced charge region.
Vbe
Ibei = Is exp  1
Nf V
Vbe
Iben = Ise exp  1
Ne V
Similarly, emission and recombination near the collector junction result in similar
terms.
Vbc
Ibci = Is exp  1
Nr V
Vbc
Ibcn = Isc exp  1
Nc V
252
2
Ikr
where
1
Q1 =  if neither Ke nor Kc is specified
Vbc Vbe
1  Vaf Var
otherwise
Q1 = 1 +
Vbe
f ( K e, Vje, Mje ) dv +
Vbc
f ( K c, Vjc, Mjc ) dv
1 if v < Fc V
K
v
f ( K , V , M ) = 1 Fc ( 1 + M ) + M  V
 if v Fc V
K
(1 + M )
( 1 Fc )
If Approxqb = no
Vbc Vbc
1 +  + Vaf Var
Ibei Ibci Nk
Qb =  1 + 1 + 4  + 
Ikf
2
Ikr
253
Substrate Current
Lateral = no (Vertical BJT)
Vsc
Isc = Iss exp  1
Ns V
Base Resistance
The base resistance RBb consists of two separate resistances. The contact and sheet
resistance Rbm and the resistance of the internal (active) base register, vbi, which is
a function of the base current.
If Rbm is zero or IB < 0, RBb = Rb
If Ivb is not specified
Rb Rbm
RBb = Rbm + Qb
If Ivb is specified
RBb = Rbm + vbi
There are two equations for vbi; RbModel determines which equations to use.
If RbModel = Spice
tan ( z ) z
vbi = 3 ( Rb Rbm ) 
2
z tan ( z )
where
144 Ib
1 +   1
2
Irb
z = 24 Ib
 2
Irb
If RbModel = MDS
254
Rb Rbm
vbi = Ib 0.852
1 + 3 
Irb
Nonlinear Collector Resistance
If Rcv is specified
Ic Cex
1 + 
CCo
Rc = Rcv  + Rcm
Vbc
ni 2
1 +  exp 
vt
Dope
where
ni is intrinsic carrier concentration for Si
vt is thermal voltage
Capacitance Equations
Capacitances in the smallsignal model contain the junction depletion layer
capacitance and the diffusion capacitance due to the minority charge storage in the
base region.
BaseEmitter Depletion Capacitances
Vbe < Fc x Vje
Vbe Mje
Cbedep = Cje 1 
vje
Vbe Fc x Vje
1 Fc ( 1 + Mje ) + Mje Vbe

Vje
( 1 fc )
255
2 Ibei
Vbc
Ibei
Qbdiff = Tf 1 + xtf exp   
1.442695Vtf Ibei + Itf
Qb
Vjc
Mjc
Vbc Fc x Vjc
1 Fc ( 1 + Mjc ) + Mjc Vbc

Vjc
( 1 fc )
Vjc
Mjc
VBc Fc x Vjc
1 Fc ( 1 + Mjc ) + Mjc Vbc

Vjc
( 1 fc )
CBc = CBcdep
BaseCollector Diffusion Capacitances
d ( Qbcdiff )
Cbcdiff = d ( Vbc )
256
Vjs
Mjs
Vsc 0
Vsc
Csc = Cjs 1 + Mjs 
Vjs
Lateral = yes (Lateral BJT)
Vbs < 0
Vbs Mjs
Cbs = Cjs 1 
Vjs
Vbs 0
Vbs
Cbs = Cjs 1 + Mjs 
Vjs
Excess Phase
An additional phase shift at high frequencies is added to the transconductance model
to account for the distributed phenomena in the transistor. The effective phase shift
added to the Ibei item in the Ic equation is calculated as follows for Ibei (with excess
phase):
2
3 0
Ibei =  Ibei
2
2
s + 3 0 s + 3 0
where
257
1
0 = 
Ptf Tf 180
The current implementation in ADS applies the shifting factor to collector current IC.
Temperature Scaling
The model specifies Tnom, the nominal temperature at which the model parameters
were calculated or extracted. To simulate the device at temperatures other than
Tnom, several model parameters must be scaled with temperature. The temperature
at which the device is simulated is specified by the device Temp parameter.
(Temperatures in the following equations are in Kelvin.)
The energy bandgap EG varies as:
4
7.02 10 T
E G ( T ) = 1.16  Tlev = 0, 1, 3
T + 1108
2
EgAlphaT
E G ( T ) = Eg  Tlev = 2
T + EgBeta
258
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
Temp
= Ise 
Tnom
Xtb
Xti
Temp
Eg
Eg
exp   +  ln 
NekTnom q NekTem p q Ne Tnom
Temp Xtb
Xti
Temp
Eg
Eg
= Isc 
exp   +  ln 
Tnom
NckTnom q NckTem p q Nc Tnom
Temp
= Iss 
Tnom
Xtb
Xti
Temp
Eg
Eg
exp   +  ln 
NskTnom q NskTem p q Ns Tnom
EG
EG
Temp
  + Xti ln 
= Is exp  Tnom
kTnom q kTem p q
if Tlev=1
Ise
Isc
Iss
Is
NEW
Ise
Xti
Temp
Eg
Eg
=  exp   +  ln 
1 + Xtb ( Temp T nom )
NekTnom q NekTem p q Ne Tnom
NEW
Isc
Xti
Temp
Eg
Eg
=  exp   +  ln 
1 + Xtb ( Temp T nom )
NckTnom q NckTem p q Nc Tnom
NEW
Iss
Xti
Temp
Eg
Eg
=  exp   +  ln 
1 + Xtb ( Temp T nom )
NskTnom q NskTem p q Ns Tnom
NEW
Temp
Eg
Eg
= I s exp   + Xti ln 
Tnom
kTnom q kTem p q
if Tlev=2
Ise
Isc
Iss
Is
E G ( Tnom )
E G ( Temp )
Xti
Temp
Temp Xtb
= Ise 
exp  +  ln 
Tnom
NekTnom q NekTem p q Ne Tnom
NEW
Temp
= Isc 
Tnom
NEW
Xtb
E G ( Tnom )
E G ( Temp )
Xti
Temp
exp  +  ln 
NckTnom q NckTem p q Nc Tnom
E G ( Tnom )
E G ( Temp )
Temp Xtb
Xti
Temp
 = Iss 
exp +  ln 
Tnom
NskTnom q NskTem p q Ns Tnom
NEW
E G ( Tnom ) E G ( Temp )
Temp
  + Xti ln 
= Is exp  Tnom
kTnom q kTem p q
NEW
if Tlev=3
Ise
Isc
Iss
Is
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
= I se
= I sc
= I ss
= Is
NEW
NEW
Rb
NEW
Rbm
NEW
259
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
Nf
Nr
Ns
NEW
2
2
Tr
NEW
NEW
Tf
It f
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
Bf
Br
NEW
Temp Xtb
2
= Bf 
( 1 + Tbf 1 ( Temp T nom ) + Tbf 2 ( Temp Tnom ) )
Tnom
Temp Xtb
2
= Br 
( 1 + Tbr1 ( Temp T nom ) + Tbr2 ( Temp Tnom ) )
Tnom
if Tlev = 1
Bf
Br
260
NEW
NEW
if Tlev = 2
Temp
= Bf 
Tnom
NEW
Bf
Br
Xtb
Temp Xtb
2
= Br 
( 1 + Tbr1 ( Temp T nom ) + Tbr2 ( Temp Tnom ) )
Tnom
NEW
if Tlev = 3
Bf
Br
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
2
2
if Tlev = 3
Ik f
Ikr
Irb
NEW
= Ik f
NEW
= Ikr
NEW
= Irb
Junction depletion capacitance Cjo and Cjsw and junction potentials Vje, Vjc, and Vjs
vary as:
if Tlevc = 0
Vje
Vjc
NEW
NEW
Vjcs
Cje
NEW
NEW
4
Vje
= Cje 1 + Mje 1 + 4 10 ( Temp Tnom ) 
Vje
261
Cjc
Cjs
NEW
NEW
4
Vjc
= Cjc 1 + Mjc 1 + 4 10 ( Temp Tnom ) 
Vjc
NEW
4
Vjs
= Cjs 1 + Mjs 1 + 4 10 ( Temp Tnom ) 
Vjs
NEW
if Tlevc = 1
Vje
Vjc
Vjs
Cje
Cjc
Cjs
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
if Tlevc = 2
Vje
Vjc
Vjs
Cje
Cjc
Cjs
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
Vje Mje
= Cje NEW
Vje
NEW
Vjc Mjc
= Cjc NEW
Vjc
NEW
Vjs Mjs
= Cjs NEW
Vjs
if Tlevc = 3
if Tlev = 0, 1, 3
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2 1108
dVjedT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( 1.16 E G ( Tnom ) )  Vje 
Tnom
q
Tnom + 1108
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2 1108
dVjcdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( 1.16 E G ( Tnom ) )  Vjc 
Tnom
q
Tnom + 1108
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2 1108
dVjsdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( 1.16 E G ( Tnom ) )  Vjs 
Tnom
q
Tnom + 1108
262
if Tlev = 2
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2EgBeta
dVjedT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( Eg E G ( Tnom ) )  Vje 
Tnom
q
Tnom + EgBeta
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2EgBeta
dVjcdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( Eg E G ( Tnom ) )  Vjc 
Tnom
q
Tnom + EgBeta
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2EgBeta
dVjsdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( Eg E G ( Tnom ) )  Vjs 
Tnom
q
Tnom + EgBeta
Vje
Vjc
Vjs
Cje
Cjc
Cjs
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
2Vje
NEW
2Vjc
NEW
2Vjs
NEW
NEW
NEW
2
2
NEW
NEW
Noise Model
Thermal noise generated by resistors Rb, Rc, and Re is characterized by the spectral
density:
2
< i Rc >
4kT
 = f
Rc
< i Rb >
4kT Rbnoi
 =  Rb
Rb
f
< i Re >
4kT
 = f
Re
Shot noise, flicker noise (Kf, Af, Ffe), and burst noise (Kb, Ab, Fb) generated by the
DC base current is characterized by the spectral density:
BJT_Model (Bipolar Transistor Model)
263
Af
Ab
I BE
< i be >
IBE
 = 2qI BE + Kf  + Kb Ffe
2
f
f
1 + ( f Fb )
< i ce >
 = 2qI CE
f
Shot noise generated by the DC collectortosubstrate current (BJT4 only) is
characterized by the spectral density:
2
< i cs >
 = 2qI CS
f
In the preceding expressions, k is Boltzmanns constant, T is the operating
temperature in Kelvin, q is the electron charge, kf, af, ffe, kb, ab, and fb are model
parameters, f is the simulation frequency, and f is the noise bandwidth.
Area Dependence of the BJT Model Parameters
The AREA factor used for the BJT model determines the number of equivalent
parallel devices of a specified model. The BJT model parameters affected by the
AREA factor are:
ls = ls AREA
lse = lse AREA
lsc = lsc AREA
lkf = lkf AREA
lkr = lkr AREA
lrb = lbr AREA
ltf = ltf AREA
Cjc(0) = Cjc(0) AREA
Cje(0) = Cje(0) AREA
Cjs(0) = Cjs(0) AREA
Rb = Rb/AREA
Rbm = Rbm/AREA
Rbnoi = Rbnoi/AREA
264
Re = Re/AREA
Rc = Rc/AREA
The default value for the AREA parameter is 1.
DC Operating Point Device Information
Definitions
Ic (collector current)
Ib (base current)
Ie (emitter current)
Is (substrate current)
Ice (collectionemitter current)
power (dissipated power)
BetaDc Ic/Ib
where
Ib = sign(ib) x Max (Abs(Ib), ie20)
dIce
dIce
Gm =  + dVbe dVbc
1
Rpi = dIb
 dVbc
1
Rmu = dIb

dVbc
Rx = RBb
1
Ro = dIce

dVbc
Cpi = Cbe
Cmu = Cbc
Cbx = CBx
Ccs = Ccs if vertical BJT
= Cbs if lateral BJT
BJT_Model (Bipolar Transistor Model)
265
BetAc = Gm x Rpi
1
Ft = ( 2 ( tau + ( Rc + Re ) ( Cmu + Cbx ) ) )
where
Max ( Cpi + Cnm + Cbx, ie 20 )
tau = Max ( Gm, ie 20 )
Vbe = ( B ) ( E )
Vbc = ( B ) ( C )
Vce = ( BC ) ( E )
References
[1] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio, Semiconductor device modeling with SPICE,
New York: McGrawHill, Second Edition 1993.
266
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Units Default
Model
Area
on
Temp
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
Notes/Equations
1. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device; if different than the temperature at which the model parameters are
valid or extracted (specified by Tnom of the associated model) certain model
parameters are scaled such that the device is simulated at its operating
temperature. Refer to the model to see which parameter values are scaled.
2. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
BJT_NPN, BJT_PNP (Bipolar Junction Transistors NPN, PNP)
267
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
3. The substrate terminal is connected to ground. The substrate current is affected
by the ISS and CJS model parameters. There should be no problems with this
except perhaps in a PNP transistor where the ISS model parameter is specified.
This could cause excess current flow as the substrate PN junction might end up
being forward biased. If the connection of the substrate terminal to ground is
not acceptable, use the BJT4 component and connect its substrate terminal to
the appropriate place.
4. For information on area dependence, refer to the section Area Dependence of
the BJT Model Parameters on page 264.
5. DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the dataset are listed in the
following tables according to model.
Table 22. DC Operating Point Information
Model = BJT_Model or EE_BJT2_Model
268
Name
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipation
watts
BetaDc
DC current gain
Gm
siemens
Rpi
ohms
Rmu
ohms
Rx
Base resistance
ohms
Ro
ohms
Cpi
Baseemitter capacitance
farads
Cmu
farads
Cbx
farads
Ccs
Substrate capacitance
farads
BetaAc
AC current gain
Description
Units
Ft
hertz
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipation
watts
BetaDc
DC current gain
BetaAc
AC current gain
fTreal
hertz
fTappr
hertz
Gm
siemens
Rpi
ohms
Rmu
ohms
Rx
Base resistance
ohms
Ro
ohms
Rcv
Collector resistance
ohms
Cpi
Baseemitter capacitance
farads
Cmu
farads
Cbx
farads
Ccs
farads
Cbs
farads
269
Description
Units
Cxs
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
270
Name
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
dIc2e1_dVb2e1
(dIc2e1/dVb2e1)
siemens
Gb2e1
(dIb2e1/dVb2e1)
siemens
Gb1b2
(dIb1b2/dVb1b2)
siemens
Gb1c1
(dIb1c1/dVb1c1)
siemens
Gbc1
(dIbc1/dVbc1)
siemens
Gb2c2
(dIb2c2/dVb2c2)
siemens
Cb2e1
(dIb2e1/dVb2e1)
siemens
Cb2c2
(dIb2c2/dVb2c2)
siemens
Gb1e1
(dIb1e1/dVb1e1)
siemens
Gc1s
(dIc1s/dVc1s)
siemens
dIc2e1_dVb2c2
(dIc2e1/dVb2c2)
siemens
dIc2e1_dVb2c1
(dIc2e1/dVb2c1)
siemens
dIc1c2_dVb2e1
(dIc1c2/dVb2e1)
siemens
dIc1c2_dVb2c2
(dIc1c2/dVb2c2)
siemens
dIc1c2_dVb2c1
(dIc1c2/dVb2c1)
siemens
dIb2c2_dVb2e1
(dIb2c2/dVb2e1)
siemens
Description
Units
dIb2c2_dVb2c1
(dIb2c2/dVb2c1)
siemens
dIb1b2_dVb2e1
(dIb1b2/dVb2e1)
siemens
dIb1b2_dVb2c2
(dIb1b2/dVb2c2)
siemens
dIb1b2_dVb2c1
(dIb1b2/dVb2c1)
siemens
dIc1s_dVb1c1
(dIc1s/dVb1c1)
siemens
dIc1s_dVbc1
(dIc1s/dVbc1)
siemens
Cb1b2
(dQb1b2/dVb1b2)
farads
Cc1s
(dQc1s/dVc1s)
farads
Cb1c1
(dQb1c1/dVb1c1)
farads
Cbc1
(dQbc1/dVbc1)
farads
dQb2e1_dVb2c2
(dQb2e1/dVb2c2)
farads
dQb2e1_dVb2c1
(dQb2e1/dVb2c1)
farads
dQc2b2_dVb2e1
(dQc2b2/dVb2e1)
farads
dQb2c2_dVb2c1
(dQb2c2/dVb2c1)
farads
dQb1b2_dVb2e1
(dQb1b2/dVb2e1)
farads
dQb1e1_dVb2e1
(dQb1e1/dVb2e1)
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
271
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
Area
Units Default
on
Temp
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
Notes/Equations
1. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device; if different than the temperature at which the model parameters are
valid or extracted (specified by Tnom of the associated model) certain model
parameters are scaled such that the device is simulated at its operating
temperature. Refer to the model to see which parameter values are scaled.
2. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
272
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
3. The fourth terminal (substrate) is available for connection to an external
circuit.
4. Table 25, Table 26, and Table 27 list the DC operating point parameters that
can be sent to the dataset.
Table 25. DC Operating Point Information
Model = BJT_Model or EE_BJT2_Model
Name
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipation
watts
BetaDc
DC current gain
Gm
siemens
Rpi
ohms
Rmu
ohms
Rx
Base resistance
ohms
Ro
ohms
Cpi
Baseemitter capacitance
farads
Cmu
farads
Cbx
farads
Ccs
Substrate capacitance
farads
BetaAc
AC current gain
Ft
hertz
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
273
274
Name
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipation
watts
BetaDc
DC current gain
BetaAc
AC current gain
fTreal
hertz
fTappr
hertz
Gm
siemens
Rpi
ohms
Rmu
ohms
Rx
Base resistance
ohms
Ro
ohms
Rcv
Collector resistance
ohms
Cpi
Baseemitter capacitance
farads
Cmu
farads
Cbx
farads
Ccs
farads
Cbs
farads
Cxs
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
dIc2e1_dVb2e1
(dIc2e1/dVb2e1)
siemens
Gb2e1
(dIb2e1/dVb2e1)
siemens
Gb1b2
(dIb1b2/dVb1b2)
siemens
Gb1c1
(dIb1c1/dVb1c1)
siemens
Gbc1
(dIbc1/dVbc1)
siemens
Gb2c2
(dIb2c2/dVb2c2)
siemens
Cb2e1
(dIb2e1/dVb2e1)
siemens
Cb2c2
(dIb2c2/dVb2c2)
siemens
Gb1e1
(dIb1e1/dVb1e1)
siemens
Gc1s
(dIc1s/dVc1s)
siemens
dIc2e1_dVb2c2
(dIc2e1/dVb2c2)
siemens
dIc2e1_dVb2c1
(dIc2e1/dVb2c1)
siemens
dIc1c2_dVb2e1
(dIc1c2/dVb2e1)
siemens
dIc1c2_dVb2c2
(dIc1c2/dVb2c2)
siemens
dIc1c2_dVb2c1
(dIc1c2/dVb2c1)
siemens
dIb2c2_dVb2e1
(dIb2c2/dVb2e1)
siemens
dIb2c2_dVb2c1
(dIb2c2/dVb2c1)
siemens
dIb1b2_dVb2e1
(dIb1b2/dVb2e1)
siemens
dIb1b2_dVb2c2
(dIb1b2/dVb2c2)
siemens
dIb1b2_dVb2c1
(dIb1b2/dVb2c1)
siemens
dIc1s_dVb1c1
(dIc1s/dVb1c1)
siemens
dIc1s_dVbc1
(dIc1s/dVbc1)
siemens
Cb1b2
(dQb1b2/dVb1b2)
farads
275
Description
Units
Cc1s
(dQc1s/dVc1s)
farads
Cb1c1
(dQb1c1/dVb1c1)
farads
Cbc1
(dQbc1/dVbc1)
farads
dQb2e1_dVb2c2
(dQb2e1/dVb2c2)
farads
dQb2e1_dVb2c1
(dQb2e1/dVb2c1)
farads
dQc2b2_dVb2e1
(dQc2b2/dVb2e1)
farads
dQb2c2_dVb2c1
(dQb2c2/dVb2c1)
farads
dQb1b2_dVb2e1
(dQb1b2/dVb2e1)
farads
dQb1e1_dVb2e1
(dQb1e1/dVb2e1)
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
276
Available in
Description
Type
NPN or PNP
NPN
Nf
1.0
Ne
1.5
Nbf
1.06
Vaf
infinity
Ise
0.0
Tf
ideal forward transit time (Tr and Tf, along with the depletionlayer
capacitances, model base charge storage effects; Tf may be
biasdependent)
sec
0.0
Ikf
infinity
Xtf
Vtf
infinity
Itf
0.0
Nbr
1.04
Nr
1.0
Nc
2.0
Isc
0.0
Ikr
infinity
Units Default
0.0
277
Name
Description
Units Default
Var
infinity
Tr
ideal reverse transit time (Tr and Tf, along with the depletionlayer
capacitances, model base charge storage effects)
sec
0.0
Isf
9.531015
Ibif
1.481016
Isr
1.011014
Ibir
6.711016
Tamb
25
Cje
0.0
Vje
0.75
Mje
Cjc
0.0
Vjc
0.75
Mjc
Rb
base resistance
ohms 104
Re
emitter resistance
ohms 104
Rc
collector resistance
ohms 104
Fc
0.33
0.33
0.5
wBvsub
wBvbe
wBvbc
278
Name
Description
Units Default
wVbcfwd
wIbmax
wIcmax
wPmax
AllParams
Notes/Equations
1. This model specifies values for BJT_NPN or BJT_PNP devices.
2. EEBJT2 is the second generation BJT model designed by Agilent EEsof. The
model has been created specifically for automatic parameter extraction from
measured data including DC and Sparameter measurements. The goal of this
model is to overcome some of the problems associated with EEBJT1 or
GummelPoon models limited accuracy and parameter extraction difficulty with
regard to silicon rf/microwave transistors. EEBJT2 is not generally equivalent
or compatible with the GummelPoon or EEBJT1 models. EEBJT2 can provide
a reasonably accurate reproduction of transistor behavior, including DC bias
solution, biasdependent Sparameters including the effects of package
parasitics, and true nonlinear harmonic output power. The model is
quasistatic, analytical, and isothermal. The model does not scale with area
because parameters are intended to be extracted directly from measured data
and not from layout considerations. Default values of some parameters are
chosen from an average of the first EEBJT2 library model parameters.
3. To prevent numerical problems, the setting of some model parameters is
trapped by the simulator. The parameter values are changed internally:
Mjc and Mje must be 0.99
Fc must be 0.9999
Rb, Rc, and Re must be 104
4. The Temp parameter is only used to calculate the noise performance of this
device. Temperature scaling of model parameters is not performed for this
device.
279
( Nbf V )
( Ne V )
T
where
k T amb
V T = q
where
k is Boltzmanns constant, and q is deviceary charge.
280
Note that Nbf is not necessarily 1.0, which is effectively the case in the GummelPoon
model.
The basecollector current is similarly modeled:
Vbc
Vbc
Ibc = Ibir exp( ) 1.0 + Isc exp() 1.0
( NbrV )
( Nc V )
T
Virtually all silicon rf/microwave transistors are vertical planar devices, so the
second current term containing Isc and Nc is usually negligible.
The total base current Ib is the sum of Ibe and Ibc. Note that this method of modeling
base current obsoletes the concept of a constant beta.
CollectorEmitter Current
The forward and reverse components of the collectoremitter current are modeled in a
manner similar to the GummelPoon model, but with more flexibility. Observation of
collectoremitter current behavior has shown that the forward and reverse
components do not necessarily share identical saturation currents, as in the
GummelPoon model. The basic expressions in EE_BJT2, not including highlevel
injection effects and Early effects, are:
Vbe
Icf = Is f exp() 1.0
( Nf V T )
Vbc
Icr = Isr exp() 1.0
( Nr V )
T
where Isf and Isr are not exactly equal but are usually very close. Nf and Nr are not
necessarily equal or 1.0, but are usually very close. Careful control of ambient
temperature during device measurement is required for precise extraction of all of
the saturation currents and emission coefficients in the model.
The effects of highlevel injection and biasdependent base charge storage are
modeled via a normalized base charge, similar to the GummelPoon model:
( Icf Icr )
Ice = Qb
where
Q1
Qb =  ( 1.0 + 1.0 + ( 4.0 Q2 ) )
2.0
281
and
1.0
Q1 = Vbc
Vbe
1.0   Vaf Var
Isf
Isf
Vbe
Vbc
Q2 =  exp() 1.0 +  exp() 1.0
Ikf
Ikf
( Nf V T )
( Nr V T )
Note All calculations of the exponential expressions used in the model are linearized
to prevent numerical overflow or underflow at large forward or reverse bias
conditions, respectively.
where
Cje
Cbe depletion = Mje
1.0 Vbe

Vje
Vje ( 1.0 Fc )
The diffusion capacitance for Cbe is somewhat differently formulated vs. that of Cbc.
The transit time is not a constant for the diffusion capacitance for Cbe, but is a
function of both junction voltages, formulated in a manner similar to the modified
GummelPoon model. The total baseemitter charge is equal to the sum of the
baseemitter depletion charge (which is a function of Vbe only) and the socalled
transit charge (which is a function of both Vbe and Vbc).
Icf
Q transit = Tf f 
Qb
where
2.0
Icf
Vbc
Tff = T f 1.0 + Xtf  exp( )
Icf + Itf
1.44 Vtf
and
Cbe diffusion(Vbe) =
Q transit
Vbe
and
Cbe diffusion(Vbc) =
Q transit
Vbc
Noise Model
Thermal noise generated by resistors Rb, Rc, and Re is characterized by the following
spectral density:
2
<i >
4kT
 = f
R
EE_BJT2_Model (EEsof Bipolar Transistor Model)
283
Shot noise generated by each of the DC currents flowing from base to emitter, base to
collector, and collector to emitter is characterized by the following spectral density:
2
<i >
 = 2qI DC
f
In the previous expressions, k is Boltzmanns constant, T is the operating
temperature in Kelvin, q is the electron charge, and f is the noise bandwidth.
Flicker and burst noise for this device is not modeled in this version of the simulator.
However, the biasdependent noise sources I_NoiseBD and V_NoiseBD can be
connected external to the device to model flicker or burst noise.
References
[1] J. J. Ebers and J. L. Moll. Large Signal Behaviour of Junction Transistors,
Proc. I.R.E. 42, 1761 (1954).
[2] H. K. Gummel and H. C. Poon. An Integral ChargeControl Relation for Bipolar
Transistors, Bell Syst. Techn. J. 49, 115 (1970).
[3] SPICE2: A Computer Program to Simulate Semiconductor Circuits, University
of California, Berkeley.
[4] P. C. Grossman and A. Oki. A Large Signal DC Model for GaAs/GaxAl1xAs
Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors, Proceedings of the 1989 IEEE Bipolar
Circuits and Technology Meeting, pp. 258262, September 1989.
284
Equivalent Circuit
Intrinsic Model
(NPN or PNP)
Vbc
+
+
Vbe
Ic
Intrinsic Model
Vbc
Ice
Cbc
+
Ibc
Ib
Icf
Icr
Ibe
+
Vbe
Cbe
Ie
285
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NPN
yes
PNP
no
C10
Qp0
Ich
Hfe
Hfc
Hjei
Hjci
Mcf
Alit
0.0
A2s
2e30
As
2.0e14
amperes 1e20
Cjei0
zerobias value
farads
0.0
Vdei
builtin voltage
volts
0.9
Zei
exponent coefficient
0.5
Aljei
2.5
Cjci0
zerobias value
farads
0.0
Vdci
builtin voltage
volts
0.7
Zci
exponent coefficient
286
0.4
Name
Description
Units
Default
Vptci
volts
1e20
T0
seconds 0
Dt0h
seconds 0.0
Tbvl
seconds 0.0
Tef0
seconds 0.0
Gtfe
Thcs
seconds 0.0
Alhc
seconds 0.1
Fthc
0.0
Alqf
0.0
Rci0
ohms
150
Vlim
volts
0.5
Vpt
volts
Vces
volts
0.1
Tr
seconds 0 sec
Ibeis
BE saturation current
amperes 1e18
Mbei
BE nonideality factor
Ireis
amperes 0.0
Mrei
2.0
Ibcis
BC saturation current
Mbci
BC nonideality factor
Favl
Qavl
1.0
amperes 1e16
1.0
1/V
0
0
Rbi0
value at zerobias
Fdqr0
ohms
0.0
Fgeo
0.6557
Fqi
1.0
Fcrbi
0.0
Latb
Latl
0
HICUM_Model (Bipolar Transistor Model)
287
Name
Description
Units
Default
Cjep0
zerobias value
farads
Vdep
builtin voltage
volts
0.9
Zep
depletion coefficient
0.5
Aljep
2.5
Ibeps
saturation current
amperes 0.0
Mbep
nonideality factor
1.0
Ireps
amperes 0.0
Mrep
2.0
Ibets
saturation current
Abet
exponent coefficient
Cjcx0
farads
Vdcx
builtin voltage
volts
0.7
Zcx
exponent coefficient
Vptcx
punchthrough voltage
volts
1.0e20
Ccox
collectoroxide capacitance
farads
Fbc
Ibcxs
saturation current
amperes 0.0
Mbcx
nonideality factor
1.0
Ceox
Rbx
ohms
Re
ohms
Rcx
ohms
Itss
amperes 0.0
Msf
amperes 0
40
0.4
0.0
farads
1.0
Msr
Iscs
Msc
Tsf
seconds 0.0
Cjs0
farads
Vds
builtin voltage
volts
0.6
Zs
exponent coefficient
288
1.0
amperes 0.0
1
0.5
Name
Description
Units
Default
Vpts
punchthrough voltage
volts
1.0e20
Rsu
ohms
Csu
farads
Kf
Af
2.0
Krbi
Vgb
bandgap voltage
volts
1.17
Alb
1/K
5e3
Zetaci
Alvs
1/K
0.0
Alt0
1/K
8.25e4
Kt0
1/K
0.0
Alces
1/K
0.0
0.0
Zetarbi
0.0
Zetarbx
0.0
Zetarcx
0.0
Zetare
0.0
Alfav
1/K
0.0
Alqav
1/K
0.0
Tnom
oC
25
Trise
Rth
thermal resistance
ohms
Cth
thermal capacitance
farads
Imax
explosion current
1e4
Imelt
Imax
AcModel
wBvsub
289
Name
Description
Units
wBvbe
wBvbc
wVbcfwd
wIbmax
wIcmax
wPmax
Default
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
HICUM [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by transistor components to refer to the model. The
third parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is HICUM. Use either
parameter NPN=yes or PNP=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the model
contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign. The
name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model Npn3 HICUM \
NPN=yes Alfav=8e5 T0=5e12
290
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
291
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
5. Smallsignal ac model given in the reference cited in note 1 is a derivation of the
largesignal charge model. However, it is not fully compatible with the charge
model with the small input. The AcModel parameter can be set to either the
smallsignal model (AcModel=1) or the charge model compatible model
(AcModel=2) for smallsignal ac and Sparameter analyses.
The AcModel parameter has no effect on largesignal analysis.
6. Two power dissipation formulas for modeling the selfheating effect have been
implemented in ADS.
When SelfheatingModel = 1, the simplified formula power = It vce Iave vbc will be used.
When SelfheatingModel = 2, formula 2.1.161 from Schroters document at
http://www.iee.et.tudresden.de/iee/eb/comp_mod.html will be used; the
formula can be found under General Description > HICUMEquations >
section 2.1.16, equation 2.1.161.
The simplified formula is implemented in Dr. Schroters DEVICE program.
7. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). Note that model parameters that are explicitly specified
take precedence over those specified via AllParams.
292
Equivalent Circuit
293
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
name of a HICUM_Model
Units Default
Temp
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
Selfheating turn on the selfheating effect on this device: yes, no (refer to note 3)
_M
Notes/Equations
1. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device. If this is different than the temperature at which the model parameters
are valid or extracted (specified by the Tnom parameter of the associated
HICUM_Model) certain model parameters are scaled such that the device is
simulated at its operating temperature.
2. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
294
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gbiei
(dIbiei/dVbiei)
siemens
Cbiei
Baseemitter capacitance
farads
Gbici
(dIbici/dVbici)
siemens
Cbici
Basecollector capacitance
farads
Gbcx
(dI/dV)
siemens
Gbep
(dI/dV)
siemens
Cbep
(dQ/dV)
farads
Gbet
(dI/dV)
siemens
295
Description
Units
Gsc
(dI/dV)
siemens
dIt_dVbi
(dIt/dVbi)
siemens
dIt_dVci
(dIt/dVci)
siemens
dIt_dVei
(dIt/dVei)
siemens
Sfbav
(dI/dV)
siemens
Sfcav
(dI/dV)
siemens
Cjs
Substratecollector capacitance
farads
C1bcx
Basecollector capacitance
farads
C2bcx
Basecollector capacitance
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
296
Available in
Description
NPN
Units
Default
yes
PNP
no
Release
model level
503
Exmod
yes
Exphi
yes
Exavl
Is
Bf
138.9
Xibi
0.0
Ibf
A/m2
2.72231015
Vlf
0.6181
Ik
A/m2
1.5102
Bri
Ibr
4.60661014
Vlr
0.5473
Xext
0.5358
Qb0
9.34241014
Eta
4.8
yes
A/m2
9.63691018
6.243
297
Name
Description
Units
Default
Avl
Efi
Ihc
A/m2
5.8359104
Rcc
/m2
11.09
Rcv
/m2
981.9
Scrcv
/m2
1769
Sfh
Rbc
/m2
134.4
Rbv
/m2
307.7
Re
/m2
1.696
Taune
sec
6.66261012
Mtau
Cje
F/m2
4.90941014
Vde
0.8764
Pe
0.3242
Xcje
0.26
Cjc
F/m2
8.79831014
Vdc
0.6390
Pc
0.6135
Xp
0.5
Mc
0.5
Xcjc
2.7018102
Tref (Tnom)
reference temperature
25
Dta (Trise)
Vge
1.129
Vgb
1.206
298
76.43
0.7306
0.3556
Name
Description
Units
Default
Vgc
1.120
Vgj
1.129
Vi
2.1102
Na
cm3
4.41017
Er
2103
Ab
1.0
Aepi
1.9
Aex
0.31
Ac
0.26
Kf
Kfn
Af
Iss
1.0
A/m2
5.86021017
Iks
A/m2
6.7099106
Cjs
F/m2
2.21961013
Vds
0.5156
Ps
Vgs
0.3299
V
As
wVsubfwd
wBvsub
wBvbe
wBvbc
wVbcfwd
wIbmax
wIcmax
wPmax
AllParams
1.12
1.9
299
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
MextramBJT [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by transistor components to refer to the model. The
third parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is MextramBJT. Use
either parameter NPN=yes or PNP=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the
model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign.
The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model Npn4 MextramBJT \
NPN=yes Ibf=3e15 Qb0=1e13
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
2101
(21)
Qb e = f 1 ( n o )
(22)
Qb c = f 2 ( n b )
(23)
The depletion charges are represented by Qte and Qtc. The calculation of the diffusion
charges Qbe and Qbc is based directly on the solution of the differential equation for
the majority carriers in the neutral base region and relates the charges to the
injected minority carrier concentrations at the emitter (no) and collector edges (nb).
These concentrations, in turn, depend on the internal junction voltages Vb2e1 and
Vb2c by considering the PN product at both junctions. In this way high injection,
biasdependent current gain, a current dependent transit time, and the effect of the
builtin electric field are included. The ideal forward and reverse current are given
by:
I f I r = Is ( exp ( Vb 2 e 1 V t ) exp ( Vb 2 c 2 V t ) )
(24)
(25)
(26)
Formulation of the nonideal base current differs from the GummelPoon model. The
MEXTRAM formulation is less flexible than the GummelPoon model. The
formulation is the same when in the MEXTRAM model Vlf is small (<0.4V), and when
in the GummelPoon model parameter ne=2. The parameters are:
Vlf = crossover voltage of the nonideal forward base current
Ibf = saturation current of the nonideal forward base current
BaseEmitter Depletion Charge
The baseemitter depletion charge is modeled in the classical way using a grading
coefficient. The depletion charge is partitioned in a bottom and a sidewall component
by the parameter Xcje.
