Anda di halaman 1dari 40

ArcFM Solution Configuration Guide

How Design Optimization Works:


Methodology and Algorithms
Appendix > How Design Optimization Works > How Design Optimization Works: Methodology and Algorithms

Version: 10.1

Resource Center Home

Transformer Selection
Design Optimization selects the transformer layout (number of transformers and their geographic
location) and the transformer type (size and kVA rating) that meet URD load demands in the most costeffective manner. Design Optimization uses the following input data to select the optimal transformer
type and layout:

Diversified peak kVA load


Maximum allowable transformer overload factor
Cost considerations

Diversified Peak kVA Load


Diversified peak kVA load considers the probability that all customers' maximum demand will not occur at
the same time. The following formula is used to calculate diversified peak kVA load:

where:
kVAdivis the total diversified peak load downstream of a point in the circuit,
N is the number of customers downstream of the point being considered,
C is the Coincidence function, which maps N onto a number in the interval (0-1], and
th

kVAi is the expected peak load for the i customer.


kVAican in turn be estimated for a given customer as the product of the floor area of a building and a
load factor that typifies a category of customer.
Design Optimization uses the customer load profile to obtain the building floor area and peak kVA per
area values. The coincidence function is used to account for the non-simultaneous maximum demand.
The coincidence function is configurable; its definition is stored in the customer load profile as an array of

values indexed by the number of customers (e.g. the nth value in the array gives the value of the
coincidence function for n customers).

Maximum Allowable Transformer Overload Factor


After calculating the diversified peak kVA load for the design, Design Optimization selects a transformer
that meets the peak kVA load demand within the established maximum allowable transformer overload
factor. The maximum allowable transformer overload factor is determined by the service policy. Design
Optimization chooses a transformer that satisfies the demand and the overload factor from all available
transformers listed in a transformer catalog.

Refer to Transformer Selection Example to see an example of how Design Optimization selects an
optimized transformer for a URD.

Conductor Selection
Design Optimization selects the optimal conductor type and layout that meet URD load demands in the
most cost-effective manner using three main parameters:

Maximum voltage flicker


Maximum voltage drop
Cost considerations

Maximum Voltage Flicker


Design Optimization uses a voltage flicker model to calculate maximum voltage flicker. The voltage flicker
circuit model is a radial model that considers single customer circuits to each service point using straight
line distances to the centroid of every parcel.

The known quantities used by the circuit model to determine maximum voltage flicker include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Transformer impedance (provided by the transformer type catalog entry)


Conductor length to each service point (derived from geographic data)
Conductor impedance per unit length (provided in the conductor type catalog entry)
Motor start load for each service point (derived from kVA plus a motor starting power factor)
Maximum allowable voltage flicker (provided in the electrical policy)

Design Optimization uses these five values to calculate the impedance-per-unit-length for each service
point. Using the impedance-per-unit-length values, Design Optimization then chooses a subset of
conductors that satisfy the voltage flicker requirements from a master catalog of all conductor types.

The following diagram illustrates the voltage flicker circuit model:

The following algorithms are used to compute the voltage flicker:


IInrush = kVAInrush/V0
where V0 is the nominal secondary circuit voltage
VFlicker = IInrush [(RXFR + RPath) cos? + (XXFR + XPath) sin?]
where RXFR and XXFR are the transformer resistance and reactance, respectively, and RPATH and XPATH are the
total resistance and reactance, respectively, of theconductor path joining bus i to the transformer
secondary bus, and ? is the power angle for the motor starting current (i.e. cos? is the motor starting
power factor).
Maximum Voltage Drop
The voltage drop circuit model is a radial model that considers all service point peak loads simultaneously
using straight line distances to the centroid of every parcel. This model accounts for the fact that current
flow to any one service point can affect the other service point voltages.

The known quantities in determining maximum voltage drop include:.

Impedance-per-unit-length (derived from voltage flicker model)


Conductor length to each service point (derived from geographic data)
Conductor impedance (derived from conductor material catalogs)
Peak load of each service point (derived from?)
Maximum allowable voltage drop (determined by electrical policy)

The following example portrays the voltage drop circuit model:

The following algorithm is used to compute the voltage drop:


V = IRcos + IXsin

where
V

is the voltage drop in a circuit

is the current flowing in a conductor

is the line resistance for one conductor, in ohms

is the line reactance for one conductor, in ohms

is the angle whose cosine is the load power factor

cos is the load power factor, in decimals


sin is the load reactive factor, in decimals
Maximum Voltage Drop Percentage Calculation
This calculation determines the maximum allowable voltage drop of a secondary circuit. The following
algorithm is used to compute the voltage at each bus (e.g., service point) and the power flow through
each conductor in the circuit. All quantities are modeled by double precision complex numbers.
1. Compute the complex load Si at each service bus i as

where Li is the total apparent load and PFi the power factor reported for the service, and

2. Initialize each bus voltage Vi to the infinite bus voltage value Vo.
3. Compute load current flow ILOADi into each service bus as

where * is the complex conjugate operator.


