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ArcFM Solution Configuration Guide

How Design Optimization Works:

Methodology and Algorithms
Appendix > How Design Optimization Works > How Design Optimization Works: Methodology and Algorithms

Version: 10.1

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Transformer Selection
Design Optimization selects the transformer layout (number of transformers and their geographic
location) and the transformer type (size and kVA rating) that meet URD load demands in the most costeffective manner. Design Optimization uses the following input data to select the optimal transformer
type and layout:

Diversified peak kVA load

Maximum allowable transformer overload factor
Cost considerations

Diversified Peak kVA Load

Diversified peak kVA load considers the probability that all customers' maximum demand will not occur at
the same time. The following formula is used to calculate diversified peak kVA load:

kVAdivis the total diversified peak load downstream of a point in the circuit,
N is the number of customers downstream of the point being considered,
C is the Coincidence function, which maps N onto a number in the interval (0-1], and

kVAi is the expected peak load for the i customer.

kVAican in turn be estimated for a given customer as the product of the floor area of a building and a
load factor that typifies a category of customer.
Design Optimization uses the customer load profile to obtain the building floor area and peak kVA per
area values. The coincidence function is used to account for the non-simultaneous maximum demand.
The coincidence function is configurable; its definition is stored in the customer load profile as an array of

values indexed by the number of customers (e.g. the nth value in the array gives the value of the
coincidence function for n customers).

Maximum Allowable Transformer Overload Factor

After calculating the diversified peak kVA load for the design, Design Optimization selects a transformer
that meets the peak kVA load demand within the established maximum allowable transformer overload
factor. The maximum allowable transformer overload factor is determined by the service policy. Design
Optimization chooses a transformer that satisfies the demand and the overload factor from all available
transformers listed in a transformer catalog.

Refer to Transformer Selection Example to see an example of how Design Optimization selects an
optimized transformer for a URD.

Conductor Selection
Design Optimization selects the optimal conductor type and layout that meet URD load demands in the
most cost-effective manner using three main parameters:

Maximum voltage flicker

Maximum voltage drop
Cost considerations

Maximum Voltage Flicker

Design Optimization uses a voltage flicker model to calculate maximum voltage flicker. The voltage flicker
circuit model is a radial model that considers single customer circuits to each service point using straight
line distances to the centroid of every parcel.

The known quantities used by the circuit model to determine maximum voltage flicker include:

Transformer impedance (provided by the transformer type catalog entry)

Conductor length to each service point (derived from geographic data)
Conductor impedance per unit length (provided in the conductor type catalog entry)
Motor start load for each service point (derived from kVA plus a motor starting power factor)
Maximum allowable voltage flicker (provided in the electrical policy)

Design Optimization uses these five values to calculate the impedance-per-unit-length for each service
point. Using the impedance-per-unit-length values, Design Optimization then chooses a subset of
conductors that satisfy the voltage flicker requirements from a master catalog of all conductor types.

The following diagram illustrates the voltage flicker circuit model:

The following algorithms are used to compute the voltage flicker:

IInrush = kVAInrush/V0
where V0 is the nominal secondary circuit voltage
VFlicker = IInrush [(RXFR + RPath) cos? + (XXFR + XPath) sin?]
where RXFR and XXFR are the transformer resistance and reactance, respectively, and RPATH and XPATH are the
total resistance and reactance, respectively, of theconductor path joining bus i to the transformer
secondary bus, and ? is the power angle for the motor starting current (i.e. cos? is the motor starting
power factor).
Maximum Voltage Drop
The voltage drop circuit model is a radial model that considers all service point peak loads simultaneously
using straight line distances to the centroid of every parcel. This model accounts for the fact that current
flow to any one service point can affect the other service point voltages.

The known quantities in determining maximum voltage drop include:.