Cje
Ct e = ( 1 Xcje ) Pe
1 ( V b 2 e 1 /Vde )
(27)
The capacitance becomes infinity at Vb2e1 = Vde. Therefore in the model the integral
of equation is slightly modified and consequently Cte. The capacitance now has a
maximum at the baseemitter diffusion voltage Vde and is symmetrical around the
MEXTRAM_Model (MEXTRAM Model)
2103
diffusion voltage. The maximum capacitance is determined by the value of K and the
grading coefficient Pe. The value of K is a model constant and is taken equal to 0.01.
When Pe=0.4, the maximum is approximately three times the capacitance at zero
bias. The parameters are:
Cjc = zone bias baseemitter depletion capacitance
Vde = baseemitter diffusion voltage
Pe = baseemitter grading coefficient
BaseCollector Depletion Charge
The basecollector depletion capacitance underneath the emitter Qtc, takes into
account the finite thickness of the epilayer and current modulation:
( 1 Xp ) f ( Vc 1 c 2 )
2
2
(28)
Vc 1 c 2
Mc
f ( Vc 1 c 2 ) = 1 
Vc 1 c 2 + Ihc Rcv
(29)
The function f(Vc1c2) equals one when Ic1c2 = Vc1c2 = 0, and becomes zero when the
current density in the epilayer exceeds the doping level (Vc1c2 > Ihc Rcv). The
parameters are:
Cjc = zero bias basecollector depletion capacitance
Xcjc = part of Cjc underneath emitter
Vdc = basecollector diffusion voltage
Pc = basecollector grading coefficient
Xp = depletion layer thickness at zero bias divided by epilayer thickness
Mc = collector current modulation coefficient (0.3 < mc < 0.5)
Cjc, Pc and Xp is obtained from CV measurements; Vdc must be extracted from the
quasisaturation regime; Xcjc is obtained from the forward Earlyeffect.
Neutral Base and Emitter Diffusion Charge
The neutral baseemitter diffusion charge (Qn) is given by:
2104
V b2 e1
Q n = Qn 0 exp  1
Mtau V t
(210)
The charge Qn0 is calculated from the transit time Taune and Mtau. The parameters
(extracted from the maximum value of the cutoff frequency, fT) are:
Taune = minimum delay time of neutral and emitter charge
Mtau = nonideality factor of the neutral and emitter charge; in most cases
Mtau=1
BaseCharge Partitioning
Distributed highfrequency effects are modeled, in first order approximation, both in
lateral direction (current crowding) and in vertical direction (excess phaseshift). The
distributed effects are an optional feature of the MEXTRAM model, and can be
switched on and off by flag Exphi (on: Exphi  1; off: Exphi = 0). In vertical direction
(excess phaseshift), base charge partitioning is used; for simplicity, it is implemented
for forward base charge (Qbe) and lowlevel injection only. No additional parameters.
Q'b e = ( 1 q c ( Eta ) ) Qb e
(211)
Q'b c = Qb c + q c ( Eta ) Qb e
(212)
2105
(213)
The Kull formulation has served as a basis for the epilayer model in MEXTRAM.
Collector Resistance Model
The Kull model is based on charge neutrality (p + Nepi n) and gives the current
through the epilayer (Ic1c2) as a function of the internal and external b.c. junction
voltage. These voltages are given by the solution vector of the circuit simulator. The
final equations of the Kull formulation [1] are:
Ec + V b2 c2 V b2 c1
Ic 1 c = 2
Rcv
(214)
K0 + 1
E c = V t K 0 K w ln 
K w + 1
(215)
K0 =
1 + 4 exp [ ( V b 2 c 2 V d c ) V t ]
(216)
Kw =
1 + 4 exp [ ( V b 2 c 1 V d c ) V t ]
(217)
T
V t = k q
(218)
Voltage source (Ec) takes into account the decrease in resistance due to carriers
injected from the base into the collector epilayer. If both junctions are reverse biased
(Vb2c1  Vdc and Vb2c2  Vdc are negative), Ec is zero and we have a simple constant
resistance (Rcv). Because of this, this model does not take into account the hotcarrier
behavior (carriers moving with the saturated driftvelocity) in the lightlydoped
collector epilayer. The model is valid if the transistor operates in the reverse mode
(reversebiased b.e. junction, forwardbiased b.c. junction). Then the entire epilayer is
filled with carriers and a spacecharge region does not exist. The derivation of the
2106
(219)
Ihc V c 1 c 2
I low = Vc 1 c 2 + Ihc Rcv ( 1 X i W epi )
(220)
(221)
(222)
W epi
cf
Rcv =  q N epi A em 1 + S f l
(223)
2
cf
W epi
Scrcv =  2 v sat A em 1 + S f h
(224)
cf
2107
2
Vdc = V t ln ( N epi n i )
(225)
2
1
1
Sfh =  tan ( h ) W epi  + 
H
3
L
e
e
(226)
where
A em = H e L e ,
(227)
1
1
S f l = tan ( h ) W epi  +  ,
H
L
e
e
(228)
(229)
2108
(230)
In the transition from forward to reverse mode, Ic1c2 passes zero and numerical
problems can be expected. Substitution of equation (214) into equation (229) leads
in the case where Vb2c2 Vb2c1 to the following expression for Qepi:
2 exp { ( V b 2 c 2 Vdc ) V t }
p 0 = 1 + K0
(231)
2 exp { ( V b 2 c 1 Vdc ) V t }
p w = 1 + Kw
(232)
p0 + pw
Q epi = Is Q b0 Rcv exp ( Vdc/V t ) 2 Vt
(233)
2109
bn
P n = n exp 
E
(234)
(235)
1+x
bn
In
Em
Em
The maximum electric field (Em), the depletion layer thickness (Xd), and the
intersection point () are calculated using the charge model of Qtc and the collector
resistance model. The model parameters are:
2 Vdc
Avl = b n q N epi
1 + 2 S f l 2 + S f l + 2 Sfh
F i = 2   ( 1 )
1 + 2 S fh
2 + 3 Sf l
Avl = obtained from the decrease of Ib at high Vcb and low Ic values
Sfh = equation (226)
Sfl = equation (227)
Efi = used in extended avalanche model only
2110
Sfh and Efi are extracted from the output characteristics at high Vce and high Ic.
Because most devices are heated due to power dissipation in this operation regime,
parameter extraction is cumbersome. Calculating Efi and Sfh is often a good
alternative.
Extrinsic Regions
Reverse Base Current
The reverse base current is affected by high injection and partitioned over the two
external basecollector branches:
1 exp ( Eta )
ah b = 2 
Eta
al b = exp ( Eta )
V b 1 c 1
2
4 Is a h b exp 
Vt
g 1 = 2
I k a lb
nb
ex
g1
= al b 2 (1 + 1 + g 1 )
Ik
( 1 Xext ) al b + n b ex
  n b Is
I ex =  ex
+
n
ah
Bri
ah
b
b
b
ex
The current XIex is calculated in a similar way using the voltage Vbc1. Because the
time to evaluate the extrinsic regions is doubled due to this partitioning, it is an
optional feature. The parameters are:
Bri = ideal reverse current gain
Xext = partitioning factor
NonIdeal Reverse Base Current
The nonideal reverse base current (Ib3) is modeled in the same way as the forward
nonideal base current. The parameters are:
Ibr = saturation current of the nonideal reverse base current
Vlr = crossover voltage of the nonideal reverse base current
2111
The basecollector depletion capacitance of the extrinsic region is divided over the
externalbase node b1 (part: Qtex). The model formulation is obtained by omitting the
current modulation term in the formulation of Qtc, equation (28).
1 Xp
Ctc ex = ( 1 Xext ) ( 1 Xcjc ) Cjc  + Xp
1 ( V b c /Vdc ) Pc
1 1
1 Xp
Xctc ex = Xext ( 1 Xcjc ) Cjc  + Xp
1 ( V b c ( Vdc ) ) Pc
1 1
Parameter Xext is partitioning factor for the extrinsic region.
This partitioning factor is important for the output conductance (Y12) at high
frequencies.
Diffusion Charge of the Extrinsic Region
These charges are formulated in the same way as Qbc and Qepi, now using voltages
Vc1b1 and Vbc1, and the appropriate area (1  Xcjc)/Xcjc.
Parasitic PNP
The substrate current of the PNP takes into account high injection. The parameters
are:
Iss = substrate saturation current
Iks = knee in the substrate current; when the value of Iks is low, the reverse
current gain increases at medium reverse current levels
When the collectorsubstrate junction becomes forward biased, only a signal current
(Isf) is present in the model.
Is f = Iss ( exp ( ( Vsc 1 ) ( Vt ) ) 1 )
No additional parameters.
CollectorSubstrate Depletion Capacitance
2112
Cjs
Ct s = Ps
1 ( Vsc 1 ( Vds ) )
Parameters Cjs, Vds, and Ps are obtained from collectorsubstrate CV measurement.
BaseEmitter Sidewall
The base resistance is divided in a variable part (Rbv) and a constant part (Rbc). The
variable part is modulated by the base width variation (depletion charges at the
junctions Qte and Qtc) and at high current densities it decreases because of the
diffusion charges Qbe and Qbc. The parameter Rbv is the resistance at zero
baseemitter and basecollector voltage. The resistance model also considers DC
current crowding. The resistance decreases at high base currents when Vb1b2 is
positive, and it increases when Vb1b2 is negative (reversal of the base e current).
Charge modulation:
Rbv
R b = 1 + ( Qt e + Qt c + Qb e + Qb c ) ( Qb0 )
DC current crowding:
2 Vt
V b1 b2
Ib 1 b 2 =  ( exp ( V b 1 b 2 V t ) 1 ) + 3 Rb
3 Rb
Ac current crowding is an optional feature of the model (Exphi=1):
2113
Qb 1 b 2 = V b 1 b 2 ( Ct e + Cb e + C n ) 5
Constant Series Resistances
The model contains three constant series resistors at the base, emitter, and collector
terminals (Rbc, Re, Rcc). (Substrate resistance is not incorporated in the model.)
Temperature Scaling Rules
2114
Equivalent Circuits
RE
I N C2
E1
I B1
C1
RCC
I C1C2
I AVL
I B2
Q TE
Q TC
Q BE
Q BC
QN
Q EPI
B2
Q B1 B2
RBV
I EX + I SUB + I B3
I B1
Q TS
I SF
B1
Q TEX + Q EX
Q TE
RBC
XI EX + XI SUB
I SUB + XI SUB
XQ TEX + XQ EX
2115
RE
dI N
E1
C1
C2
RCC
dI C1C2
dI BE
dI BC
g
B2
Cbe x
Cbc y
rbv
C B1 B2
dI B1 B2
dSI BE
C TS
g EX
B1
S g
Rbc
g SUB
Cbc EX
Xg EX
dI SUB
XCbc EX
Figure 212. Small Signal Equivalent Circuit for Vertical NPN Transistor
References
[1] G. M. Kull, L. W. Nagel, S. Lee, P. L. Loyd, E. J. Prendergast, H. Dirks: A
Unified Circuit Model for Bipolar Transistors Including QuasiSaturation
Effects. IEEE Transaction on Electron devices, Vol. ED32, No. 6, June 1985.
[2] H.C. de Graaff and W.J. Kloosterman: Modeling of the collector Epilayer of a
Bipolar Transistor in the Mextram Model. IEEE Transaction on Electron
devices, Vol. ED42, p. 274, February 1995.
[3] W.J. Kloosterman, H.C. de Graaff: Avalanche Multiplication in a Compact
Bipolar Transistor Model for Circuit Simulation. IEEE Transactions on
Electron Devices, Vol. 36, No. 7, 1989.
[4] A.G. Chynoweth: Ionization rates for electron and holes in silicon. Phys. Rev.,
Vol. 109, p. 1537, 1958.
2116
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NPN
yes
PNP
no
Level
(Release)
504
Tref (Tnom)
Reference temperature
25
Dta (Trise)
Exmod
Exphi
Exavl
Is
22.0e18
Ik
0.1
Ver
2.5
Vef
44
Bf
Ibf
2.7e15
Mlf
2.0
Xibi
Bri
Ibr
1.0e15
Vlr
0.2
215
2117
Name
Description
Units
Default
Xext
Part of Iex, Qtex, Qex and Isub that depends on Vbc1 instead of
Vb1c2
Wavl
1.1e6
Vavl
Sfh
Re
Emitter resistance
Ohms
Rbc
Ohms
23
Rbv
Ohms
18
Rcc
Ohms
12
Rcv
Ohms
150
Scrcv
Ohms
1250
Ihc
4.0e3
Axi
Cje
73.0e15
Vde
0.95
Pe
0.4
Xcje
0.4
0.63
0.3
0.3
Cbeo (Cbe0) Fixed capacitance between external base and emitter nodes
Cjc
78.0e15
Vdc
0.68
Pc
Xp
0.35
Mc
0.5
Xcjc
32.0e3
Cbco (Cbc0) Fixed capacitance between external base and collector nodes
0.5
Mtau
Taue (Te)
sec
2.0e12
Taub (Tb)
sec
4.2e12
Tepi
sec
41.0e12
2118
Name
Description
Units
Default
Taur (Tr)
sec
520.0e12
Deg
eV
Xrec
0
0
0.3
Ae
Ab
Aepi
2.5
Aex
0.62
Ac
dVgbf
0.05
dVgbr
0.045
Vgb
1.17
Vgc
1.18
Vgj
1.15
dVgte
0.05
Af
2.0
Kf
2.0e11
Kfn
2.0e11
Iss
Iks
250.0e6
Cjs
315.0e15
Vds
0.62
Ps
Vgs
As
For a closed buried layer As=Ac and for an open buried layer
As=Aepi
1.58
Rth
Thermal resistance
300
48.0e18
0.34
V
Cth
Thermal capacitance
wVsubfwd
wBvsub
wBvbe
1.20
3.0e9
2119
Name
Description
Units
wBvbc
wVbcfwd
wIbmax
wIcmax
wPmax
Default
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
MextramBJT504 [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by transistor components to refer to the model. The
third parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is MextramBJT504. Use
either parameter NPN=yes or PNP=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the
model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign.
The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model Npn5 MextramBJT504 \
NPN=yes Cjc=8e14 Aepi=2 Vdc=0.6
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
2120
4. ADS implements the complete MEXTRAM 504 model, as per the Philips
document NL_UR 2000/811, issued April 2001. Differences between the ADS
documentation and the Philips documentation are:
in equations (4.96) and (4.102), Rcvt is used (not Rcv).
resistances are limited to a lower value of l04 ohms (not l06 ohms)
2121
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
name of MEXTRAM_504_Model
Units Default
Temp
25
Trise (Dta)
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
no
_M
Notes/Equations
1. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device; if different than the temperature at which the model parameters are
valid or extracted (specified by Tnom of the associated model) certain model
parameters are scaled such that the device is simulated at its operating
temperature. Refer to the model to see which parameter values are scaled.
2. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
2122
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
In
amperes
Ic1c2
amperes
Ib1b2
amperes
Ib1
amperes
SIb1
amperes
Ib2
amperes
Ib3
amperes
Iavl
amperes
2123
Description
Units
Iex
amperes
XIex
amperes
Isub
amperes
XIsub
amperes
Isf
amperes
Ire
amperes
Irbc
amperes
Ircc
amperes
Vc
volts
Vc1
volts
Vc2
volts
Vb
volts
Vb1
volts
Vb2
volts
Ve
volts
Ve1
volts
Vs
Substrate voltage
volts
gx
siemens
gy
siemens
gz
siemens
Sgpi
siemens
gpix
siemens
gpiy
siemens
gpiz
siemens
gmux
siemens
gmuy
siemens
gmuz
siemens
gmuex
siemens
Xgmuex
siemens
grcvy
siemens
2124
Description
Units
grcvz
siemens
rbv
ohms
grbvx
siemens
grbvy
siemens
grbvz
siemens
gs
siemens
Xgs
siemens
gsf
siemens
Qe
coulombs
Qte
coulombs
SQte
coulombs
Qbe
coulombs
Qbc
coulombs
Qtc
coulombs
Qepi
coulombs
Qb1b2
coulombs
Qtex
coulombs
XQtex
coulombs
Qex
coulombs
XQex
coulombs
Qts
coulombs
SCbe
farads
Cbex
farads
Cbey
farads
Cbez
farads
Cbcx
farads
Cbcy
farads
Cbcz
farads
Cbcex
farads
XCbcex
farads
2125
Description
Units
Cb1b2
farads
Cb1b2x
farads
Cb1b2y
farads
Cb1b2z
farads
Cts
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
2126
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Units Default
Model
name of MEXTRAM_504_Model
Temp
25
Trise (Dta)
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
no
_M
Notes/Equations
1. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device; if different than the temperature at which the model parameters are
valid or extracted (specified by Tnom of the associated model) certain model
parameters are scaled such that the device is simulated at its operating
temperature. Refer to the model to see which parameter values are scaled.
2. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
In
amperes
Ic1c2
amperes
Ib1b2
amperes
Ib1
amperes
SIb1
amperes
Ib2
amperes
Description
Units
Ib3
amperes
Iavl
amperes
Iex
amperes
XIex
amperes
Isub
amperes
XIsub
amperes
Isf
amperes
Ire
amperes
Irbc
amperes
Ircc
amperes
Vc
volts
Vc1
volts
Vc2
volts
Vb
volts
Vb1
volts
Vb2
volts
Ve
volts
Ve1
volts
Vs
Substrate voltage
volts
gx
siemens
gy
siemens
gz
siemens
Sgpi
siemens
gpix
siemens
gpiy
siemens
gpiz
siemens
gmux
siemens
gmuy
siemens
gmuz
siemens
gmuex
siemens
Description
Units
Xgmuex
siemens
grcvy
siemens
grcvz
siemens
rbv
ohms
grbvx
siemens
grbvy
siemens
grbvz
siemens
gs
siemens
Xgs
siemens
gsf
siemens
Qe
coulombs
Qte
coulombs
SQte
coulombs
Qbe
coulombs
Qbc
coulombs
Qtc
coulombs
Qepi
coulombs
Qb1b2
coulombs
Qtex
coulombs
XQtex
coulombs
Qex
coulombs
XQex
coulombs
Qts
coulombs
SCbe
farads
Cbex
farads
Cbey
farads
Cbez
farads
Cbcx
farads
Cbcy
farads
Cbcz
farads
Description
Units
Cbcex
farads
XCbcex
farads
Cb1b2
farads
Cb1b2x
farads
Cb1b2y
farads
Cb1b2z
farads
Cts
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Units Default
Model
name of MEXTRAM_504_Model
Temp
25
Trise (Dta)
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
Notes/Equations/References
1. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device; if different than the temperature at which the model parameters are
valid or extracted (specified by Tnom of the associated model) certain model
parameters are scaled such that the device is simulated at its operating
temperature. Refer to the model to see which parameter values are scaled.
2. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
3. The fourth terminal (substrate) is available for connection to an external
circuit.
2132 M504_BJT5_NPN, M504_BJT5_PNP (Mextram 504 Nonlinear Bipolar Transistors w/Substrate
and Thermal Terminals, NPN, PNP)
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
In
amperes
Ic1c2
amperes
Ib1b2
amperes
Ib1
amperes
SIb1
amperes
Ib2
amperes
Ib3
amperes
Iavl
amperes
M504_BJT5_NPN, M504_BJT5_PNP (Mextram 504 Nonlinear Bipolar Transistors w/Substrate and Thermal Terminals, NPN, PNP) 2133
Description
Units
Iex
amperes
XIex
amperes
Isub
amperes
XIsub
amperes
Isf
amperes
Ire
amperes
Irbc
amperes
Ircc
amperes
Vc
volts
Vc1
volts
Vc2
volts
Vb
volts
Vb1
volts
Vb2
volts
Ve
volts
Ve1
volts
Vs
Substrate voltage
volts
gx
siemens
gy
siemens
gz
siemens
Sgpi
siemens
gpix
siemens
gpiy
siemens
gpiz
siemens
gmux
siemens
gmuy
siemens
gmuz
siemens
gmuex
siemens
Xgmuex
siemens
grcvy
siemens
Description
Units
grcvz
siemens
rbv
ohms
grbvx
siemens
grbvy
siemens
grbvz
siemens
gs
siemens
Xgs
siemens
gsf
siemens
Qe
coulombs
Qte
coulombs
SQte
coulombs
Qbe
coulombs
Qbc
coulombs
Qtc
coulombs
Qepi
coulombs
Qb1b2
coulombs
Qtex
coulombs
XQtex
coulombs
Qex
coulombs
XQex
coulombs
Qts
coulombs
SCbe
farads
Cbex
farads
Cbey
farads
Cbez
farads
Cbcx
farads
Cbcy
farads
Cbcz
farads
Cbcex
farads
XCbcex
farads
M504_BJT5_NPN, M504_BJT5_PNP (Mextram 504 Nonlinear Bipolar Transistors w/Substrate and Thermal Terminals, NPN, PNP) 2135
Description
Units
Cb1b2
farads
Cb1b2x
farads
Cb1b2y
farads
Cb1b2z
farads
Cts
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
Available in
Description
Type
1 = NPN; 2 = PNP
Units
Default
1
25
Is
1.0e16
Isn
Is
Bf
100.0
Nf
1.0
Br
1.0
Nr
1.0
Isf
Nbf
Isr
Nbr
Ise
Ne
Isc,
Nc
Is/Bf
Nf
Isn/Br
Nr
0.0
2.0
0.0
1.5
This parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
This parameter value scales with Area specified with the BJT or BJT4 model.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
2137
Name
Description
Units
Default
Vaf
0.0
Var
0.0
Enp
2.0
Rp
1.0e3
Rw
Vij
0.8
Vrp
1.0e9
Bvc
0.0
Mf
0.0
Fa
Bvcbo/Bvc
0.95
Avc
fitting parameter
1.0
Bve
Mr
0.0
Fb
Bvebo/Bve
0.95
Ave
fitting parameter
1.0
Rb
ohms
0.0
Irb
0.0
Rbm
ohms
0.0
Re
emitter resistance
ohms
0.0
Rc
ohms
0.0
Rcs
ohms
0.0
Cje
0.0
Vje
0.75
Mje
Fc
Cjc
0.0
Vjc
0.75
0.33
1.0
This parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
This parameter value scales with Area specified with the BJT or BJT4 model.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
2138
Name
Description
Units
Default
Mjc
Xjbc
Cjs
0.0
Vjs
0.75
Mjs
0.33
Xjbs
1.0
0.33
1.0
Vert
Subsn
N substrate if 1
Tf
Xtf
Vtf
Itf
Ptf
excess phase
degrees 0.0
Tfcc
Tr
Kf
0.0
Af
0.0
Eg
bandgap voltage at OK
Xti
temperature exponent
3.0
Xtb
0.0
Trb1
1/C
0.0
Trb2
1/(C)2
0.00
Trbm1
1/C
0.0
Trbm2
1/(C)2
0.0
Tre1
1/C
0.0
Tre2
1/(C)2
0.0
Trc1
1/C
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
S
0.0
1.11
This parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
This parameter value scales with Area specified with the BJT or BJT4 model.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
2139
Name
Description
Units
Default
Trc2
1/(C)2
0.0
Trcs1
1/C
0.0
Trcs2
1/(C)2
0.0
Ikf
Ikr
Gmin
minimum conductance
All Params
This parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
This parameter value scales with Area specified with the BJT or BJT4 model.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
2140
1e12
Available in
Definition
NPN
Units Default
yes
PNP
no
Tnom
25
Trise
Rcx,
ohms 0.0
Rci,
ohms 0.0
Vo
Gamm
0.0
Hrcf
highcurrent RC factor
1.0
Rbx,
ohms 0.0
Rbi,
ohms 0.0
Re,
emitter resistance
ohms 0.0
Rs,
substrate resistance
ohms 0.0
Rbp,
ohms 0.0
Is,
0.0
1016
This parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
This parameter value scales inversely with the device parameter Scale.
This parameter value scales directly with the device parameter Scale
2141
Name
Definition
Units Default
Nf
1.0
Nr
1.0
Fc
0.9
Cbeo
0.0
Cje,
0.0
Pe
0.75
Me
0.33
Aje
Cbco
0.0
Cjc,
0.0
Qco
0.0
Cjep,
0.0
Pc
Mc
0.33
Ajc
0.5
Cjcp,
Ps
0.75
Ms
0.33
Ajs
0.5
Ibei,
1018
Wbe
1.0
Nei
1.0
Iben,
0.0
Nen
2.0
Ibci,
1016
0.5
0.75
This parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
This parameter value scales inversely with the device parameter Scale.
This parameter value scales directly with the device parameter Scale
2142
0.0
Name
Definition
Units Default
Nci
1.0
Ibcn,
0.0
Ncn
2.0
Isp,
0.0
Wsp
1.0
Nfp
1.0
Ibeip,
0.0
Ibenp,
0.0
Ibcip,
0.0
Ncip
1.0
Ibcnp,
0.0
Avc1
0.0
Avc2
0.0
Ncnp
2.0
Vef
0.0
Ver
0.0
Ikf
0.0
Ikr
0.0
Ikp
0.0
Tf
sec
0.0
Qtf
0.0
Xtf
0.0
Vtf
0.0
Itf
0.0
Tr
sec
0.0
Td
sec
0.0
This parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
This parameter value scales inversely with the device parameter Scale.
This parameter value scales directly with the device parameter Scale
2143
Name
Definition
Units Default
Kfn
Afn
1.0
Bfn
1.0
Xre
0.0
Xrb
0.0
Xrc
0.0
Xrs
0.0
Xvo
temperature exponent of Vo
0.0
Ea
eV
1.12
Eaie
eV
1.12
Eaic
eV
1.12
Eais
eV
1.12
Eane
eV
1.12
Eanc
eV
1.12
Eans
eV
1.12
Xis
temperature exponent of Is
3.0
Xii
3.0
Xin
3.0
Tnf
temperature coefficient of Nf
0.0
0.0
Tavc
Rth
thermal resistance
0.0
Cth
thermal capacitance
0.0
Imax
explosion current
1.0
Imelt
1.0
Selft
Dtmax
wVsubfwd (Vsubfwd)
0.0
refer to
note 5
This parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
This parameter value scales inversely with the device parameter Scale.
This parameter value scales directly with the device parameter Scale
2144
500
Name
Definition
Units Default
wBvsub (Bvsub)
wBvbe (Bvbe)
wBvbc (Bvbc)
wVbcfwd (Vbcfwd)
wIbmax
wIcmax
wPmax
AllParams
This parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
This parameter value scales inversely with the device parameter Scale.
This parameter value scales directly with the device parameter Scale
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
VBIC [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by transistor components to refer to the model. The
third parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is VBIC. Use either
parameter NPN=yes or PNP=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the model
contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign. The
name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
2145
Cje=1e13
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
http://www.designersguide.com/VBIC/references.html
2147
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
name of a VBIC_Model
Scale
scaling factor
Units Default
on
Temp
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
Notes/Equations
1. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device. If this is different than the temperature at which the model parameters
are valid or extracted (specified by the Tnom parameter of the associated
VBIC_Model) certain model parameters are scaled such that the device is
simulated at its operating temperature.
2. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
2148
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
3. The VBIC implements selfheating. As the transistor dissipates power, it causes
its temperature to rise above ambient. The model parameters Rth, Cth, and
Selft control this: T = Pdiss x Rth. (Refer to VBIC_Model note 5.) When
selfheating is enabled, it may be necessary to increase the maximum number
of iterations due to the additional unknown (temperature rise) that must be
solved for. Simulation using selfheating may take 50 to 100% more time than
the same simulation without selfheating.
Selfheating can be used with either an internal or external thermal node.
VBIC_NPN and VBIC_PNP use an internal node to keep track of the
temperature rise of the transistor.
VBIC5_NPN and VBIC5_PNP make this thermal node externally available
as the fifth terminal. This node can then be used for additional thermal
modeling.
4. Table 212 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 212. DC Operating Point Information
Name
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Substrate current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gbe
Transconductance gbe
siemens
Cbe
farads
Gbc
Transconductance gbc
siemens
Cbc
farads
Gbex
Transconductance gbex
siemens
Cbex
farads
Gbep
Transconductance gbep
siemens
Cbep
farads
2149
Description
Units
Gbcp
Transconductance gbcp
siemens
Cbcp
farads
dIcc_dVbei
(dIcc/dVbei)
siemens
dIcc_dVbci
(dIcc/dVbci)
siemens
dIccp_dVbep
(dIccp/dVbep)
siemens
dIccp_dVbcp
(dIccp/dVbcp)
siemens
dIccp_dVbci
(dIccp/dVbci)
siemens
dIbc_dVbei
(dIbc/dVbei)
siemens
Grbi
siemens
dIrbi_dVbei
(dIrbi/dVbei)
siemens
dIrbi_dVbci
(dIrbi/dVbci)
siemens
Grbp
siemens
dIrbp_dVbep
(dIrbp/dVbep)
siemens
dIrbp_dVbci
(dIrbp/dVbci)
siemens
Grci
siemens
dIrci_dVbci
(dIrci/dVbci)
siemens
dQbe_dVbci
(dQbe/dVbci)
farads
dQbep_dVbci
(dQbep/dVbci)
farads
dQbcx_dVbci
(dQbcx/dVbci)
farads
dQbcx_dVrci
(dQbcx/dVrci)
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
2150
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
name of a VBIC_Model
Scale
scaling factor
Units Default
on
Temp
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
Notes/Equations
1. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device. If this is different than the temperature at which the model parameters
are valid or extracted (specified by the Tnom parameter of the associated
VBIC_Model) certain model parameters are scaled such that the device is
simulated at its operating temperature.
2. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
VBIC5_NPN, VBIC5_PNP (VBIC Nonlinear Bipolar Transistors w/Thermal Terminal, NPN, PNP)
2151
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
3. The VBIC implements selfheating. As the transistor dissipates power, it causes
its temperature to rise above ambient. The model parameters Rth, Cth, and
Selft control this: T = Pdiss x Rth. (Refer to VBIC_Model note 5.) When
selfheating is enabled, it may be necessary to increase the maximum number
of iterations due to the additional unknown (temperature rise) that must be
solved for. Simulation using selfheating may take 50 to 100% more time than
the same simulation without selfheating.
Selfheating can be used with either an internal or external thermal node.
VBIC_NPN and VBIC_PNP use an internal node to keep track of the
temperature rise of the transistor.
VBIC5_NPN and VBIC5_PNP make this thermal node externally available
as the fifth terminal. This node can then be used for additional thermal
modeling.
4. Table 213 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 213. DC Operating Point Information
2152
Name
Description
Units
Ic
Collector current
amperes
Ib
Base current
amperes
Ie
Emitter current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gbe
Transconductance gbe
siemens
Cbe
farads
Gbc
Transconductance gbc
siemens
Cbc
farads
Gbex
Transconductance gbex
siemens
Cbex
farads
Gbep
Transconductance gbep
siemens
Cbep
farads
VBIC5_NPN, VBIC5_PNP (VBIC Nonlinear Bipolar Transistors w/Thermal Terminal, NPN, PNP)
Description
Units
Gbcp
Transconductance gbcp
siemens
Cbcp
farads
dIcc_dVbei
(dIcc/dVbei)
siemens
dIcc_dVbci
(dIcc/dVbci)
siemens
dIccp_dVbep
(dIccp/dVbep)
siemens
dIccp_dVbcp
(dIccp/dVbcp)
siemens
dIccp_dVbci
(dIccp/dVbci)
siemens
dIbc_dVbei
(dIbc/dVbei)
siemens
Grbi
siemens
dIrbi_dVbei
(dIrbi/dVbei)
siemens
dIrbi_dVbci
(dIrbi/dVbci)
siemens
Grbp
siemens
dIrbp_dVbep
(dIrbp/dVbep)
siemens
dIrbp_dVbci
(dIrbp/dVbci)
siemens
Grci
siemens
dIrci_dVbci
(dIrci/dVbci)
siemens
dQbe_dVbci
(dQbe/dVbci)
farads
dQbep_dVbci
(dQbep/dVbci)
farads
dQbcx_dVbci
(dQbcx/dVbci)
farads
dQbcx_dVrci
(dQbcx/dVrci)
farads
Vbe
Baseemitter voltage
volts
Vbc
Basecollector voltage
volts
Vce
Collectoremitter voltage
volts
2153
2154
Multiplicity Parameter _M
The multiplicity feature provides a way to scale components or entire subcircuits
containing many components and subcircuits. Given a component with a multiplicity
value M, the simulator treats this component as if there were M such components all
connected in parallel. Subcircuits within subcircuits will be appropriately scaled.
The _M parameter is available at the component level as shown here. (For
components that do not explicitly have a Multiplicity parameter, the same
functionality can be achieved by placing the component in a subcircuit and using the
subcircuits Multiplicity parameter, as described next.)
For subcircuits, the parameter is enabled by selecting File > Design Parameters from
the Schematic window. In the dialog box, select the Parameters tab. To add the
Multiplicity parameter, choose Add Multiplicity Factor_M.
Bin Model
31
Netlist Syntax
Models for the ADS circuit simulator have the following syntax:
model
modelname
modeltype [param=value]*
where model is a keyword, modelname is the userdefined name for the model and
modeltype is one of the predefined model types (e.g., Diode, BJT, MOSFET). After
these three required fields comes zero or more param=value pairs. param is a model
keyword and value is its userassigned value. There is no required order for the
param=value pairs. Model keywords that are not specified take on their default
values. Refer to documentation for each model type to see the list of model
parameters, their meanings and default values.
The model statement must be on a single line. Use the backslash (\) as a line continuation character. The instance and model parameter names are case sensitive. Most,
but not all, model parameters have their first character capitalized and the rest are
lower case. Scale factors (e.g., p=1012, n=109, u=106, m=103, k=10+3, M=10+6) can
be used with numbers for numeric values. For more information about the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits, variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit Simulators
manual.
A netlist translator is available for translating models and subcircuits from Pspice,
Hspice, and Spectre syntax to the form used by the ADS Circuit Simulator. Refer to
the Netlist Translator for SPICE and Spectre manual for more information.
32
Netlist Syntax
Parameter Aliases
For compatibility with other simulators, some models accept two or more different
keywords for the same parameter. For example, the Diode model accepts both model
keywords Is and Js for the saturation current. In the documentation, the parameter
Name column lists the aliases in parentheses after the main parameter name. The
main parameter name is the one that appears in the ADS dialog box for the model.
Tnom
All nonlinear device models have a parameter that specifies the temperature at
which the model parameters were extracted. Normally called Tnom, some models
may use Tref, Tr, or Tmeas. The default value for Tnom is specified on the Options
item in the Tnom field. If Options.Tnom is not specified it defaults to 25oC. This is
true for all nonlinear devices.
It is strongly suggested that the user explicitly set Tnom in each model and not
depend on its default value. First, this provides a selfdocumenting model; other
users of the device will not have to guess at what Tnom should be. Second, different
users of the same model would get different results for the same circuit if they
simulate with different values of Options.Tnom.
Parameter Aliases
33
else
Instance.Temp = Options.Temp + Instance.Trise
34
Available in
ADS
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
name of an Angelov_Model
Units Default
Temp
Trise
_M
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
25
Notes/Equations
1. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
2. Table 32 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 31. DC Operating Point Information
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
35
Description
Units
Is
Source current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
Ggs
Gatesource conductance
siemens
Ggd
Gatedrain conductance
siemens
Cgs
Gatesource capacitance
farads
Cgd
Gatedrain capacitance
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Drainsource voltage
volts
36
Available in
ADS
Parameters
Model parameters must be specified in SI units.
Name
Description
Units
Idsmod
Igmod
Capmod
Ipk0
Default
0.05
Vpks
0.2
Dvpks
0.2
P1
1.0
P2
0.0
P3
0.0
Alphar
Saturation parameter
0.1
Alphas
Saturation parameter
1.0
Vkn
Knee voltage
Lambda
0.0
Lambda1
0.0
Lvg
0.0
B1
0.0
B2
3.0
Lsb0
0.0
0.8
37
Name
Description
Units
Default
Vtr
20
Vsb2
Cds
Drainsource capacitance
0.0
Cgspi
0.0
Cgs0
Gatesource capacitance
0.0
Cgdpi
0.0
Cgd0
Gatedrain capacitance
0.0
Cgdpe
0.0
P10
0.0
P11
1.0
P20
0.0
P21
0.2
P30
0.0
P31
0.2
P40
0.0
P41
1.0
P111
0.0
Ij
0.0005
Pg
Ne
Ideality factor
Vjg
0.7
Rg
Gate resistance
Ohms
0.0
Rd
Drain resistance
Ohms
0.0
Ri
Gatesource resistance
Ohms
0.0
Rs
Source resistance
Ohms
0.0
Rgd
Gatedrain resistance
Ohms
0.0
Lg
Gate inductance
0.0
Ld
Drain inductance
0.0
Ls
Source inductance
0.0
38
0.0
1.4
Name
Description
Units
Default
Tau
Sec
0.0
Rcmin
Ohms
1.0e3
Rc
Ohms
10.0e3
Crf
0.0
Rcin
Ohms
100 KOhms
Crfin
0.0
Rth
Thermal resistance
Ohms
0.0
Cth
Thermal capacitance
0.0
Tcipk0
0.0
Tcp1
0.0
Tccgs0
0.0
Tccgd0
0.0
Tclsb0
0.0
Tcrc
0.0
Tccrf
0.0
deg C
25
Selft
no
Noimod
NoiseR
0.5
NoiseP
1.0
NoiseC
0.9
Fnc
Kf
0.0
Af
1.0
Ffe
Tg
deg C
25
Td
deg C
25
Tdl
0.1
Tmn
1.0
Hz
0.0
1.0
39
Name
Description
Klf
Fgr
Np
Lw
AllParams
Units
Default
0.0
Hz
0.0
1.0
mm
0.1
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for an Angelov device.