4. Compute the complex current flow ICNDj through each conductor j as the sum of all load currents
into service buses that are downstream of the conductor. Compute the current flow IXFR through
the transformer as the sum of all load currents in the circuit.
5. Compute the end-to-end voltage drop ?Vj in each conductor j as
?Vj = ICNDj Zj
Where Zj is the sum of the impedances of the neutral and phase conductors for the given
segment j.
6. Compute the voltage drop in the transformer as the product of the total circuit load current and
the transformer impedance.
7. Revise each bus voltage Vi in the circuit by subtracting from it: (a) the sum of the end-to-end
voltage drops ?Vj for all conductors on the path connecting bus i to the transformer primary bus,
and (b) the voltage drop in the transformer itself.
8. Repeat from step 3, until the maximum change made to any bus voltage in step 7 is less than 1%.
(If the change to any bus voltage is ever more than 20% then halt the iterations and issue a
warning that the model may be unstable.)

Cost Considerations in Transformer and Conductor Selection


Design Optimization runs the previously described algorithms to select the best subset of transformers
and conductors. Design Optimization also calculates transformer and conductor costs from catalog entries
and will choose the least costly transformer and conductor combination from this subset.

http://resources.arcfmsolution.com/10.1/Appendix/Appendix.html

Company Directory

Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH


Company Information:

Envi Con was founded in the year 2000 and is a leading engineering company specialized in power
plants and combined cycle power plants. With our team of more than 280 highly-experienced employees
we are engaged in - Consultancy incl. tendering, permitting and owners engineering - Overall design and
engineering of complete plants - Detail engineering Meanwhile we can refer to over 200 national and
international power plant projects with an overall investment of 12 billion Euro. Envi Con is certified
according to ISO 9001:2008 and according to ISO 14001:2009
Address:

Am Tullnaupark 15
90402 Nuremberg
Germany

Telephone:

+49 911 48089-130

Contact Email: Bernd.Kretschmer@envi-con.de


Web Site:

http://www.envi-con.de

Engineering Consulting:

Civil Engineering and Architectural Services


Environmental Engineering Consulting

Engineering Design Services:

Fluid Dynamics Analysis Services


Industrial Design
Thermal Analysis Services

Electronic Contract Manufacturing:

Calibration and Testing Services:

Contract Fabrication and Manufacturing:

Return

Home

Sitemap

RSS

Legal Notice

COMPANY
SERVICES
REFERENCES
CAREERS
NEWS
HEAD OFFICE

Contact

COMPANY
COMPANY
How We See Ourselves
Our Company Values
Our Employees
Company Structure
Our Management System
Corporate Film
Downloads
www.envi-con.de Company

We are proud to present a number of selected projects carried out by Envi Con & Plant
Engineering GmbH in the web pages of this section.
We believe that an awareness of our respective strengths and experiences is the best
foundation for achieving mutual success in the future. To illustrate this we would like to invite
you to browse these pages and find out how we have, in collaboration with our customers and
partners, successfully planned and implemented a variety of projects.
As an engineering business we know full well that it is our customers who enable us to
participate in important and challenging projects, all the while bearing in mind the words of
philosopher Moses Mendelssohn to do the best. We thoroughly understand our work in overall
planning and detailed engineering when it comes to the new construction or conversion of
power plants and thermal waste-to-energy plants, as well as in the field of industrial energy
supply.
The selected references represent our business areas
General or overall plant engineering / EPCM
Detailed engineering or planning / Consulting

and cover the range of different plant types that we offer.

Envi Con was founded in 2001 and has since gathered extensive experience as well as
numerous references.
Envi Con has been a member of the Bilfinger SE Group since mid-2012.
The best way to get to know us is through a face-to-face meeting, which can easily be
arrranged by phone or e-mail. We look forward to seeing you!
Home

Company

Services

References
RSS

Careers

Sitemap

News

Head Office

Legal Notice

Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH


info@envi-

Am Tullnaupark 15

Tel: +49 0 911 48089-0

90402 Nuremberg,

Fax: +49 0 911 480089-

www.envi-

Germany

129

con.de

con.de

Data Protection Declaration

Contact

Sign In
Register

Account Settings
Newsletter Settings
Sign Out
Bloomberg.com
Businessweek.com
Bloomberg TV
BloombergView.com

Professional Products
Bloomberg Anywhere
Bloomberg Tradebook
Industry Products
Bloomberg Briefs
Bloomberg Government
Bloomberg Law
Bloomberg BNA
Bloomberg New Energy Finance
Bloomberg Sports
Enterprise Products
Compliance Solutions
Data Solutions
Technology Solutions

Trading Solutions
Premium
This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. X
Bloomberg Businessweek
Businessweek

LIMITED-TIME OFFER SUBSCRIBE NOW

Top of Form
Search

Bottom of Form
Global Economics

Hong Kong Protests Trigger New Worries for China's Economy


What are the potential long-term economic and business effects of the massive protests sweeping Hong
Kong?

