Anda di halaman 1dari 91

Operating Instructions

BKtel 1570BB
CATV Distribution System
System Performance Analysis
for
CATV Systems
SPAC Release 2.7

Copyright BKtel systems, 2004 - All rights reserved

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 - May 2004

Contents
1

Introduction .......................................................................................................... 4
1.1
1.2

1.3
2

This Manual............................................................................................................ 4
Important Advice for Using SPAC .......................................................................... 5
1.2.1 .... Features ................................................................................................................................ 5
1.2.2 .... Information Required for Calculation .................................................................................... 6
1.2.3 .... New features ......................................................................................................................... 7
1.2.4 .... Interdependencies Registered by SPAC .............................................................................. 8
1.2.5 .... Calculation Accuracy for C/N and CSO/CTB Figures ......................................................... 10
1.2.6 .... BER Calculation .................................................................................................................. 11
1.2.7 .... Unmodulated and Modulated AMTV Carriers ................................................................... 11
1.2.8 .... Libraries .............................................................................................................................. 12
1.2.9 .... Essential Use of a Load Controlled Amplifier (LCA) ........................................................... 12
1.2.10 .. Definition of the Modulation Index....................................................................................... 12
1.2.11 .. Balance Between Optimum C/N and CSO/CTB ................................................................. 15
1.2.12 .. Links with Line Extenders ................................................................................................... 15
1.2.13 .. Links with Optical Amplifiers ............................................................................................... 16
1.2.14 .. Transmitter Output Levels................................................................................................... 17
1.2.15 .. Receiver Input Level ........................................................................................................... 17
Requirements ....................................................................................................... 17
Installation .......................................................................................................... 18

2.1
2.2
3

SPAC.................................................................................................................... 18
Dongle .................................................................................................................. 19
2.2.1 .... Installation of Dongle........................................................................................................... 19
2.2.2 .... Connection of the dongle: ................................................................................................... 20
Operation ............................................................................................................ 21

3.1
3.2
3.3
4

Getting Started ..................................................................................................... 21


New Schematic .................................................................................................... 26
Existing Schematic ............................................................................................... 27
Main Window of SPAC ....................................................................................... 28

4.1
4.2
4.3

4.4
5

Overview .............................................................................................................. 28
Tool Bar................................................................................................................ 29
Menu Bar.............................................................................................................. 31
4.3.1 .... File....................................................................................................................................... 31
4.3.2 .... Channels ............................................................................................................................. 32
4.3.3 .... Edit ...................................................................................................................................... 33
4.3.4 .... Add ...................................................................................................................................... 35
4.3.5 .... Calculate! ............................................................................................................................ 36
4.3.6 .... Window................................................................................................................................ 36
4.3.7 .... Info ...................................................................................................................................... 37
4.3.8 .... Options ................................................................................................................................ 37
4.3.9 .... IM Simulator ........................................................................................................................ 37
4.3.10 .. SPQA! ................................................................................................................................. 38
Status Bar............................................................................................................. 39
Edit Module Dialog Boxes ................................................................................. 40

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

Source .................................................................................................................. 40
Amplifier ............................................................................................................... 42
Load Controlled Amplifier (LCA)........................................................................... 44
Optical Transmitter (OTX) .................................................................................... 46
Optical Amplifier ................................................................................................... 48

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
6

Optical loss........................................................................................................... 50
Coaxial Loss......................................................................................................... 52
Optical Receiver (ORX) ........................................................................................ 53
Module.................................................................................................................. 56
Optical Insertion ................................................................................................. 58
Coaxial Combiner............................................................................................... 60
Return Channel Noise........................................................................................ 62
Module list .......................................................................................................... 64
Procedures.......................................................................................................... 66

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
7

Working with Libraries .......................................................................................... 66


Modifying Modules ............................................................................................... 66
Creating User Libraries......................................................................................... 67
Edit Channel Table............................................................................................... 67
Channel List File................................................................................................... 70
IM Simulator........................................................................................................ 73

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
8

Using the IM Simulator ......................................................................................... 73


IM Calculating Options ......................................................................................... 75
Calculation Test.................................................................................................... 76
IM Print Options.................................................................................................... 77
Menu Control in IM Simulator............................................................................ 78

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
9

x Scaling............................................................................................................... 78
y Scaling............................................................................................................... 78
Display.................................................................................................................. 78
Calculate .............................................................................................................. 79
Test ...................................................................................................................... 79
Print ...................................................................................................................... 79
Console for Monitoring ...................................................................................... 79