This model is based on the original Angelov (Chalmers) model described in [1]
and [2], but includes the latest developments made by Prof. Itcho Angelov that
have not been published.
2. The original Angelov model is not symmetrical (which corresponds to setting
Idsmod=0). ADS implementation of the Angelov model is enhanced by providing
a symmetrical Ids equation which corresponds to setting Idsmod=1. It should be
used when simulating switches or resistive mixers. Part of this work was
published in [6].
3. The published Angelov model is capacitance based (which corresponds to
setting Capmod=1). In general, the biasdependent capacitor models are known
to be less robust, which sometimes leads to nonconvergence problems.
Chargebased models are normally more robust. ADS implementation of the
Angelov model is enhanced by providing a chargebased model, which
corresponds to setting Capmod=2. Both of the models have been created by Prof.
Angelov.
4. If Rcmin is specified, the resistance Rc will be calculated based on the following
nonlinear equation:
Rc
Rc = Rcmin + ( 1 + tanh ( ) )
5. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). A nonlinear device model parameter value that is
explicitly specified will override the value set by an AllParams association.
310
Ids Equations
2
311
=
=
=
=
For Capmod = 2
Lc1 = 1n ( cosh ( Phi1 ) )
Lc10 = 1n ( cosh ( P10 + P111 Vds ) )
312
=
=
=
=
Temperature Equations
Ipk0 = IPK 0 ( 1 + TCIPK 0 ( Temp Tnom ) )
P1 = P1 ( 1 + TCP1 ( Temp Tnom ) )
Lsb0 = LSB0 ( 1 + TCLSB0 ( Temp Tnom ) )
Cgs0 = CGS0 ( 1 + TCGS0 ( Temp Tnom ) )
Cgd0 = CGD0 ( 1 + TCGD0 ( Temp Tnom ) )
Rc = RC ( 1 + TCRC ( Temp Tnom ) )
Crf = CRF ( 1 + TCCRF ( Temp Tnom ) )
Broadband Noise Equations
Noimod = 0 (default value)
Idtn = abs ( Ids ) + abs ( Igd )
2
313
i d
Af
Ffe
 = 4kT g m P + 4kT g m PFnc f + Kf Ids
f
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
Noimod=2 (supported for linear noise only)
If TMN is specified, Td (drain equivalent temperature) and Tg (gate equivalent
temperature) are bias dependent:
Td = TD ( 1 + TM N ( 1 + tanh [ ] ) ABS ( tanh [ Vds ] ( 1 + Lambda Vds ) ) )
T g = Tem p ( 1 + ( 1 + tanh [ ] ) ABS ( tanh [ Vds ] ( 1 + Lambda Vds ) ) )
Af
Ffe
igs
freq
 = 2 q Igs + Kf I gs
f
2
Af
Ffe
igd
 = 2 q Igd + Kf I gd
freq
f
Af
Ffe
id
freq
 = Kf Ids
f
id
idf
 = Klfd f
f
where
314
1
1
Klfd = Klf  + 
NP
2
freq
freq
1 + 
Fgr
Thermal Noise Equations
Thermal noise of resistances Rgd, Rd, Rg and Rs:
2
i
 = 4kT 1 R
f
For Ri:
2
i
 = 4kTg 1 Ri
f
Equivalent Circu
Cgdpe
Igd
Rgd
Rg
Rd
Ld
Vgdc
Lg
Crf
Cgd
Igs
Ids
Cds
Ri
Vgsc
Rc
Cgs
Crfin
Rcin
Rs
Ls
315
References
[1] I. Angelov, H. Zirath, N. Rorsmann, A New Empirical Nonlinear Model for
HEMT and MESFET Devices, IEEE MTT Vol. 40, No. 12, December 1992.
[2] I. Angelov, L. Bengtsson, M. Garcia, Extensions of the Chalmers Nonlinear
HEMT and MESFET Model, IEEE MTT Vol. 44, No. 10, October 1996.
[3] M. Pospieszalski, Modelling of noise parameters of MESFETs and MOSFETs
and their frequency and temperature dependence, IEEE Trans. MTT., Vol. 37,
pp. 13401350, Sept. 1989.
[4] B. Hughes, A Temperature Noise Model for Extrinsic FETs, IEEE Trans.
MTT., Vol. 40, pp. 18211832, Sept. 1992.
[5] I. Angelov, On the Performance of LowNoise LowDCPowerConsumption
Cryogenic Amplifiers, IEEE Trans. MTT., Vol. 50, No. 6, June 2002.
[6] I. Angelov, L. Bengtsson, M. Garcia, F. van Raay, G. Kompa, Extensions and
model verification of the Chalmers Nonlinear HEMT and MESFET Model
Kassel 1997.
316
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NFET
Nchannel model
yes
PFET
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Vto,
threshold voltage
Beta,
transconductance
A/V2
104
Lambda
1/V
0.0
Alpha
1/V
2.0
Tau
sec
0.0
Tnom
25
Idstc
A/TempC
Vtotc
V/C
0.0
Betatce
%/C
0.0
Rin
channel resistance
ohms
0.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
317
Name
Description
Units
Default
Rf
ohms
infinity
Gscap
Cgs,
0.0
Cgd ,
0.0
Rgd
ohms
0.0
Gdcap
linear
Fc
0.5
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rg
gate resistance
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Ld
drain inductance
henry
0.0
Lg
gate inductance
henry
0.0
Ls
source inductance
henry
0.0
Cds
drainsource capacitance
0.0
Rc
ohms
infinity
Crf
0.0
Gsfwd
linear
Gsrev
none
Gdfwd
none
Gdrev
linear
R1
ohms
infinity
R2
ohms
0.0
Vbi
0.85
linear
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
318
Name
Description
Units
Default
Vbr
10100
Vjr
Is,
1014
Ir
1014
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
Xti
Eg
Fnc
0.025
3.0
eV
1.11
1.0
Hz
0.5
0.9
Kf
Af
Ffe
Taumdl
no
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
AllParams
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
319
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a GaAsFET device.
2. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
3. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). A nonlinear device model parameter value that is
explicitly specified will override the value set by an AllParams association.
Equations/Discussion
DrainSource Current
Two options are available for modeling the junction capacitance of a device: model the
junction as a linear component (a constant capacitance); model the junction using a
320
diode depletion capacitance model. If a nonzero value of Cgs is specified and Gscap is
set to 1 (linear), the gatesource junction will be modeled as a linear component.
Similarly, specifying a nonzero value for Cgd and Gdcap = 1 result in a linear
gatedrain model. A nonzero value for either Cgs or Cgd together with Gscap =2
(junction) or Gdcap = 2 will force the use of the diode depletion capacitance model for
that particular junction. Note that each junction is modeled independent of the other;
therefore, it is possible to model one junction as a linear component while the other is
treated nonlinearly. The junction depletion charge and capacitance equations are
summarized below.
Gatesource junction
V gc ( Fc Vbi ) 2
Fc
1 3 ( V gc Fc Vbi ) + 
4 Vbi
2
Q gs
V gc
Cgs
3 Fc
C gs =  =  1  + V gc
2 Vbi
2
( 1 Fc ) 3 2
Gatedrain junction
321
V gd
Q gd = 2 Vbi Cgd 1 1 Vbi
Q gd
Cgd
C gd =  = V gd
V gd
1 Vbi
For Vgd Fc Vbi
Cgd
Q gd = 2 Vbi Cgd [ 1 1 Fc ] + 32
( 1 Fc )
2
V gd ( Fc Vbi ) 2
Fc
1 3 ( V gd Fc Vbi ) + 
2
4 Vbi
Q gd
V gd
Cgd
3 Fc
C gd =  =  1  + 3
2
V gd
2 Vbi
2
( 1 Fc )
Gate forward conduction and breakdown
Agilents implementation of the Curtice quadratic model provides a few options for
modeling gate conduction current between the gatesource and gatedrain junctions.
The simplest model is that proposed by Curtice for his cubic polynomial model (see
Curtice3). This model assumes an effective value of forward bias resistance Rf and an
approximate breakdown resistance R1. With model parameters Gsfwd = 1 (linear)
and Rf reset to nonzero, gatesource forward conduction current is given by:
Igs = (Vgs  Vbi)/Rf
=0
If Gsfwd = 2 (diode), the preceding expression for Igs is replaced with the following
diode expression:
V gs
I gs = Is exp  1
N v t
Similarly, with parameter Gdfwd = 1 (linear) and Rf set to nonzero, gatedrain
forward conduction current is given by:
322
If Gdfwd is set to 2 (diode), the preceding expression for Igd is replaced with a diode
expression:
V gd
I gd = Is exp  1
N v t
The reverse breakdown current (Idg) is given by the following expression if R1 is set
nonzero and Gdrev = 1 (linear):
Igd = Vdg  Vb)/R1 when Vdg Vb and Vb > 0
=0
when Vdg < Vb or Vb 0
Vb = Vbr + R2 Ids
If Gdrev is set to 2, the preceding Igd expression is replaced with a diode expression:
Vdg Vb
I gd = Ir exp  1
Vjr
With Gsrev = 1 (linear) and R1 set to nonzero, the gatesource reverse breakdown
current Igs is given by the following expression:
Igs = (Vsg Vb)/R1
=0
If Gsrev is set to 2, the preceding Igs expression is replaced with a diode expression.
Vsg Vb
I gs = Ir exp  1
Vjr
When the diode equations are both enabled, the DC model is symmetric with respect
to the drain and source terminals. The AC model will also be symmetric if, in addition
to the latter, Cgs=Cgd.
Time delay
This implementation models the delay as an ideal time delay. In the time domain, the
drain source current for the ideal delay is given by:
Ids(t) = Ids(Vj(t  Tau), Vds(t))
323
y
+ 
Qgd
Rd
D
Rgd
Crf
Rg
G
Ids
Cds
Rc
Qgs
+ 
C
Rin S
Igs
Rs
S
324
NEW
q Eg
Xti
Temp
Temp
= Is exp  1  +  ln 
Tnom k N Temp N
Tnom
C gs
C gd
NEW
Temp
Temp
NEW
where is a function of the junction potential and the energy gap variation with
temperature.
The gate junction potential Vbi varies as:
V bi
Tnom
Temp
2k Temp n i
=  Vbi +  1n 
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
NEW
NEW
NEW
= Beta 1.01
4kT
<i >
 = f
R
Parameters P, R, and C model drain and gate noise sources.
325
i d
Af
Ffe
 = 4kT g m P + 4kT g m PFnc f + Kf Ids
f
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
For Series IV compatibility, set P=2/3, R=0, C=0, and Fnc=0; copy Kf, Af, and Ffe from
the Series IV model.
References
[1] W. R. Curtice, A MESFET model for use in the design of GaAs integrated
circuits, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech, vol. MTT28, pp. 448456, May
1980.
[2] C. CamachoPenalosa and C.S. Aitchison, Modelling frequency dependence of
output impedance of a microwave MESFET at low frequencies, Electron. Lett.,
Vol. 21, pp. 528529, June 6, 1985.
[3] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio, Semiconductor device modeling with SPICE,
New York: McGrawHill, Second Edition 1993.
[4] A. Cappy, Noise Modeling and Measurement Techniques, IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 110, Jan. 1988.
326
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NFET
Nchannel model
yes
PFET
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Vto
threshold voltage
Beta,
transconductance
A/V2
104
Lambda
1/V
0.0
Alpha
1/V
2.0
Tau
sec
0.0
Taumdl
Tnom
Idstc
A/TempC 0
Ucrit
Vgexp
no
25
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
327
Name
Description
Units
Default
Gamds
Vtotc
V/C
0.0
Betatce
%/C
0.0
Rgs
gatesource resistance
ohms
Rf
ohms
infinity
Gscap
Cgs,
0.0
Cgd ,
0.0
Gdcap
linear
Fc
0.5
Rgd
ohms
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rg
gate resistance
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Ld
drain inductance
henry
0.0
Lg
gate inductance
henry
0.0
0.01
linear
Ls
source inductance
henry
0.0
Cds
drainsource capacitance
0.0
Rc
ohms
infinity
Crf
0.0
Gsfwd
linear
Gsrev
none
Gdfwd
none
Gdrev
linear
R1
ohms
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
328
infinity
Name
Description
Units
Default
R2
ohms
0.0
Vbi
0.85
Vbr
10100
Vjr
Is,
1014
Ir
1014
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
Xti
Eg
Fnc
0.5
0.9
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
3.0
eV
1.11
1.0
Hz
wIdsmax
wPmax
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
329
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a GaAsFET device.
2. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
3. The P, R, and C parameters model drain and gate noise sources.
2
i d
 = 4kT g m P ( 1 + f NC f )
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
4. DrainSource Current
Drain current in the Advanced Curtice quadratic model is based on the
modification of the drain current equation in the Curtice quadratic model.
The quadratic dependence of the drain current with respect to the gate voltage
is calculated with the following expression in the region Vds 0.0V.
Ids = BetaNEW (Vgs  VtoNEW)Vgexp (1+Lambda Vds) tanh(Alpha Vds)
where
VtoNEW = Vto + Gainds Vds
BetaNEW = Beta/(1 + (Vgs VtoNEW Ucrit)
330
Assuming symmetry, in the reverse region, the drain and source swap roles and
the expression becomes:
Ids = BetaNEW (Vgd  VtoNEW)Vgexp (1Lambda Vds) tanh(Alpha Vds)
where
Ids = BetaNEW (Vgd  VtoNEW)Vgexp (1+Lambda Vds) tanh(Alpha Vds).
where
VtoNEW = Vto + Gainds Vds
BetaNEW = Beta/(1 + (Vgd VtoNEW Ucrit)
The drain current is set to zero in either case if the junction voltage (Vgs or Vgd)
drops below the threshold voltage Vto.
If Ucrit is not equal to 0, the temperature coefficients Vtotc and Betatc are
disabled.
5. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). A nonlinear device model parameter value that is
explicitly specified will override the value set by an AllParams association.
References
[1] A. Cappy, Noise Modeling and Measurement Techniques, IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 110, Jan. 1988.
331
Available in
Description
Units
NFET
Nchannel model
yes
PFET
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Beta2
1/V
104
Rds0
ohms
Vout0
0.0
Vdsdc
Tau
sec
0.0
Gamma
current saturation
1/V
2.0
Tnom
25
Idstc
A/TempC
A0,
0.0
A1,
A/V
0.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
332
Default
Name
Description
Units
Default
A2,
A/V2
0.0
A3,
A/V3
0.0
Vtotc
V/C
0.0
Betatce
%/C
0.0
Rin
channel resistance
ohms
0.0
Rf
ohms
infinity
Fc
Gscap
Cgs
0.0
Cgd
0.0
Rgd
ohms
0.0
Gdcap
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rg
gate resistance
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Ld
drain inductance
henry
0.0
Lg
gate inductance
henry
0.0
Ls
source inductance
henry
0.0
Cds
drainsource capacitance
0.0
Crf
0.0
Rds
ohms
infinity
Gsfwd
0.5
linear
linear
linear
Gsrev
none
Gdfwd
none
Gdrev
linear
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
333
Name
Description
Units
Default
R1
ohms
infinity
R2
ohms
0.0
Vbi
0.85
Vbr
10100
Vjr
0.025
Is
1014
Ir
1014
Xti
Eg
1.0
A5
0.0
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
Taumdl
Fnc
0.5
0.9
Vto
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
3.0
eV
no
Hz
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
334
1.11
Name
Description
Units
Default
wPmax
Kf
Af
Ffe
AllParams
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a GaAsFET device.
2. The Curtice cubic model is based on the work of Curtice and Ettenberg.
Curtice3_Model contains most of the features described in Curtices original
paper plus some additional features that may be turned off. The following
subsections review the highlights of the model. Refer to Curtices paper [1] for
more information.
3. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
4. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). A nonlinear device model parameter value that is
explicitly specified will override the value set by an AllParams association.
335
Equations/Discussion
DrainSource Current
Two options are provided for modeling the junction capacitance of a device: to model
the junction as a linear component (a constant capacitance); to model the junction
using a diode depletion capacitance model. If a nonzero value of Cgs is specified and
Gscap is set to 1 (linear), the gatesource junction will be modeled as a linear
component. Similarly, specifying a nonzero value for Cgd and Gdcap=1 result in a
linear gatedrain model. A nonzero value for either Cgs or Cgd together with
Gscap=2 (junction) or Gdcap=2 will force the use of the diode depletion capacitance
model for that particular junction. Note that each junction is modeled independent of
the other; therefore, it is possible to model one junction as a linear component while
336
the other is treated nonlinearly. The junction depletion charge and capacitance
equations are summarized next.
GateSource Junction
V gc ( Fc Vbi ) 2
3 Fc
1  ( V gc Fc Vbi ) 
4 Vbi
2
Q gs
V gc
Cgs
3 Fc
C gs =  =  1  + 3
2
V gc
2 Vbi
2
( 1 Fc )
GateDrain Junction
337
3 2
( 1 Fc )
2
V gd ( Fbi ) 2
3 Fc
1  V gd F ( c Vbi ) + 
4 Vbi
2
Q gd
V gd
Cgd
3 Fc
C gd =  =  1  + 3
2
V gd
2 Vbi
2
( 1 Fc )
Gate Forward Conduction and Breakdown
Agilents implementation of the Curtice quadratic model provides a few options for
modeling gate conduction current between the gatesource and gatedrain junctions.
The simplest model is that proposed by Curtice for his cubic polynomial model (see
Curtice3). This model assumes an effective value of forward bias resistance Rf and an
approximate breakdown resistance R1. With model parameters Gsfwd = 1 (linear)
and Rf reset to nonzero, gatesource forward conduction current is given by:
Igs = (Vgs  Vbi)/Rf
=0
If Gsfwd = 2 (diode), the preceding expression for Igs is replaced with the following
diode expression:
V gs
I gs = Is exp  1
N v t
Similarly, with parameter Gdfwd = 1 (linear) and Rf set to nonzero, gatedrain
forward conduction current is given by:
Igd = (Vgd  Vbi)/Rf
=0
If Gdfwd is set to 2 (diode), the preceding expression for Igd is replaced with a diode
expression:
V gd
I gd = Is exp  1
N v t
338
The reverse breakdown current (Idg) is given by the following expression if R1 is set
nonzero and Gdrev = 1 (linear):
Igd = Vdg  Vb)/R1 when Vdg Vb and Vb > 0
=0
when Vdg < Vb or Vb 0
Vb = Vbr + R2 Ids
If Gdrev is set to 2, the preceding Igd expression is replaced with a diode expression:
Vdg Vb
I gd = Ir exp  1
Vjr
With Gsrev = 1 (linear) and R1 set to nonzero, the gatesource reverse breakdown
current Igs is given by the following expression:
Igs = (Vsg Vb)/R1
=0
If Gsrev is set to 2, the preceding Igs expression is replaced with a diode expression.
Vsg Vb
I gs = Ir exp  1
Vjr
When the diode equations are both enabled, the DC model is symmetric with respect
to the drain and source terminals. The AC model will also be symmetric if, in addition
to the latter, Cgs=Cgd.
HighFrequency Output Conductance
Curtice3_Model provides the user with two methods of modeling the high frequency
output conductance. The seriesRC network dispersion model (Figure 32) is
comprised of the parameters Crf and Rds and is included to provide a correction to
the AC output conductance at a specific bias condition. At a frequency high enough
such that Crf is an effective short, the output conductance of the device can be
increased by the factor 1/Rds. (Also see [2]).
339
ooo
Igd
Rd
y
+ 
Qgd
Lg Rg
G ooo
Ld
Rgd
Crf
Ids
G
Qgs
+ 
Cds
Rds
C
Rin S
Rs
ooo
Igs
Ls
The model specifies Tnom, the nominal temperature at which the model parameters
were calculated or extracted. To simulate the device at temperatures other than
Tnom, several model parameters must be scaled with temperature. The temperature
at which the device is simulated is specified by the device item Temp parameter.
(Temperatures in the following equations are in Kelvin.)
The saturation current Is scales as:
Is
NEW
q Eg
Xti
Temp
Temp
= Is exp  1  +  ln 
Tnom k N Temp N
Tnom
C gs
C gd
340
NEW
NEW
Temp
Temp
V bi
NEW
Tnom
Temp
2k Temp n i
=  Vbi +  1n 
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
NEW
= ( A0 A1 + A2 A3 ) 1.01
NEW
= ( A1 2 A2 + 3 A3
NEW
= ( A2 3 A3 ) 1.01
NEW
= ( A3 ) 1.01
A3 ) 1.01
Noise Model
4kT
<i >
 = f
R
Parameters P, R, and C model drain and gate noise sources.
2
i d
Af
Ffe
 = 4kT g m P + 4kT g m PFnc f + Kf Ids
f
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
341
For Series IV compatibility, set P=2/3, R=0, C=0, and Fnc=0; copy Kf, Af, and Ffe from
the Series IV model.
Calculation of Vto Parameter
The Vto parameter is not used in this model. Instead, it is calculated internally to
avoid the discontinuous or nonphysical characteristic in ids versus vgs if A0, A1, A2,
A3 are not properly extracted.
For a given set of As, ADS will try to find the maximum cutoff voltage (Vpmax), which
satisfies the following conditions:
f(Vpmax) = A0 + A1 Vpmax + A2 Vpmax2 2 + A3 Vpmax3 3 0
first derivative of f(Vpmax) = 0 (inflection point)
second derivative of f(Vpmax) > 0 (this is a minimum)
If Vpmax cannot be found, a warning message is given cubic model does not pinch off.
During analysis, the following are calculated:
vc = vgs (1 + Beta (Vout0  vds))
ids = ((A0 + A1 vc + A2 vc2 + A3 vc3) + (vds Vdsdc) / Rds0)
tanh(Gamma vds)
If ids < 0 then sets ids = 0.
If ids > 0 and Vc Vpmax then calculates ivc as follows:
ivc = (f(Vpmax) + (vds  Vdsdc) / Rds0) tanh(Gamma vds)
If ivc > 0 then sets ids = ivc and gives a warning message Curtice cubic model does not
pinch off, Ids truncated at minimum.
else set ids = 0
To ensure the model is physical and continuous, it is important to obtain a
meaningful set of As that Vpmax can be found.
References
[1] W. R. Curtice and M. Ettenberg, A nonlinear GaAsFET model for use in the
design of output circuits for power amplifiers, IEEE Trans of Microwave Theory
Tech, vol. MTT33, pp. 13831394, Dec. 1985.
[2] C. CamachoPenalosa and C.S. Aitchison, Modelling frequency dependence of
output impedance of a microwave MESFET at low frequencies, Electron. Lett.,
Vol. 21, pp. 528529, June 6, 1985.
342
343
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
name of an EE_FET3_Model
Units Default
Ugw
Temp
Noise
yes
_M
25
Range of Usage
Ugw > 0
N>0
Notes/Equations
1. Ugw and N are used for scaling device instance as described in the
EE_FET3_Model information.
2. Table 32 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 32. DC Operating Point Information
344
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Description
Units
Is
Source current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
GmAc
siemens
GdsAc
siemens
Ggs
Gatesource conductance
siemens
Ggd
Gatedrain conductance
siemens
dIgd_dVgs
(dIgd/dVgs)
siemens
Cgc
farads
dQgc_dVgy
(dQgc/dVgy)
farads
Cgy
farads
dQgy_dVgc
(dQgy/dVgc)
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Gatedrain voltage
volts
345
Available in
Description
Units Default
Vto
1.5
Gamma
1/V
0.05
Vgo
0.5
Vdelt
0.0
Vch
1.0
Gmmax
peak transconductance
70103
Vdso
2.0
Vsat
1.0
Kapa
output conductance
1/V
0.0
Peff
2.0
Vtso
10.0
Is
1020
Ris
ohms 2.0
Rid
ohms 0.0
Tau
sec
1012
Cdso
801015
346
1.0
Name
Description
Units Default
Rdb
ohms 109
Cbs
trappingstate capacitance
1.61013
Vtoac
1.5
Vtoactc
Gammaac
1/V
0.05
Vdeltac
V/C
0.0
Gmmaxac
600103
Gmmaxtc
0.0
Gammatc
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Kapaac
1/V
0.0
Peffac
10.0
Vtsoac
10.0
Gdbm
0.0
Kdb
0.0
Vdsm
1.0
C11o
0.31012
C11th
0.031012
Vinfl
1.0
Vinfltc
Deltgs
0.5
Deltds
1.0
Lambda
1/V
1.5
C12sat
0.031012
Cgdsat
0.051012
Kbk
Vbr
Nbr
0.0
0.0
V
15.0
2.0
347
Name
Description
Units Default
Idsoc
Rd
ohms 1.0
Rs
ohms 1.0
Rg
ohms 1.0
Ugw
Ngf
1.0
Tnom
25.0
Rgtc
0.0
Rdtc
0.0
Rstc
0.0
100103
0.0
Vtotc
0.0
Gmmaxtc
0.0
Xti
3.0
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
AllParams
Notes
1. This model supplies values for an EE_FET3 device.
2. To prevent numerical problems, the setting of some model parameters to 0 is
trapped by the simulator. The parameter values are changed:
Rd = 104
Rs = 104
Rg = 104
Ris = 104
Rid = 104
Vsat = 0.1
348
Peff = 106
Peffac = 106
Deltds = 0.1
Deltgs = 0.1
Idsoc = 0.1
Is = 1050
3. Model parameters such as Ls, Ld, and Lg (as well as other package related
parameters that are included as part of the output from the EEFET3 ICCAP
model file) are not used by the EE_FET3 device in the simulator. Only those
parameters listed are part of the EE_FET3 device. Any extrinsic devices must
be added externally by the user.
Equations/Discussion
EE_FET3 is an empirical analytic model that was developed by Agilent EEsof for the
express purpose of fitting measured electrical behavior of GaAs FETs. The model
represents a complete redesign of the previous generation model EEFET12 and
includes the following features:
Accurate isothermal drainsource current model fits virtually all processes.
Selfheating correction for drainsource current.
Improved charge model more accurately tracks measured capacitance values.
Dispersion model that permits simultaneous fitting of highfrequency
conductances and DC characteristics.
Improved breakdown model describes gatedrain current as a function of both
Vgs and Vds.
Wellbehaved (nonpolynomial) expressions permit accurate extrapolations
outside of the measurement range used to extract the model.
The model equations were developed concurrently with parameter extraction
techniques to ensure the model would contain only parameters that were extractable
from measured data. Although the model is amenable to automated parameter
extraction techniques, it was designed to consist of parameters that are easily
estimated (visually) from measured data such as gmVgs plots. The increased number
of model parameters is commensurate with the improvement in accuracy as
compared with other popular empirical models. Since the model equations are all
wellbehaved analytic expressions, EE_FET3 possesses no inherent limitations with
349
respect to its usable power range. Agilent EEsofs ICCAP program provides the user
with the capability of extracting EEFET3 models from measured data.
DrainSource Current
The drainsource current model in EE_FET3 is comprised of various analytic
expressions that were developed through examination of gm vs. bias plots on a wide
class of devices from various manufacturers. The expressions below are given for Vds
> 0.0 V although the model is equally valid for Vds < 0.0 V. The model assumes the
device is symmetrical, and one need only replace Vgs with Vgd and Vds with Vds in
order to obtain the reverse region (Vds < 0.0 V) equations. The gm, gds and Ids
equations take on four different forms depending on the value of Vgs relative to some
of the model parameters. The Ids expression is continuous through at least the second
derivative everywhere.
if Vgs Vg and Vdelt 0.0
g mo = Gmmax { 1 + Gamma ( V dso V ds ) }
( Vgo + V to )
I dso = Gmmax V x(V gs)  + Vch
2
350
g mo = g mm ( V gs )
I dso = I dsm ( V gs )
Gmmax
g dso =  Gamma ( V gs Vch )
2
V x(V gs) ( Vgo Vch )
cos  + 1
Vto Vgo
where
Gmmax
g mm(V ) =  [ 1 + Gamma ( Vdso V ds ) ]
2
V x(V ) ( Vgo Vch )
cos  + 1
Vto
Vgo
mm
g mm
= V
V = V gb
2
Gmmax
=  [ 1 + Gamma ( Vdso V ds ) ]
2 ( Vto Vgo )
Vdelt
sin Vto Vgo
351
Gmmax
g mm(V gb) =  [ 1 + Gamma ( Vdso V ds ) ]
2
Vdelt
cos  + 1
Vto
Vgo
Vdelt
Gmmax
I dsm(V gb) =  ( ( Vto Vgo ) ) sin 
2
Vto Vgo
+ ( Vgo Vdelt Vto ) )
( g mm ( V gb ) )
Vdelt
Gmmax
 =  Gamma cos  + 1
Vto
Vgo
2
V ds
m g
Gmmax
mm
 =  ( Gamma ) [ 1 + Ganna ( Vdso V ds ) ]
( Vto Vgo )
V ds
Vdelt
sin Vto Vgo
V gb
( Vgo Vdelt ) Vch
 =  Gamma
2
V ds
[ 1 + Gamma ( Vdso V ds ) ]
The preceding relations for Idso, gmo and gdso can now be substituted in the following
equations that model the current saturation and output conductance. This portion of
the model can be recognized from the work of Curtice [1].
3V ds
g' m = g mo ( 1 + Kapa V ds ) tanh 
Vsat
3V ds
I' ds = I dso ( 1 + Kapa V ds ) tanh 
V ( sat )
3V ds
g' ds = { g dso ( 1 + Kapa V ds ) + I dso Kapa } tanh 
Vsat
2 3V
3 ( 1 + Kapa V ds )
ds
+ I dso  sech 
Vsat
Vsat
352
the thermal model of Canfield was incorporated [2]. With this final enhancement, the
DC expressions for Ids and associated conductances become:
I' ds
I ds = P diss
1 + Peff
g' m
g m = P diss 2
1 + Peff
2
I' ds
g' ds Peff
g ds = P diss 2
1 + Peff
where
P diss = I' ds V ds
Qualitatively, operation of the drainsource model can be described as follows.
The Vds dependence of the equations is dominated by the parameters Vsat, Gamma,
Kapa, and Peff. Isothermal output conductance is controlled by Gamma and Kapa.
The impact of Gamma on output conductance is more significant near threshold. At
Vgs=Vch, the output conductance is controlled only by Kapa. The parameter Peff
provides a correction to the isothermal model for modeling the selfheating effects
manifested as a negative resistance on the IV curves. The parameter Vsat
represents the drainsource voltage at which the current saturates and output
conductance becomes a constant (approximately).
The overall impact of Vch on the IV characteristics is second order at best, and many
different values of Vch will provide good fits to IV plots. For most applications
encountered, it is our experience that the default value of 1.0V is an adequate value
for Vch. Similar to Vch, Vdso is a parameter that should be set rather than optimized.
At Vds=Vdso, the drainsource model collapses to a single voltage dependency in Vgs.
It is recommended that the user set Vdso to a typical Vds operating point in
saturation. At this point, many of the parameters can be extracted right off a IdsVgs
plot for Vds=Vdso or preferably, a gm(DC)Vgs plot at Vds=Vdso.
353
When Vds=Vdso and Peff is set large (to disable the selfheating model), the
significance of the parameters Vto, Vgo, Vdelt, Gmmax are easily understood from a
plot of gm(DC)Vgs. Gmmax is the peak constant transconductance of the model that
occurs at Vgs=Vgo. The parameter Vto represents the gatesource voltage where gm
goes to zero. If Vdelt is set to a positive value, then it causes the transconductance to
become linear at Vgs= VgoVdelt with a slope equal to that of the underlying cosine
function at this voltage. The parameter definitions are illustrated in Figure 33.
gm(dc)
Gmmax
Vto
Vgo
VgoVDelt
Vgs
354
[3]. At DC, the drainsource current is just the current Ids. At high frequency (well
above transition frequency), drain source current will be equal to Ids(high frequency)
= Ids(dc) + Idb. Linearization of the drainsource model yields the following
expressions for y21 and y22 of the intrinsic EE_FET3 model.
g dbgs
y 21 = g dsgs + g dbgs 1 + j Cbs ( Rdb )
1
g
+ 
dbds Rdb
1
y 22 = g dsds + g dbds +  Rdb 1 + j Cbs ( Rdb )
where
I ds
g dsgs = V gs
I ds
g dsds = V ds
I db
g dbgs = V gs
I db
g dbds = V ds
Evaluating these expressions at the frequencies =0 and =infinity produces the
following results for transconductance and output conductance:
for =0,
Re [ y 21 ] = g m = g dsgs
Re [ y 22 ] = g ds = g dsds
for =infinity,
Re [ y 21 ] = g m = g dsgs + g dbgs
1
Re [ y 22 ] = g ds = g dsds + g dbds + Rdb
Between these two extremes, the conductances make a smooth transition, the
abruptness of which is governed by the time constant disp = Rdb Cbs. The
355
frequency f0 at which the conductances are midway between these two extremes is
defined as
1
f 0 = 2 disp
The parameter Rdb should be set large enough so that its contribution to the output
conductance is negligible. Unless the user is specifically interested in simulating the
device near f0, the default values of Rdb and Cbs will be adequate for most microwave
applications.
The EE_FET3 Ids model can be extracted to fit either DC or AC characteristics. In
order to simultaneously fit both DC IV and AC conductances, EE_FET3 uses a
simple scheme for modeling the Idb current source whereby different values of the
same parameters can be used in the Ids equations. The DC and AC drainsource
currents can be expressed as follows:
dc
dc
I db(V gs, V ds) = I ds(V gs, V ds) I ds(V gs, V ds) + I dbp(V ds)
where Idbp and its associated conductance are given by:
for Vds > Vdsm and Kdb 0 :
356
Gdbm 1
 tan ( ( V ds Vdsm ) Kdb ( Gdbm ) )
Kdb
+ Gdbm ( Vdsm )
Gdbm
g dbp = 2
( Kdb ( Gdbm ( V ds Vdsm ) + 1 ) )
I dbp =
I dbp =
Therefore, the model is primarily to use gm data as a means for tuning Ids .
Once this fitting is accomplished, Gdbm, Kdb and Vdsm can be tuned to optimize the
gds fit.
Gate Charge Model
The EE_FET3 gate charge model was developed through careful examination of
extracted device capacitances over bias. The model consists of simple closed form
charge expressions whose derivatives fit observed bias dependencies in capacitance
data. This capacitances data can be obtained directly from measured Yparameter
data.
357
im [ y 11 ]
q g
C 11 =  = V gs
im [ y 12 ]
q g
C 12 =  = 
V ds
The capacitance data is remarkably selfconsistent. In other words, a single qg
functions derivatives will fit both C11 data and C12 data. The EE_FET3 gate charge
expression is:
( C11o C11th )
q g(V j, V o) =  g(V j) + C11th ( V j Vinfl )
2
[ 1 + Lambda ( V o Vdso ) ] C11sat V o
where
Deltgs
3
g(V j) = V j Vinfl +  log cosh  ( V j Vinfl )
Deltgs
3
This expression is valid for both positive and negative Vds. Symmetry is forced
through the following smoothing functions proposed by Statz [4]:
2
2
1
V j =  2V gs V ds + V ds + Deltds
Vo =
V ds + Deltds
Differentiating the gate charge expression wrt Vgs yields the following expression for
the gate capacitance C11:
( C11o C11th )
C 11(V j, V o) =  g'(V j) + C11th
2
[ 1 + Lambda ( V o Vdso ) ]
where
d g(V j)
3
g'(V j) =  = 1 + tanh  ( V j Vinfl )
Deltds
dV j
The gate transcapacitance C12 is defined as:
358
q g V j q g V o
q g
C 12(V j, V o) =  =   +  V j V ds V o V ds
V ds
V ds
1
= C 11(V j, V o)   1
2
2
2
V ds + Deltds
+ [ [ g'(V j) + C11th ( V j Vinfl ) ] Lambda ( C12sat ) ]
V ds
2
2
V ds + Deltds
The EE_FET3 topology requires that the gate charge be subdivided between the
respective charge sources qgc and qgy. Although simulation could be performed
directly from the nodal gate charge qg, division of the charge into branches permits
the inclusion of the resistances Ris and Rid that model charging delay between the
depletion region and the channel. EE_FET3 assumes the following form for the
gatedrain charge in saturation:
q gy(V gy) = Cgdsat ( V gy + q gyo )
which gives rise to a constant gatedrain capacitance in saturation. The gatesource
charge qgc can now be obtained by subtracting the latter from the gate charge
equation. Smoothing functions can then be applied to these expressions in saturation
in order to extend the models applicable bias range to all Vds values.