Global Economics
Oil Prices Fall, and the Global Economy Wins
Commerce as Diplomacy: Penny Pritzker Goes to Kiev
Outlook for the U.S. Economy: Massive Uncertainty
When a SIM Card Goes From $2,000 to $1.50
Recent
Hong Kong Isn't the Only Protest Chinese Leaders Are Worried About
Is Russia Desperate Enough to Block Investors From Leaving?
A Peek Into the 'Black Box' of Where China's Hefty R&D Budget Goes
Narendra Modi's Unofficial U.S. Envoy Is a 33-Year-Old Congressman From Illinois
Hackers Target Hong Kong Protesters via iPhones
Sections
China
Energy
Europe
Global Economics
Housing
India
Jobs
U.S. Economy
Blog: Econochat
Companies & Industries

The NFL Loses a Rarely Used Weapon Against Its Own Fans: TV Blackouts
Both the NFL and its adversaries pointed to the low number of blacked-out games as a reason the FCC
should rule in their favor in a dispute over a regulation giving the league the power to punish fans for
staying home
Companies & Industries
Bill Gross's Investing Secret: A Rising Market and Extra Risk
Alibaba Should Buy eBay. Who Wants PayPal?
Wal-Mart Says Tracy Morgan Should Have Been Wearing a Seatbelt
Netflix's Crouching Tiger Sequel: A Ninja Threat to Movie Theaters
Recent
U.S. Private High Schools Accommodate Influx of Chinese Students
Twitter Gives MIT $10 Million to Study the Social Impact of Tech
The Short-Seller Who Started a Biotech Firm Gets Ousted by His Board
American Apparel Might Just Keep Dov Charney
Boeing's Puget Sound Job Cuts Have Unions Questioning Billions in State Tax Breaks
Sections
The Success Issue 2014
Risk
Autos

Sports
Company Research
Energy
Executive Research
Health Care
Job Search
Manufacturing
Marketing
Telecommunications
Transportation
Blog: The Management Blog
Politics & Policy

Ebola Comes to the U.S.and the CDC Is Ready for It


The U.S. has precisely the kind of robust infrastructure missing in West African countries struggling to
contain the outbreak
Politics & Policy
Obamacare Mystery: Why Can't You Buy Vision Coverage?
Franchisees Lose Battle Over 'Fairness' Law

California Creates Student Loans for Undocumented Students


Man Fired for Medical Pot Takes His Case to Colorado's High Court
Recent
Hong Kong Isn't the Only Protest Chinese Leaders Are Worried About
Boeing's Puget Sound Job Cuts Have Unions Questioning Billions in State Tax Breaks
Is Russia Desperate Enough to Block Investors From Leaving?
You Weren't Supposed to Put Money on that George Clooney-for-President Bet
Narendra Modi's Unofficial U.S. Envoy Is a 33-Year-Old Congressman From Illinois
Sections
2014 Campaign
Congress
Courts
Legislation
White House
Blog: Josh Green on Politics
Technology

Microsoft Skips Ahead to Windows 10 and Takes a Step Backwards

Microsoft has given in to critics and brought back the traditional start menu that consumers will
recognize from Windows 7
Technology
Pebble's Price-Cutting Defense Against the Apple Watch
China Finally Approves Apple's New iPhones
Appmakers Try to Game a Crowded Market
Ello CEO Slams Facebook: 'An Ad Platform More Than a Social Network'
Recent
Twitter Gives MIT $10 Million to Study the Social Impact of Tech
How Microsoft Can Outdo the Apple Store in Manhattan
A Peek Into the 'Black Box' of Where China's Hefty R&D Budget Goes
Hackers Target Hong Kong Protesters via iPhones
Angie's List May Be Shopping for a Good Buyer
Sections
Global Tech Issue 2014
Apple
Apps & Software
Enterprise Tech
Consumer Electronics
Facebook
Google
Mobile & Telecom
Personal Technology
Science & Research
Social Media
Markets & Finance

Bill Gross's Investing Secret: A Rising Market and Extra Risk


Gross's success also coincided with one of the best times in history to be a bond investor
Markets & Finance
A Judge's Rage Goes Ignored While Argentina Sidesteps Holdout Hedge Funds
Women Are Disappearing From Venture Capital
Oil Prices Fall, and the Global Economy Wins
Consumer Debt Hits an All-Time High
Recent
The Short-Seller Who Started a Biotech Firm Gets Ousted by His Board
Is Russia Desperate Enough to Block Investors From Leaving?
As AIG Trial Begins, Hank Greenberg Makes the Case for Hank Greenberg
Bank Fees Haven't Increased as Much as You Think
Bill Gross Takes a Big Step Down
Sections
Banks
Commodities
Currencies
Hedge Funds