Impedance-per-unit-length (derived from voltage flicker model)

Conductor length to each service point (derived from geographic data)
Conductor impedance (derived from conductor material catalogs)
Peak load of each service point (derived from?)
Maximum allowable voltage drop (determined by electrical policy)

The following example portrays the voltage drop circuit model:

The following algorithm is used to compute the voltage drop:

V = IRcos + IXsin


is the voltage drop in a circuit

is the current flowing in a conductor

is the line resistance for one conductor, in ohms

is the line reactance for one conductor, in ohms

is the angle whose cosine is the load power factor

cos is the load power factor, in decimals

sin is the load reactive factor, in decimals
Maximum Voltage Drop Percentage Calculation
This calculation determines the maximum allowable voltage drop of a secondary circuit. The following
algorithm is used to compute the voltage at each bus (e.g., service point) and the power flow through
each conductor in the circuit. All quantities are modeled by double precision complex numbers.
1. Compute the complex load Si at each service bus i as

where Li is the total apparent load and PFi the power factor reported for the service, and

2. Initialize each bus voltage Vi to the infinite bus voltage value Vo.
3. Compute load current flow ILOADi into each service bus as

where * is the complex conjugate operator.

4. Compute the complex current flow ICNDj through each conductor j as the sum of all load currents
into service buses that are downstream of the conductor. Compute the current flow IXFR through
the transformer as the sum of all load currents in the circuit.
5. Compute the end-to-end voltage drop ?Vj in each conductor j as
?Vj = ICNDj Zj
Where Zj is the sum of the impedances of the neutral and phase conductors for the given
segment j.
6. Compute the voltage drop in the transformer as the product of the total circuit load current and
the transformer impedance.
7. Revise each bus voltage Vi in the circuit by subtracting from it: (a) the sum of the end-to-end
voltage drops ?Vj for all conductors on the path connecting bus i to the transformer primary bus,
and (b) the voltage drop in the transformer itself.
8. Repeat from step 3, until the maximum change made to any bus voltage in step 7 is less than 1%.
(If the change to any bus voltage is ever more than 20% then halt the iterations and issue a
warning that the model may be unstable.)

Cost Considerations in Transformer and Conductor Selection

Design Optimization runs the previously described algorithms to select the best subset of transformers
and conductors. Design Optimization also calculates transformer and conductor costs from catalog entries
and will choose the least costly transformer and conductor combination from this subset.

Company Directory

Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH

Company Information:

Envi Con was founded in the year 2000 and is a leading engineering company specialized in power
plants and combined cycle power plants. With our team of more than 280 highly-experienced employees
we are engaged in - Consultancy incl. tendering, permitting and owners engineering - Overall design and
engineering of complete plants - Detail engineering Meanwhile we can refer to over 200 national and
international power plant projects with an overall investment of 12 billion Euro. Envi Con is certified
according to ISO 9001:2008 and according to ISO 14001:2009

Am Tullnaupark 15
90402 Nuremberg


+49 911 48089-130

Contact Email:

Web Site:

Engineering Consulting:

Civil Engineering and Architectural Services

Environmental Engineering Consulting

Engineering Design Services:

Fluid Dynamics Analysis Services

Industrial Design
Thermal Analysis Services

Electronic Contract Manufacturing:

Calibration and Testing Services:

Contract Fabrication and Manufacturing:





Legal Notice



How We See Ourselves
Our Company Values
Our Employees
Company Structure
Our Management System
Corporate Film
Downloads Company

We are proud to present a number of selected projects carried out by Envi Con & Plant
Engineering GmbH in the web pages of this section.
We believe that an awareness of our respective strengths and experiences is the best
foundation for achieving mutual success in the future. To illustrate this we would like to invite
you to browse these pages and find out how we have, in collaboration with our customers and
partners, successfully planned and implemented a variety of projects.
As an engineering business we know full well that it is our customers who enable us to
participate in important and challenging projects, all the while bearing in mind the words of
philosopher Moses Mendelssohn to do the best. We thoroughly understand our work in overall
planning and detailed engineering when it comes to the new construction or conversion of
power plants and thermal waste-to-energy plants, as well as in the field of industrial energy
The selected references represent our business areas
General or overall plant engineering / EPCM
Detailed engineering or planning / Consulting

and cover the range of different plant types that we offer.

Envi Con was founded in 2001 and has since gathered extensive experience as well as
numerous references.
Envi Con has been a member of the Bilfinger SE Group since mid-2012.
The best way to get to know us is through a face-to-face meeting, which can easily be
arrranged by phone or e-mail. We look forward to seeing you!