These smoothing functions force symmetry on the qgy and qgc charges such that
qg
q gy = q gc = 2
at Vgc = Vgy. Under large negative Vds (saturation at the source end of the device), qgy
and qgc swap roles:
q gc(V gc) = Cgdsat ( V gc + q gco )
The following continuous charge equations satisfy these constraints and are specified
in terms of the gate charge.
359
2
and
1
3
f 2 =  1 tanh  ( V gc V gy )
Deltds
2
The capacitances associated with these branch charge sources can be obtained
through differentiation of the qgc and qgy equations and by application of the chain
rule to capacitances C11 and C12. The gate charge derivatives reformulated in
terms of Vgc and Vgy are:
q g
C ggy =  = C 12(V gc, V gc V gy)
V gy
q g
C ggc =  = C 11(V gc, V gc V gy) + C 12(V gc, V gc V gy)
V gc
The branch charge derivatives are:
f 2
q gy
C gygy =  = { q g(V gc, V gc V gy) Cgdsat V gc } V gy
V gy
f 1
+ f 2 C ggy + Cgdsat V gy  + f 1
V
gy
f 2
q gy
C gygc =  = { q g(V gc, V gc V gy) Cgdsat V gc } 
V gc
V gc
f 1
+ f 2 [ C ggc Cgdsat ] + Cgdsat V gy V
gc
360
f 1
q gc
C gcgc =  = { q g(V gc, V gc V gy) Cgdsat V gy } V gc
V gc
f 2
+ f 1 C ggc + Cgdsat V gc  + f 2
V
gc
f 1
q gc
C gcgy =  = { q g(V gc, V gc V gy) C ( gdsat V gy ) } V gy
V gy
f 2
+ f 1 [ C ggy Cgdsat ] + C gdsat V gc V
gy
where
2 3(V
f 1
3
gc V gy )
 =  sech 
Deltds
2 Deltds
V gc
f 1
f 1
 = V gy
V gc
f 2
f 1
 = V gc
V gc
f 2
f 1
 = V gy
V gc
When Vds=Vdso and Vdso>>Deltds, the gate capacitance C11 reduces to a single
voltage dependency in Vgs. Similar to the Ids model then, the majority of the
important gate charge parameters can be estimated from a single trace of a plot. In
this case, the plot of interest is C11Vgs at Vds = Vdso.
The parameter definitions are illustrated in Figure 34. The parameter Deltds models
the gate capacitance transition from the linear region of the device into saturation.
Lambda models the slope of the C11Vds characteristic in saturation. C12sat is used
to fit the gate transcapacitance (C12) in saturation.
361
C11
C11o
C11th
Deltgs
Vinfl
Vgs
qV gs
nkT
362
The EE_FET3 breakdown model was developed from measured DC breakdown data
and includes the voltage dependency of both gatedrain and gatesource junctions.
EE_FET3 models breakdown for Vds>0V only, breakdown in the Vds<0V region is not
handled. The model consists of 4 parameters that are easily optimized to measured
data. The breakdown current is given by:
for Vgd > Vbr
Ids(V gs, V ds)
Nbr
I gd(V gd, V gs) = Kbk 1  ( V gd Vbr )
I ( dsoc )
for Vgd Vbr
I gd(V gd, V gs) = 0
Idsoc should be set to the maximum value attainable by Ids to preclude the possibility
of the gatedrain current flowing in the wrong direction.
Scaling Relations
Scaling of EE_FET3 model parameters is accomplished through the use of the model
parameters Ugw and Ngf and device parameters Ugw and N. From these four
parameters, the following scaling relations can be defined:
new
N
U gw
sf = Ugw ( Ngf )
Ugw N
sfg = new
U gw
Ngf
where Ugwnew represents the device parameter Ugw, the new unit gate width.
Scaling will be disabled if any of the 4 scaling parameters are set to 0. The new
EE_FET3 parameters are calculated internally by the simulator according to these
equations:
Ris
= sf
new
Rid
= Rid
sf
Ris
new
Gmmax
new
Gmmaxac
= Gmmax ( sf )
new
= Gmmaxac ( sf )
EE_FET3_Model (EEsof Scalable Nonlinear GaAsFet Model)
363
Peff
new
= Pef f sf
new
= Peffac ( sf )
new
Rdb
= Rdb
sf
Peffac
Gdbm
Kdb
Is
new
new
Kbk
= Gdbm ( sf )
Kdb
= sf
new
= Is sf
new
= Kbk ( sf )
new
= Idsoc ( sf )
Rg
= Rg
sfg
new
Rd
= Rd
sf
new
Rs
= Rs
sf
Idsoc
new
Cbs
new
C11o
= Cbs sf
new
C11th
C12sat
= C11th sf
new
= C12sat sf
new
= Cgdsat sf
Cgdsat
Cdso
= C11o sf
new
new
= Cdso sf
Temperature Scaling
The model specifies Tnom, the nominal temperature at which the model parameters
were calculated or extracted. To simulate the device at temperatures other than
Tnom, several model parameters must be scaled with temperature. The temperature
at which the device is simulated is specified by the device item Temp parameter.
(Temperatures in the following equations are in Kelvin.)
The saturation current Is scales as:
364
Is
q Eg
Xti
Temp
Temp
= Is exp  1  +  ln 
Tnom k N Temp N
Tnom
NEW
where
Eg = 1.11
The threshold voltage Vto varies as:
V to
NEW
NEW
NEW
RG
RD
RS
VTOAC
VT SO
NEW
NEW
VT SOAC
GAMMA
NEW
NEW
NEW
NEW
GMMAXAC
VINFL
NEW
GAMMAAC
GMMAX
Temp GAMMAACTC
= GAMMAAC  Tnom
NEW
Noise Model
Thermal noise generated by resistors Rg, Rs, Rd, Ris, Rid, and Rdb is characterized
by the following spectral density.
2
<i >
4kT
 = f
R
Channel noise generated by the DC transconductance gm is characterized by the
following spectral density:
EE_FET3_Model (EEsof Scalable Nonlinear GaAsFet Model)
365
< i ds >
8kT g m
 = f
3
In these expressions, k is Boltzmanns constant, T is the operating temperature in
Kelvin, q is the electron charge, and f is the noise bandwidth.
Flicker noise for this device is not modeled in this version of the simulator. However,
the biasdependent noise sources I_NoiseBD and V_NoiseBD can be connected
external to the device to model flicker noise.
Equivalent Circuit
D
Igd
+ 
Qgy
Rg
G
Rd
Rid D
Y
Rdb
B
Ids
Qgc
+  C
Ris S
Igs
Idb
Cbs
Cdso
Rs
S
X1.A1
Id
0.167708
Ig
9.99941e015
Is
0.167708
Power
0.838539
Gm
0.119883
Gds
0.0109841
GmAc
0.0487499
GdsAc
0.00342116
366
Ggs
2.31388e017
Ggd
dIgd_dVgs
Cgc
1.40818e012
dQgc_dVgy
2.28547e013
Cgy
5e014
dQgy_dVgc
4.57459e025
Vgs
0.25
Vds
Conductance Model
The detailed operating point analysis returns information on the internal
calculations of EEfet3. Since the model accounts for dynamic affects found in
conductance and transconductance of GaAs devices, both DC and AC operation are
reported for Gm and Gds.
Gm, Gds
GmAc, GdsAC
dIgd_dVgs
References
[1] W. R Curtice. A MESFET model for use in the design of GaAs integrated
circuits, IEEE Transactions of Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT28,
pp. 448456, May 1980.
[2] P. C. Canfield, Modeling of frequency and temperature effects in GaAs
MESFETs IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, Vol. 25, pp. 299306,Feb.
1990.
[3] J.M. Golio, M. Miller, G. Maracus, D. Johnson, Frequency dependent electrical
characteristics of GaAs MESFETs, IEEE Trans. Elec. Devices, vol. ED37, pp.
12171227, May 1990.
[4] H. Statz, P. Newman, I. Smith, R. Pucel, H. Haus, GaAs FET device and circuit
simulation in SPICE, IEEE Trans. Elec. Devices, vol. ED34, pp. 160169, Feb.
1987.
367
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Default
Model
name of an EE_HEMT1_Model
Ugw
Noise
yes
_M
Range of Usage
Ugw > 0
N>0
Notes/Equations
1. Ugw and N are used for scaling device instance; refer to EE_HEMT1_Model
(EEsof Scalable Nonlinear HEMT Model) on page 370.
2. Table 33 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 33. DC Operating Point Information
368
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Description
Units
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
GmAc
siemens
GdsAc
siemens
Ggs
Gatesource conductance
siemens
Ggd
Gatedrain conductance
siemens
dIgd_dVgs
(dIgd/dVgs)
siemens
Cgc
farads
dQgc_dVgy
(dQgc/dVgy)
farads
Cgy
farads
dQgy_dVgc
(dQgy/dVgc)
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Gatedrain voltage
volts
369
Available in
Description
Units Default
Vto
1.5
Gamma
1/V
0.05
Vgo
0.5
Vdelt
not used
0.0
Vch
1.0
Gmmax
peak transconductance
70103
Vdso
2.0
Vsat
1.0
Kapa
output conductance
1/V
0.0
Peff
2.0
Vtso
10.0
Is
1020
Ris
ohms 2.0
Rid
ohms 0.0
Tau
sec
1012
Cdso
801015
370
1.0
Name
Description
Units Default
Rdb
ohms 109
Cbs
trappingstate capacitance
1.61013
Vtoac
1.5
Gammaac
0.05
Vdeltac
not used
0.0
Gmmaxac
600103
Kapaac
1/V
0.0
Peffac
10.0
Vtsoac
10.0
Gdbm
0.0
Kdb
Vdsm
1.0
C11o
0.31012
C11th
0.031012
Vinfl
1.0
Deltgs
0.5
Deltds
1.0
Lambda
1/V
1.0
C12sat
0.031012
Cgdsat
0.051012
Kbk
Vbr
15.0
Nbr
2.0
Idsoc
100103
Rd
ohms 1.0
Rs
ohms 1.0
Rg
ohms 1.0
Ugw
0.0
0.0
0.0
371
Name
Description
Units Default
Ngf
Vco
10.0
Vba
1.0
Vbc
1.0
Mu
Deltgm
S/V
0.0
Deltgmac
S/V
0.0
Alpha
103
Kmod
1.0
Kver
version number
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
Rgtc
0.0
Rdtc
0.0
Rstc
0.0
Vtotc
Gmmaxtc
0.0
Xti
3.0
Vinfltc
0.0
Gammatc
0.0
Vtoactc
0.0
V/C
0.0
0.0
0.0
Tnom
25.0
AllParams
372
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for an EE_HEMT1 device.
2. Model parameters such as Ls, Ld, and Lg (as well as other package related
parameters that are included as part of the output from the EE_HEMT1
ICCAP model file) are not used by the EE_HEMT1 component in the simulator.
Only those parameters listed are part of the EE_HEMT1 component. Any
extrinsic components must be added externally by the user.
3. To prevent numerical problems, the setting of some model parameters to 0 is
trapped by the simulator. Parameter values are changed internally as follows:
Rd = 104
Rs = 104
Rg = 104
Ris = 104
Rid = 104
Vsat = 0.1
Peff = 106
Peffac = 106
Deltds = 0.1
Deltgs = 0.1
Idsoc = 0.1
Is = 1050
4. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). A nonlinear device model parameter value that is
explicitly specified will override the value set by an AllParams association.
Equations/Discussion
EE_HEMT1 is an empirical analytic model that was developed by Agilent EEsof for
the express purpose of fitting measured electrical behavior of HEMTs. The model
includes the following features:
Accurate isothermal drainsource current model fits virtually all processes
Flexible transconductance formulation permits accurate fitting of gm
compression found in HEMTs
Selfheating correction for drainsource current
373
374
Vgs = Vts
if Vgs Vg
g mo = Gmmax { 1 + Gamma ( Vdso V ds ) }
( V go + Vto )
I dso = Gmmax V x(V gs)  + Vch
2
cos  + 1
Vto
Vgo
where
Gmmax
g mm(V ) =  [ 1 + Gamma ( Vdso V ds ) ]
2
V x(V ) ( Vgo Vch )
cos  + 1
Vto
Vgo
375
comp
comp
g mo
I dso
g dso
for V gs V b and b 1 ,
b
comp
= g mo [ a ( V gs V a ) + g moff ]
comp
b+1
b+1
a
I dso = I dso  [ ( V gs V a )
V ba
] g moff ( V gs V b )
b+1
I dsv(V b, V ds)
g mo
comp
g dso
for V gs V b and b = 1 ,
376
comp
= g mo [ a ( V gs V a ) + g moff ]
comp
comp
Mu a
= g dso  Mu g moff g dsv(V b, V ds)
(V V )
g mo
I dso
g dso
gs
where
g mv(V b, V ds) g moff
a = b
V ba
s vb Vba
b = g mv(V b, V ds) g moff
Vbc
s vb = Deltgm 2
2
Alpha + Vbc
g mv(V , V ds) = Deltgm
Alpha + ( V V c ) Alpha
I dsv(V , V ds) =
2
( V V c ) + Alpha + ( V V c )
1
2
2
2
Deltgm  ( V V c ) Alpha + ( V V c ) Alpha log  Alpha ( V V c )
Alpha
g dsv(V , V ds) =
2 ( V V ) 2 + Alpha 2
2
(V V c)
1
Alpha
c
Deltgm Mu   +  1 + 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
( V V c ) + Alpha + ( V V c )
Alpha + ( V V c )
Alpha + ( V V c )
Alpha
where g moff = g mo(Vco, Vdso) means replace Vgs by Vco, Vds by Vdso; i.e.,
if Vco > Vgo
gmoff = Gmmax
else if Vco < Vto
gmoff = 0
else
Gmmax
Vco Vgo
gmoff =  cos  + 1
2
Vto Vgo
EE_HEMT1_Model (EEsof Scalable Nonlinear HEMT Model)
377
If junction voltage drops below the onset of subthreshold (Vts), current and
conductances are modified to decay exponentially from their value at Vgs = Vts.
if Idso 0 and Vgs < Vts and Vtso > Vto
and gmo/Idso > 0
gmo
arg =  ( Vts Vgs )
Idso
Idso = Idso exp ( arg )
gmo = gmo exp ( arg )
gdso = gdso exp ( arg )
where
Idso, gmo are Idsocomp, gmocomp if Vgs > Vc
To prevent gm from becoming negative at high gatesource biases, the following
restriction is placed on the parameter Deltgm:
g moff
Deltgm < 2
2
Alpha + Vbc Alpha
comp
comp
comp
The preceding relations for I dso , g mo and g dso can now be substituted in the
following equations that model current saturation and output conductance. This
portion of the model can be recognized from the work of Curtice [1].
comp
g' m = g mo
3V ds
( 1 + Kapa V ds ) tanh 
Vsat
3V ds
comp
I' ds = I dso ( 1 + Kapa V ds ) tanh 
Vsat
3V ds
comp
comp
g' ds = g dso ( 1 + Kapa V ds ) + I dso Kapa tanh 
Vsat
comp
+ I dso
2 3V
3 ( 1 + Kapa V ds )
ds
 sech 
Vsat
Vsat
was incorporated [2]. With this final enhancement, the DC expressions for Ids and its
associated conductances become:
I' ds
I ds = P diss
1 + Peff
g' m
g m = P diss 2
1 + Peff
2
I' ds
g' ds Peff
g ds = P diss 2
1 + Peff
where
P diss = I' ds V ds
Qualitatively, the operation of the drainsource model can be described as follows.
The Vds dependence of the equations is dominated by the parameters Vsat, Gamma,
Kapa, and Peff. Isothermal output conductance is controlled by Gamma and Kapa.
The impact of Gamma on output conductance is more significant near threshold. At
Vgs=Vch, the output conductance is controlled only by Kapa. Peff provides a
correction to the isothermal model for modeling the selfheating effects manifested as
a negative resistance on the IV curves. Vsat represents the drainsource voltage at
which the current saturates and output conductance becomes a constant
(approximately). Mu also impacts the IV curves in the gm compression region, but its
effect is second order. In most cases, the gm fit is more sensitive to the parameter Mu.
The overall impact of Vch on the IV characteristics is second order at best, and many
different values of Vch will provide good fits to IV plots. For most applications
encountered, the default value of 1.0V is an adequate value for Vch. Similar to Vch,
Vdso is a parameter that should be set rather than optimized. At Vds=Vdso, the
drainsource model collapses to a single voltage dependency in Vgs. It is
recommended that the user set Vdso to a typical Vds operating point in saturation. At
379
this point, many of the parameters can be extracted from a IdsVgs plot for Vds=Vdso
or, preferably, a gm(dc)Vgs plot at Vds=Vdso.
When Vds=Vdso and Peff is set large (to disable the selfheating model), the
significance of Vto, Vgo, Gmmax, Vco, Vba, Vbc, Deltgm and Alpha are easily
understood from a plot of gm(dc)Vgs. Gmmax is the peak transconductance of the
model that occurs at Vgs=Vgo. Vto represents the gatesource voltage where gm goes
to zero. Transconductance compression begins at Vgs=Vco. Alpha controls the
abruptness of this transition while Deltgm controls the slope of the gm characteristic
in compression. At Vgs=Vco+Vbc, the linear gm slope begins to tailoff and
asymtotically approach zero. The shape of this tailoff region is controlled by Vba.
The parameter definitions are illustrated in Figure 35.
gm(dc)
Rolloff (Alpha)
Gmmax
DELTGM
Tailoff (Vba)
Vto
Vgo Vco
Vco+Vbc
Vgs
380
The circuit used to model conductance dispersion consists of the Rdb, Cbs (these
linear components are also parameters) and the nonlinear source Idb(Vgs, Vds). The
model is a largesignal generalization of the dispersion model proposed by Golio et al.
[3]. At DC, the drainsource current is just the current Ids. At high frequency (well
above the transition frequency), the drain source current will be equal to Ids(high
frequency) = Ids(dc) + Idb. Linearization of the drainsource model yields the following
expressions for y21 and y22 of the intrinsic EE_HEMT1 model:
g dbgs
y 21 = g dsgs + g dbgs 1 + j Cbs ( Rdb )
1
g
+ 
dbds Rdb
1
y 22 = g dsds + g dbds +  Rdb 1 + j Cbs ( Rdb )
where
I ds
g dsgs = V gs
I ds
g dsds = V ds
I db
g dbgs = V gs
I db
g dbds = V ds
Evaluating these expressions at the frequencies =0 and =infinity, produces the
following results for transconductance and output conductance:
for = 0,
Re [ y 21 ] = g m = g dsgs
Re [ y 22 ] = g ds = g dsds
for = infinity,
381
Re [ y 21 ] = g m = g dsgs + g dbgs
1
Re [ y 22 ] = g ds = g dsds + g dbds + Rdb
Between these two extremes, the conductances make a smooth transition, the
abruptness of which is governed by the time constant disp = Rdb Cbs. The
frequency f0 at which the conductances are midway between these two extremes is
defined as
1
f 0 = 2 disp
The parameter Rdb should be set large enough so that its contribution to the output
conductance is negligible. Unless the user is specifically interested in simulating the
device near f0, the default values of Rdb and Cbs will be adequate for most microwave
applications.
The EE_HEMT1 Ids model can be extracted to fit either DC or AC characteristics. In
order to simultaneously fit both DC IV characteristics and AC conductances,
EE_HEMT1 uses a simple scheme for modeling the Idb current source whereby
different values of the same parameters can be used in the Ids equations. The DC and
AC drainsource currents can be expressed as follows:
dc
dc
I db(V gs, V ds) = I ds(V gs, V ds) I ds(V gs, V ds) + I dbp(V ds)
382
Gdbm 1
 tan ( ( V ds Vdsm ) Kdb ( Gdbm ) + Gdbm Vdsm )
Kdb
Gdbm
g dbp = 2
( Kdb ( Gdbm ( V ds Vdsm ) + 1 ) )
for Vds Vdsm and Kdb 0:
I dbp =
Gdbm 1
 tan ( ( V ds + Vdsm ) Kdb ( Gdbm ) ) Gdsm Vdsn
Kdb
( Gdbm )
g dbp = 2
( Kdb ( Gdbm ( V ds + Vdsm ) + 1 ) )
for Vdsm V ds Vdsm or Kdb = 0 :
I dsm = Gdbm V ds
g dbm = Gdbm
By setting the eight highfrequency parameters equal to their DC counterparts, the
dispersion model reduces to Idb=Idbp. Examination of the Idbp expression reveals
that the additional setting of Gdbm to zero disables the dispersion model entirely.
Since the Idbp current is a function of Vds only, it will impact output conductance only.
However, the current function
AC
I ds
will impact both gm and gds. For this reason, the model is primarily intended to
utilize gm data as a means for tuning
AC
I ds
Once this fitting is accomplished, the parameters Gdbm, Kdb and Vdsm can be tuned
to optimize the gds fit.
383
3
This expression is valid for both positive and negative Vds. Symmetry is forced
through the following smoothing functions proposed by Statz [4]:
2
2
1
V j =  2V gs V ds + V ds + Deltds
Vo =
V ds + Deltds
Differentiating the gate charge expression wrt Vgs yields the following expression for
the gate capacitance C11:
C11o C11th
C 11(V j, V o) =  g'(V j) + C11th [ 1 + Lambda ( V o Vdso ) ]
2
384
where
d g(V j)
3
g'(V j) =  = 1 + tanh  ( V j Vinfl )
Deltgs
dV j
The gate transcapacitance C12 is defined as:
q g V j q g V o
q g
C 12(V j, V o) =  =   +  V j V ds V o V ds
V ds
V ds
1
= C 11(V j, V o)   1
2
2
2
V ds + Deltds
C11o C11th
+  g ( V j Vinfl )
2
V ds
Lambda C12sat 2
2
V ds + Deltds
The EE_HEMT1 topology requires that the gate charge be subdivided between the
respective charge sources qgc and qgy. Although simulation could be performed
directly from the nodal gate charge qg, division of the charge into branches permits
the inclusion of the resistances Ris and Rid that model charging delay between the
depletion region and the channel. EE_HEMT1 assumes the following form for the
gatedrain charge in saturation:
q gy(V gy) = Cgdsat ( V gy + q gyo )
which gives rise to a constant gatedrain capacitance in saturation.
The gatesource charge qgc can now be obtained by subtracting the latter from the
gate charge equation. Smoothing functions can then be applied to these expressions
in saturation in order to extend the models applicable bias range to all Vds values.
These smoothing functions force symmetry on the qgy and qgc charges such that
qg
q gy = q gc = 2
385
at Vgc = Vgy. Under large negative Vds (saturation at the source end of the device), qgy
and qgc swap roles, i.e:
q gc(V gc) = Cgdsat ( V gc + q gco )
The following continuous charge equations satisfy these constraints and are specified
in terms of the gate charge:
q gy(V gc, V gy) = { q g(V gc, V gc V gy) Cgdsat V gc } f 2
+ Cgdsat V gy t f 1
q gc(V gc, V gy) = { q g(V gc, V gc V gy) Cgdsat V gy } f 1
+ C ( Ggdsat ) V gc f 2
where f1 and f2 are smoothing functions defined by
1
3
f 1 =  1 + tanh  ( V gc V gy )
Deltds
2
and
1
3
f 2 =  1 tanh  ( V gc V gy )
Deltds
2
The capacitances associated with these branch charge sources can be obtained
through differentiation of the qgc and qgy equations and by application of the chain
rule to the capacitances C11 and C12. The gate charge derivatives reformulated in
terms of Vgc and Vgy are:
q g
C ggy =  = C 12(V gc, V gc V gy)
V gy
q g
C ggc =  = C 11(V gc, V gc V gy) + C 12(V gc, V gc V gy)
V gc
386
f 2
q gy
C gygc =  = { q g(V gc, V gc V gy) Cgdsat V gc } V gc
V gc
f 1
+ f 2 [ C ggc Cgdsat ] + Cgdsat V gy V
gc
f 1
q gc
C gcgc =  = { q g(V gc, V gc V gy) Cgdsat V gy } V gc
V gc
f 2
+ f 1 C ggc + Cdsat V gc  + f 2
V
gc
f 1
q gc
C gcgy =  = { q g(V gc, V gc V gy) Cgdsat V gy } V gy
V gy
f 2
+ f 1 [ C ggy Cgdsat ] + Cgdsat V gc V
gy
where
2 3(V
f 1
3
gc V gy )
 =  sech 
2 Deltds
Deltds
V gc
f 1
f 1
 = V gy
V gc
f 2
f 1
 = V gc
V gc
f 2
f 1
 = V gy
V gc
387
When Vds=Vdso and Vdso>>Deltds, the gate capacitance C11 reduces to a single
voltage dependency in Vgs. Similar to the Ids model, the majority of the important
gate charge parameters can then be estimated from a single trace of a plot. In this
case, the plot of interest is C11Vgs at Vds = Vdso. The parameter definitions are
illustrated in Figure 36.
The parameter Deltds models the gate capacitance transition from the linear region
of the device into saturation. Lambda models the slope of the C11Vds characteristic
in saturation. C12sat is used to fit the gate transcapacitance (C12) in saturation.
C11
C11o
C11th
Deltgs
Vinfl
Vgs
388
qV gs
nkT
Ugw
N
sf = Ugw Ngf
Ugw N
sfg = new
Ngf
Ugw
where Ugwnew represents the device parameter Ugw, the new unit gate width.
EE_HEMT1_Model (EEsof Scalable Nonlinear HEMT Model)
389
Scaling will be disabled if any of the four scaling parameters are set to 0. The new
EE_HEMT1 parameters are calculated internally by the simulator according to the
following equations:
Ris
= sf
new
Rid
= Rid
sf
Ris
new
Gmmax
new
Gmmaxac
Deltgm
Peff
new
new
Deltgmac
new
= Gmmax sf
= Gmmaxac sf
= Deltgm sf
new
= Deltgmac sf
= Pef f sf
new
= Peffac sf
new
Rdb
= Rdb
sf
Peffac
new
= Gdbm sf
new
Kdb
= Kdb
sf
Gdbm
Is
new
Kbk
= Is sf
new
= Kbk sf
new
= Idsocs sf
Rg
= Rg
sfg
new
Rd
= Rd
sf
new
Rs
= Rs
sf
Idsoc
new
Cbs
new
C11o
C11th
390
= Cbs sf
new
= C11o sf
new
= C11th sf
C12sat
new
= C12sat sf
new
= Cgdsat sf
Cgdsat
Cdso
new
= Cdso sf
Noise Model
Thermal noise generated by resistors Rg, Rs, Rd, Ris, Rid, and Rdb is characterized
by the following spectral density.
2
<i >
4kT
 = f
R
Channel noise generated by the DC transconductance gm is characterized by the
following spectral density:
2
< i ds >
8kT g m
 = f
3
In the preceding expressions, k is Boltzmanns constant, T is the operating
temperature in Kelvin, q is the electron charge, and f is the noise bandwidth.
Flicker noise for this device is not modeled in this version of the simulator. However,
the biasdependent noise sources I_NoiseBD and V_NoiseBD can be connected
external to the device to model flicker noise.
Temperature Scaling
The model specifies Tnom, the nominal temperature at which the model parameters
were calculated or extracted. To simulate the device at temperatures other than
Tnom, several model parameters must be scaled with temperature. The temperature
at which the device is simulated is specified by the device item Temp parameter.
(Temperatures in the following equations are in Kelvin.)
The saturation current Is scales as:
Is
NEW
q Eg
Xti
Temp
Temp
= Is exp  1  +  ln 
Tnom k N Temp N
Tnom
where
Eg = 1.11
391
NEW
NEW
NEW
RG
RD
RS
VTOAC
VT SO
NEW
NEW
VT SOAC
GAMMA
NEW
392
NEW
NEW
NEW
GMMAXAC
VINFL
NEW
GAMMAAC
GMMAX
Temp GAMMAACTC
= GAMMAAC  Tnom
NEW
Equivalent Circuit
D
Igd
+ 
Qgy
Rd
Rid D
Y
Rdb
Rg
G
Ids
G
+ 
Idb
Cdso
Cbs
Qgc
C
Ris S
Igs
Rs
S
References
[1] W. R. Curtice, A MESFET model for use in the design of GaAs integrated
circuits, IEEE Transactions of Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT28,
pp. 448456, May 1980.
[2] P. C. Canfield, Modeling of frequency and temperature effects in GaAs
MESFETs IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, Vol. 25, pp. 299306, Feb.
1990.
[3] J. M. Golio, M. Miller, G. Maracus, D. Johnson, Frequency dependent electrical
characteristics of GaAs MESFETs, IEEE Trans. Elec. Devices, vol. ED37, pp.
12171227, May 1990.
[4] H. Statz, P. Newman, I. Smith, R. Pucel, H. Haus. GaAs FET device and circuit
simulation in SPICE, IEEE Trans. Elec. Devices, vol. ED34, pp. 160169, Feb.
1987.
393
Available in
Parameters
Unit
s
Default
Name
Description
Model
Area
scaling factor that scales certain parameter values of the associated model
item
Temp
Trise
Noise
yes
_M
1.0
25
Range of Usage
Area > 0
Notes/Equations
1. Advanced_Curtice2_Model, Curtice2_Model, Curtice3_Model, Materka_Model,
Modified_Materka_Model, Statz_Model, and Tajima_Model are the nonlinear
model items that define the GaAsFET.
2. The Area parameter permits changes to a specific semiconductor because
semiconductors may share the same model.
Parameters scaled proportionally to Area: A0, A1, A2, A3, Beta, Cgs, Cgd,
Cgs, Cds, Is.
394
Resistive parameters scaled inversely proportional to Area: Rd, Rg, Rs. For
example, Model = Curtice2 and Area=3 use the following calculations:
Rd/3: Cgs 3 Beta 3
Rg/3: Cgdo 3
Rs/3: Cds 3
These calculations have the same effect as placing three devices in parallel to
simulate a larger device and are much more efficient.
3. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device. If this is different than the temperature at which the model parameters
are valid or extracted (specified by the Tnom parameter of the associated model
item) certain model parameters are scaled such that the device is simulated at
its operating temperature. Refer to the appropriate model to see which
parameter values are scaled.
4. Table 34 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 34. DC Operating Point Information
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
Ggs
siemens
Ggd
siemens
dIgs_dVgd
(dIgs/dVgd)
siemens
dIgd_dVgs
(dIgd/dVgs)
siemens
dIds_dVgb
siemens
Cgs
Gatesource capacitance
farads
Cgd
Gatedrain capacitance
farads
Cds
Drainsource capacitance
farads
dQgs_dVgd
(dQgs/dVgd)
farads
395
Description
Units
dQgd_dVgs
(dQgd/dVgs)
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Drainsource voltage
volts
396
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
Units
Default
Wtot
104
_M
Notes/Equations
1. If Wtot or N is specified as Rawfile value or zero, the default gate width as
specified in the model file is used. For other values, these values can be used to
scale the extracted model for different geometries. Scaling remains valid for
ratios up to 5:1.
2. Wtot is the total gate widthnot the width per finger; the parameter N is the
number of fingers; therefore, the width per finger is Wtot/N.
3. Currents and capacitances scale linearly with gate width:
Wtot
I = I 0 W
0
Wtot
C = C 0 W
0
397
W0
Rd = R D0 Wtot
W0
Rs = R S0 Wtot
where Wtot and N are the userspecified values and W0 and N0 are the
extracted values given in the ADS_FET_Model. The parasitic inductances do
not scale.
4. Care should be taken when using the transistor outside of the region at which
the model measurements were taken. Extrapolation of the measured data may
occur without warning during DC, harmonic balance, and timedomain
analyses. This extrapolated data may produce unreliable results.
5. ADS_FET currents can be measured with the standard current measurements,
except that pins must be specified by number instead of name; for example,
1=G, 2=D, 3=S.
6. The ADS_FET cannot be temperature scaled and is noiseless.
7. Table 35 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 35. DC Operating Point Information
398
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
Ggs
siemens
dIg_dVds
(dIg/dVds)
siemens
dQd_dVds
(dQd/dVds)
farads
Description
Units
dQd_dVgs
(dQd/dVgs)
farads
dQg_dVds
(dQg/dVds)
farads
dQg_dVgs
(dQg/dVgs)
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Gatedrain voltage
volts
399
Available in
Description
File
Units Default
Rs
Rg
Rd
Ls
rawfile value
Lg
rawfile value
Ld
rawfile value
AllParams
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for an ADS_FET device.
2. The default extension for the model file is.raw. This file should be in the same
format as ADS Root model data.
3. If Rs, Rg, Rd, Ls, Lg, or Ld is specified as rawfile value or zero, the default
parasitic value is taken from the extracted values stored in the data file named
by File parameter. Generally, rawfile value should be used.
4. Because this model is measurementbased, extrapolation warning messages
may occur if the Newton iteration exceeds the measurement range. If these
messages occur frequently, check that the measurement data is within the
simulation range.
3100
3101
Available in
Description
NFET
Nchannel model
Units
Default
yes
PFET
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Idss
Vto
threshold voltage
Alpha
Beta2
1/V
Tau
sec
Lambda
1/V
Rin
channel resistance
ohms
Fc
0.5
Gscap
Cgs
Gdcap
Cgd
0.0
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rg
gate resistance
linear
F
linear
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
3102
0.0
Name
Description
Rs
source resistance
Ld
drain inductance
henry
0.0
Lg
gate inductance
henry
0.0
Ls
source inductance
henry
0.0
Gsfwd
linear
Gsrev
none
Gdfwd
none
Gdrev
linear
Vbi
0.85
Vjr
0.025
Is
1014
Ir
1014
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
Vbr
Fnc
Hz
0.5
0.9
Taumdl
no
Tnom
25
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
Units
Default
0.0
10100
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
3103
Name
Description
Units
wIdsmax
wPmax
AllParams
Default
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a GaAsFET device.
2. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
3. Drain current in the Materka_Model is calculated with the following
expression:
Vp = Vto + Beta2 Vds
if (Vfc  Vp 0 or Vp 0)
else
TI = ABS (Alpha Vds)
TanhF = tanh (TI/(Vgc Vp))
2
Vgc
Ids Idss  1 TanhF ( 1 + Lambda Vds )
Vp
i d
 = 4kT g m P ( 1 + f NC f )
f
3104
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
5. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). A nonlinear device model parameter value that is
explicitly specified will override the value set by an AllParams association.
References
[1] A. Cappy, Noise Modeling and Measurement Techniques, IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 110, Jan. 1988.