Investing
Mutual Funds & ETFs
Private Equity
Real Estate
Stocks & Bonds
Taxes
Wall Street
Innovation & Design

An Adventure Playground for Unstructured Fun in Abu Dhabi


Inspired by sculptor Richard Serra, a New Jersey management consultant makes equipment that doesn't
dictate how kids play
Innovation & Design
Scientists Develop 3D Model to See How Smog Moves Among Hong Kong Skyscrapers
Polaroid Goes After GoPro With a $99 Action Camera
These Pixar Veterans Want Your Kids to Talk to Their Apps
Why Companies Prefer Rookies for Some Jobs
Recent
How Microsoft Can Outdo the Apple Store in Manhattan

Stand Stand: A Portable Standing Desk for the People


Agrogua's GPS Farming Software
Inside Apple's To-Do List
Some 20-Story Ads Are Still Hand-Painted. With Paintbrushes
Sections
Design Issue 2014
Architecture
Copyright
Design
Fix This/Big Data
Innovators
Patents
Privacy
Reinventing Business
Trademarks
Blog: Very Near Future
Lifestyle

A Pickled Doughnut? Dunkin's Top Chef Talks Fermentation

There are already kimchi and yogurt doughnuts available abroad, but Dunkin' Donuts' top chef sees
fermentation coming to the U.S. menu in sandwiches
Lifestyle
Pebble's Price-Cutting Defense Against the Apple Watch
The Higher Cost of Giving Away Free Coffee
At Elite Business Schools, Upper-Crust Sailing Competitions Are Part of the Education
Netflix's Crouching Tiger Sequel: A Ninja Threat to Movie Theaters
Recent
American Apparel Might Just Keep Dov Charney
To Get a Job at Goldman, Travel the World First
How Microsoft Can Outdo the Apple Store in Manhattan
You Weren't Supposed to Put Money on that George Clooney-for-President Bet
At Johnny Rockets, the Future of Retro Is Drive-In Movies
Sections
Books
Entertainment
Fashion
Food & Drink
Gadgets & Accessories
Hard Choices
Next Life
Sports
Travel
Workplace
Business Schools

To Get a Job at Goldman, Travel the World First


Not every undergrad can afford to volunteer in Guatemala over the summer. Does recruiting global
citizens diminish diversity at the bank?
Business Schools
At Elite Business Schools, Upper-Crust Boat Races Are Part of the Education
California Creates Student Loans for Undocumented Students
California Says 'Yes' to Sex on College Campuses
Business Professors Finally Get Serious About Studying Beyonc
Recent
Goal Setting on the SAT
Take a GMAT Selfie
For a Better Shot at a Job, Donate Your Time
A Marketing Summit, a Meeting of LGBT MBAs, and Everything Else Happening at B-Schools This Week
You're Probably Wrong About How Risky Your Prescriptions Are
Sections
European B-Schools
Financial Aid
Finding a Job

MBA Admissions
Rankings & Profiles
School Finder
Undergrad Programs
Blog: Getting In
Test Prep Center
Small Business

Franchisees Lose Battle Over 'Fairness' Law


Governor Jerry Brown vetoes a union-backed California bill to give franchisees more rights in fights with
corporate partners
Small Business
Startup Rates Are on the Rebound
The Fuzzy Math of a Federal Program for Minority-Owned Businesses
Data Breach at Jimmy John's Could Damage Franchisees
An Adventure Playground for Unstructured Fun in Abu Dhabi
Recent
Everyone's a Freelancer Now (at Least for Health-Care Benefits)
Women Are Disappearing From Venture Capital

Agrogua's GPS Farming Software


Belgian Town Builds a Beer Pipeline to Save the Environment
Some 20-Story Ads Are Still Hand-Painted. With Paintbrushes
Sections
Advice
Benefits
Blog: The New Entrepreneur
Commentary
Expanding Overseas
Financing
Logistics
Marketing
Policy
Profiles
Small to Big
Smart Answers
Taxes
Technology
Toolkit
Video & Multimedia
Slideshows

Beverly Hills Mansion Built on Spec, Sale Price: $85 Million

Office Art: Nine Websites for Affordable Prints

Detroit's Art Collection Appraised

Pratt & Whitney's Jet-Engine Assembly Line

Photo Essays

Venezuela's Shortages of Almost Everything

From the Streets of FergusonPortraits of Defiance

Charts

Here's the Apple Watch Next to All the Other Smartwatches

Fewer People Go for Their Guns

Videos

Mariupol, Ukraine: Dispatch From the Front Line

The Suds Flow as Munich's 181st Oktoberfest Kicks Off

310,000 People in NYC Protest Climate Change

Celeb Butcher Pat LaFrieda's Five Favorite Cuts of Meat

<p>< a
href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=top;s
z=728x90,468x60;tile=1;ord=1234567890;dcopt=ist" rel="external">< img
src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=top;sz=7
28x90,468x60;tile=1;ord=1234567890;dcopt=ist" alt="" style="height:auto; width:auto;"/>< /a>< /p>
<p>< a
href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=z02;s
z=468x60,1x1;tile=2;ord=1234567890" rel="external">< img
src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=z02;sz=4
68x60,1x1;tile=2;ord=1234567890" alt="" style="height:auto; width:auto;"/>< /a>< /p>