Head Office

Legal Notice

Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH


Am Tullnaupark 15

Tel: +49 0 911 48089-0

90402 Nuremberg,

Fax: +49 0 911 480089-




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Construction and Engineering
Company Overview of Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH

Company Overview
Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH provides engineering services for energy providers, public utilities,
and plant suppliers. It offers general planning services; and permit planning solution, layout and
construction planning, water and steam cycle, construction planning, scheduling and assembly planning,
and electronic and control technology service packages. The company was founded in 2001 and is based
in Nuremberg, Germany. As of June 28, 2012, Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH operates as a
subsidiary of Bilfinger SE.
Am Tullnaupark 15

Nuremberg, 90402
Founded in 2001
49 91 14 80 890
49 91 14 80 08 91 29
Key Executives for Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH
Envi Con & Plant Engineering GmbH does not have any Key Executives recorded.
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By Doods A. Amora, PEE
December 1, 2006)

(First of Two Parts)

The purpose of this article is to help expand the engineers basic understanding on short circuit capacity how it
affects voltage sags during starts-up of motors of significant sizes.
But why are Short Circuit & Motor Starting Calculations involved in transformer sizing?
One clue is:
"Starting up one thousand-1.0 hp motors is world apart from starting up one-1,000 hp motor"
When I took my PEE board exams 22 years ago, there was one problem under the subject ELECTRICAL DESIGN &
CONSTRUCTION which ran similar as follows:
A 250 hp motor driving a pump is served by 3 x 100 kVA 13.8kV- 480v transformer bank. Other data are as follows:

Transformer Impedance: 3.7% IZ

Short Circuit Capacity of Source Utility: 200 MVA
Motor Starting Current: 8 times of FLC
Length of Cable from Transformer to Motor Controller: 50 ft

Solve for:
a) Size of Cable & Conduit
b) Branch Circuit Breaker & Controller Size if Auto-Transformer type RVS
c) The voltage dip during motor start-up using full voltage starter
d) The voltage dip during motor start-up using Auto-Transformer Reduced Voltage Starter tapped at 65%.
To be honest, I wasnt ready to solve the (c) and (d) parts of the problem. To my defense mechanism, I told myself, the
problem was irrelevant. Nandiyan na yan, naka-install na kunyari; bakit kwentahin pa ang voltage dip?
To make the story short, lumipas ang mahabang panahon Then here comes now a real situation. What if one is asked to
design a set-up for a 500 hp motor driving a pump somewhere? Would a 750 kVA transformer be sufficient? Maybe yes,
maybe not! Try solving the problem and one will discover things that are assumed easy but are actually not quite simple!
In one brewery I happened to work with, we had two 450 hp 4 kV motors driving ammonia compressors controlled by
Auto-Transformer RVS. Later, three 700 hp motors were added but interestingly this time with across-the-line starters.
The system was directly connected to the Power Plants 4,160 v bus through feeders. No problem was imagined because
the Power Plant as a standard operating procedure, used to operate with significant spinning reserve capacity at any given
time and there were nine (9) generating units to support the loads.
However, when we started-up for the first time one of the three 700 hp compressors, a huge voltage dip occurred and the
neighboring Glass Plant tripped off all its operating air compressors thus shutting down the entire plant. Pandemonium
followed as the Power Plant struggled to recover the voltage by shedding off other major loads. Power Plant finally
recovered but with all major manufacturing plants served by it at shutdown, including the brewery.
The events aftermath saw signs posted on all compressor control panels that reads: NOTIFY POWER PLANT BEFORE
STARTING. Why? Because Power Plant had to add more generators on stream before any starting can be done. This was
to provide the on-line generating capacity large enough to support the starting kVA needed, thus averting objectionable
voltage dips. Interestingly, after the start-up the additional generators had to be shutdown. In the end, the full voltage
starters were replaced with RVS units. In the succeeding breweries being built thereafter, MV Soft Starters were employed.
Again, theres more to it than meets the eye. Recalling back my own PEE board exams, now I understand that after all, the
problem on voltage dip was not irrelevant but a test of engineering competence why I should be given a license as PEE.