3105
Available in
Description
NFET
Nchannel model
Units
Default
yes
PFET
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Ids
see Note 1
Qgs
see Note 1
Qgd
1/V
see Note1
Igd
1/V
see Note 1
Igs
1/V
see Note 1
Beta
transconductance
A/V2
1.0e4
Lambda
1/V
0.0
Alpha
current saturation
1/V
2.0
Tnom
ohms
25
Idstc
ohms
Vbi
0.85
Tau
0.0
Rds0
ohms
Betatce
%/C
0.0
Delta1
0.3
Delta2
0.2
3106
0.3
Name
Description
Units
Default
Gscap
linear
Gdcap
linear
Cgs
0.0
Cgd
0.0
Rgs
GS resistance
Ohm
0.0
Rgd
Ohm
0.0
Rf
Ohm
Tqm
0.2
Vmax
0.5
Fc
0.5
Rd
Ohm
fixed at 0
Rg
gate resistance
Ohm
fixed at 0
Rs
Ohm
fixed at 0
Ld
drain inductance
fixed at 0
Lg
gate inductance
fixed at 0
Ls
source inductance
fixed at 0
Cds
drainsource cap
0.0
Crf
10100
Rc
Ohm
0.5
Gsfwd
linear
Gdfwd
none
Gsrev
none
Gdrev
none
Vjr
0.025
Is
1.0e14
Ir
1.0e14
Imax
expression current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
0.0
3107
Name
Description
Xti
Units
Default
3.0
Eg
1.1.1
Vbr
1e100
Vtotc
V/C
0.0
Rin
channel resistance
Ohm
0.0
Taumdl
Fnc
0.5
0.9
1.0
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
AllParams
no
Hertz
0.0
Notes/Equations
1. Equations for default settings:
Ids = (100ma) ((1+_v2))2) tanh(_v1)
Qgs = (1pf) (_v1)  (1pf) ((_v2) (_v1)) (_v1)
Qgd = (1prf) (_v1)  ((v2) (v1)) (_v1)
Igd = ramp ((10 + (_v1)) / 10)
Igs = ramp ((10 + (_v1)) / 10)
2. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
3108
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
3109
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NFET
Nchannel model
yes
PFET
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Idss
Vto
threshold voltage
Beta2
1/V
Ee
1/V
Ke
1/V
Kg
1/V
Sl
Ss
Tau
sec
Rgs
channel resistance
ohms
Rgd
ohms
Fc
Gscap
Cgs
Gdcap
Cgd
3110
0.5
Name
Description
Units
Default
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rg
gate resistance
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Ld
drain inductance
henry
0.0
Lg
gate inductance
henry
0.0
Ls
source inductance
henry
0.0
Cds
drainsource capacitance
0.0
Gsfwd
Gsrev
Gdfwd
Gdrev
Vbi
Vjr
0.025
Is
1014
Ir
1014
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
Fnc
Hz
Lambda
1/V
Vbr
10100
0.5
0.9
Taumdl
no
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
3111
Name
Description
Units
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
AllParams
Default
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a GaAsFET device.
2. Drain current in the Modified_Materka_Model is calculated as follows:
Vp = Vto + Beta2 Vds
if (Vfc  Vp 0 or Vp 0)
and Ids=0
else
Vgc ( Ee + Ke Vgc )
power0 = 1 
Vp
fi = Idss power0
gi= tanh (Sl Vds/(Idss (1Kg Vgc)))
hi = 1 + Ss Vds/Idss
Ids = fi gi hi
3. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
4. The P, R, and C parameters model drain and gate noise sources.
3112
i d
 = 4kT g m P ( 1 + f NC f )
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
5. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). A nonlinear device model parameter value that is
explicitly specified will override the value set by an AllParams association.
References
[1] A. Cappy, Noise Modeling and Measurement Techniques, IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 110, Jan. 1988.
3113
Available in
Description
NFET
Nchannel type
Units
yes
Default
PFET
Pchannel type
no
Idsmod
Statz model
Vto
threshold voltage
Beta,
transconductance
A/V2
104
Lambda
output conductance
1/V
0.0
Alpha
current saturation
1/V
2.0
1/V
0.0
Tnom
25
Idstc
A/TempC
Vbi
0.85
Tau
sec
0.0
Betatce
%/C
0.0
3114
Name
Description
Units
Default
Delta1
0.3
Delta2
0.2
Gscap
Cgs,
Gdcap
Cgd,
0.0
Rgd
ohms
Tqm
0.2
Vmax
0.5
Fc
0.5
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rg
gate resistance
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Ld
drain inductance
henry
0.0
Lg
gate inductance
henry
0.0
Ls
source inductance
henry
0.0
Cds
drainsource capacitance
Crf
0.0
Rc
ohms
infinity
linear
F
0.0
linear
Gsfwd
linear
Gsrev
none
Gdfwd
none
Gdrev
linear
3115
Name
Description
Units
Default
Vjr
0.025
Is
1014
Ir
1014
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
Xti
3.0
Eg
Vbr
Vtotc
V/C
0.0
Rin
channel resistance
ohms
0.0
Taumdl
Fnc
0.5
0.9
1.0
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
Kf
Af
eV
3116
10100
no
Hz
1.11
Name
Description
Units
Ffe
AllParams
Default
1
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
GaAs Idsmod=3[parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by GaAsFET components to refer to the model. The
third parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is GaAs. Idsmod=3 is a
required parameter that is used to tell the simulator to use the Statz equations. Use
either parameter NFET=yes or PFET=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the
model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign.
The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model gf1 GaAs Idsmod=3 \
Vto=2.5 Beta=1e3 NFET=yes
3117
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
3118
2
V ds 3
V gs Vto
I ds =  1 1 ( 1 + V ds )
3
1 + V gs Vto
( V gs Vto )
Ids =  ( 1 + V ds )
1 + ( V gs Vto )
The current is set to zero for Vgs < Vto.
where is Alpha, is Beta, is B.
Gate Charge
You are provided with two options in modeling the junction capacitance of a device.
The first is to model the junction as a linear component (a constant capacitance).
The second is to model the junction using a diode depletion capacitance model. If a
nonzero value of Cgs is specified and Gscap is set to 1 (linear), the gatesource
junction will be modeled as a linear component. Similarly, specifying a nonzero
value for Cgd and Gdcap = 1 result in a linear gatedrain model. A nonzero value
for either Cgs or Cgd together with Gscap =2 (junction) or Gdcap = 2 will force the
use of the diode depletion capacitance model for that particular junction. Note that
each junction is modeled independent of the other; hence, it is possible to model
one junction as a linear component while the other is treated nonlinearly. The
junction depletion charge and capacitance equations are summarized below.
The gate charge in Statz_Model is given by,
for Vnew > Vmax,
Vbi
V max

Vbi
for Vnew Vmax
3119
V new
where
Vmax = Min (Fc x Vbi, Vmax)
2
2
1
V new =  V eff 1 + Vto + ( V eff 1 Vto ) + Delta2
2
2
2
1
V eff 1 =  V gc + V gd + ( V gc V gd ) + Delta1
2
and
2
2
1
V eff 2 =  V gc + V gd ( V gc V gd ) + Delta1
2
The inclusion of Ri requires that one of the controlling voltages be switched from Vgs
to Vgc. This results in a symmetry between the dc nodes instead of the ds nodal
symmetry described in the Statz paper (of course, if Ri is set to zero, the model
reduces to the exact representation in the Statz paper).
To implement this model in a simulator, the gate charge must be partitioned between
the gc and gd branches. Implementation of the Statz model partitions the gate
charge according to the work of Divekar [2]. Under this partitioning scheme, the
gatesource charge is given by:
for Vnew > Vmax,
Vbi
V max

1
Vbi
for Vnew Vmax
V new
3120
3121
Vbr + V gs
I gs = Is exp  + Is [ exp ( 10 ) 1 ] + g gs ( V gs 10 N v t )
N vt
GateDrain Current
Time Delay
Like Curtice2_Model and Curtice3 _Model, Statz_Model uses an ideal time delay
to model transit time effects under the gate. In the time domain, the drain source
current for the ideal delay is given by:
Ids(t) = Ids(Vj(tTau), Vds(t))
where Vj = Vgs or Vj = Vgd (depending on whether Vds is positive or negative). In
the frequency domain, only the transconductance is impacted by this delay and the
familiar expression for transconductance is obtained
ym = gm exp(j Tau)
HighFrequency Output Conductance
The seriesRC network, Figure 37, is comprised of the Crf and Rc parameters and
is included to provide a correction to the AC output conductance at a specific bias
3122
condition. At a frequency high enough such that Crf is an effective short, the
output conductance of the device can be increased by the factor 1/Rc. (Also see [3].)
D
Igd
Rd
+ 
Qgd
G
Crf
Rg
G
Ids
Cds
Rc
Qgs
C
+ Rin S
Igs
Rs
S
The model specifies Tnom, the nominal temperature at which the model
parameters were calculated or extracted. To simulate the device at temperatures
other than Tnom, several model parameters must be scaled with temperature. The
temperature at which the device is simulated is specified by the device item Temp
parameter. (Temperatures in the following equations are in Kelvin.)
The saturation current Is scales as:
Is
NEW
q Eg
Xti
Temp
Temp
= Is exp  1  +  ln 
Tnom k N Temp N
Tnom
C gs
NEW
NEW
4
Vbi
= Cgs 1 + Tqm 4 10 ( Temp Tnom )  1
Vbi
NEW
4
Vbi
= Cgd 1 + Tqm 4 10 ( Temp Tnom )  1
Vbi
C gd
NEW
3123
V bi
Tnom
Temp
2k Temp n i
=  Vbi +  1n 
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
NEW
NEW
NEW
= Beta 1.01
Noise Model
Thermal noise generated by resistors Rg, Rs, Rd and Rin is characterized by the
spectral density:
2
<i >
4kT
 = f
R
Parameters P, R, and C model drain and gate noise sources.
2
i d
Af
Ffe
 = 4kT g m P + 4kT g m PFnc f + Kf Ids
f
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
For Series IV compatibility, set P=2/3, R=0, C=0, and Fnc=0; copy Kf, Af, and Ffe from
the Series IV model.
References
[1] H. Statz, P. Newman, I. Smith, R. Pucel and H. Haus. GaAs FET device and
circuit simulation in SPICE, IEEE Trans, on Electron Devices, vol. ED34, pp.
160169, Feb. 1987.
3124
[2] D. Divekar, Comments on GaAs FET device and circuit simulation in SPICE,
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. ED34, pp. 25642565, Dec. 1987.
[3] C. CamachoPenalosa and C.S. Aitchison. Modelling frequency dependence of
output impedance of a microwave MESFET at low frequencies, Electron. Lett.,
Vol. 21, pp. 528529, June 6, 1985.
[4] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio. Semiconductor device modeling with SPICE,
New York: McGrawHill, Second Edition 1993.
[5] A. Cappy, Noise Modeling and Measurement Techniques, IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 110, Jan. 1988.
3125
Available in
Description
Units
NFET
Nchannel model
yes
PFET
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Vdss
Vto
Beta2
1/V
Ta
model 5: a coefficient
0.2
Tb
model 5: b coefficient
0.6
Tm
model 5: m coefficient
3.0
Idss
Rin
channel resistance
ohms
Fc
0.5
Gscap
linear
Cgs
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
3126
Default
0.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
Gdcap
Cgd
0.0
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rg
gate resistance
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Ld
drain inductance
henry
0.0
Lg
gate inductance
henry
0.0
Ls
source inductance
henry
0.0
Cds
drainsource capacitance
0.0
Crf
0.0
Rc
ohms
infinity
Gsfwd
linear
Gsrev
none
linear
Gdfwd
none
Gdrev
linear
Vbi
0.85
Is
1014
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
Fnc
0.5
Tnom
oC
wVgfwd
Hz
0.9
25
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
3127
Name
Description
Units
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
AllParams
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a GaAsFET device.
2. The P, R, and C parameters model drain and gate noise sources.
2
i d
 = 4kT g m P ( 1 + f NC f )
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
3. Additional parameter equations are given:
p = Vto Beta2 Vds Vbi
c = (gs Vbi  p)/p
If p
0 or c 0, then ids = 0
else
3128
Default
( exp ( Tm c ) )
( 1 exp ( Tm ) )
id 1 =  c 1 Tm
Tm
ds
ds 2
ds 3
id 2 = Idss 1 exp  Ta  Tb 
Vdss
Vdss
Vdss
ids = id1 id2
4. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
5. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). A nonlinear device model parameter value that is
explicitly specified will override the value set by an AllParams association.
References
[1] A. Cappy, Noise Modeling and Measurement Techniques, IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 110, Jan. 1988.
3129
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Units Default
Model
name of a TOM_Model
1.0
Temp
_M
25
1
Range of Usage
W>0
N>0
Notes/Equations
1. W and N are used for scaling device instance as described in the TOM_Model
information.
2. Table 36 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 36. DC Operating Point Information
3130
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Description
Units
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
Ggs
siemens
Ggd
siemens
dIgs_dVgd
(dIgs/dVgd)
siemens
dIgd_dVgs
(dIgd/dVgs)
siemens
dIds_dVgb
siemens
Cgs
Gatesource capacitance
farads
Cgd
Gatedrain capacitance
farads
Cds
Drainsource capacitance
farads
dQgs_dVgd
(dQgs/dVgd)
farads
dQgd_dVgs
(dQgd/dVgs)
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Drainsource voltage
volts
3131
Available in
Description
Units
Default
Idsmod
Ids model
Vto
Vtosc
0.0
Alpha
1/V
2.0
Beta,
transconductance coefficient
A/V2
104
Tqdelta
1/W
Tqgamma
TggammaAc
Tnom
0.0
0.0
C
25
Tau
sec
0.0
Vtotc
V/C
0.0
Betatce
%/C
0.0
2.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Total gate resistance is Rg + Rgmet.
3132
Name
Description
Units
Default
Cgs,
0.0
Cgd,
0.0
Vbi
0.85
Tqm
Vmax
Fc
Delta1
0.3
Delta2
0.2
grading coefficient
Is,
Eg
Xti
Vbr
infinity
Rg
gate resistance
ohms
0.0
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Trg1
1/C
Trd1
1/C
Trs1
1/C
Cds
0.0
Rdb
Ohms
0.0
Cbs
0.0
0.2
V
0.5
0.5
A
1014
1.0
eV
1.11
3.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Total gate resistance is Rg + Rgmet.
3133
Name
Description
Units
Default
Rgmet
ohms
0.0
Ris
ohms
0.0
Rid
ohms
0.0
Vgr
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
Fnc
Hz
0.5
0.9
Kf
Af
Ffe
Taumdl
no
Ugw
Ngf
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
Gscap
Statz
Gsfwd
0=none,1=linear,2=diode
diode
No
meter
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value scales inversely with Area.
Parameter value scales with Area.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Total gate resistance is Rg + Rgmet.
3134
1e6
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a TOM device.
2. Implementation of the TOM model is based on the work of McCaman et al, and
includes some features not covered in McCamans work. These enhancements
include scaling with gate area and a seamless method for simulating with two
different values for the parameters Tqgamma and TqgammaAc (one extracted
at DC and the other adjusted to fit AC output conductance).
3. Model parameters such as Ls, Ld, Lg are not used by the TOM device in the
simulator. Only those parameters in the parameters list are part of the TOM
device. Extrinsic devices must be added externally by the user.
4. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
5. To prevent numerical problems, the setting of some model parameters to 0 is
trapped by the simulator. The parameter values are changed internally:
Rd = 104
Rs = 104
Rg = 104
Ris = 104
Rid = 104
Rgmet = 104
Other parameters are restricted to values > 0. If the user violates this
restriction, the parameters will be internally fixed by the simulator:
Vbi = 0.1
N = 1.0
Tqdelta= 0.0
3135
Equations/Discussion
DC DrainSource Current
The Tom DC drainsource current model is an enhanced version of the one published
by McCamant et al. It includes the same features as the version implemented by
TriQuint in PSPICE for their foundry customers (minus temperature effects). The
TOM model DC drainsource current is given by the following expressions:
Idso
Ids = 1 + V ds Idso
where
Q
Vds
Idso = ( V gs V t ) 1 1 3
Idso = ( V gs V t )
for Vds 3/
The gate capacitances in the TOM model come from Statz et al.
The gatesource capacitance:
1
1
Cgs
1
Vgs Vgd
Veff Vto
  1 +   1 +  + Cgd 2
2
2
2
2
2
Vn 2
( Vgs Vgd ) + Delta
( Veff Vto ) + Delta2
1 Vbi
Vgs Vgd
1 2
2
( Vgs Vgd ) + Delta
3136
Vgs Vgd
1 + 2
2
( Vgs Vgd ) + Delta
where
1
Delta = Delta1 if Delta1 is specified, otherwise Delta = Alpha
1
2
2
Veff =  ( Vgs + Vgd + ( Vgs Vgd ) + Delta )
2
1
2
2
Vnew =  ( Veff + Vto + ( Veff Vto ) + Delta2 )
2
Vn = Vnew if Vnew < Min (Fc Vbi, Vmax) otherwise Vn = Min (Fc Vbi, Vmax)
HighFrequency Output Conductance
In their paper McCaman et al., discuss the effects of the parameter on the output
conductance of the TOM model. Agilents implementation permits the user to input
both a DC (Tqgamma) and high frequency (TqgammaAc) value into the model. Given
these two values, two separate values of the drainsource current function Ids can
be calculated, one for DC and one for AC:
IdsDC = Ids (Vgs (tTau), Vds, Tqgamma)
IdsAC = Ids (Vgs (tTau), Vds, TqgammaAc)
These two current functions can be seamlessly integrated into the nonlinear model by
setting the current source in the equivalent circuit to the difference of these two
functions:
Idb (Vgs (tTau), Vds) = IdsAC  IdsDC
The circuit elements Rdb and Cbs are both linear elements that are used to control
the frequency at which the current source Idb becomes a factor. Note that at DC the
source Idb has no impact on the response and the drainsource current is just the DC
value. At very high frequency and with Rdb set to a very large quantity, the sources
Ids and Idb add, giving the AC value for the drainsource current. The frequency at
which the current (conductance) is midway between its two transitional extremes is
1
f o = 2 disp
where
3137
new
= Beta sf
Tqdelta
= sf
new
Vtosc
= Vtosc
sf
Tqdelta
new
new
= Is sf
new
Ris
= Ris
sf
Is
Rid
3138
new
Rid
= sf
TOM_Model uses an extensive set of temperature scaling relations that permit the
analysis of drain current, gate current, capacitances and even parasitic resistances
over ambient temperature changes. The scaling relations assume the unscaled
(nominal) parameters were extracted at Tnom. The parameters are scaled to an
arbitrary operating ambient temperature (Temp) through the temperature scaling
relations. Note that the user must specify the temperatures Temp and Tnom in C;
the program converts these temperatures to units of Kelvin. The equations that
follow use temperature in Kelvin.
Temp
Temp
Vbi ( Temp ) = V bi  3V t log 
Tnom
Tnom
Temp
E g(Tnom)  + E g ( Temp )
Tnom
Betatce ( Temp Tnom
Xti
N
Temp
Eg
Temp
Is(Temp) = exp  1  Is  Tnom
Tnom V
t
Vbi ( Temp )
( Temp Tnom ) + 1 
Vbi
where
V Temp
V t = q
4 2
1.519 5.405 10 T
E g(T ) = T + 204
where
3139
19
C.
Noise Model
4kT
<i >
 = f
R
Parameters P, R, and C model drain and gate noise sources.
2
i d
Af
Ffe
 = 4kT g m P + 4kT g m PFnc f + Kf Ids
f
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
For Series IV compatibility, set P=2/3, R=0, C=0, and Fnc=0; copy Kf, Af, and Ffe from
the Series IV model.
Equivalent Circuit
D
Igd
+ 
Qgd
Rd
Rid D
Y
Rdb
Rg
G
Ids
G
Qgs
+ 
Idb
Cbs
C
Ris S
Igs
Rs
S
3140
Cds
References
[1] A. McCaman, G. McCormack and D. Smith. An Improved GaAs MESFET
Model for SPICE, IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT38,
pp. 822824, June 1990.
[2] H. Statz, P. Newman, I. Smith, R. Pucel and H. Haus. GaAs FET Device and
Circuit Simulation in SPICE, IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. ED34,
pp. 160169, Feb. 1987.
[3] A. Cappy, Noise Modeling and Measurement Techniques, IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 110, Jan. 1988.
3141
Available in
ADS
Parameters
Name
Description
Units Default
Model
name of a TOM3_Model
gate width
Ng
Temp
Trise
Noise
yes
_M
TOM3M1
m
0 (no scaling)
0 (no scaling)
25
Range of Usage
W>0
Ng > 0
Notes/Equations
1. W and Ng are used for scaling device instance. See TOM3_Model information
for details. Area/finger scaling is performed only if both W and Ng are specified
and their values are positive.
2. Table 37 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
3142
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
Cgs
farads
Cgd
farads
Ggse
siemens
Ggde
siemens
Ggsi
siemens
Ggdi
siemens
Vgse
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vgde
Gatedrain voltage
volts
Vcvs
volts
dVcvs_dVc
Vgs
volts
Vds
volts
3143
Available in
ADS
Parameters
Model parameters must be specified in SI units.
Name
Description
NFET
Nchannel type
Units
YES
Default
PFET
Pchannel type
NO
Tnom
deg C
Ugw
Ngf
Vto
threshold voltage
2.0
Alpha
1/V
3.0
A/VQ
0.05
Lambda
1/V
Gamma
0.1
2.0
25
1.0e6
1
Vst
0.05
Mst
1/V
Ilk
0.1e6
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
3.0
3144
Name
Description
Units
Default
Plk
2.25
Kgamma
Taugd
sec
1.0e9
Ctau
1.0e15
Qgql
0.2e12
Qgqh
0.1e12
Qgi0
0.1e3
Qgag
1/V
0.75
Qgad
1/V
0.65
Qggb
1/W
3.0
Qgcl
0.1e12
Qgsh
0.2e12
Qgdh
0.1e12
Qgg0
Capmod
Cds
drainsource capacitance
Tau
sec
Rd,
ohm
0.33
Rdtc
1/deg C
Rg
gate resistance
ohm
Rgmet
ohm
Rs,
ohm
Rstc
1/deg C
Is,
1.0e12
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
3145
Name
Description
Units
Default
Eta
Alphatce
1/deg C
Gammatc
1/deg C
Msttc
1/(V deg C) 0
Vsttc
V/deg C
Vtotc
V/deg C
Betatce
1/deg C
Xti
Eg
eV
1.11
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Fnc
Hz
0.5
1.0
0.9
Kf
1.25
2.5
Af
Ffe
wVgfwd
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
3146
Notes/Equations
1. The published TOM3 model [1, 2] is capacitancebased, which corresponds to
setting Capmod=1 (refer to Gate Capacitances on page 3148). In general, the
biasdependent capacitor models are known to be less robust, which sometimes
leads to nonconvergence problems. ADS implementation of TOM3 is enhanced
by providing a chargebased model, which corresponds to setting Capmod=2
(refer to Gate Charge Model on page 3150). Chargebased models are
normally more robust and they are better justified theoretically.
Please note that the distribution of the charge between the drain and source is
not exactly the same for the two modes of the capacitance model. Therefore,
simulation results for the two modes may slightly differ.
2. This model supplies values for a TOM3 device.
3. Implementation of the TOM3 model is based on [1] and [2].
4. All model parameters except for Vto (and Vtotc) are identical for the
corresponding N and Pchannel devices. The signs of Vto and Vtotc must be
changed in order to generate consistent results for N and Ptype transistors.
5. The dispersion branch consists of a series connection of a capacitance Ctau and
a resistance Rtau. Rtau does not appear among the model parameters; instead,
the model parameters include the time constant Taugd of that branch, and thus
Rtau is implicitly defined as Rtau = Taugd / Ctau.
6. To prevent numerical problems, the setting of some model parameters to 0 is
trapped by the simulator. The following parameters are maintained by the
simulator at a minimum value:
Rd = 1e4
Rs = 1e4
Rg = 1e4
If the user wants any of the extrinsic resistances Rd, Rg, and Rs to be exactly
zero, their values should not be entered. The default is a short circuit. If a value
is entered, it must be positive.
7. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax specifies the PN junction explosion current for D1, D2, D3 and D4 diodes.
Imax can be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the
device model value takes precedence over the Options value.
3147
The Imelt parameter, available in several other ADS models, is not currently
implemented in the TOM3 model.
8. For SDD compatibility use Taugd = 1.0e6 if tau_gd = Slow mode was used,
Taugd= 10.0e9 if taug_gd=Fast mode was used, and Rgmet = 0.1, Rdtc =
0.0044, Rstc = 0.0016, Xti = 2 Eta, Eg = 0.9, Imax = 1.0e6.
9. Several parameters are restricted to values > 0. If the user violates this
restriction, an error message will be written in the status window, and the
simulation will not proceed.
10. Model parameters such as Ls, Ld, Lg are not currently used by the TOM3
device in the simulator. Extrinsic components must be added externally by the
user.
DC DrainSource Current
The TOM3 DC drainsource current is calculated using the following equations [2].
I ds = I 0 ( 1 + V ds )
where
Q
I0 = (V G) f k
V ds
f k = k 1k
( 1 + ( V ds ) )
V G = Q V ST ln ( 1 + exp ( u ) )
V gsi V TO + V ds
u = Q V ST
V ST = V ST0 ( 1 + M ST0 V ds )
The model parameters for the drain current are: (Lambda), (Beta), Q (Q),
(Alpha), k (K), VTO (Vto), (Gamma), VST0 (Vst) and MST0 (Mst).
For timevarying drainsource current, the voltage Vgsi is delayed by the transit time
Tau.
Gate Capacitances
The gate capacitances in the TOM3 model are derived from the following charge
equations (see [1, 2]). The total gate charge is given as
3148
GI0
The model parameters for the gate charge are: QGG0 (Qgg0), QGGB (Qggb), QGQL
(Qgql), QGAG (Qgag), QGAD (Qgad), QGCL (Qgcl), QGQH (Qgqh), QGI0 (Qgi0), QGSH
(Qgsh) and QGDH (Qgdh).
There are two capacitance models in the TOM3 implementation in ADS. The first
model corresponds to other TriQuint implementations of the TOM3 model, including
the SDD implementation in ADS. That model is invoked by setting Capmod = 1
(biasdependent capacitances). The gatesource and gatedrain selfcapacitances are
then defined as
Q GG
C gs = V gsi
Q GG
C gd = V gdi
V gdi = const
V gsi = const
and, correspondingly, their contribution to the drain, gate and source currents follows
the partitioning as
dV gsi
I Cgsi = C gs ( V gsi , V gdi ) dt
and
dV gdi
I Cgdi = C gd ( V gsi , V gdi ) dt
3149
V gde
T
Diodes D3 and D4:
V gsi
V gdi
I Dgdi = I LK 1 exp 
LK
where VT is the thermal voltage
kT
V T = q
k = 1.38 1023 (Boltzmanns constant)
q = 1.602 1019 (electron charge)
Is (Is), (Eta), ILK (Ilk), LK (Plk) are the model parameters. T is either equal to the
device instance parameter Temp, or if Temp is not specified then T =
ambient_circuit_temperature + Trise. Vgse, Vgde, Vgsi and Vgdi are instantaneous
3150
voltages across the respective diodes. Please note that the models are symmetric for
the drain and source diodes.
Dimensional Scaling Relations
For each device instance, area/finger scaling is performed only if both W and Ng
device parameters are specified and their values are positive. The width scaling
factor is determined as
width_scale = W / Ugw
where W is the actual device gate width and Ugw is a model parameter whose
meaning is the gate width to which all model parameters have been normalized (or
Ugw is the actual gate width of the measured device if the extracted model
parameters have not been normalized).
Similarly, the finger scaling factor is determined as
finger_scale = Ng / Ngf
where Ng is the actual device number of fingers and Ngf is a model parameter whose
meaning is the number of gate fingers to which all the model parameters have been
normalized (or Ngf is the actual number of gate fingers of the measured device if the
extracted model parameters have not been normalized).
It is strongly recommended that model parameters Ugw and Ngf are always specified
without relying on their default values.
The following model parameters are scaled with area = width_scale * finger_scale
Beta, Is, Cds, Qgql, Qgqh, Qgi0, Qgcl, Qgsh, Qgdh, Qgg0, Ilk
The following model parameters are scaled inversely with area:
Qggb, Rd, Rs, Rg
Rgmet is scaled with
width_scale / finger_scale
Drain Dispersion and SelfHeating Effects
The TOM3 model topology is almost identical to other GaAs FET models. The main
difference is an addition of a VCVS which modifies the internal gate voltages based
on a portion of Vds. According to the authors of the model, this internal feedback
accounts well for selfheating effects.
The branch RtauCtau, as in other GaAs FET models, accounts for drain dispersion.
3151
scale ( T T nom )
X ti
Eg
Eg
T
Is = Is nom exp   +  ln 
T nom
kT nom kT
 
q
q
where
Isnom (Is), Eg (Eg), Xti (Xti) and (Eta) are model parameters
k = 1.38 1023 (Boltzmanns constant)
q = 1.602 1019 (electron charge)
3152
This type of temperature scaling applies to Is, the saturation current for D1 and D2
diodes. The energy gap Eg is not scaled with the temperature.
The following parameters are scaled linearly (absolute scale) with temperature:
Vto, Gamma, Vst, and Mst
Scale factors are Vtotc, Gammatc, Vsttc, and Msttc, respectively.
The following parameters are scaled linearly (relative scale) with temperature:
Rd and Rs
Scale factors are Rdtc and Rstc, respectively.
The following parameters are scaled exponentially with temperature:
Alpha, Beta
Scale factors are Alphatce and Betatce, respectively.
Noise Model
4kT
<i >
 = f
R
Parameters P, R, and C model drain and gate noise sources [3].
2
i d
Af
Ffe
 = 4kT g m P + 4kT g m PFnc f + Kf Ids
f
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
For SDD compatibility, set P=2/3, R=0, C=0, and Fnc=0; copy Kf, Af, and Ffe from the
SDD model.
3153
Equivalent Circuit
References
[1] R. B. Hallgren and P. H. Litzenberg, TOM3 Capacitance Model: Linking Largeand SmallSignal MESFET Models in SPICE, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
and Techniques, vol. 47, 1999, pp. 556561.
[2] R. B. Hallgren and D. S. Smith, TOM3 Equations, a document provided by
TriQuint, Revised: 2 December 1999.
[3] A. Cappy, Noise Modeling and Measurement Techniques, IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 110, Jan. 1988.
3154
Available in
ADS
Parameters
Name Description
Units Default
MESFETM1
gate width
1.0
Temp
25
Trise
Noise
YES
_M
0 (no scaling)
Range of Usage
W>0
N > 0 (if specified)
Notes/Equations/References
1. W and N are used for scaling the device instance. Refer to
TriQuintMaterka_Model (TriQuintMaterka Nonlinear FET Model) on
page 3158 for details.
3155
Note
The default value for W is 1 m, while typical values are in the order of
micrometers; so, the recommendation is to not rely on this default value.
2. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device. If this is different than the temperature at which the model parameters
are valid or extracted (specified by the Tnom parameter of the corresponding
TriQuintMaterka_Model) certain parameters and responses are scaled so that
the device is simulated at its operating temperature. Refer to
TriQuintMaterka_Model (TriQuintMaterka Nonlinear FET Model) on
page 3158 for details.
3. Table 34 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 38. DC Operating Point Information
3156
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
Ggs
siemens
Ggd
siemens
dIgs_dVgd
(dIgs/dVgd)
siemens
dIgd_dVgs
(dIgd/dVgs)
siemens
dIds_dVgb
siemens
Cgs
Gatesource capacitance
farads
Cgd
Gatedrain capacitance
farads
Cds
Drainsource capacitance
farads
dQgs_dVgd
(dQgs/dVgd)
farads
dQgd_dVgs
(dQgd/dVgs)
farads
Description
Units
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Drainsource voltage
volts
3157
Available in
ADS
Parameters
Model parameters must be specified in SI units.
Name
UCM/SDD
Name
Description
Units
Default
Idsmod
NFET
YES
PFET
NO
Tnom
25
Ugw
1e6
Ngf
Idss
IDSS
Vto
VPO
threshold voltage
2.0
Beta2
GAMA
Ee
Ke
KE
1/V
Kg
KG
1/V
Sl
SL
1/Ohm 1.0
Ss
SS
1/Ohm 0
Tau
TAU
0
2.0
sec
Idstc
1/C
Vtotc
V/C
Gsfwd
3158
Name
UCM/SDD
Name
Description
Gdfwd
Units
Default
0
Is
IG0
1e14
Alfg
ALFG
1/V
22
Eg
eV
1.11
Xti
Rf
Gsrev
Gdrev
3.0
Ohm
Ir
IGD0
1e14
Vbr
VBR,
refer to
note 4
1e100
Alpvb
ALPVB
1/V
0.4
AlfdA
1/V
AlfdB
1/(V^2) 0
R1
Ohm
R2
Ohm
Gscap
Cgs
CGS
Gdcap
Cgd
1
F
Vbi
0.85
Fc
Delta1
0.3
Delta2
0.2
Vmax
0.5
channel resistance
Rin
CGD
RI
0.5
Ohm
3159
UCM/SDD
Name
Description
Name
Units
Default
RLgs
RGS,
gatesource leakage resistance
refer to
note 5 and
note 6
Ohm
RLgd
RGD,
gatedrain leakage resistance
refer to
note 5 and
note 6
Ohm
Rc
RRF,
refer to
note 7
Ohm
Crf
CRF,
refer to
note 7
Cds
CDS
drainsource capacitance
Rd
RD
drain resistance
Ohm
1/C
gate resistance
Ohm
1/C
source resistance
Ohm
1/C
Trd1
Rg
RG
Trg1
Rs
RS
Trs1
Ld
LD
drain inductance
Lg
LG
gate inductance
Ls
LS
source inductance
Taumdl
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
Imax
Fnc
Hz
0.5
1.0
0.9
wVgfwd
3160
NO
Name
UCM/SDD
Name
Description
Units
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
AllParams
Default
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a TriQuintMaterka device.
2. Implementation of the TriQuintMaterka model is based on [13].
3. The UCM/SDD column in the Parameters table shows the names of the
parameters that were used either in the User Compiled Model implementation
or in the SDD implementation of the TriQuintmodified Materka model. These
names must be changed to the name given in the Name column. Note that the
Name is case sensitive. Also, do not rely on the default values as, in general,
they are different from those in the UCM or SDD.
Parameters listed in the Name column that do not have corresponding
UCM/SDD parameters are used for extended features of this model with respect
to the UCM/SDD implementations. Refer to Notes 4 through 9 for specific
translation issues.
4. The breakdown voltage parameter Vbr is internally converted to its absolute
value at parsing. Thus, the negative values used in UCM/SDD do not need to be
changed to conform to the ADS convention.
5. When using other than UI means of entering model parameters, e.g., filebased,
do not use the parameter names Rgs and Rgd. The correct translation of the
UCM/SDD parameters RGS and RGD is RLgs and RLgd.
6. In the UCM implementation, the parameters RGS and RGD are not scaled with
area. The corresponding leakage resistances RLgs and RLgd, however, are
dimensionally scaled (inversely proportional to area). Therefore, they should be
accordingly adjusted if the device instance scaling parameters call for
dimensional scaling.
3161
7. In SDD implementation, the parameters CRF and RRF are not scaled with the
area. The corresponding parameters in the builtin model
(capacitance/resistance Crf/Rc), however, are dimensionally scaled
(directly/inversely proportional to the area). Therefore, they should be
accordingly adjusted if the device instance scaling parameters call for
dimensional scaling.
8. The functionality of the UCM/SDD scaling parameters is replaced by the use of
two device parameters (W, N) and two model parameters (Ugw, Ngf). Refer to
the section Dimensional Scaling Relations on page 3166 for details and
translation rules.
9. For UCM/SDD compatibility use Temp = Tnom, Gsfwd=2, Gdrev=2, Imax=230,
follow Notes 3 through 8, and use defaults for other parameters that were not
present in UCM/SDD.
10. The standard emission coefficient N is implicitly defined by the parameter Alfg
as N = 1 / (Alfg VTnom), where VTnom is the thermal voltage corresponding to
the value of the parameter Tnom. Refer to the section Forward Gate Diode
Models (Gsfwd=2 and/or Gdfwd=2) on page 3165 for details.
11. To prevent numerical problems, the simulator maintains the following
minimum parameter values:
Rd = 1e4
Rs = 1e4
Rg = 1e4
If the user wants any of the extrinsic resistances Rd, Rg, and Rs to be exactly
zero, their values should not be entered. The default is a short circuit. If a value
is entered, it must be different from zero.
12. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) then the junction explosion
current = Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options)
junction explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current =
model Imelt default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
3162
V gs > VP
then
Sl V ds
V gs ( Ee + K e V gs )
Ss V ds
Idss
VP
Idss ( 1 K g V gs )
otherwise
I ds = 0
For timevarying drainsource current, the voltage Vgs is delayed by the transit time
Tau. Idss, Vto, Beta2, Ee, Ke, Sl, Kg and Ss are model parameters.
Gate Capacitances
There are several options in modeling the junction capacitance of a device; these
options are shared with other GaAs FET models. The first option is to model the
junction as a linear component (a constant capacitance); the second option is to model
the junction using a diode depletion capacitance model. If a nonzero value of Cgs is
specified and Gscap=1 (linear), the gatesource junction capacitance will be modeled
as a linear component. Similarly, specifying a nonzero value for Cgd and Gdcap=1
result in a linear gatedrain model. A nonzero value for either Cgs or Cgd together
with Gscap=2 (junction) or Gdcap=2 will force the use of the diode depletion
capacitance model for that particular junction. Refer to Curtice2_Model
(CurticeQuadratic GaAsFET Model) on page 317 for details and equations.