<p>< a
href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=x01;s
z=120x60,1x1;tile=3;ord=1234567890" rel="external">< img
src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=x01;sz=1
20x60,1x1;tile=3;ord=1234567890" alt="" style="height:auto; width:auto;"/>< /a>< /p>
<p>< a
href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=x02;s
z=120x60,1x1;tile=4;ord=1234567890" rel="external">< img
src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=x02;sz=1
20x60,1x1;tile=4;ord=1234567890" alt="" style="height:auto; width:auto;"/>< /a>< /p>
<p>< a
href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=x03;s
z=120x60,1x1;tile=5;ord=1234567890" rel="external">< img
src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=x03;sz=1
20x60,1x1;tile=5;ord=1234567890" alt="" style="height:auto; width:auto;"/>< /a>< /p>
<p>< a
href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=x04;s
z=120x60,1x1;tile=6;ord=1234567890" rel="external">< img
src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=x04;sz=1
20x60,1x1;tile=6;ord=1234567890" alt="" style="height:auto; width:auto;"/>< /a>< /p>
October 02, 2014 6:14 AM ET
Construction and Engineering
Company Overview of Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH
Snapshot

People
Company Overview
Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH provides engineering services for energy providers, public utilities,
and plant suppliers. It offers general planning services; and permit planning solution, layout and
construction planning, water and steam cycle, construction planning, scheduling and assembly planning,
and electronic and control technology service packages. The company was founded in 2001 and is based
in Nuremberg, Germany. As of June 28, 2012, Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH operates as a
subsidiary of Bilfinger SE.
Am Tullnaupark 15

Nuremberg, 90402
Germany
Founded in 2001
Phone:
49 91 14 80 890
Fax:
49 91 14 80 08 91 29
www.envi-con.de
Key Executives for Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH
Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH does not have any Key Executives recorded.
Similar Private Companies By Industry
Company Name

Region

GA Netztechnik GmbH

Europe

RLE INTERNATIONAL Produktentwicklungsgesellschaft mbH

Europe

STEAG Energy Services GmbH

Europe

Brunel GmbH

Europe

Xaver Riebel Bauunternehmung GmbH & Co. KG

Europe

Recent Private Companies Transactions


Type
Date

Target

No transactions available in the past 12 months.


Report Data Issue
by Taboolaby Taboola

Sponsored LinksSponsored Links


Promoted LinksPromoted Links
From Around the Web
IDG.tv Finance: Financial Dashboard: Take Action on InsightsIDG.tv
Undo

Intel

Peer-to-Peer Applications on Intel Android* Developer GuideIntel

Undo

Zigwheels

5 Car Accessories That Really Damage Your CarZigwheels

Undo

Happy Trips

Top 10 Honeymoon Destinations in IndiaHappy Trips

Undo
Ads by Google
Magnet Manufacturer-China
A Leading Global Permanent Magnet Solutions Supplier.Reliable Partner
www.zhaobao-magnet.com

Submit Resume Now


Immediate Requirement. Sign up to Apply & Find Jobs
www.monsterindia.com
BHEL Openings Sept '14
Exp: 3 to 10 Yrs, Sal: 7L to 25L PA Apply Now & Get Multiple Interviews
timesjobs.com/BHEL-Hiring-Urgent
Start a Nursery School
Team up with India's Leading School Get Free Marketing Kit Worth 1 Lacs
shemrock.com/StartaSchool

by Taboolaby Taboola
Sponsored LinksSponsored Links
Promoted LinksPromoted Links
More To Watch

F-22 Stealth Fighter Debuts Firepower in Syria


Undo

Chelsea Clinton Leaves Hospital with Baby Daughter


Undo

A-10 Warthog Fighter Jet Heading to Fight Islamic State


Undo

Larry Flynt: Free Internet Porn Will Disappear


Undo

<p>< a
href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=right
2;sz=300x250,300x600;tile=7;ord=1234567890" rel="external">< img
src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=right2;sz
=300x250,300x600;tile=7;ord=1234567890" alt="" style="height:auto; width:auto;"/>< /a>< /p>
Stock Quotes
Market data is delayed at least 15 minutes.
Top of Form
Stock, Fund

Company Lookup

Bottom of Form
Most Searched Private Companies
Company Name

Geographic Region

Bertelsmann AG

Europe

Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law

United States

Company Name

Geographic Region

NYC2012, Inc.