Generators and transformers react to large motor starting as manifested in voltage dips. Let us first discuss transformers.
In general terms, transformers in an electrical system are usually larger than the maximum demands they serve, in some
instances even larger than the connected loads. In the industrial plant scenario, the obvious reason at first glance for this
apparent oversizing is the anticipation for future load growth. Fine
But more often than not, sizing the transformer with extra kVA capacity unwittingly addresses voltage sag problems, not
for load growth for which it is intended originally. Thats why for newly constructed plants where load growth is not yet
there, the problem of starting significantly large motors may not surface out. Why? Because the extra kVA capacity
intended for load growth is taking care of it.
Short circuit capacity calculation is used in many applications, some of which are the following:
a) selecting the interrupting capacity ratings of circuit breakers and fuses,
b) specifying the short-time withstand of switchgears,
c) determining if a line reactor is required,

d) and a host of many others.

But unknown to many, Short Circuit Calculations together with

Motor Starting Calculations are also used in Sizing Transformers.
Short Circuit condition brings down the voltage very dramatically. The amount of voltage during a full three phase fault at
the terminals of the transformer is determined by the %IZ of the transformer, i.e., if the transformer is connected to an
infinite source of short circuit currents.
Take for instance a 7,500 kVA, 8.0% IZ, 69-4.16 kV transformer. The 8.0% impedance rating would mean that full load
currents of 1,041 amps will flow in the secondary if the secondary is short circuited and the primary voltage is raised from
zero volts to a point at which 8.0% of 4,160 volts, or 332.8 volts, appears at the secondary terminals. Therefore, the
impedance (Z) of the transformer secondary may now be calculated:
Z = V / I = 332.8 volts/1,041 amps = 0.3197 ohms
The exercise described above is what is known in textbooks as the Short Circuit Test which is actually performed in
laboratories or electrical shops (drying up transformers). What if the short circuit at the secondary is real meaning, the
short circuit happened at full 4160v at the inception of the fault? If the transformer is connected directly to a source
capable of supplying the transformer with an unlimited short circuit kVA capacity, the short circuit amperage capacity
which the transformer can deliver from its secondary is:
4,160 volts /0.3197 = 13,012.5 amps
Another method of calculating short circuit capacity for the above transformer is:
SC Capacity = Trafo FLC/%IZ
= 1,041 A / 0.08
= 13,012.5 amps,
or terms of kVA:
SC Capacity = 7,500 kVA/0.08 = 93,750 kVA

Such three-phase fault will bring down the voltage at the secondary terminals from 4,160v to approaching zero, while at
the same time delivering 93.75 MVA of short circuit power to the point of fault. This condition however must of course be
short-lived because some sort of protection upstream must operate to interrupt the circuit quickly, otherwise the
transformer will fail. Transformer damage (known as the transformer short-time withstand) is dependent on the amount of
fault current and the impedance of the transformer. Usually this transformer short-time withstand could only last for a few
Why is motor starting related to short circuit condition? Partly similar to short circuit condition, motors have a high initial
inrush current when energized and draw heavy load at a low power factor (0.30 lagging for 100 hp & about 0.16 for
1,000 hp motor) for a very short time. This sudden increase in the current flowing to the load causes a momentary
increase in the voltage drop at the supply transformer terminals, the voltage drop along the distribution system, and a
corresponding reduction in the voltage at the utilization equipment.
The magnitude of transient current involved in motor starting is however very much lower than the short circuit condition.
But in effect, switching on to energize a large motor can be likened to a soft short circuit. Like short circuits, the effect
of starting large motors results to voltage dips. The voltage drop at the transformer secondary terminals is proportional to
motor starting kVA over the short-circuit capacity of the transformer. When motor starting kVA is drawn from a system,
the voltage drop in percent of the initial voltage is approximately equal to the Motor Starting kVA divided by the Sum of
this kVA and the Short Circuit kVA.
% Voltage Drop = (Motor Starting kVA) x 100 /(Motor Starting kVA + Short Circuit kVA)