3163
The other options Gscap=3 or Gdcap=3 (Statz Charge) and Gscap=5 or Gdcap=5
(Statz Cap) correspond to the Statzbased models [4, 5]. Refer to Statz_Model (Statz
Raytheon GaAsFET Model) on page 3114 for details and equations.
Note that each junction is modeled independent of the other; hence, it is possible to
model one junction as a linear component while the other is treated nonlinearly.
Gate Conduction Currents
The gate conduction currents are controlled by four flags: Gsfwd, Gsrev, Gdfwd, and
Gdrev. Each of them can be set to 0, 1, or 2. Setting any of these flags to 0 results in a
corresponding open circuit. For nonzero settings, the following sections describe the
respective behaviors.
Linear Gate Conduction Models (flag=1)
The simplest models assume an effective value of forward bias resistance Rf and an
approximate breakdown resistance R1 (refer to Curtice3_Model (CurticeCubic
GaAsFET Model) on page 332). The linear model of the forward conduction current
is used when Rf is specified (must be different from zero) and Gsfwd=1 and/or
Gdfwd=1. For example, if Gsfwd=1 then the gatesource forward conduction current
is given by:
If Vgs > Vbi
Igs = (Vgs  Vbi)/Rf
otherwise
Igs = 0
Vbi and Rf are model parameters. A similar expression defines Igd.
The linear model of the reverse breakdown current is used when R1 is set and
Gsrev=1 and/or Gdrev=1. For example, if Gdrev = 1
If Vgd < Vb
Igd = (Vgd + Vb)/R1
otherwise
Igd = 0
In the above equation, Vb is a modified breakdown voltage defined as
Vb = Vbr + R2 Ids
3164
Vbr, R1 and R2 are model parameters. Note that Vbr is assumed to be positive (the
actual breakdown voltage in terms of Vgd would be negative for an nchannel device).
A similar expression defines Igs.
Forward Gate Diode Models (Gsfwd=2 and/or Gdfwd=2)
This model is controlled by the model parameters Is and Alfg, and is similar for both
Igs and Igd. For example, the Igs current is determined as
I gs = Is [ exp ( Alf g V gs ) 1 ]
The parameter Alfg must be positive. It is converted to the standard emission
coefficient N (see note 10) and the following equation is used instead.
V gs
I gs = Is exp  1
N V T
where VT is the thermal voltage
k T emp
V T = q
k = 1.38 1023 (Boltzmanns constant)
q = 1.602 1019 (electron charge)
This facilitates temperature dependence of the exponent on Temp, which is either
equal to the device instance parameter Temp, or if Temp is not specified, to Temp =
ambient_circuit_temperature + Trise.
Large negative and large positive exponent values are handled similarly to other
GaAs FET models. Refer to (for example) Statz_Model (Statz Raytheon GaAsFET
Model) on page 3114 information for details.
Reverse Breakdown GateDrain Diode Model (Gdrev=2)
The diode model of the reverse gatedrain breakdown has been modified by TriQuint
to include its dependence on the gatesource voltage Vgs. Following [2], the Igd
current is calculated as
I gd = Ir exp ( AlfdA V gs + AlfdB V gs V gs Alpvb ( Vb + V gd ) )
In the above equation, Vb is a modified breakdown voltage defined as
Vb = Vbr + R2 Ids
3165
Ir, AlfdA, AlfdB, Alpvb, R2, and Vbr are model parameters. Note that Vbr is assumed
to be positive (the actual breakdown voltage in terms of Vgd would be negative for an
nchannel device).
Reverse Breakdown GateSource Diode Model (Gsrev=2)
The gatesource breakdown diode model, if used, takes the standard exponential form
I gs = Ir [ exp ( A lpvb ( Vb + V gs ) ) 1 ]
In the above equation, Vb is a modified breakdown voltage defined as
Vb = Vbr + R2 Ids
Time Delay
Like other GaAs FET models, TriQuintMaterka_Model uses an ideal time delay to
model transit time effects under the gate. In the time domain, the drain source
current for the ideal delay is given by:
I ds ( t ) = I ds ( V j ( t Tau ), V ds ( t ) )
where Vj = Vgs or Vj = Vgd (depending on whether Vds is positive or negative). Tau is a
model parameter. In the frequency domain, only the transconductance is impacted by
this delay and the familiar expression for transadmittance is obtained
y m = g m exp ( jTau )
HighFrequency Output Conductance
For each device instance, area/finger scaling is performed only if the device
parameter N is specified, and its value is positive. The width scaling factor is
determined as
width_scale = W / Ugw
where W is the actual device gate width and Ugw is a model parameter whose
meaning is the gate width to which all the model parameters have been normalized
3166
(or Ugw is the actual gate width of the measured device if the extracted model
parameters have not been normalized).
Similarly, the finger scaling factor is determined as
finger_scale = N / Ngf
where N is the actual device number of fingers and Ngf is a model parameter whose
meaning is the number of gate fingers to which all the model parameters have been
normalized (or Ngf is the actual number of gate fingers of the measured device if the
extracted model parameters have not been normalized).
It is strongly recommended that the model parameters Ugw and Ngf are always
specified without relying on their default values.
The following model parameters are scaled with area = width_scale * finger_scale:
Idss, Sl, Ss, Is, Ir, Cgs, Cgd, Cds, Crf
The following model parameters are scaled inversely with area:
Rd, Rs, RLgs, RLgd, Rc, Rin
The following model parameters are scaled with width_scale / finger_scale:
Rg, Lg
The inductances Ld and Ls are not scaled.
For compatibility with the UCM or SDD implementation, the values of device/model
scaling parameters W, N, Ugw and Ngf must be determined from the UCM/SDD
scaling parameters (see Note 8). In terms of the parameters W, N, Ugw and Ngf, the
UCM parameters AREA and SFING can be expressed as
AREA = (W / Ugw) * (N / Ngf)
SFING = Ngf / N
If the actual values of Ugw and Ngf are not known, they can be set arbitrarily. Then,
given the values of AREA, SFING, Ugw and Ngf, the device parameters W and N
must be set as
W = Ugw AREA SFING
N = Ngf / SFING
Similarly, in terms of W, N, Ugw and Ngf parameters, the SDD Size and Original Size
parameters can be expressed as
3167
Size = W N
OriginalSize = Ugw Ngf
SDD Finger and OriginalFinger parameters mean the same as N and Ngf
parameters, respectively. Therefore, the translation rules for SDD scaling parameters
are:
Ugw = OriginalSize / OriginalFinger
Ngf = OriginalFinger
W = Size/Finger
N = Finger
Temperature Scaling Relations
NEW
q Eg
Xti
Temp
Temp
= Is exp  1  +  ln 
Tnom k N Temp N
Tnom
3168
C gs
NEW
C gd
NEW
Temp
where is a function of the junction potential and the energy gap variation with
temperature.
The gate junction potential Vbi varies as:
V bi
NEW
n Tnom
Temp
2k Temp
i
=  Vbi +  ln 
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
NEW
The Ids current, after being evaluated, is scaled linearly using the model parameter
Idstc, as
NEW
I ds
NEW
where x stands for d, g, or s, and correspondingly, Rd, Rg, Rs, Trd1, Trg1 and Trs1 are
model parameters.
Noise Model
The resistors Rg, Rs and Rd generate thermal noise, which is characterized by the
following spectral density.
3169
4kT
<i >
 = f
R
The P, R, and C parameters model drain and gate noise sources [6].
2
i d
 = 4kT g m P ( 1 + f NC f )
f
2
i g
2 2
 = 4kT C
R gm
f
gs
i g , i d
 = 4kTj C gs PR C
f
Equivalent Circuit
References
[1] A. Materka and T. Kacprzak Computer Calculation of LargeSignal GaAs FET
Amplifier Characteristics, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.
MTT33, No. 2, February 1985.
3170
3171
3172
Multiplicity Parameter _M
The multiplicity feature provides a way to scale components or entire subcircuits
containing many components and subcircuits. Given a component with a multiplicity
value M, the simulator treats this component as if there were M such components all
connected in parallel. Subcircuits within subcircuits will be appropriately scaled.
The _M parameter is available at the component level as shown here. (For
components that do not explicitly have a Multiplicity parameter, the same
functionality can be achieved by placing the component in a subcircuit and using the
subcircuits Multiplicity parameter, as described next.)
For subcircuits, the parameter is enabled by selecting File > Design Parameters from
the Schematic window. In the dialog box, select the Parameters tab. To add the
Multiplicity parameter, choose Add Multiplicity Factor_M.
Bin Model
41
Netlist Syntax
Models for the ADS circuit simulator have the following syntax:
model
modelname
modeltype [param=value]*
where model is a keyword, modelname is the userdefined name for the model and
modeltype is one of the predefined model types (e.g., Diode, BJT, MOSFET). After
these three required fields comes zero or more param=value pairs. param is a model
keyword and value is its userassigned value. There is no required order for the
param=value pairs. Model keywords that are not specified take on their default
values. Refer to documentation for each model type to see the list of model
parameters, their meanings and default values.
The model statement must be on a single line. Use the backslash (\) as a line continuation character. Instance and model parameter names are case sensitive; most (not
all) model parameters have their first character capitalized and the rest are lower
case. Scale factors (e.g., p=1012, n=109, u=106, m=103, k=10+3, M=10+6) can be used
with numbers for numeric values. For more information about the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits, variables and equations,
refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit Simulators manual.
A netlist translator is available for translating models and subcircuits from Pspice,
Hspice, and Spectre syntax to the form used by the ADS Circuit Simulator. Refer to
the Netlist Translator for SPICE and Spectre manual for more information.
Parameter Aliases
For compatibility with other simulators, some models accept two or more different
keywords for the same parameter. For example, the Diode model accepts both model
42
Netlist Syntax
keywords Is and Js for the saturation current. In the documentation, the parameter
Name column lists the aliases in parentheses after the main parameter name. The
main parameter name is the one that appears in the ADS dialog box for the model.
Tnom
All nonlinear device models have a parameter that specifies the temperature at
which the model parameters were extracted. Normally called Tnom, some models
may use Tref, Tr, or Tmeas. The default value for Tnom is specified on the Options
item in the Tnom field. If Options.Tnom is not specified it defaults to 25oC. This is
true for all nonlinear devices.
It is strongly suggested that the user explicitly set Tnom in each model and not
depend on its default value. First, this provides a selfdocumenting model; other
users of the device will not have to guess at what Tnom should be. Second, different
users of the same model would get different results for the same circuit if they
simulate with different values of Options.Tnom.
Tnom
43
Available in
Description
Units
NFET
Nchannel model
PFET
Pchannel model
Vto
2.0
Beta,
transconductance parameter
A/V2
104
Lambda
1/V
0.0
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Is,
1014
Cgs
0.0
Cgd
0.0
Pb
gatejunction potential
1.0
Fc
Tnom
25
Trise
yes
no
0.5
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value is scaled with Area specified with the JFET device.
44
Default
Name
Description
Units
Default
Kf
flickernoise coefficient
Af
flickernoise exponent
Imax
explosion current
1.6
Imelt
1.6
Isr
Nr
Alpha
ionization coefficient
1/V
0.0
Vk
0.0
Vtotc
V/C
0.0
Betatce
%/C
0.0
Xti
temperature coefficient
3.0
Ffe
1.0
Gdsnoise
no
wBvgs
wBvgd
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
0.0
1.0
1.0
A
0.0
2.0
0.5
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Parameter value is scaled with Area specified with the JFET device.
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
JFET [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by JFET components to refer to the model. The third
45
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is JFET. Use either
parameter NFET=yes or PFET=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the model
contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign. The
name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model U310 JFET \
Vto=3 Beta=3e4 NFET=yes
Notes
For RFDE Users
46
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
6. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). Note that model parameters that are explicitly specified
take precedence over those specified via AllParams.
Equations/Discussions
Temperature Scaling
The model specifies Tnom, the nominal temperature at which the model parameters
were calculated or extracted. To simulate the device at temperatures other than
Tnom, several model parameters must be scaled with temperature. The temperature
at which the device is simulated is specified by the device item Temp parameter.
(Temperatures in the following equations are in Kelvin.)
The saturation currents Is and Isr scale as:
Is
NEW
Isr
q Eg
Xti
Temp
Temp
= Is exp  1  +  ln 
Tnom k N Temp N
Tnom
NEW
q Eg
Xti
Temp
Temp
= Isr exp  1  +  ln 
Tnom k Nr Temp Nr
Tnom
Cgs
NEW
Temp
1 + M [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cgs 4
Temp
1 + M [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
47
C gd
Temp
1 + M [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cgd 4
Temp
1 + M [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
NEW
where is a function of the junction potential and the energy gap variation with
temperature.
The gate junction potential Pb varies as:
Pb
NEW
Tnom
Temp
2k Temp n i
 Pb +  1n 
=
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
NEW
NEW
= Beta 1.01
Noise Model
4kT
<i >
 = f
R
Channel noise and flicker noise (Kf, Af, Ffe) generated by the DC transconductance
gm and current flow from drain to source is characterized by the following spectral
density:
Af
2
I DS
i DS
8kT g m
 =  + Kf Ffe
f
3
f
48
Af
2
I DS
i DS
8
3 min ( Vds, Vdsat )
 =  kT ( g m + g DS )   + K f Ffe
3
f
2
2Vdsat
f
Rd
IGd
Id
IGs
Cgs
Rs
S
References
[1] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio. Semiconductor device modeling with SPICE,
New York: McGrawHill, Second Edition 1993.
49
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Units
Default
Model
name of a JFET_Model
Area
Region
on
Temp
25
Trise
Noise
yes
Mode
Nonlinear
_M
Notes/Equations
1. The Temp parameter specifies the physical (operating) temperature of the
device. If this is different than the temperature at which the model parameters
are valid or extracted (specified by the Tnom parameter of the associated
JFET_Model) certain model parameters are scaled such that the device is
simulated at its operating temperature. Refer to JFET_Model (Junction FET
Model) on page 44 to see which parameter values are scaled.
2. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
410
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
Cgs
Gatesource capacitance
farads
Cgd
Gatedrain capacitance
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Drainsource voltage
volts
411
412
Multiplicity Parameter _M
The multiplicity feature provides a way to scale components or entire subcircuits
containing many components and subcircuits. Given a component with a multiplicity
value M, the simulator treats this component as if there were M such components all
connected in parallel. Subcircuits within subcircuits will be appropriately scaled.
The _M parameter is available at the component level as shown here. (For
components that do not explicitly have a Multiplicity parameter, the same
functionality can be achieved by placing the component in a subcircuit and using the
subcircuits Multiplicity parameter, as described next.)
For subcircuits, the parameter is enabled by selecting File > Design Parameters from
the Schematic window. In the dialog box, select the Parameters tab. To add the
Multiplicity parameter, choose Add Multiplicity Factor (_M).
Bin Model
51
Netlist Syntax
Models for the ADS circuit simulator have the following syntax:
model
modelname
modeltype [param=value]*
where model is a keyword, modelname is the userdefined name for the model and
modeltype is one of the predefined model types (e.g., Diode, BJT, MOSFET). After
these three required fields comes zero or more param=value pairs. param is a model
keyword and value is its userassigned value. There is no required order for the
param=value pairs. Model keywords that are not specified take on their default
values. Refer to documentation for each model type to see the list of model
parameters, their meanings and default values.
The model statement must be on a single line. Use the backslash (\) as a line
continuation character. The instance and model parameter names are case sensitive.
Most, but not all, model parameters have their first character capitalized and the rest
are lower case. Scale factors (e.g., p=1012, n=109, u=106, m=103, k=10+3, M=10+6)
can be used with numbers for numeric values. For more information about the ADS
circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits, variables and
equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit Simulators
manual.
A netlist translator is available for translating models and subcircuits from Pspice,
Hspice, and Spectre syntax to the form used by the ADS Circuit Simulator. Refer to
the Netlist Translator for SPICE and Spectre manual for more information.
52
Netlist Syntax
Parameter Aliases
For compatibility with other simulators, some models accept two or more different
keywords for the same parameter. For example, the Diode model accepts both model
keywords Is and Js for the saturation current. In the documentation, the parameter
Name column lists the aliases in parentheses after the main parameter name. The
main parameter name is the one that appears in the ADS dialog box for the model.
Tnom
All nonlinear device models have a parameter that specifies the temperature at
which the model parameters were extracted. Normally called Tnom, some models
may use Tref, Tr, or Tmeas. The default value for Tnom is specified on the Options
item in the Tnom field. If Options.Tnom is not specified it defaults to 25oC. This is
true for all nonlinear devices.
It is strongly suggested that the user explicitly set Tnom in each model and not
depend on its default value. First, this provides a selfdocumenting model; other
users of the device will not have to guess at what Tnom should be. Second, different
users of the same model would get different results for the same circuit if they
simulate with different values of Options.Tnom.
Parameter Aliases
53
else
Instance.Temp = Options.Temp + Instance.Trise
Channel Noise
1
8/3k T gm
8/3k T gm
8/3k T gm
8/3k T gm
54
Flicker Noise
ADS default
(not usable
with BSIM3v3)
Af
Kf I DS
Ffe
f
Af
Kf I DS
Ffe
2
f C OX L Eff
Af
Kf I DS
Ffe
f C OX W Eff LEff
Spice2G6
Hspice Nlev=0
(not usable
with BSIM3v3)
Hspice Nlev=1
Hspice Nlev=2
Hspice Nlev=3
Kf g m
Ffe
f C OX W Eff L Eff
8
1+a+a
kTB V GS V T  Gdsnoi
3
1+a
1 (pinchoff)
a = 1  VDS/VDSAT (linear)
0 (saturation)
Default
Kf g m
Ffe
f C OX W Eff L Eff
Available in
Description
NMOS
Units
Default
yes
PMOS
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Rsh
ohms/sq
0.0
Js
A/m2
0.0
Temp
25
Muz
cm2/Vsec
600
Dl
shortening of channel
0.0
Dw
narrowing of channel
0.0
Vdd
5.0
Vfb
flatband voltage
0.3
Phi
0.6
K1
0.5
K2
Eta
U0
1/V
670.0
U1
m/V
0.0
X2mz
cm2/V2
0.0
0.0
0.0
55
Name
Description
Units
Default
X2e
1/V
0.07
X3e
1/V
0.0
X2u0
1/V2
0.0
X2u1
m/V2
0.0
X3u1
m/V2
0.0
Mus
cm2/Vs
1082
X2ms
cm2/V2s
0.0
X3ms
cm2/V2s
0.0
N0
Nb
1/V
0.0
Nd
1/V
0.0
Tox
oxide thickness
107
Cj
F/m2
0.0
Mj
Cjsw
Mjsw
0.5
0.5
F/m
0.0
0.33
Pb
0.8
Pbsw
1.0
Cgso
F/m
0.0
Cgdo
F/m
0.0
Cgbo
F/m
0.0
Xpart
1.0
Nlev
1
Gdwnoi
Kf
0.0
Af
1.0
Ffe
1.0
Rg
gate resistance
56
ohms
0
1.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
Imax
explosion current
10.0
Imelt
10.0
wVsubfwd
infinite
wBvsub
infinite
wBvg
infinite
wBvds
infinite
wIdsmax
infinite
wPmax
infinite
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by mosfet components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is MOSFET. Idsmod=4 is a
required parameter that is used to tell the simulator to use the BSIM1 equations.
Use either parameter NMOS=yes or PMOS=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of
the model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign.
The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model Nch4 MOSFET Idsmod=4 \
Vfb=0.9 Muz=500 NMOS=yes
57
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
58
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NMOS
yes
PMOS
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Rsh
Js
A/m2
0.0
Mu0
cm2/Vs
600
Dl
shortening of channel, in
0.0
Dw
Narrowing of channel, in
0.0
Vdd
5.0
Vgg
5.0
Vbb
5.0
Temp
measurement temperature
oC
25
Tox
oxide thickness
107
Cj
F/m2
5.0
Mj
Cjsw
Mjsw
Pb
0.0
0.5
F/m
0.0
0.33
0.8
59
Name
Description
Units
Default
Pbsw
1.0
Cgso
F/m
0.0
Cgdo
F/m
0.0
Cgbo
0.0
Xpart
1.0
Vfb
flatband voltage
0.1
Phi
0.6
K1
0.5
K2
0.0
Eta0
0.08
Ua0
1/V
670.0
U10
m/V
0.0
Mu0b
cm2/V2s
0.0
Etab
1/V
0.07
Uab
1/V2
0.0
U1b
m/V2
0.0
U1d
m/V2
0.0
Mus0
cm2/Vs
600.0
Musb
cm2/V2s
0.0
N0
Nb
1/V
1.0
Nd
1/V
0.0
Mu20
Mu2b
1/V
0.0
Mu2g
1/V
0.0
Mu30
cm2/V2s
0.0
Mu3b
cm2/V3s
0.0
Mu3g
cm2/V3s
0.0
Mu40
cm2/v3s
0.0
510
0.5
0.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
Mu4b
cm2/v4s
0.0
Ub0
1/V2
0.0
Ubb
1/V3
0.0
Vof0
0.0
Vofb
0.0
Vofd
0.0
Ai0
Aib
sensitivity of Ai to Vbs
1/V
0.0
Bi0
0.0
Bib
sensitivity of Bi to Vbs
Vghigh
0.0
Vglow
0.15
Lvglow
um*V
0.0
Wvglow
um*V
0.0
Nlev
1
Gdwnoi
Kf
0.0
Af
1.0
Ffe
1.0
Rg
gate resistance
1.0
Imax
explosion current
10.0
Imelt
10.0
wVsubfwd
infinite
wBvsub
infinite
wBvg
infinite
wBvds
infinite
wIdsmax
infinite
wPmax
infinite
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
0.0
0.0
511
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by mosfet components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is MOSFET. Idsmod=5 is a
required parameter that is used to tell the simulator to use the BSIM2 equations.
Use either parameter NMOS=yes or PMOS=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of
the model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign.
The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model Nch5 MOSFET Idsmod=5 \
Vfb=0.9 Mu0=500 NMOS=yes
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
512
513
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NMOS
yes
PMOS
no
Idsmod
Ids model
Version
model version
3.24
Mobmod
Capmod
Noimod
Paramchk
Binunit
Rg
gate resistance
ohms
Rsh
ohms/sq
0.0
Nj
Xti
Js
A/m2
104
Jsw
A/m2
0.0
Lint
0.0
Ll
mLln
0.0
514
1.0
3.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
Lln
Lw
Lwn
Lwl
m(Lwn+Lln)
0.0
Wint
0.0
Wl
mWln
0.0
Wln
Ww
Wwn
1.0
mLwn
0.0
1.0
1.0
mWwn
0.0
1.0
m(Wwn+Wln 0.0
Wwl
Tnom
25
Trise
Tox
oxide thickness
1.5 108
Cj
F/m2
5.0 104
Mj
Cjsw
0.5
Mjsw
Pb
1.0
Pbsw
1.0
Xt
doping depth
1.55 107
Vbm
5.0
Vbx
calculated parameter
Xj
1.5 107
Dwg
F/m
5.0 1010
0.33
0.0
515
Name
Description
Units
Default
Dwb
m/V(1/2)
0.0
Nch
1/cm3
1.7 1017
Nsub
1/cm3
6.0 1016
Ngate
1/cm3
Gamma1
V(1/2)
Gamma2
V(1/2)
Alpha0
m/V
0.0
Beta0
30.0
Vth0
Lvth0
K1
K2
K3
80.0
K3b
1/V
0.0
W0
2.5 106
Nlx
1.74 107
Dvt0
2.2
Dvt1
0.53
Dvt2
1/V
0.032
Dvt0w
1/m
0.0
516
0.0
V(1/2)
Name
Description
Units
Default
Dvt1w
1/m
5.3 106
Dvt2w
1/V
0.032
Cgso
Cgdo
F/m
Cgbo
F/m
0.0
Xpart
0.0
Drout
0.56
Dsub
(fixed by Drout)
Ua
m/V
2.25 109
Ua1
temperature coefficient of Ua
m/V
4.31 109
Ub
(m/V)2
5.87 1019
Ub1
temperature coefficient of Ub
(m/V)2
7.61 1018
Uc
m/V2
1/V
4.651011 Mobmod=1, 2
0.0465 Mobmod=3
Uc1
temperature coefficient of Uc
m/V2
1/V
5.61011 Mobmod=1,2
0.056 Mobmod=3
U0
cm2/Vs
670.0 NMOS
250.0 PMOS
Ute
Rdsw
1.5
ohms
0.0
mWr
Prwg
1/V
0.0
Prwb
1/V
0.0
517
Name
Description
Wr
Prt
ohms m
0.0
Vsat
m/s
8.0 104
At
m/s
3.3 104
A0
Keta
1/V
0.047
Ags
1/V
0.0
A1
1/V
0.0
A2
1.0
B0
0.0
B1
0.0
Voff
0.08
Nfactor
Cdsc
F/m2
2.4 104
Cdscb
F/V/m2
0.0
Cdscd
F/V/m2
0.0
Cit
F/m2
0.0
Eta0
Etab
518
Units
Default
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.08
1/V
0.07
Name
Description
Units
Default
Pclm
1.3
Pdiblc1
0.39
Pdiblc2
0.0086
Pdiblcb
1/V
Pscbe1
V/m
4.24 108
Pscbe2
m/V
105
Pvag
Delta
Kt1
0.11
Kt1l
Vm
0.0
Kt2
Cgsl
F/m
0.0
Cgdl
F/m
0.0
Ckappa
F/m
0.6
Cf
F/m
Clc
Cle
Dlc
Lint
Dwc
Wint
Nlev
1
Gdwnoi
Kf
0.0
Af
1.0
Ef
1.0
Em
0.0
0.01
0.022
0.1 106
0.6
V/m
4.1 107
519
Name
Description
Noia
noise parameter A
Units
Default
1.0 1020 NMOS
9.9 1018 PMOS
Noib
noise parameter B
Noic
noise parameter C
Imax
explosion current
10.0
Imelt
Ijth
wVsubfwd
infinite
wBvsub
infinite
wBvg
infinite
wBvds
infinite
wIdsmax
infinite
Toxm
Vfb
DC flatband voltage
Noff
1.0
Voffcv
1.0
Ijth
Alpha1
1/V
0.0
Acde
1.0
Moin
V(1/2)
15.0
Tpb
temperature coefficient of pb
V/K
0.0
Tpbsw
V/K
0.0
Tpbswg
V/K
0.0
Tcj
temperature coefficient of cj
1/K
0.0
520
Name
Description
Units
Default
Tcjsw
1/K
0.0
Tcjswg
1/K
0.0
Llc
mLln
DC Ll
Lwc
mLwn
DC Lw
Lwlc
Wlc
mWln
DC Wl
Wwc
mWwn
DC Ww
Wwlc
wPmax
Acm
1
Calcacm
Hdif
Ldif
Wmlt
Xw
Xl
Rdc
ohms
Rsc
ohms
Vfbcv
F/m
1.0
B3qmod
Cjswg
F/m
Cjsw
Pbswg
Pbsw
infinite
521
Name
Description
Mjswg
Is
Nqsmod
Elm
5.0
Rd
drain resistance
ohms
Rs
source resistance
ohms
Flkmod
Tlev
Tlevc
Eg
band gap
eV
1.16
Gap1
V/oC
7.02e4
Gap2
1108
Cta
1/oC
Ctp
1/oC
Pta
1/oC
Ptp
1/oC
Trd
1/oC
Trs
1/oC
Wmin
Wmax
Lmin
Lmax
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
Dtoxcv
Calculated parameter
522
Units
Default
Mjsw
1e14
0.0
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model modelname MOSFET Idsmod=8 [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by mosfet components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is MOSFET. Idsmod=8 is a
required parameter that tells the simulator to use the BSIM3v3 equations. Use
either parameter NMOS=yes or PMOS=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the
model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign.
The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model Nch6 MOSFET Idsmod=8 \
Vtho=0.7 Cj=3e4 NMOS=yes
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
523
3. BSIM1, BSIM2, and BSIM3 MOSFET models use the same parameters and
parameter definitions as the BSIM models in SPICE3 (University of
CaliforniaBerkeley).
4. The K1 parameters default value is calculated except when K2 is present.
When K2 is present, 0.5 is used as the default value of K1.
5. Several DC, AC, and capacitance parameters can be binned; these parameters
follow this implementation:
Pw
Pp
PL
P = P 0 +  +  + L
W
L W
eff
eff
eff
eff
For example, for the K1 parameter, the following relationships exist: P0=k1,
PL=lk1, PW=wk1, PP=pk1. The Binunit parameter is a binning unit selector. If
Binunit=1, the units of Leff and Weff used in the preceding binning equation
have the units of microns, otherwise in meters. For example, for a device with
Leff=0.5m and Weff=10m, if Binunit=1, parameter values are le5, le4, 2e4,
and 3e4 for Vsat, Lvsat, Wvsat, and Pvsat, respectively, Therefore, the effective
value of Vsat for this device is:
Vsat = 1e5 + 1e4/0.5 + 2e4/10 + 3e4/(0.5 10) = 1.28e5
To get the same effective value of Vsat for Binunit=0, values of Vsat, Lvsat,
Wvsat, and Pvsat would be 1e5, le2, 2e2, 3e8, respectively. Thus:
Vsat = 1e5 + 1e2/0.5e6 + 2e2/10e6 + 3e 8/(0.5e6 10e6) = 1.28e5
6. The nonquasistatic (NQS) charge model is supported in versions 3.2 and later.
7. Model parameter U0 can be entered in meters or centimeters. U0 is converted
to m2/V sec as follows: if U0 > 1, it is multiplied by 104.
8. Nqsmod is also supported as an instance parameter. For simulation, only the
Nqsmod instance parameter is used (the Nqsmod model parameter is not used).
This is the way Berkeley defined Nqsmod in BSIM3v3.2. Hspice supports
Nqsmod only as a model parameter.
9. Imelt and Ijth Parameters
Imelt and Ijth specify the diode limiting current (also known as PN junction
explosion current). Imelt and Ijth can be specified in the device model or in the
Options component; the device model value takes precedence over the Options
value.
524
If the Imelt value is less than the Ijth value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Ijth value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) diode limiting current = Imelt;
otherwise, if Ijth is specified (in the model or in Options) diode limiting current
= Ijth; otherwise, diode limiting current = model Imelt default value (which is
the same as the model Ijth default value).
10. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). Note that model parameters that are explicitly specified
take precedence over those specified via AllParams. Set AllParams to the
DataAccessComponent instance name.
11. DC operating point data is generated for this model. If a DC simulation is
performed, device operating point data can be viewed for a component. The
procedure for viewing device operating point data for a component is in the
Using Circuit Simulators manual. The device operating point information
displayed for the BSIM3 model is:
Gmb: smallsignal Vbs to Ids transconductance, in Siemens
Gds: smallsignal drain source conductance, in Siemens
Vdsat: saturation voltage, in volts
Capbd: smallsignal bulk drain capacitance, in farads
Capbs: smallsignal bulk source capacitance, in farads
CgdM: smallsignal gate drain Meyer capacitance, in farads
CgbM: smallsignal gate bulk Meyer capacitance, in farads
CgsM: smallsignal gate source Meyer capacitance, in farads
DqgDvgb: smallsignal transcapacitance dQg/dVg, in farads
DqgDvdb: smallsignal transcapacitance dQg/dVd, in farads
DqgDvsb: smallsignal transcapacitance dQg/dVs, in farads
DqbDvgb: smallsignal transcapacitance dQb/dVg, in farads
DqbDvdb: smallsignal transcapacitance dQb/dVd, in farads
DqbDvsb: smallsignal transcapacitance dQb/dVs, in farads
DqdDvgb: smallsignal transcapacitance dQd/dVg, in farads
DqdDvdb: smallsignal transcapacitance dQd/dVd, in farads
DqdDvsb: smallsignal transcapacitance dQd/dVs, in farads
12. The model parameter Dtoxcv has been added to the BSIM3 model for Version
3.2. The implementation is taken from a recent enhancement to the B3soiPD
made by U. C. Berkeley. This parameter allows a different effective gate oxide
thickness to be used in the IV and CV calculations. The value ToxDtoxcv is
BSIM3_Model (BSIM3 MOSFET Model)
525
used in the calculation of Vfbzb instead of Tox. In the Capmod=3 code, the
effective oxide thickness is now ToxDtoxcv instead of Tox.
Temperature Scaling
The model specifies Tnom, the nominal temperature at which the model parameters
were calculated or extracted. To simulate the device at temperatures other than
Tnom, several model parameters must be scaled with temperature. The temperature
at which the device is simulated is specified by the device Temp parameter.
(Temperatures in the following equations are in Kelvin.)