United States

Rush University

United States

Citizens Budget Commission

United States

<p>< a
href="http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=right
3;sz=300x250,1x1;tile=8;ord=1234567890" rel="external">< img
src="http://ad.doubleclick.net/ad/mgh.bw.companies/domestic/private/snapshot;page=t1;t1=right3;sz
=300x250,1x1;tile=8;ord=1234567890" alt="" style="height:auto; width:auto;"/>< /a>< /p>
Sponsored Financial Commentaries
Sponsored Links
Browse Companies
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O

P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
|
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Report Data Issue
To contact Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH, please visit www.envi-con.de. Company data is provided
by Capital IQ. Please use this form to report any data issues.
Information Missing - Please enter your information in the following field(s):

Company Name
Envi Con & Plant Engineerin

Your Name*

Your E-Mail Address*

Your Phone Number*

Type of Data*
Overview

Update Needed*

All data changes require verification from public sources. Please include the correct value or values and
a source where we can verify.
Cancel
Submit
Your requested update has been submitted
Our data partners will research the update request and update the information on this page if
necessary. Research and follow-up could take several weeks. If you have questions, you can contact
them at bwwebmaster@businessweek.com.
Close

Social
Follow us on Twitter
Join us on Facebook
Connect with us on LinkedIn
Connect with us on Google+
Subscribe to Bloomberg Businessweek
Bloomberg
Links
Our Company
News Mission
Advertising
Careers
Content Licensing
Feedback
Custom Publishing
Manage Subscription
Mobile
Newsletters
Privacy Policy
Reprints & Permissions
Sitemap
Terms of Use
[+] Rate This Page
Sponsor Content Terms
Get Businessweek Delivered

Ebola Rising
Subscribe
2014 Bloomberg L.P. All Rights Reserved. Made in NYC Ad Choices
<p>< !--<img alt="*" height="1"
src="http://b.scorecardresearch.com/p?c1=2&amp;c2=3005059&amp;c3=&amp;c4=&amp;c5=&amp;c6
;c15=&amp;cj=1" width="1" />-->< /p>

SIZING TRANSFORMERS WITH LARGE MOTOR LOADS (Part 1)


LESSONS WE NEED TO LEARN

SIZING TRANSFORMERS
WITH LARGE MOTOR LOADS
By Doods A. Amora, PEE
December 1, 2006)

(First of Two Parts)


1.0: INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this article is to help expand the engineers basic understanding on short circuit capacity how it
affects voltage sags during starts-up of motors of significant sizes.
But why are Short Circuit & Motor Starting Calculations involved in transformer sizing?
One clue is:
"Starting up one thousand-1.0 hp motors is world apart from starting up one-1,000 hp motor"
SIDEBAR 1:
When I took my PEE board exams 22 years ago, there was one problem under the subject ELECTRICAL DESIGN &
CONSTRUCTION which ran similar as follows:
A 250 hp motor driving a pump is served by 3 x 100 kVA 13.8kV- 480v transformer bank. Other data are as follows:

Transformer Impedance: 3.7% IZ


Short Circuit Capacity of Source Utility: 200 MVA
Motor Starting Current: 8 times of FLC
Length of Cable from Transformer to Motor Controller: 50 ft

Solve for:
a) Size of Cable & Conduit
b) Branch Circuit Breaker & Controller Size if Auto-Transformer type RVS
c) The voltage dip during motor start-up using full voltage starter
d) The voltage dip during motor start-up using Auto-Transformer Reduced Voltage Starter tapped at 65%.
To be honest, I wasnt ready to solve the (c) and (d) parts of the problem. To my defense mechanism, I told myself, the
problem was irrelevant. Nandiyan na yan, naka-install na kunyari; bakit kwentahin pa ang voltage dip?
To make the story short, lumipas ang mahabang panahon Then here comes now a real situation. What if one is asked to
design a set-up for a 500 hp motor driving a pump somewhere? Would a 750 kVA transformer be sufficient? Maybe yes,
maybe not! Try solving the problem and one will discover things that are assumed easy but are actually not quite simple!
SIDEBAR 2:
In one brewery I happened to work with, we had two 450 hp 4 kV motors driving ammonia compressors controlled by
Auto-Transformer RVS. Later, three 700 hp motors were added but interestingly this time with across-the-line starters.
The system was directly connected to the Power Plants 4,160 v bus through feeders. No problem was imagined because
the Power Plant as a standard operating procedure, used to operate with significant spinning reserve capacity at any given
time and there were nine (9) generating units to support the loads.
However, when we started-up for the first time one of the three 700 hp compressors, a huge voltage dip occurred and the
neighboring Glass Plant tripped off all its operating air compressors thus shutting down the entire plant. Pandemonium
followed as the Power Plant struggled to recover the voltage by shedding off other major loads. Power Plant finally
recovered but with all major manufacturing plants served by it at shutdown, including the brewery.
The events aftermath saw signs posted on all compressor control panels that reads: NOTIFY POWER PLANT BEFORE
STARTING. Why? Because Power Plant had to add more generators on stream before any starting can be done. This was
to provide the on-line generating capacity large enough to support the starting kVA needed, thus averting objectionable
voltage dips. Interestingly, after the start-up the additional generators had to be shutdown. In the end, the full voltage
starters were replaced with RVS units. In the succeeding breweries being built thereafter, MV Soft Starters were employed.
Again, theres more to it than meets the eye. Recalling back my own PEE board exams, now I understand that after all, the
problem on voltage dip was not irrelevant but a test of engineering competence why I should be given a license as PEE.