Thus, we need to know the starting kVA of the subject motor. In general, IEEE Red Book says, the starting current or
starting kVA of a standard motor draws several times its full-load running ratings. Without any specific information on a

subject motor, a motor is always assumed to require about 1 kVA for each motor horsepower in normal operation, so the
starting current of the average motor will be about 5 kVA for each motor horsepower. When the motor rating in
horsepower approaches 5% of the secondary unit substation transformer capacity in kilovolt-amperes, the motor starting
apparent power approaches 25% of the transformer capacity which, with a transformer impedance voltage of 6.07%, will
result in a noticeable voltage sag on the order of 1%. This sudden increase in the current drawn from the power system
may result in excessive drop in voltage unless it is considered in the design of the system. The motor-starting load in
kilovolt-amperes, imposed on the power supply system, and the available motor torque are greatly affected by the method
of starting used.
The specific starting values for ac motors over hp are indicated in terms of Code Letters on the nameplates of North
American-made motors. NEMA Code Letters indicate the motor starting characteristics as presented in the following table.
A: 3.15
B: 3.16 3.55
C: 3.56 4.0
D: 4.1 4.5
E: 4.6 5.0
F: 5.1 5.6
G: 5.7 6.3
H: 6.4 7.1
J: 7.2 8.0
K: 8.1 9.0
L: 9.1 - 10.0
M: 10.1 - 11.2
N: 11.3 - 12.5
P: 12.6 - 14.0
R: 14.1 - 16.0
S: 16.1 - 18.0
T: 18.1 - 20.0
U: 20.1 - 22.4
V: 22.5 - and up

The above table means that a 200 hp motor with a NEMA Code Letter G requires a starting kVA of 1,140 to 1,260 kVA
(1,200 kVA on the average) when using Full Voltage (Across-the-Line) motor controller. This starting kVA is also known as
Locked Rotor kVA or sometimes Locked Rotor Amperes.
With the starting kVA of the motor such as described above, we must then determine the voltage dip caused by the motor
inrush on start-up. The ensuing voltage during start-up must stay within the allowable operating voltage of the system. If
such condition happens, then no oversizing of the transformer is required. But when the voltage dip exceeds the operating
requirement of the system, then the transformer must provide extra kVA.
North American motors are rated for 230, 460, 2,300, 4,000, 6,600 or 13,200 volts for use with distribution sub-systems
that are rated at 240, 480, 2400, 4,160, 6,900 or 13,800 volts respectively. Note the difference in motor nameplate
voltages viz-a-viz the transformer terminal voltages. The apparent lower motor voltages than distribution nominal voltages
are deliberately established by manufacturers to deal with the inherent voltage drops in the system such as: internal
voltage drop of the transformer as dictated by its voltage regulation capability, voltage drop along the distribution cables
and the impedance of the system. This could mean that the 4,160 v at the transformer at no-load condition may only be
3,800 v at the motor terminals when the system is already heavily loaded. In this condition, when a large motor is startedup somewhere in the system, the lower will the voltage be as felt by other loads in the system.
Thats why NEMA standard motors are designed to be capable of operating at plus or minus 10% of nameplate voltage.
Therefore, the voltage drop on inrush should not be allowed to drop more than -10% of the rated voltage. This means
208v for 230v or 414v for 460 volt motors. Likewise, 2.07 kV or 3.6 kV for 2.3 or 4.0 kV motors, respectively. It means
that a 4 kV motor can still operate satisfactorily at 3,600 v but any disturbance in the system that brings the system
voltage lower, the affected motors may trip off as provided for by its protection or if not, the motor burns.
(To be continued)

Doods A. Amora
December, 2006
Posted by doods at 12:14 PM

CVV said...
first i thank you for share ur idea. now i am also facing same ... i required motor detail on starting of large
motor . pls give other referance.... and also i like to dicuss with u
6:40 AM

Edward Battle said...

Mr. Doods A. Amora, PEE,
I appreciate this artical on sizing transformers for large motor loads. I am an electrical engineer currently
looking at a similar problem. I would like to ask you how the following equation for detemining voltage drop
is derived:
Vd = kVA(motor)/kVA (transformer + motor)
I have seen this equation from other sources, and am merely curious on how it is derived using circuit
If you could respond, I would greatly appreciate it.
Thank you,
Edward P. Battle, P.E.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
11:49 AM

Ricky said...
It is running well.I am one of user of this Transformer.
11KV Lightning Arresters
2:46 AM

janakiraman said...
please let me know where i can find part 2 of this article sothat continuation can be possible.
2:36 AM

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