The energy bandgap EG varies as:
4 2
7.02 10 T
E G ( T ) = 1.16  Tlev = 0, 1, 3
T + 1108
2
Gap1T
E G ( T ) = Eg  Tlev = 2
T + Gap2
The intrinsic carrier concentration ni for silicon varies as:
32
E G ( 300.15 ) E G ( T )
10
T
n i ( T ) = 1.45 10 
exp  
300.15
2k300.15 q 2kT q
NEW
Jsw
E G ( Temp ) Xti
E G ( Tnom )
Temp
= Js exp   +  ln 
NkTnom q N kTem p q N Tnom
NEW
E G ( Temp ) Xti
E G ( Tnom )
Temp
= Jsw exp   +  ln 
Tnom
NkTnom q N kTem p q N
NEW
NEW
Rd
The junction potentials Pb, Pbsw, and Pbswg and the junction capacitances Cj, Cjsw,
and Cjswg scale as:
if Version 3.2 and ACM 10
526
Pb
NEW
Pbsw
NEW
Pbswg
Cj
NEW
Cjswg
NEW
NEW
Cjsw
NEW
NEW
Pbsw
NEW
Pbswg
Cj
4
Pb
= Cj 1 + Mj 1 + 4 10 ( Temp Tnom ) 
Pb
NEW
Cjswg
NEW
NEW
Cjsw
NEW
4
Pbsw
= Cjsw 1 + Mjsw 1 + 4 10 ( Temp Tnom ) 
Pbsw
NEW
NEW
4
Pbswg
= Cjswg 1 + Mjswg 1 + 4 10 ( Temp Tnom ) 
Pbswg
if Tlevc = 1
Pb
NEW
527
Pbsw
NEW
Pbswg
NEW
NEW
Cj
C jsw
NEW
C jswg
NEW
if Tlevc = 2
Pb
NEW
Pbsw
NEW
Pbswg
Cj
Mj
Pb
= C j 
NEW
Pb
NEW
C jswg
NEW
NEW
C jsw
Mjsw
Pbsw
= C jsw 
NEW
Pbsw
NEW
Mjswg
Pbswg
= Cjswg 
NEW
Pbswg
if Tlevc = 3
if Tlev = 0, 1, 3
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2 1108
dPbdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( 1.16 E G ( Tnom ) )  Pb 
Tnom
q
Tnom + 1108
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2 1108
dPbswdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( 1.16 E G ( Tnom ) )  Pbsw 
Tnom
q
Tnom + 1108
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2 1108
dPbswd gdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( 1.16 E G ( Tnom ) )  Pbswg 
Tnom
q
Tnom + 1108
if Tlev = 2
528
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2Gap2
dPbdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( Eg E G ( Tnom ) )  Pb 
Tnom
q
Tnom + Gap2
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2Gap2
dPbswdT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( Eg E G ( Tnom ) )  Pbsw 
Tnom
q
Tnom + Gap2
1
3kTnom
Tnom + 2Gap2
dPbswd gT = E G ( Tnom ) +  + ( Eg E G ( Tnom ) )  Pbswg 
Tnom
q
Tnom + Gap2
Pb
NEW
Pbsw
NEW
Pbswg
Cj
2Pb
NEW
C jswg
NEW
NEW
C jsw
2Pbsw
NEW
2Pbswg
529
Available in
Units
Default
NMOS
yes
PMOS
no
Capmod
Mobmod
Noimod
Shmod
Ddmod
Igmod
Paramchk
Binunit
Version
model version
Tox
1.0e8
Cdsc
F/m2
2.4e4
Cdsccb
F/(V*m2)
0/0
Cdscd
F/(V*m2
0.0
Calculated parameter
530
2.0
Parameter Description
Units
Default
Cit
F/(V*m2
1.0
Nfactor
Vsat
m/s
8.0e4
At
m/s
3.3e4
A0
1.0
Ags
0.0
A1
0.0
A2
Keta
V1
0.6
Nsub
cm
6.0e16
Nch
cm3
17e17
Ngate
cm3
Gamma1
V1/2
Gamma2
V1/2
Vbx
Vbm
3.0
Xt
doping depth
1.55e7
K1
V1/2
0.5
Kt1
0.11
Kt11
V+m
0.0
Kt2
bodybias coefficient
0.022
K2
0.0
K3
0.0
0.0
V1
1.0
Calculated parameter
531
Parameter Description
Units
Default
K3b
V1
0.0
WO
Nlx
Dvt0
2.2
Dvt1
0.53
Dvt2
0.032
Dvt0w
0.0
Dvt1w
m1
5.3e6
Dvt2w
m1
5.3e6
Drout
0.56
Dsub
Drout
Vth0
0.7 (NMOS)
0.7 (PMOS)
Ua
m/V
2.25e9
Ua1
temperature coefficient of Ua
m/V
4.31e9
Ub
(m/V)2
5.87e19
Ub1
temperature coefficient of Ub
(m/V)2
7.61e18
Uc
V1
0.0465
Uc1
temperature coefficient of Uc
V1
0.056
U0
0.067 NMOS
0.025 PMOS
Ute
1.5
Calculated parameter
532
0.0
m
1.74e7
Parameter Description
Units
Default
Voff
0.08
Tnom
measurement temperature
25
Trise
Cgdo
F/m
Xpart
Delta
0.01
Rsh
ohm/sq
0.0
(set to >0 or
leave it blank)
Rdsw
ohms*umWr 0.0
Prwg
0.0
Prwb
0.047
Prt
0.0
Eta0
Etab
Pclm
1.3
Pdiblc1
0.39
Pdiblc2
0.086
Pdiblc2b
V1
0.0
Pvag
Tbox
3.0e7
Tsi
silicononinsulator thickness
1.0e7
Xj
Tsi
Rth0
ohms
0.0
Ctho
0.0
Ngidi
1.2
0.0
ohms*um
0.08
V1
0.07
0.0
Calculated parameter
533
Parameter Description
Units
Default
Agidi
ohm1
0.0
Bgidi
V/m
0.0
Ndiode
1.0
Xbjt
1.0
Xdif
1.0
Xrec
1.0
Xtun
0.0
Pbswg
Mjswg
Cjswg
1.0e10
Lint
0.0
L1
0.0
Lln
1.0
Lw
0.0
Lwn
1.0
Lwl
0.0
Wr
1.0
Wint
0.0
Dwg
m/V
0.0
Dwb
m/V1/2
0.0
W1
0.0
Win
Ww
Wwn
Wwl
0.0
BO
0.0
Calculated parameter
534
0.07
0.5
1.0
m
0.0
1.0
Parameter Description
Units
Default
B1
0.0
Cgsl
F/m
0.0
Ckappa
F/m
0.0
Cf
F/m
Clc
0.1e7
Cle
Dwc
Wint
Dlc
Lint
m/V
0.0
Alpha0
0.0
noise parameter A
1.0e20 (NMOS)
9.9e18 (PMOS)
Noib
noise parameter B
5.0e4(NMOS),
2.4e3 (PMOS)
Noic
noise parameter C
1,4e12 (NMOS)
1,4e12 (PMOS)
Em
V/m
4.1e7
Ef
1.0
Af
1.0
Kf
0.0
Noif
1.0
K1w1
0.0
K1w2
0.0
Ketas
0.0
Dwbc
0.0
Beta0
V1
0.0
Calculated parameter
535
Parameter Description
Units
Default
Beta1
0.0
Beta2
0.0
VdsatiiO
0.9
Tii
0.0
Lii
0.0
Sii0
0.5
Sii1
V1
0.1
Sii2
0.1
Siid
0.1
V1
Fbjtii
Esatii
Ntun
10.0
2.0
Nrecf0
0.0
V /m
1.0e7
10.0
A/m2
1.0e6
A/m2
0.0
A/m2
1.0e6
Note 3)
lsdif
536
Parameter Description
lstun
Units
Default
A/m2
0.0
see Note 3)
Ln
2.0e6
Vrec0
0.0
Vtun0
0.0
Nbjt
1.0
Lbjt0
Ldif0
Vabjt
0.2e6
10.0
Aely
V/m
10.0
Ahli
Rbody
ohm/m2
0.0
Rbsh
ohm/m2
0.0
Cgeo
F/m
0/0
Tt
1.0e12
Ndif
1.0
Vsdfb
Vsdth
Csdmin
Asd
0.3
Cdesw
0/0
Ntrecf
0.0
1.0
0.0
Calculated parameter
537
Parameter Description
Ntrecr
Units
Default
0.0
Dlcb
Fbody
Lint
Tcjswg
K1
0.0
Tpbswg
V/K
0.0
Acde
m/V
1.0
Moin
V1/2
15.0
Delvt
0.0
Kb1
1.0
Dlbg
0.0
Toxqm
Tox
Wth0
0.0
Rhalo
ohms
1.0e15
Ntox
Toxref
Ebg
1.0
1.0
2.5e9
1.2
Nevb
3.0
Alphagb1
0.35
Betagb2
0.03
Vgb1
300.0
Necb
1.0
Alphagb2
0.43
Betagb2
0.05
Vgb2
17.0
Calculated parameter
538
Parameter Description
Units
Default
Voxh
5.0
Deltavox
Gmin
0.005
1.0e20
Calculated parameter
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model modelname B3SOI [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by mosfet components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is B3SOI. Use either
parameter NMOS=yes or PMOS=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the model
contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign. The
name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model Nch8 B3SOI \
Vtho=0.7 Cj=3e4 NMOS=yes
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
539
3. Several DC, AC, and capacitance parameters can be binned; these parameters
follow this implementation:
Pw
Pp
PL
P = P 0 +  +  + L
W
L W
eff
eff
eff
eff
For example, for the parameter K1, the following relationships exist: P0 = k1,
PL = lk1, PW = wk1, PP=pk1. The Binunit parameter is a binning unit selector.
If Binunit=1, the units of Leff and Weff used in the preceding binning equation
have the units of microns, otherwise in meters. For example, for a device with
Leff=0.5m and Weff=10m, if Binunit=1, parameter values are le5, le4, 2e4,
and 3e4 for Vsat, Lvsat, Wvsat, and Pvsat, respectively, Therefore, the effective
value of Vsat for this device is:
Vsat = 1e5 + 1e4/0.5 + 2e4/10 + 3e4/(0.5 10) = 1.28e5
To get the same effective value of Vsat for Binunit=0, values of Vsat, Lvsat,
Wvsat, and Pvsat would be 1e5, le2, 2e2, 3e8, respectively. Thus:
Vsat = 1e5 + 1e2/0.5e6 + 2e2/10e6 + 3e 8/(0.5e6 10e6) = 1.28e5
540
Available in
Parameters
Model parameters must be specified in SI units.
Name
Description
Model
Units
Default
5.0e6
Width
channel width
5.0e6
Ad
m2
0.0
As
m2
0.0
Pd
0.0
Ps
0.0
Nrd
1.0
Nrs
1.0
Nrb
1.0
Bjtoff
no
Rth0
ohms
model Rth0
Cth0
farads
model Cth0
Nbc
0.0
Nseg
1.0
Pdbcp
0.0
Psbcp
0.0
Agbcp
m2
0.0
541
Name
Description
Units
Default
Aebcp
m2
Vbsusr
volts
Temp
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
Each instance parameter whose dimension contains a power of meter will be multiplied by the Scale
to the same power. For example, a parameter with a dimension of m will be multiplied by scale1 and a
parameter with a dimension of m2 will be multiplied by scale2. Note that only parameters whose
dimensions contain meter are scaled. For example, a parameter whose dimension contains cm instead
of meter is not scaled.
Notes/Equations
1. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
2. Table 52 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 52. DC Operating Point Information
542
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Ib
Bulk current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gmb
siemens
Description
Units
Gds
siemens
Vth
Threshold voltage
volts
Vdsat
volts
DqgDvgb
(dQg/dVgb)
farads
DqgDvdb
(dQg/dVdb)
farads
DqgDvsb
(dQg/dVsb)
farads
DqgDveb
(dQg/dVeb)
farads
DqbDvgb
(dQb/dVgb)
farads
DqbDvdb
(dQb/dVdb)
farads
DqbDvsb
(dQb/dVsb)
farads
DqbDveb
(dQb/dVeb)
farads
DqdDvgb
(dQd/dVgb)
farads
DqdDvdb
(dQd/dVdb)
farads
DqdDvsb
(dQd/dVsb)
farads
DqdDveb
(dQd/dVeb)
farads
DqeDvgb
(dQe/dVgb)
farads
DqeDvdb
(dQe/dVdb)
farads
DqeDvsb
(dQe/dVsb)
farads
DqeDveb
(dQe/dVeb)
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Drainsource voltage
volts
Vbs
Bulksource voltage
volts
Ves
Substratesource voltage
volts
Vps
Bodysource voltage
volts
543
Available in
Parameters
Model parameters must be specified in SI units.
Name
Description
Model
Units
Default
Length
channel length
5.0e6 m
Width
channel width
5.0e6 m
Ad
m2
0.0
As
m2
0.0
Pd
0.0
Ps
0.0
Nrd
1.0
Nrs
1.0
Nrb
1.0
Bjtoff
no
Rth0
ohms
model
Rth0
Cth0
farads
model
Cth0
Nbc
0.0
1.0
0.0
Nseg
Pdbcp
544 BSIM3SOI5_NMOS, BSIM3SOI5_PMOS (BSIM3 SOI Transistor with 5th Terminal, Ext. Body
Contact, NMOS, PMOS)
Name
Description
Units
Default
Psbcp
Agbcp
m2
0.0
Aebcp
m2
0.0
Vbsusr
fV, pV,
nV, uV,
mV, V
Vbs
Temp
oC
25
Trise
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
0.0
Each instance parameter whose dimension contains a power of meter will be multiplied by the Scale
to the same power. For example, a parameter with a dimension of m will be multiplied by scale1 and a
parameter with a dimension of m2 will be multiplied by scale2. Note that only parameters whose
dimensions contain meter are scaled. For example, a parameter whose dimension contains cm instead
of meter is not scaled.
Notes/Equations
1. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
2. Table 53 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 53. DC Operating Point Information
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Ib
Bulk current
amperes
BSIM3SOI5_NMOS, BSIM3SOI5_PMOS (BSIM3 SOI Transistor with 5th Terminal, Ext. Body Contact,
NMOS, PMOS) 545
Description
Units
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gmb
siemens
Gds
siemens
Vth
Threshold voltage
volts
Vdsat
volts
DqgDvgb
(dQg/dVgb)
farads
DqgDvdb
(dQg/dVdb)
farads
DqgDvsb
(dQg/dVsb)
farads
DqgDveb
(dQg/dVeb)
farads
DqbDvgb
(dQb/dVgb)
farads
DqbDvdb
(dQb/dVdb)
farads
DqbDvsb
(dQb/dVsb)
farads
DqbDveb
(dQb/dVeb)
farads
DqdDvgb
(dQd/dVgb)
farads
DqdDvdb
(dQd/dVdb)
farads
DqdDvsb
(dQd/dVsb)
farads
DqdDveb
(dQd/dVeb)
farads
DqeDvgb
(dQe/dVgb)
farads
DqeDvdb
(dQe/dVdb)
farads
DqeDvsb
(dQe/dVsb)
farads
DqeDveb
(dQe/dVeb)
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Drainsource voltage
volts
Vbs
Bulksource voltage
volts
Ves
Substratesource voltage
volts
Vps
Bodysource voltage
volts
546 BSIM3SOI5_NMOS, BSIM3SOI5_PMOS (BSIM3 SOI Transistor with 5th Terminal, Ext. Body
Contact, NMOS, PMOS)
Available in
Description
NMOS
Units
Default
yes
PMOS
no
Capmod
Diomod
Rdsmod
Trnqsmod
Acnqsmod
Mobmod
Rbodymod
Rgatemod
Permod
Geomod
Fnoimod
Tnoimod
Igcmod
Igbmod
Tempmod
Paramchk
Binunit
547
Name
Description
Version
Toxe
30.0e10
Toxp
Toxe
Toxm
Toxe
Toxref
30.0e10
Dtox
0.0
Epsrox
3.9
Cdsc
F/(V*m2)
2.4e4
Cdscb
F/(V*m2)
0.0
Cdscd
F/(V*m2)
0.0
Cit
F/(V*m2)
0.0
Nfactor
Xj
Junction depth
1.5e7
Vsat
m/s
8.0e4
At
m/s
3.3e4
A0
Ags
V1
0.0
A1
V1
0.0
A2
Keta
V1
0.047
Nsub
cm3
6.0e16
Ndep
cm3
1.7e17
Nsd
cm3
1.0e20
Phin
0.0
Ngate
cm3
0.0
548
Units
Default
4.40
1.0
1.0
1.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
Gamma1
V1/2
calculated
Gamma2
V1/2
calculated
Vbx
calculated
Vbm
3.0
Xt
Doping depth
1.55e7
K1
V1/2
0.5
Kt1
0.11
Kt1l
V*m
0.0
Kt2
K2
K3
K3b
V1
0.0
W0
2.5e6
Dvtp0
0.0
Dvtp1
V1
0.0
Lpe0
1.74e7
Lpeb
0.0
Dvt0
2.2
Dvt1
Dvt2
Dvt0w
Dvt1w
m1
5.3e6
Dvt2w
V1
0.032
0.0
80.0
0.53
V1
0.032
0.0
Drout
0.56
Dsub
fixed by Drout
0.7 (NMOS)
0.7 (PMOS)
1.0e15 (Mobmod 2)
1.0e9 (Mobmod 0, 1)
549
Name
Description
Units
Default
Ua1
Temperature coefficient of Ua
m/V
1.0e9
Ub
(m/V2)
1.0e19
Ub1
Temperature coefficient of Ub
(m/V2)
1.0e18
Uc
V1
0.0465 (Mobmod 1)
0.0465e9 (Mobmod 0, 2)
Uc1
Temperature coefficient of Uc
V1
0.056 (Mobmod 1)
0.056e9 (Mobmod 0, 2)
U0
m2/(V*s)
0.0677 (NMOS)
0.025 (PMOS)
Eu
Mobility exponent
1.67 (NMOS)
1.0 (PMOS)
Ute
1.5
Voff
Minv
0.08
0.0
Voffl
V*m
0.0
Tnom
25
Trise
Cgso
F/m
calculated
Cgdo
F/m
calculated
Cgbo
F/m
0.0
Xpart
Delta
0.0
V
0.01
Rsh
ohms/sq
0.0
Rdsw
ohms*um
200.0
Rdswmin
ohms*um
0.0
Rsw
ohms*um
100.0
Rdw
ohms*um
100.0
Rdwmin
ohms*um
0.0
Rswmin
ohms*um
0.0
Prwg
V1
1.0
550
Name
Description
Units
Default
Prwb
V1/2
0.0
Prt
ohms*um
0.0
Eta0
Etab
Pclm
1.3
Pdiblc1
0.39
Pdiblc2
0.0086
Pdiblcb
V1
0.0
Fprout
V/m1/2
0.0
Pdits
V1
0.0
Pditsl
m1
0.0
Pditsd
V1
0.0
Pscbe1
V/m
4.24e8
Pscbe2
m/V
Pvag
0.0
Jss
1.0e4
Jsws
A/m
0.0
Jswgs
A/m
0.0
Pbs
1.0
Njs
1.0
Xtis
3.0
Mjs
0.5
Pbsws
Mjsws
Pbswgs
0.08
V1
0.07
1.0e5
1.0
0.33
Pbsws
551
Name
Description
Mjswgs
Mjsws
Cjs
5.0e4
Cjsws
F/m
5.0e10
Cjswgs
F/m
Cjsws
Jsd
A/m2
Jss
Jswd
A/m
Jsws
Jswgd
Pbd
Njd
Njs
Xtid
Xtis
Mjd
Mjs
Pbswd
Mjswd
Pbswgd
Mjswgd
Cjd
F/m2
Cjs
Cjswd
F/m
Cjsws
Cjswgd
Cjswg
Vfbcv
1.0
Vfb
1.0
Tpb
Temperature coefficient of pb
V/K
0.0
552
Units
Default
Jswgs
V
Pbs
Pbsws
Mjsws
Pbswgs
Mjswgs
Name
Description
Units
Default
Tcj
Temperature coefficient of cj
K1
0.0
Tpbsw
V/K
0.0
Tcjsw
K1
0.0
Tpbswg
V/K
0.0
Tcjswg
K1
0.0
Acde
1.0
Moin
15.0
Noff
1.0
Voffcv
0.0
Dmcg
0.0
Dmci
Dmcg
Dmdg
0.0
Dmcgt
0.0
Xgw
0.0
Xgl
Variation in Ldrawn
0.0
Rshg
ohms/sq
0.1
Ngcon
1.0
Xrcrg1
12.0
Xrcrg2
1.0
Xw
Xl
Lambda
Vtl
Thermal velocity
m/s
2.0e5
Lc
5.0e9
Xn
Vfbsdoff
0.0
Lintnoi
0.0
Lint
0.0
m^3/(V*s)
0.0
3.0
553
Name
Description
Units
Default
Ll
0.0
Llc
Lln
Lw
0.0
Lwc
Lw
Lwn
Lwl
0.0
Lwlc
Lwl
Lmin
0.0
Lmax
1.0
Wr
Wint
0.0
Dwg
m/V
0.0
Dwb
m/V1/2
0.0
Wl
0.0
Wlc
Wl
Wln
Ww
0.0
Wwc
Ww
Wwn
Wwl
0.0
Wwlc
Wwl
Wmin
0.0
Wmax
1.0
B0
0.0
B1
0.0
Cgsl
F/m
0.0
Cgdl
F/m
0.0
Ckappas
0.6
Ckappad
Ckappas
554
0.0
0.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
Cf
F/m
calculated
Clc
1.0e7
Cle
Dwc
Wint
Dlc
Lint
Dlcig
Lint
Dwj
Alpha0
A*m/V
0.0
Alpha1
A/V
0.0
Beta0
30.0
Agidl
Ohm1
0.0
Bgidl
V/m
2.3e9
Cgidl
V3
0.5
Egidl
0.8
Aigc
0.43 (NMOS)
0.31 (PMOS)
Bigc
0.054 (NMOS)
0.024 (PMOS)
Cigc
Aigsd
0.043 (NMOS)
0.31 (PMOS)
Bigsd
0.054 (NMOS)
0.024 (PMOS)
Cigsd
Aigbacc
Bigbacc
Cigbacc
Aigbinv
Bigbinv
Cigbinv
0.6
Dwc
V1
V1
0.075 (NMOS)
0.03 (PMOS)
0.075 (NMOS)
0.03 (PMOS)
0.43
0.054
V1
0.075
0.35
0.03
V1
0.006
555
Name
Description
Nigc
Units
Default
1.0
Nigbinv
3.0
Nigbacc
1.0
Ntox
1.0
Eigbinv
Pigcd
Poxedge
Ijthdfwd
Ijthsfwd
Ijthsfwd
0.1
Ijthdrev
Ijthsrev
Ijthsrev
0.1
Imelt
Ijthsfwd
Xjbvd
Xjbvs
Xjbvs
1.0
Bvd
Bvs
Bvs
10.0
Gbmin
ohm1
1.0e12
Jtss
0.0
Jtsd
0.0
Jtssws
0.0
Jtsswd
0.0
Jtsswgs
0.0
Jtsswgd
0.0
Njts
20.0
556
1.1
1.0
1.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
Njtssw
20.0
Njtsswg
20.0
Xtss
0.02
Xtsd
0.02
Xtssws
0.02
Xtsswd
0.02
Xtsswgs
0.02
Xtsswgd
0.02
Tnjts
0.0
Tnjtssw
0.0
Tnjtsswg
0.0
Vtss
10.0
Vtsd
10.0
Vtssws
10.0
Vtsswd
10.0
Vtsswgs
10.0
Vtsswgd
10.0
Rbdb
ohms
50.0
Rbpb
ohms
50.0
Rbsb
ohms
50.0
Rbps
ohms
50.0
Rbpd
ohms
50.0
Lcdsc
0.0
Lcdscb
0.0
Lcdscd
0.0
Lcit
0.0
Lnfactor
0.0
BSIM4_Model (BSIM4 MOSFET Model)
557
Name
Description
Lxj
Length dependence of xj
0.0
Lvsat
0.0
Lat
Length dependence of at
0.0
La0
Length dependence of a0
0.0
Lags
0.0
La1
Length dependence of a1
0.0
La2
Length dependence of a2
0.0
Lketa
0.0
Lnsub
0.0
Lndep
0.0
Lnsd
0.0
Lphin
0.0
Lngate
0.0
Lgamma1
0.0
Lgamma2
0.0
Lvbx
0.0
Lvbm
0.0
Lxt
Length dependence of xt
0.0
Lk1
Length dependence of k1
0.0
Lkt1
0.0
Lkt1l
0.0
Lkt2
0.0
Lk2
Length dependence of k2
0.0
Lk3
Length dependence of k3
0.0
Lk3b
0.0
Lw0
Length dependence of w0
0.0
Ldvtp0
0.0
Ldvtp1
0.0
Llpe0
0.0
Llpeb
0.0
Ldvt0
0.0
558
Units
Default
Name
Description
Units
Default
Ldvt1
0.0
Ldvt2
0.0
Ldvt0w
0.0
Ldvt1w
0.0
Ldvt2w
0.0
Ldrout
0.0
Ldsub
0.0
Lvth0
(Lvtho)
0.0
Lua
Length dependence of ua
0.0
Lua1
0.0
Lub
Length dependence of ub
0.0
Lub1
0.0
Luc
Length dependence of uc
0.0
Luc1
0.0
Lu0
Length dependence of u0
0.0
Lute
0.0
Lvoff
0.0
Lminv
0.0
Ldelta
0.0
Lrdsw
0.0
Lrsw
0.0
Lrdw
0.0
Lprwg
0.0
Lprwb
0.0
Lprt
0.0
Leta0
0.0
Letab
0.0
Lpclm
0.0
Lpdiblc1
0.0
Lpdiblc2
0.0
BSIM4_Model (BSIM4 MOSFET Model)
559
Name
Description
Lpdiblcb
0.0
Lfprout
0.0
Lpdits
0.0
Lpditsd
0.0
Lpscbe1
0.0
Lpscbe2
0.0
Lpvag
0.0
Lwr
Length dependence of wr
0.0
Ldwg
0.0
Ldwb
0.0
Lb0
Length dependence of b0
0.0
Lb1
Length dependence of b1
0.0
Lcgsl
0.0
Lcgdl
0.0
Lckappas
0.0
Lckappad
0.0
Lcf
Length dependence of cf
0.0
Lclc
0.0
Lcle
0.0
Lalpha0
0.0
Lalpha1
0.0
Lbeta0
0.0
Lagidl
0.0
Lbgidl
0.0
Lcgidl
0.0
Legidl
0.0
Laigc
0.0
Lbigc
0.0
Lcigc
0.0
Laigsd
0.0
Lbigsd
0.0
560
Units
Default
Name
Description
Units
Default
Lcigsd
0.0
Laigbacc
0.0
Lbigbacc
0.0
Lcigbacc
0.0
Laigbinv
0.0
Lbigbinv
0.0
Lcigbinv
0.0
Lnigc
0.0
Lnigbinv
0.0
Lnigbacc
0.0
Lntox
0.0
Leigbinv
0.0
Lpigcd
0.0
Lpoxedge
0.0
Lvfbcv
0.0
Lvfb
0.0
Lacde
0.0
Lmoin
0.0
Lnoff
0.0
Lvoffcv
0.0
Lxrcrg1
0.0
Lxrcrg2
0.0
Llambda
0.0
Lvtl
0.0
Lxn
Length dependence of Xn
0.0
Leu
Length dependence of eu
0.0
Lvfbsdoff
0.0
Wcdsc
0.0
Wcdscb
0.0
Wcdscd
0.0
Wcit
0.0
BSIM4_Model (BSIM4 MOSFET Model)
561
Name
Description
Wnfactor
0.0
Wxj
Width dependence of xj
0.0
Wvsat
0.0
Wat
Width dependence of at
0.0
Wa0
Width dependence of a0
0.0
Wags
0.0
Wa1
Width dependence of a1
0.0
Wa2
Width dependence of a2
0.0
Wketa
0.0
Wnsub
0.0
Wndep
0.0
Wnsd
0.0
Wphin
0.0
Wngate
0.0
Wgamma1
0.0
Wgamma2
0.0
Wvbx
0.0
Wvbm
0.0
Wxt
Width dependence of xt
0.0
Wk1
Width dependence of k1
0.0
Wkt1
0.0
Wkt1l
0.0
Wkt2
0.0
Wk2
Width dependence of k2
0.0
Wk3
Width dependence of k3
0.0
Wk3b
0.0
Ww0
Width dependence of w0
0.0
Wdvtp0
0.0
Wdvtp1
0.0
Wlpe0
0.0
Wlpeb
0.0
562
Units
Default
Name
Description
Units
Default
Wdvt0
0.0
Wdvt1
0.0
Wdvt2
0.0
Wdvt0w
0.0
Wdvt1w
0.0
Wdvt2w
0.0
Wdrout
0.0
Wdsub
0.0
Wvth0
(Wvtho)
0.0
Wua
Width dependence of ua
0.0
Wua1
0.0
Wub
Width dependence of ub
0.0
Wub1
0.0
Wuc
Width dependence of uc
0.0
Wuc1
0.0
Wu0
Width dependence of u0
0.0
Wute
0.0
Wvoff
0.0
Wminv
0.0
Wdelta
0.0
Wrdsw
0.0
Wrsw
0.0
Wrdw
0.0
Wprwg
0.0
Wprwb
0.0
Wprt
0.0
Weta0
0.0
Wetab
0.0
Wpclm
0.0
Wpdiblc1
0.0
BSIM4_Model (BSIM4 MOSFET Model)
563
Name
Description
Units
Default
Wpdiblc2
0.0
Wpdiblcb
0.0
Wfprout
0.0
Wpdits
0.0
Wpditsd
0.0
Wpscbe1
0.0
Wpscbe2
0.0
Wpvag
0.0
Wwr
Width dependence of wr
0.0
Wdwg
0.0
Wdwb
0.0
Wb0
Width dependence of b0
0.0
Wb1
Width dependence of b1
0.0
Wcgsl
0.0
Wcgdl
0.0
Wckappas
0.0
Wckappad
0.0
Wcf
Width dependence of cf
0.0
Wclc
0.0
Wcle
0.0
Walpha0
0.0
Walpha1
0.0
Wbeta0
0.0
Wagidl
0.0
Wbgidl
0.0
Wcgidl
0.0
Wegidl
0.0
Waigc
0.0
Wbigc
0.0
Wcigc
0.0
Waigsd
0.0
564
Name
Description
Wbigsd
Units
Default
0.0
Wcigsd
0.0
Waigbacc
0.0
Wbigbacc
0.0
Wcigbacc
0.0
Waigbinv
0.0
Wbigbinv
0.0
Wcigbinv
0.0
Wnigc
0.0
Wnigbinv
0.0
Wnigbacc
0.0
Wntox
0.0
Weigbinv
0.0
Wpigcd
0.0
Wpoxedge
0.0
Wvfbcv
0.0
Wvfb
0.0
Wacde
0.0
Wmoin
0.0
Wnoff
0.0
Wvoffcv
0.0
Wxrcrg1
0.0
Wxrcrg2
0.0
Wlambda
0.0
Wvtl
0.0
Wxn
Width dependence of Xn
0.0
Weu
Width dependence of eu
0.0
Wvfbsdoff
0.0
Pcdsc
0.0
Pcdscb
0.0
Pcdscd
0.0
BSIM4_Model (BSIM4 MOSFET Model)
565
Name
Description
Units
Default
Pcit
0.0
Pnfactor
0.0
Pxj
Crossterm dependence of xj
0.0
Pvsat
0.0
Pat
Crossterm dependence of at
0.0
Pa0
Crossterm dependence of a0
0.0
Pags
0.0
Pa1
Crossterm dependence of a1
0.0
Pa2
Crossterm dependence of a2
0.0
Pketa
0.0
Pnsub
0.0
Pndep
0.0
Pnsd
0.0
Pphin
0.0
Pngate
0.0
Pgamma1
0.0
Pgamma2
0.0
Pvbx
0.0
Pvbm
0.0
Pxt
Crossterm dependence of xt
0.0
Pk1
Crossterm dependence of k1
0.0
Pkt1
0.0
Pkt1l
0.0
Pkt2
0.0
Pk2
Crossterm dependence of k2
0.0
Pk3
Crossterm dependence of k3
0.0
Pk3b
0.0
Pw0
Crossterm dependence of w0
0.0
Pdvtp0
0.0
Pdvtp1
0.0
Plpe0
0.0
566
Name
Description
Units
Default
Plpeb
0.0
Pdvt0
0.0
Pdvt1
0.0
Pdvt2
0.0
Pdvt0w
0.0
Pdvt1w
0.0
Pdvt2w
0.0
Pdrout
0.0
Pdsub
0.0
Pvth0
(Pvtho)
0.0
Pua
Crossterm dependence of ua
0.0
Pua1
0.0
Pub
Crossterm dependence of ub
0.0
Pub1
0.0
Puc
Crossterm dependence of uc
0.0
Puc1
0.0
Pu0
Crossterm dependence of u0
0.0
Pute
0.0
Pvoff
0.0
Pminv
0.0
Pdelta
0.0
Prdsw
0.0
Prsw
0.0
Prdw
0.0
Pprwg
0.0
Pprwb
0.0
Pprt
0.0
Peta0
0.0
Petab
0.0
Ppclm
0.0
BSIM4_Model (BSIM4 MOSFET Model)
567
Name
Description
Ppdiblc1
0.0
Ppdiblc2
0.0
Ppdiblcb
0.0
Pfprout
0.0
Ppdits
0.0
Ppditsd
0.0
Ppscbe1
0.0
Ppscbe2
0.0
Ppvag
0.0
Pwr
Crossterm dependence of wr
0.0
Pdwg
0.0
Pdwb
0.0
Pb0
Crossterm dependence of b0
0.0
Pb1
Crossterm dependence of b1
0.0
Pcgsl
0.0
Pcgdl
0.0
Pckappas
0.0
Pckappad
0.0
Pcf
Crossterm dependence of cf
0.0
Pclc
0.0
Pcle
0.0
Palpha0
0.0
Palpha1
0.0
Pbeta0
0.0
Pagidl
0.0
Pbgidl
0.0
Pcgidl
0.0
Pegidl
0.0
Paigc
0.0
Pbigc
0.0
Pcigc
0.0
568
Units
Default
Name
Description
Units
Default
Paigsd
0.0
Pbigsd
0.0
Pcigsd
0.0
Paigbacc
0.0
Pbigbacc
0.0
Pcigbacc
0.0
Paigbinv
0.0
Pbigbinv
0.0
Pcigbinv
0.0
Pnigc
0.0
Pnigbinv
0.0
Pnigbacc
0.0
Pntox
0.0
Peigbinv
0.0
Ppigcd
0.0
Ppoxedge
0.0
Pvfbcv
0.0
Pvfb
0.0
Pacde
0.0
Pmoin
0.0
Pnoff
0.0
Pvoffcv
0.0
Pxrcrg1
0.0
Pxrcrg2
0.0
Plambda
0.0
Pvtl
0.0
Pxn
Crossterm dependence of Xn
0.0
Peu
Crossterm dependence of eu
0.0
Pvfbsdoff
0.0
Saref
1.0e6
569
Name
Description
Sbref
1.0e6
Wlod
0.0
Ku0
0.0
Kvsat
0.0
Kvth0
V*m
0.0
Tku0
0.0
Llodku0
0.0
Wlodku0
0.0
Llodvth
0.0
Wlodvth
0.0
Lku0
0.0
Wku0
0.0
Pku0
0.0
Lkvth0
0.0
Wkvth0
0.0
Pkvth0
0.0
Stk2
Lodk2
Steta0
Lodeta0
1.0
Noia
6.25e41 (NMOS),
6.188e40 (PMOS)
Noib
3.125e26 (NMOS),
1.5e25 (PMOS)
Noic
8.75
Tnoia
1.5
Tnoib
3.5
Rnoia
0.577
570
Units
Default
0.0
0.0
1.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
Rnoib
Ntnoi
Em
Ef
1.0
Af
1.0
Kf
0.0
wBvsub
wBvds
wBvds
wIdsmax
wPmax
AllParams
DataAccessComponent (DAC)based
parameters
Rgeomod
Nf
Number of fingers
1.0
4.1e7
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
BSIM4 [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by mosfet components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is BSIM4. Use either
parameter NMOS=yes or PMOS=yes to set the transistor type. The rest of the model
contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an equal sign. The
name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the parameters
tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have aliases, which are
listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are parameter names
that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model parameters may
appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that are not specified
BSIM4_Model (BSIM4 MOSFET Model)
571
take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more information about
the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors, subcircuits,
variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the Using Circuit
Simulators manual.
Example:
model Nch7 BSIM4 \
Vtho=0.7 Cjs=3e4
NMOS=yes
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
3. Several DC, AC, and capacitance parameters can be binned as described in the
parameters table; these parameters follow this implementation:
Pw
Pp
PL
P = P 0 +  +  + L
W
L W
eff
eff
eff
eff
For example, for the parameter K1, the following relationships exist: P0=k1,
PL=lk1, PW=wk1, PP=pk1. The Binunit parameter is a binning unit selector. If
Binunit=1, the units of Leff and Weff used in the preceding binning equation
have units of microns, otherwise meters. For example, for a device with
Leff=0.5m and Weff=10m, if Binunit=1, parameter values are le5, le4, 2e4,
and 3e4 for Vsat, Lvsat, Wvsat, and Pvsat, respectively, Therefore, the effective
value of Vsat for this device is:
Vsat = 1e5 + 1e4/0.5 + 2e4/10 + 3e4/(0.5 10) = 1.28e5
To get the same effective value of Vsat for Binunit=0, values of Vsat, Lvsat,
Wvsat, and Pvsat would be 1e5, le2, 2e2, 3e8, respectively. Thus:
Vsat = 1e5 + 1e2/0.5e6 + 2e2/10e6 + 3e 8/(0.5e6 10e6) = 1.28e5
572
1 C oxe
NDEP = 2q si
If both 1 and NDEP are not given, NDEP defaults to 1.7e17cm3 and is
calculated from NDEP
7. If VBX is not given, it is calculated by
BSIM4_Model (BSIM4 MOSFET Model)
573
qNDEP X T
 = ( s VBX )
2 si
8. If VTH0 is not given it is calculated by
VTH0 = VFB + s + K 1 s V bs
TOXE
12. For dioMod = 0, if Xjbvs < 0.0, it is reset to 1.0
For dioMod = 2, if Xjbvs 0.0, it is reset to 1.0
For dioMod = 0, if Xjbvd < 0.0, it is reset to 1.0
For dioMod = 2, if Xjbvd 0.0, it is reset to 1.0
13. Imelt, Ijth, Ijthsfwd, Ijthsrev, Ijthdfwd, and Ijthdrev Parameters
Imelt, Ijth, Ijthsfwd, Ijthsrev, Ijthdfwd, and Ijthdrev are used to determine the
different diode limiting currents (also known as PN junction explosion
current).
Imelt can be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the
device model value takes precedence over the Options value. Ijth can be
specified only in the Options component.
If Ijthsfwd is not specified and Ijth is specified, Ijthsfwd = Ijth.
If Ijthsrev is not specified and Ijth is specified, Ijthsrev = Ijth.
If Ijthdfwd is not specified and Ijth is specified, Ijthdfwd = Ijth.
If Ijthdrev is not specified and Ijth is specified, Ijthdrev = Ijth.
If the Imelt value is less than the maximum value of Ijthsfwd, Ijthsrev,
Ijthdfwd, and Ijthdrev, the Imelt value is increased to the maximum value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) all diode limiting currents
(Ijthsfwd, Ijthsrev, Ijthdfwd, and Ijthdrev) = Imelt; otherwise, each diode
limiting current is used to limit its own diode current.
14. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). Note that model parameters that are explicitly specified
take precedence over those specified via AllParams. Set AllParams to the
DataAccessComponent instance name.