2.0: SUBSTATION TRANSFORMERS VS. LOADS


Generators and transformers react to large motor starting as manifested in voltage dips. Let us first discuss transformers.
In general terms, transformers in an electrical system are usually larger than the maximum demands they serve, in some
instances even larger than the connected loads. In the industrial plant scenario, the obvious reason at first glance for this
apparent oversizing is the anticipation for future load growth. Fine
But more often than not, sizing the transformer with extra kVA capacity unwittingly addresses voltage sag problems, not
for load growth for which it is intended originally. Thats why for newly constructed plants where load growth is not yet
there, the problem of starting significantly large motors may not surface out. Why? Because the extra kVA capacity
intended for load growth is taking care of it.
3.0: SYSTEM BEHAVIOR IN EVENTS OF FAULTS
Short circuit capacity calculation is used in many applications, some of which are the following:
a) selecting the interrupting capacity ratings of circuit breakers and fuses,
b) specifying the short-time withstand of switchgears,
c) determining if a line reactor is required,

d) and a host of many others.

But unknown to many, Short Circuit Calculations together with


Motor Starting Calculations are also used in Sizing Transformers.
Short Circuit condition brings down the voltage very dramatically. The amount of voltage during a full three phase fault at
the terminals of the transformer is determined by the %IZ of the transformer, i.e., if the transformer is connected to an
infinite source of short circuit currents.
Take for instance a 7,500 kVA, 8.0% IZ, 69-4.16 kV transformer. The 8.0% impedance rating would mean that full load
currents of 1,041 amps will flow in the secondary if the secondary is short circuited and the primary voltage is raised from
zero volts to a point at which 8.0% of 4,160 volts, or 332.8 volts, appears at the secondary terminals. Therefore, the
impedance (Z) of the transformer secondary may now be calculated:
Z = V / I = 332.8 volts/1,041 amps = 0.3197 ohms
The exercise described above is what is known in textbooks as the Short Circuit Test which is actually performed in
laboratories or electrical shops (drying up transformers). What if the short circuit at the secondary is real meaning, the
short circuit happened at full 4160v at the inception of the fault? If the transformer is connected directly to a source
capable of supplying the transformer with an unlimited short circuit kVA capacity, the short circuit amperage capacity
which the transformer can deliver from its secondary is:
4,160 volts /0.3197 = 13,012.5 amps
Another method of calculating short circuit capacity for the above transformer is:
SC Capacity = Trafo FLC/%IZ
= 1,041 A / 0.08
= 13,012.5 amps,
or terms of kVA:
SC Capacity = 7,500 kVA/0.08 = 93,750 kVA

Such three-phase fault will bring down the voltage at the secondary terminals from 4,160v to approaching zero, while at
the same time delivering 93.75 MVA of short circuit power to the point of fault. This condition however must of course be
short-lived because some sort of protection upstream must operate to interrupt the circuit quickly, otherwise the
transformer will fail. Transformer damage (known as the transformer short-time withstand) is dependent on the amount of
fault current and the impedance of the transformer. Usually this transformer short-time withstand could only last for a few
seconds.
4.0: SYSTEM BEHAVIOR DURING LARGE MOTOR START-UP
Why is motor starting related to short circuit condition? Partly similar to short circuit condition, motors have a high initial
inrush current when energized and draw heavy load at a low power factor (0.30 lagging for 100 hp & about 0.16 for
1,000 hp motor) for a very short time. This sudden increase in the current flowing to the load causes a momentary
increase in the voltage drop at the supply transformer terminals, the voltage drop along the distribution system, and a
corresponding reduction in the voltage at the utilization equipment.
The magnitude of transient current involved in motor starting is however very much lower than the short circuit condition.
But in effect, switching on to energize a large motor can be likened to a soft short circuit. Like short circuits, the effect
of starting large motors results to voltage dips. The voltage drop at the transformer secondary terminals is proportional to
motor starting kVA over the short-circuit capacity of the transformer. When motor starting kVA is drawn from a system,
the voltage drop in percent of the initial voltage is approximately equal to the Motor Starting kVA divided by the Sum of
this kVA and the Short Circuit kVA.
% Voltage Drop = (Motor Starting kVA) x 100 /(Motor Starting kVA + Short Circuit kVA)

5.0: MOTOR STARTING KVA


Thus, we need to know the starting kVA of the subject motor. In general, IEEE Red Book says, the starting current or
starting kVA of a standard motor draws several times its full-load running ratings. Without any specific information on a

subject motor, a motor is always assumed to require about 1 kVA for each motor horsepower in normal operation, so the
starting current of the average motor will be about 5 kVA for each motor horsepower. When the motor rating in
horsepower approaches 5% of the secondary unit substation transformer capacity in kilovolt-amperes, the motor starting
apparent power approaches 25% of the transformer capacity which, with a transformer impedance voltage of 6.07%, will
result in a noticeable voltage sag on the order of 1%. This sudden increase in the current drawn from the power system
may result in excessive drop in voltage unless it is considered in the design of the system. The motor-starting load in
kilovolt-amperes, imposed on the power supply system, and the available motor torque are greatly affected by the method
of starting used.
The specific starting values for ac motors over hp are indicated in terms of Code Letters on the nameplates of North
American-made motors. NEMA Code Letters indicate the motor starting characteristics as presented in the following table.
TABLE 1: NEMA CODE LETTER DESIGNATIONS (STARTING KVAs)
CODE LETTER KVA per HP
A: 3.15
B: 3.16 3.55
C: 3.56 4.0
D: 4.1 4.5
E: 4.6 5.0
F: 5.1 5.6
G: 5.7 6.3
H: 6.4 7.1
J: 7.2 8.0
K: 8.1 9.0
L: 9.1 - 10.0
M: 10.1 - 11.2
N: 11.3 - 12.5
P: 12.6 - 14.0
R: 14.1 - 16.0
S: 16.1 - 18.0
T: 18.1 - 20.0
U: 20.1 - 22.4
V: 22.5 - and up

The above table means that a 200 hp motor with a NEMA Code Letter G requires a starting kVA of 1,140 to 1,260 kVA
(1,200 kVA on the average) when using Full Voltage (Across-the-Line) motor controller. This starting kVA is also known as
Locked Rotor kVA or sometimes Locked Rotor Amperes.
With the starting kVA of the motor such as described above, we must then determine the voltage dip caused by the motor
inrush on start-up. The ensuing voltage during start-up must stay within the allowable operating voltage of the system. If
such condition happens, then no oversizing of the transformer is required. But when the voltage dip exceeds the operating
requirement of the system, then the transformer must provide extra kVA.
North American motors are rated for 230, 460, 2,300, 4,000, 6,600 or 13,200 volts for use with distribution sub-systems
that are rated at 240, 480, 2400, 4,160, 6,900 or 13,800 volts respectively. Note the difference in motor nameplate
voltages viz-a-viz the transformer terminal voltages. The apparent lower motor voltages than distribution nominal voltages
are deliberately established by manufacturers to deal with the inherent voltage drops in the system such as: internal
voltage drop of the transformer as dictated by its voltage regulation capability, voltage drop along the distribution cables
and the impedance of the system. This could mean that the 4,160 v at the transformer at no-load condition may only be
3,800 v at the motor terminals when the system is already heavily loaded. In this condition, when a large motor is startedup somewhere in the system, the lower will the voltage be as felt by other loads in the system.
Thats why NEMA standard motors are designed to be capable of operating at plus or minus 10% of nameplate voltage.
Therefore, the voltage drop on inrush should not be allowed to drop more than -10% of the rated voltage. This means
208v for 230v or 414v for 460 volt motors. Likewise, 2.07 kV or 3.6 kV for 2.3 or 4.0 kV motors, respectively. It means
that a 4 kV motor can still operate satisfactorily at 3,600 v but any disturbance in the system that brings the system
voltage lower, the affected motors may trip off as provided for by its protection or if not, the motor burns.
(To be continued)

Doods A. Amora
December, 2006
Posted by doods at 12:14 PM
Labels: SUBSTATIONS

4 comments:
CVV said...
first i thank you for share ur idea. now i am also facing same ... i required motor detail on starting of large
motor . pls give other referance.... and also i like to dicuss with u
6:40 AM

Edward Battle said...


Mr. Doods A. Amora, PEE,
I appreciate this artical on sizing transformers for large motor loads. I am an electrical engineer currently
looking at a similar problem. I would like to ask you how the following equation for detemining voltage drop
is derived:
Vd = kVA(motor)/kVA (transformer + motor)
I have seen this equation from other sources, and am merely curious on how it is derived using circuit
analyis.
If you could respond, I would greatly appreciate it.
Thank you,
Edward P. Battle, P.E.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
11:49 AM

Ricky said...
It is running well.I am one of user of this Transformer.
11KV Lightning Arresters
2:46 AM

janakiraman said...
please let me know where i can find part 2 of this article sothat continuation can be possible.
2:36 AM

Post a Comment