575
Available in
Parameters
Model parameters must be specified in SI units
Name
Description
Units
Default
Model
Length
channel length
5.0e6 m
Width
channel width
5.0e6 m
Nf
number of fingers
Sa
0.0
Sb
0.0
Sd
0.0
Min
minimize either D or S
Ad
m2
0.0
As
m2
0.0
Pd
0.0
Ps
0.0
Nrd
1.0
Nrs
1.0
Off
0.0
Rbdb
body resistance
model Rbdb
Rbsb
body resistance
model Rbsb
Rbpb
body resistance
model Rbpb
576
1.0
Name
Description
Rbps
body resistance
Units
Default
model Rbps
Rbpd
body resistance
model Rbpd
Trnqsmod
model
Trnqsmod
Acnqsmod
model
Acnqsmod
model
Rbodymod
Rgatemod
model
Rgatemod
Geomod
model
Geomod
Rgeomod
model
Rgeomod
Temp
Mode
Nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
oC
25
Each instance parameter whose dimension contains a power of meter will be multiplied by the
Scale to the same power. For example, a parameter with a dimension of m will be multiplied by scale1
and a parameter with a dimension of m2 will be multiplied by scale2. Note that only parameters whose
dimensions contain meter are scaled. For example, a parameter whose dimension contains cm
instead of meter is not scaled.
Notes/Equations
1. The Mode parameter is used only during harmonic balance, oscillator, or
largesignal Sparameter, or Circuit Envelope analysis. By identifying devices
that are operating in their linear region, the simulation time may be decreased.
Devices with Mode=linear are linearized about their DC operating point. In
standard entry mode, the integer value 1 is used for a nonlinear device and 0 is
used for a linear device.
2. Table 54 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
577
578
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Ib
Bulk current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gmb
siemens
Gds
siemens
Vth
Threshold voltage
volts
Vdsat
volts
DqgDvgb
(dQg/dVgb)
farads
DqgDvdb
(dQg/dVdb)
farads
DqgDvsb
(dQg/dVsb)
farads
DqbDvgb
(dQb/dVgb)
farads
DqbDvdb
(dQb/dVdb)
farads
DqbDvsb
(dQb/dVsb)
farads
DqdDvgb
(dQd/dVgb)
farads
DqdDvdb
(dQd/dVdb)
farads
DqdDvsb
(dQd/dVsb)
farads
Vgs
volts
Vds
volts
Vbs
volts
Vgms
Midgatesource voltage
volts
Vges
volts
Vdbs
volts
Vsbs
volts
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Units
Default
Model
name of an EE_MOS1_Model
Temp
25.0
Noise
1.0
_M
Notes/Equations
1. Table 55 lists the DC operating point parameters that can be sent to the
dataset.
Table 55. DC Operating Point Information
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gm
siemens
Gds
siemens
GmAc
siemens
GdsAc
siemens
579
580
Name
Description
Units
dIdb_dVgs
(dIdb/dVgs)
siemens
dIdb_dVgd
(dIdb/dVgd)
siemens
dIdb_dVds
(dIdb/dVds)
siemens
Cgc
farads
Cgy
farads
Cds
Drainsource capacitance
farads
dQgc_dVgy
(dQgc/dVgy)
farads
dQgy_dVgc
(dQgy_dVgc)
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Gatedrain voltage
volts
Available in
Description
Units
Default
Is
1014
Cdso
0.0
Vbi
0.7
Mj
0.5
Fc
104
Vbr
104
Kbo
104
Nbr
2.0
Vinfl
5.0
Deltds
1.0
Deltgs
1.0
Cgsmax
1012
Cgso
1013
Cgdo
1013
Vgo
7.0
1.0
Vto
1.0
Gamma
1/V
0.0
Gmmax
peak transconductance
10103
581
Name
Description
Units
Default
Delt
2.0
Vbreak
4.0
Lambda
1/V
0.0
Vsatm
10.0
Vgm
5.0
Rdb
ohms
109
Cbs
1.61013
Gmmaxac
ac value of Gmmax
60103
Deltac
ac value of Delt
2.0
Vbreakac
ac value of Vbreak
4.0
Vgoac
ac value of Vgo
Lambdaac
ac value of Lambda
1/V
0.0
Vsatmac
10.0
Vgmac
5.0
Gdbm
0.0
Kdb
Vdsm
1.0
Rd
ohms
1.0
Rs
ohms
1.0
Rg
ohms
1.0
Ris
ohms
1.0
Rid
ohms
1.0
wBvg
infinite
wBvds
infinite
wIdsmax
infinite
wPmax
infinite
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for an EE_MOS device.
582
0.0
583
Accurate drainsource current model fits measured current over gate and drain
bias variations.
Flexible transconductance formulation permits accurate fitting of gm
compression found in MOSFETs.
Charge model that accurately tracks measured capacitance values.
Dispersion model that permits simultaneous fitting of highfrequency
conductances and DC characteristics.
Wellbehaved analytic expressions permit accurate extrapolations outside of the
measurement range used to extract the model.
The model equations were developed concurrently with parameter extraction
techniques to ensure the model would contain only parameters that were extractable
from measured data. Although the model is amenable to automated parameter
extraction techniques, it was designed to consist of parameters that are easily
estimated (visually) from measured data such as gmVgs plots. Because the model
equations are all wellbehaved analytic expressions, EEMOS1 possesses no inherent
limitations with respect to its usable power range. Agilent EEsofs ICCAP program
provides the user with the capability of extracting EEMOS1 models from measured
data.
Channel Current
The channel current model in EEMOS1 is comprised of empirically derived analytic
expressions and requires the specification of 9 parameter values. Because EEMOS1
is intended for largesignal analog applications, no attempt is made to characterize
this channel current in the subthreshold or weak inversion region. The channel
current expression is intended for use above Vt only. The equations were developed
through examination of Ids vs. bias and gm vs. bias plots on a number of DMOS
devices from various manufacturers. The equations are sufficiently flexible enough to
handle either enhancement or depletion mode devices. The expressions below are
given for Vds>0.0V although the model is equally valid for Vds<0.0V. The model
assumes the device is symmetrical; simply replace Vgs with Vgd and Vds with Vds
obtain the reverse region (Vds<0.0V) equations. The gm, gds and Ids equations take on
take on two different forms depending on the value of Vgs relative to some of the
model parameters. The Ids expression is continuous through at least the second
derivative everywhere except at Vt, where the second derivative is discontinuous.
584
The following voltages define regions of operation that are used in the current
definitions:
V t = Vto Gamma V ds
V gst = V gs V t .
for Vgst 0
g mo = 0.0
I dso = 0.0
g dso = 0.0
for Vgst > 0 and Vgs Vbreak
g mo = g mm(V gs, V ds)
I dso = I dsm(V gs, V ds)
g dso = g dsm(V gs, V ds)
for Vgst > 0 and Vgs > Vbreak
g mo = a ( V gs V asym )
b+1
b+1
a
I dso = I dsm(V break, V ds) +  [ ( V gs V asym )
Delt
]
b+1
3 V t Vgo 3
2 Gamma
V Vgo 3
g dsm(V , V ds) = Gmmax  1 
V Vgo
3
t
mg
mm
g mm
= V
V = Vbreak
EE_MOS1_Model (EEsof Nonlinear MOSFET Model)
585
586
2 3V
3V ds V sat
3V ds
ds
g mo tanh  I dso sech   2
V sat
V sat
V sat V gs
( 1 + Lambda V ds )
3V ds
g ds = { g dso ( 1 + Lambda V ds ) + I dso Lambda } tanh 
V sat
V sat
ds
+ I dso  sech 
2
V sat
V sat
where
2 3(V
V sat
3 Vsatm
gs V t )
 =  sech 
Vgm
Vgm
V gs
2 3(V
V sat
3 Vsatm Gamma
gs V t )
 =  sech 
Vgm
V ds
Vgm
Qualitatively, the operation of the channel current model can be described as follows.
The Vds dependence of the equations is dominated by the parameters Vsatm, Vgm,
Gamma, and Lambda. Output conductance is controlled by Gamma and Lambda. The
parameter Vsatm represents the maximum drainsource voltage where the drain
current saturates. Vgm is the gate voltage corresponding to the IV trace where
Vsat=Vsatm.
When Gamma=0, Vsatm=0 and Lambda=0, EEMOS1 becomes dependent on Vgs only.
Under these simplified conditions, the parameters describing the gmVgs dependence
of the model are easily explained. Vto is the Vgs value where gm becomes zero. The
transconductance peaks at Vgs=VGO with a value of Gmmax. At Vgs=Vbreak, the
model breaks from its quadratic gm dependence and follows a hyperbolic dependence.
The parameter Delt controls the voltage asymptote of this hyperbola. The shape of
this tailoff region can be altered by tuning on the parameter Delt. EEMOS1
constrains the hyperbola to match the derivative of the quadratic function at
Vgs=Vbreak. This ensures a continuous transition between the respective modeling
regions for simulation. The parameter definitions are illustrated in Figure 51.
587
gm(dc)
Gmmax
Tailoff (Delt)
Vto
Vgo
Vbreak
Vgs
I db
g dbgs = V gs
I db
g dbds = V ds
Evaluating these expressions at the frequencies =0 and =infinity, produces the
following results for transconductance and output conductance:
For = 0,
Re [ y 21 ] = g m = g dsgs
Re [ y 22 ] = g ds = g dsds
For = infinity,
Re [ y 21 ] = g m = g dsgs + g dbgs
1
Re [ y 22 ] = g ds = g dsds + g dbds + Rdb
Between these two extremes, the conductances make a smooth transition, the
abruptness of that is governed by the time constant disp = Rdb Cbs. The frequency
f0 at which the conductances are midway between these two extremes is defined as
1
f 0 = 2 disp
The parameter Rdb should be set large enough so that its contribution to the output
conductance is negligible. Unless the user is specifically interested in simulating the
device near f0, the default values of Rdb and Cbs will be adequate for most RF
applications.
The EEMOS1 Ids model can be extracted to fit either DC or AC characteristics. In
order to simultaneously fit both DC IVs and AC conductances, EEMOS1 uses a
simple scheme for modeling the Idb current source whereby different values of the
same parameters can be used in the Ids equations. The DC and AC drainsource
currents can be expressed as follows:
dc
589
ac
dc
I db(V gs, V ds) = I ds(V gs, V ds) I ds(V gs, V ds) + I dbp(V ds)
where Idbp and its associated conductance are given by:
for Vds > Vdsm and Kdb 0 :
Gdbm 1
 tan ( ( V ds Vdsm ) Kdb Gdbm ) + Gdbm Vdsm
Kdb
Gdbm
g dbp = 2
( Kdb ( Gdbm ( V ds Vdsm ) + 1 ) )
I dbp =
I dbp =
ac
only. However, the current function I ds will impact both gm and gds. For this reason,
ac
the model is primarily intended to use gm data as a means for tuning I ds . Once this
fitting is accomplished, parameters Gdbm, Kdb and Vdsm can be tuned to optimize
the gds fit.
Charge Model
The EEMOS1 charge model consists of three separate charge sources that model
channel charge and charge associated with the substrate (output) diode. The channel
charge is partitioned between the two charge sources qgc and qgy such that symmetry
is maintained relative to Vds = 0V. These expressions were empirically developed by
Agilent EEsof such that their derivatives would fit measured capacitance data. The
channel charge expressions are:
2
2
Cgsmax
q gc =  V gc Vinfl + ( V gc Vinfl ) + Deltgs
4
3 ( V gc V gy )
1 + tanh  + Cgso V gc
Deltds
2
2
Cgsmax
q gy =  V gy Vinfl + ( V gy Vinfl ) + Deltgs
4
3 ( V gy V gc )
1 tanh  + Cgdo V gy
Deltds
The output charge and its derivative are modeled using the standard junction diode
depletion formula:
For V ds < Fc Vbi
V ds 1 Mj
Cdso Vbi
q ds =  1 1 + 
1 Mj
Vbi
q ds
Cdso
C dsds =  = V ds
V ds Mj
1 + Vbi
591
q V ds
nkT
592
Nbr
4kT
<i >
 = R
f
Channel noise generated by the DC transconductance gm is characterized by the
following spectral density:
2
< i ds >
8kT g m
 = f
3
In the preceding expressions, k is Boltzmanns constant, T is the operating
temperature in Kelvin, q is the electron charge, and f is the noise bandwidth.
Flicker noise for this device is not modeled in this simulator version. However, the
biasdependent noise sources I_NoiseBD and V_NoiseBD (from the Sources library)
can be connected external to the device to model flicker noise.
593
Equivalent Circuit
D
Rd
+ 
Qgy
Rid D
Y
Rdb
Rg
G
Ids
Isub
Qds
Qgc
+ 
Idb
Cbs
C
Ris S
Rs
S
References
[1] W. R. Curtice, A MESFET model for use in the design of GaAs integrated
circuits, IEEE Transactions of Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT28,
pp. 448456, May 1980.
[2] J. M. Golio, M. Miller, G. Maracus, D. Johnson. Frequency dependent electrical
characteristics of GaAs MESFETs, IEEE Trans. Elec. Devices, vol. ED37, pp.
12171227, May 1990.
[3] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio. Semiconductor Device Modeling with SPICE,
Second Edition, McGrawHill, Inc., 1993.
594
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Default
Model
name of an EE_MOS_Model
Wtot
104
_M
Notes/Equations
1. Wtot and N are optional scaling parameters that make it possible to scale the
extracted model for different geometries.
2. Wtot is the total gate widthnot the width per finger; N is the number of
fingers. Therefore, the width per finger is Wtot / N. The scaling remains valid
for ratios up to 5:1.
3. The parameters Ggs, Gds, Gmr, dQg_dVgs, and the rest are the smallsignal
parameters of the device evaluated at the DC operating point. To be displayed,
they must be listed among the OUTPUT_VARS in the analysis component.
595
Available in
Description
File
name of rawfile
Rs
source resistance
Rg
gate resistance
Rd
drain resistance
Ls
source inductance
Lg
gate inductance
Ld
drain inductance
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
Notes/Equations
1. The values of Rs, Rg, Rd, Ls, Lg, and Ld are meant to override the extracted
values stored in the data file named in the File parameter. Generally, these
parameters should not be used.
2. Because this model is measurementbased, extrapolation warning messages
may occur if the Newton iteration exceeds the measurement range. If these
messages occur frequently, check that the measurement data is within the
simulation range.
3. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). Note that model parameters that are explicitly specified
take precedence over those specified via AllParams. Set AllParams to the
DataAccessComponent instance name.
596
597
Available in
Description
NMOS
Nchannel model
Units
Default
yes
PMOS
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
IDS model
Capmod
Vto
0.0
Kp
transconductance coefficient
A/m2
2 105
Gamma
bulk threshold
0.0
Phi
surface potential
0.6
Lambda
1/V
0.0
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Cbd
0.0
Cbs
0.0
Is
1014
Pb
0.8
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
598
Name
Description
Units
Default
Cgso
F/m
0.0
Cgdo
F/m
0.0
Cgbo
F/m
0.0
Rsh
ohms/sq.
0.0
Cj
F/m2
0.0
Mj
0.5
Cjsw
0.0
Mjsw
0.33
Js
A/m2
0.0
Tox
oxide thickness
107
Nsub
1/Cm3
0.0
Nss
1/Cm2
0.0
Tpg
Ld
Uo
surface mobility
Cm2/(VS) 600.0
1
0.0
Nlev
1
Gdsnoi
Kf
flickernoise coefficient
0.0
Af
flickernoise exponent
1.0
Fc
Rg
ohms
0.0
Rds
ohms
infinity
Tnom
25
Trise
0.5
1.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
599
Name
Description
Units
Default
Tt
sec
0.0
Ffe (Ef)
Imax
explosion current
10.0
Imelt
10.0
wVsubfwd
infinite
wBvsub
infinite
1.0
wBvg
infinite
wBvds
infinite
wIdsmax
infinite
wPmax
infinite
Acm
Hdif
0.0
Ldif
0.0
Wmlt
Xw
0.0
Rdc
ohms
0.0
Rsc
ohms
0.0
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
1.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on model Tnom and device Temp.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by mosfet components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is MOSFET. Idsmod=1 is a
required parameter that is used to tell the simulator to use the Spice level 1
equations. Use either parameter NMOS=yes or PMOS=yes to set the transistor type.
The rest of the model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an
5100
equal sign. The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the
parameters tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have
aliases, which are listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are
parameter names that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model
parameters may appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that
are not specified take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more
information about the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors,
subcircuits, variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the
Using Circuit Simulators manual.
Example:
model Nch1 MOSFET Idsmod=1 \
Kp=4e5 Vto=0.7 NMOS=yes
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
Cbs = Cj As
5101
If Js > 0.0 and Ad > 0.0 and As > 0.0, then Is for drain and source will be
calculated:
Is(drain) = Js Ad,
Is(source) = Js As
6. Drain and source ohmic resistances can be specified as absolute values (Rd, Rs)
or as per unit square value (Rsh).
If Nrd 0.0 or Nrs 0.0, Rd and Rs will be calculated:
Rd = Rsh Nrd,
Rs = Rsh Nrs
Cbd
NEW
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cbd 4
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
4
Cbs
NEW
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cbs 4
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
4
Cj
NEW
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cj 4
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
4
C jsw
NEW
Temp
where is a function of the junction potential and the energy gap variation with
temperature.
The surface potential Phi and the bulk junction potential Pb vary as:
LEVEL1_Model (MOSFET Level1 Model)
5103
Phi
Pb
Tnom
Temp
2k Temp n i
=  Phi +  1n 
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
NEW
n Tnom
Temp
2k Temp
i
=  Pb +  1n 
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
NEW
Uo
Temp
= Kp 
Tnom
NEW
32
Temp 3 2
= Uo 
Tnom
NEW
The source and drain to substrate leakage currents Is and Js vary as:
Tnom
Is
Temp
NEW
q EG
q EG
T
nom
k
T
emp
NEW
q EG
q EG
Tnom
Js
Temp
NEW
= Vto + Phi
Temp
NEW
Tnom
NEW
EG
Phi E G
Phi
Phi +  
2
2
Noise Model
Thermal noise generated by resistor Rg, Rs, Rd, and Rds is characterized by the
following spectral density:
2
<i >
4kT
 = f
R
5104
Channel and flicker noise (Kf, Af, Ffe) generated by DC transconductance gm and
current flow from drain to source is characterized by spectral density:
af
I DS
8kT g m
< i ds >
 =  + k f f fe
f
3
f
In the preceding expressions, k is Boltzmanns constant, T is operating temperature
in Kelvin, q is electron charge, kf, af, and ffe are model parameters, f is simulation
frequency, and f is noise bandwidth.
References
[1] H. Shichman and D. A. Hodges. Modeling and simulation of insulatedgate
fieldeffect transistor switching circuits, IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits,
SC3, 285, Sept. 1968.
[2] Karen A. Sakallah, Yaotsung Yen, and Steve S. Greenberg. The Meyer Model
Revisited: Explaining and Correcting the Charge NonConservation Problem,
ICCAD, 1987.
[3] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio. Semiconductor device modeling with SPICE,
New York: McGrawHill, Second Edition 1993.
Equivalent Circuit
D
Rd
Cgb
Cbd
Cgd
G
Rds
Id
Cgs
Rs
Cbs
5105
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NMOS
Nchannel model
yes
PMOS
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
IDS model
Capmod
Vto
0.0
Kp
transconductance coefficient
A/V2
2 105
Gamma
0.0
Phi
surface potential
0.6
Lambda
1/V
0.0
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Cbd
0.0
Cbs
0.0
Is
1014
Pb
0.8
Cgso
F/m
0.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on Tnom of the model and Temp of the device.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
5106
Name
Description
Units
Default
Cgdo
F/m
0.0
Cgbo
F/m
0.0
Rsh
ohms/sq
0.0
Cj
F/m2
0.0
Mj
0.5
Cjsw
0.0
Mjsw
0.33
Js
A/m2
0.0
Tox
oxide thickness
107
Nsub
1/Cm3
0.0
Nss
1/Cm2
0.0
Nfs
1/Cm2
0.0
Tpg
Xj
0.0
Ld
0.0
Uo
surface mobility
Cm2/(Vs) 600.0
Ucrit
V/Cm
Uexp
Vmax
Neff
1.0
1.0
104
0.0
m/s
0.0
Nlev
1
Gdsnoi
Kf
0.0
Af
1.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on Tnom of the model and Temp of the device.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
5107
Name
Description
Fc
Units
Default
0.5
Delta
Rg
ohms
0.0
0.0
Rds
ohms
infinity
Tnom
25
Trise
Tt
Ffe (Ef)
Imax
explosion current
10.0
Imelt
10.0
wVsubfwd
infinite
wBvsub
infinite
1.0
sec
0.0
1.0
wBvg
infinite
wBvds
infinite
wIdsmax
infinite
wPmax
infinite
Acm
Hdif
0.0
Ldif
0.0
Wmlt
Xw
0.0
Rdc
ohms
0.0
Rsc
ohms
0.0
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
1.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on Tnom of the model and Temp of the device.
A value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
5108
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model
modelname
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by mosfet components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is MOSFET. Idsmod=2 is a
required parameter that is used to tell the simulator to use the Spice level 2
equations. Use either parameter NMOS=yes or PMOS=yes to set the transistor type.
The rest of the model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an
equal sign. The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the
parameters tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have
aliases, which are listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are
parameter names that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model
parameters may appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that
are not specified take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more
information about the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors,
subcircuits, variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the
Using Circuit Simulators manual.
Example:
model Nch2 MOSFET Idsmod=2 \
Kp=4e5 Vto=0.7 NMOS=yes
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
5109
Cbs = Cj As
If Js > 0.0 and Ad > 0.0 and As > 0.0, then Is for drain and source will be
calculated:
Is(drain) = Js Ad,
Is(source) = Js As
7. Drain and source ohmic resistances can be specified as absolute values (Rd, Rs)
or as per unit square value (Rsh).
If Nrd 0.0 or Nrs 0.0, Rd and Rs will be calculated:
Rd = Rsh Nrd,
Rs = Rsh Nrs
Cbd
NEW
Cbs
NEW
Cj
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cbs 4
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
4
NEW
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cbd 4
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cj 4
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
5111
C jsw
NEW
Temp
where is a function of the junction potential and the energy gap variation with
temperature.
The surface potential Phi and the bulk junction potential Pb vary as:
Phi
Pb
NEW
Tnom
Temp
2k Temp n i
 Phi +  1n 
=
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
Tnom
Temp
2k Temp n i
=  Pb +  1n 
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
NEW
Temp 3 2
= Kp 
Tnom
NEW
Temp 3 2
= Uo 
Tnom
Kp
Uo
The source and drain to substrate leakage currents Is and Js vary as:
Tnom
Is
Temp
NEW
q EG
q EG
NEW
q EG
q EG
Tnom
Js
Temp
V to
5112
NEW
Tnom
NEW
EG
NEW
Phi E G
Phi
Phi +  = Vto + Phi
2
2
Noise Model
Thermal noise generated by resistor Rg, Rs, Rd, and Rds is characterized by the
following spectral density:
2
<i >
4kT
 = f
R
Channel noise and flicker noise (Kf, Af, Ffe) generated by the DC transconductance
gm and current flow from drain to source is characterized by the following spectral
density:
2
af
I DS
< i ds >
8kT g m
 =  + k f f fe
f
3
f
In the preceding expressions, k is Boltzmanns constant, T is the operating
temperature in Kelvin, q is the electron charge, kf, af, and ffe are model parameters, f
is the simulation frequency, and f is the noise bandwidth.
References
[1] Vladimirescu and S. Liu. The Simulation of MOS Integrated Circuits Using
SPICE2, Memorandum No. M80/7, February 1980.
[2] D. E. Ward, and R. W. Dutton. A ChargeOriented Model for MOS Transistors
Capacitances, IEEE Journal on SolidState Circuits, SC13, 1978.
[3] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio. Semiconductor device modeling with SPICE,
New York: McGrawHill, Second Edition 1993.
5113
Available in
Description
NMOS
Nchannel model
Units
yes
PMOS
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
IDS model
Capmod
Vto
0.0
Kp
transconductance coefficient
A/V2
2105
Gamma
bulk threshold
0.0
Phi
surface potential
0.6
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Cbd
0.0
Cbs
0.0
Is
1014
Pb
0.8
Cgso
F/m
0.0
Cgdo
F/m
0.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on Tnom of model and Temp of device.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
5114
Default
Name
Description
Units
Default
Cgbo
F/m
0.0
Rsh
ohms/sq
0.0
Cj
F/m2
0.0
Mj
0.5
Cjsw
0.0
Mjsw
0.33
Js
A/m2
0.0
Tox
oxide thickness
107
Nsub
1/cm3
0.0
Nss
1/cm2
0.0
Nfs
1/cm2
0.0
Tpg
Xj
0.0
Ld
0.0
Uo
surface mobility
cm2/(Vs) 600.0
Vmax
m/s
0.0
1.0
Nlev
1
Gdsnoi
Kf
0.0
Af
1.0
Fc
0.5
Delta
Theta
mobility modulation
Eta
static feedback
0.0
1/V
0.0
0.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on Tnom of model and Temp of device.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
5115
Name
Description
Units
Default
Kappa
Rg
ohms
0.0
Rds
ohms
infinity
Tnom
25
Trise
Tt
Ffe (Ef)
Imax
explosion current
10.0
Imelt
10.0
wVsubfwd
infinite
wBvsub
infinite
wBvg
infinite
wBvds
infinite
wIdsmax
infinite
wPmax
infinite
Acm
0.2
1.0
sec
0.0
1.0
Hdif
0.0
Ldif
0.0
Wmlt
Xw
0.0
Rdc
ohms
0.0
Rsc
ohms
0.0
AllParams
DataAccessComponentbased parameters
1.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on Tnom of model and Temp of device.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
5116
Netlist Format
Model statements for the ADS circuit simulator may be stored in an external file.
This is typically done with foundry model kits. For more information on how to set up
and use foundry model kits, refer to the Design Kit Development manual.
model modelname MOSFET Idsmod=3 [parm=value]*
The model statement starts with the required keyword model. It is followed by the
modelname that will be used by mosfet components to refer to the model. The third
parameter indicates the type of model; for this model it is MOSFET. Idsmod=3 is a
required parameter that is used to tell the simulator to use the Spice level 3
equations. Use either parameter NMOS=yes or PMOS=yes to set the transistor type.
The rest of the model contains pairs of model parameters and values, separated by an
equal sign. The name of the model parameter must appear exactly as shown in the
parameters tablethese names are case sensitive. Some model parameters have
aliases, which are listed in parentheses after the main parameter name; these are
parameter names that can be used instead of the primary parameter name. Model
parameters may appear in any order in the model statement. Model parameters that
are not specified take the default value indicated in the parameters table. For more
information about the ADS circuit simulator netlist format, including scale factors,
subcircuits, variables and equations, refer to ADS Simulator Input Syntax in the
Using Circuit Simulators manual.
Example:
model Nch3 MOSFET Idsmod=3 \
Kp=4e5 Vto=0.7 NMOS=yes
Notes/Equations
For RFDE Users
5117
Cbs = Cj As
If Js>0.0 and Ad>0.0 and As>0.0, Is for drain and source will be calculated:
Is(drain) = Js Ad
Is(source) = Js As
Drain and source ohmic resistances can be specified as absolute values (Rd, Rs)
or as per unit square value (Rsh).
If Nrd0.0 or Nrs0.0, Rd and Rs will be calculated:
Rd = Rsh Nrd
Rs = Rsh Nrs
1, the model parameter TOX must be specified to invoke the Meyer model when
Capmod is equal to 1 (default value). If Capmod = 0, no gate capacitances will
be calculated. If Capmod = 2, a smooth version of the Meyer model is used. If
Capmod =3, the charge conserving firstorder MOS charge model [2] that was
used in Libra is used.
8. Imax and Imelt Parameters
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
9. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). Note that model parameters that are explicitly specified
take precedence over those specified via AllParams. Set AllParams to the
DataAccessComponent instance name.
Temperature Scaling
The model specifies Tnom, the nominal temperature at which the model parameters
were calculated or extracted. To simulate the device at temperatures other than
Tnom, several model parameters must be scaled with temperature. The temperature
at which the device is simulated is specified by the device item Temp parameter.
(Temperatures in the following equations are in Kelvin.)
The depletion capacitances Cbd, Cbs, Cj, and Cjsw vary as:
4
Cbd
NEW
Cbs
NEW
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cbd 4
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cbs 4
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
LEVEL3_Model (MOSFET Level3 Model)
5119
Cj
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Temp T REF )
]
= Cj 4
Temp
1 + Mj [ 4 10 ( Tnom T REF )
]
NEW
C jsw
NEW
Temp
where is a function of the junction potential and the energy gap variation with
temperature.
The surface potential Phi and the bulk junction potential Pb vary as:
Phi
Pb
NEW
Tnom
Temp
2k Temp n i
=  Phi +  1n 
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
Tnom
Temp
2k Temp n i
=  Pb +  1n 
Temp
Tnom
q
ni
NEW
Temp 3 2
= Kp 
Tnom
NEW
Temp 3 2
= Uo 
Tnom
Kp
Uo
The source and drain to substrate leakage currents Is and Js vary as:
Tnom
Is
Temp
NEW
q EG
q EG
T
nom
k
T
emp
NEW
q EG
q EG
Tnom
Js
Temp
5120
Temp
V to
NEW
Tnom
NEW
EG
NEW
Phi E G
Phi
= Vto + Phi
Phi +  
2
2
Noise Model
Thermal noise generated by resistor Rg, Rs, Rd, and Rds is characterized by the
following spectral density:
2
<i >
4kT
 = f
R
Channel noise and flicker noise (Kf, Af, Ffe) generated by DC transconductance gm
and current flow from drain to source is characterized by the spectral density:
2
af
I DS
< i ds >
8kT g m
 =  + k f f fe
f
3
f
In the preceding expressions, k is Boltzmanns constant, T is the operating
temperature in Kelvin, q is the electron charge, kf, af, and ffe are model parameters, f
is the simulation frequency, and f is the noise bandwidth.
References
[1] Vladimirescu, and S. Liu. The Simulation of MOS Integrated Circuits Using
SPICE2, Memorandum No. M80/7, February 1980.
[2] Karen A. Sakallah, Yaotsung Yen, and Steve S. Greenberg. The Meyer Model
Revisited: Explaining and Correcting the Charge NonConservation Problem,
ICCAD, 1987.
[3] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio. Semiconductor device modeling with SPICE,
New York: McGrawHill, Second Edition 1993.
5121
Equivalent Circuit
D
Rd
Cgb
Cbd
Cgd
G
Rds
Id
Cgs
Rs Cbs
S
5122
Available in
Description
Units
Default
NMOS
Nchannel model
yes
PMOS
Pchannel model
no
Idsmod
IDS model
Capmod
Vto
0.0
Kp
transconductance coefficient
A/V2
0.0
Gamma
0.0
Gamma2
0.0
Zeta
Phi
surface potential
0.6
Rd
ohms
0.0
Rs
ohms
0.0
Cbd
0.0
Cbs
0.0
Is
1014
Pb
0.8
0.0
Parameter value varies with temperature based on Tnom of model and Temp of device.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
5123
Name
Description
Units
Default
Cgso
F/m
0.0
Cgdo
F/m
0.0
Cgbo
F/m
0.0
Rsh
ohms/sq.
0.0
Cj
F/m2
0.0
Mj
Cjsw
Mjsw
Js
A/m2
0.0
Tox
oxide thickness
107
Nsub
1/cm3
0.0
Nss
1/cm2
0.0
Nfs
1/cm2
0.0
Tpg
0.5
F/m
0.0
0.33
Xj
0.0
Ld
0.0
Uo
surface mobility
cm2/(VS) 600.0
Ucrit
V/cm
Uexp
Vmax
Xqc
(Xpart)
1.0
Kf
0.0
Af
1.0
Fc
0.5
Delta
0.0
0.0
m/s
Parameter value varies with temperature based on Tnom of model and Temp of device.
Value of 0.0 is interpreted as infinity.
5124
104
0.0
Name
Description
Units
Default
Theta
mobility modulation
1/V
0.0
Eta
static feedback
0.0
Kappa
0.2
Kappag
0.0
Xmu
1.0
Rg
gate resistance
ohms
0.0
Rds
ohms
infinity
Tnom
25
Trise
Tt
Ffe (Ef)
Imax
explosion current
Imelt
1.0
sec
0.0
1.0
10.0
10.0
infinite
wBvsub
infinite
wBvg
infinite
wBvds
infinite
wIdsmax
infinite
wPmax
infinite
Notes/Equations
1. LEVEL3_MOD_Model is an enhanced version of the SPICE level 3 model. It
exhibits smooth and continuous transitions in the weak to strong inversion
region, and in the region between linear and saturation modes of device
operation.
2. Imax and Imelt Parameters
LEVEL3_MOD_Model (Level3 NMOD MOSFET Model)
5125
Imax and Imelt specify the PN junction explosion current. Imax and Imelt can
be specified in the device model or in the Options component; the device model
value takes precedence over the Options value.
If the Imelt value is less than the Imax value, the Imelt value is increased to the
Imax value.
If Imelt is specified (in the model or in Options) junction explosion current =
Imelt; otherwise, if Imax is specified (in the model or in Options) junction
explosion current = Imax; otherwise, junction explosion current = model Imelt
default value (which is the same as the model Imax default value).
3. Use AllParams with a DataAccessComponent to specify filebased parameters
(refer to DataAccessComponent in Chapter 5 of the Introduction to Circuit
Components manual). Note that model parameters that are explicitly specified
take precedence over those specified via AllParams. Set AllParams to the
DataAccessComponent instance name.
References
[1] J. A. Power and W. A. Lane, An Enhanced Spice MOSFET Model Suitable for
Analog Applications, IEEE Transactions on CAD, Vol 11, No. 11, November
1992.
5126
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
Units Default
name of a MOS_Model9
channel length
104
Width
channel width
104
Ab
diffusion area
m2
1012
Ls
104
Lg
104
Region
Length
on
25
Trise
Mult
Mode
nonlinear
_M
Each instance parameter whose dimension contains a power of meter will be multiplied by
the Scale to the same power. For example, a parameter with a dimension of m will be
multiplied by scale1 and a parameter with a dimension of m2 will be multiplied by scale2.
Note that only parameters whose dimensions contain meter are scaled. For example, a
parameter whose dimension contains cm instead of meter is not scaled.
5127
Notes/Equations
1. MOS Model 9 (version 903) is a compact MOStransistor model intended for the
simulation of circuit behavior with emphasis on analog applications. The model
gives a complete description of all transistor action related quantities: nodal
currents and charges, noisepower spectral densities and weakavalanche
currents. The equations describing these quantities are based on the
gradualchannel approximation with a number of firstorder corrections for
smallsize effects. The consistency is maintained by using the same
carrierdensity and electricalfield expressions in the calculation of all model
quantities. The Philips JUNCAP model is implemented with the MM9 model to
describe junction charges and leakage currents.
2. More information about the model can be obtained from:
http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/philips_models/mos_models/model9/
5128
Name
Description
Units
Id
Drain current
amperes
Ig
Gate current
amperes
Is
Source current
amperes
Ib
Bulk current
amperes
Power
DC power dissipated
watts
Gid_ds
(dId/dVds)
siemens
Gid_gs
(dId/dVgs)
siemens
Gid_sb
(dId/dVsb)
siemens
Gib_ds
(dIb/dVds)
siemens
Gib_gs
(dIb/dVgs)
siemens
Description
Units
Gib_sb
(dIb/dVsb)
siemens
Gis_ds
(dIs/dVds)
siemens
Gis_gs
(dIs/dVgs)
siemens
Gis_sb
(dIs/dVsb)
siemens
Cg_ds
(dQg/dVds)
farads
Cg_gs
(dQg/dVgs)
farads
Cg_sb
(dQg/dVsb)
farads
Cb_ds
(dQb/dVds)
farads
Cb_gs
(dQb/dVgs)
farads
Cb_sb
(dQb/dVsb)
farads
Cs_ds
(dQs/dVds)
farads
Cs_gs
(dQs/dVgs)
farads
Cs_sb
(dQs/dVsb)
farads
Cd_ds
(dQd/dVds)
farads
Cd_gs
(dQd/dVgs)
farads
Cd_sb
(dQd/dVsb)
farads
Vgs
Gatesource voltage
volts
Vds
Drainsource voltage
volts
Vbs
Bulksource voltage
volts
5129
Available in
Parameters
Name
Description
Model
name of a model
Units Default
channel length
104
channel width
105
Temp (Ta)
25
Dta (Trise)
0.0
Mult
Mode
nonlinear
Noise
yes
_M
Each instance parameter whose dimension contains a power of meter will be multiplied
by the Scale to the same power. For example, a parameter with a dimension of m will be
multiplied by scale1 and a parameter with a dimension of m2 will be multiplied by scale2.
Note that only parameters whose dimensions contain mete