9.1
9.2
9.3
10
10.1
10.2
10.3

Clear..................................................................................................................... 80
Buffer.................................................................................................................... 80
Position................................................................................................................. 80
Appendix ............................................................................................................. 81
Create a Sample Schematic............................................................................... 81
Warnings and Error Messages........................................................................... 86
List of Abbreviations........................................................................................... 90

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

Introduction

1.1

This Manual
This instruction manual has been conceived for planning staff who
are familiar with hybrid (optical and coaxial) CATV (Community
Antenna for Television) systems.
Chapter 1 provides an introduction and important advice for using
SPAC.
Chapter 2 describes the installation of the software SPAC (System
Performance Analysis for CATV Systems).
Chapter 3 describes how to start a new schematic and an existing
one.
Chapter 4 describes the menu bar, tool bar and status bar of the
SPAC main window.
Chapter 5 describes the dialog boxes for editing the modules.
Chapter 6 describes some SPAC procedures.
Chapter 7 describes the IM (Intermodulation) simulator.
Chapter 8 describes the menus of the IM simulator.
Chapter 9 describes the console for monitoring at a specified
frequency.
Chapter 10 is the Appendix and describes a sample schematic.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

1.2

Important Advice for Using SPAC

1.2.1

Features
SPAC is a PCbased simulation tool for evaluating the
performance of CATV distribution networks. The program enables
calculation of the main system parameters carriertonoiseratio
(C/N), the intermodulation products compositesecondorder
(CSO) and compositetriplebeat (CTB), as well as the Bit Error
Rate (BER) and Modulation Error Ratio (MER). These parameters
determine the quality of
-

coaxial

optical (1310/1550 nm)

mixed (coaxial/optical)

analog CATV transmission systems and their return channels.


The input required for simulation of a system is carried out
schematically. The schematic modules are entered as simulation
models from a library, while the CATV source and links (optical or
electrical) are specified by the user. SPAC indicates the system
parameters in two ways:
-

In normal calculation mode, they are specified for the individual


blocks of the chain at their outputs.

Alternatively, the contribution for the individual blocks of the


chain can be observed.

The SPQA tool is used for the subjective assessment of picture


quality.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

1.2.2

Information Required for Calculation


Basically, SPAC has been designed for calculation of the
downstream system performance of the 1570BB system. Since
analog AM-TV was the main service, the most important system
performance parameters were C/N, CSO and CTB. The increasing
demand of calculating the performance of new digital services
(such as 64 QAM for downstream digital TV) and various services
for the upstream channel (such as polled set top boxes, cable
phone and cable modem), made it necessary to develop additional
features for the SPAC. For this reason, the SPAC calculates the
BER and MER for digital services. The definition of the service
type for a specific channel is carried out in the channel list file (e.g.
cenelec.lst, upstrm16.lst, ...). The service type must be selected
for each simulation in order to enable the SPAC to perform the
calculation of the correct system performance parameters (e.g.
BER for QAM channels, but not for analog AM-TV and FM
channels).
All schematic modules in the 1570 BB system are stored with their
main block parameters (gain, noise figures etc.) in the SPAC
libraries. The downstream modules are stored in the 1570_un.dll
library, the upstream modules in the upstream.dll library.
In order to calculate the carriertonoise (C/N), the
electrical/optical input levels of the different blocks have to be
defined by linking the blocks with electrical/optical attenuations.
The C/N is calculated in the high frequency (RF) domain. It is
normally expressed to a 5 MHz noise equivalent bandwidth; the
figure, however, can be modified (e.g. to 1 Hz to establish a
comparitive figure to the actual service bandwidth, independent of
the channel bandwidth).
The second and third order nonlinearity determines the entire
transmission path quality in terms of nonlinear distortions, as long
as the optical transmitters are not overloaded (overmodulated). It
is therefore sufficient to calculate the CSO and CTB contribution
per transmission path block. Apart from the 1310/1550 nm
transmitters, all blocks (electrical/optical amplifiers and optical
receivers) operate well below their saturation point as long as
suitable output levels are used (default values of the blocks in the
libraries).
To carry out the CSO/CTB calculations, the channel allocation
must be selected first because the nonlinearity of the blocks, and

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

thus for the complete transmission system, is a function of the


number of transmitted (TV) channels, their frequency range and
their spacing. The SPAC calculates the number of intermodulation
beats per frequency cycle as a function of the channel allocation in
the first run.
During the second run, the number of intermodulation beats is
combined with the individual block nonlinearity (per IM beats).
The total nonlinearity per block is calculated in accordance with
the specially defined channel allocation. After this is completed,
the result is added to that of the block before the complete
transmission path chain is calculated.

1.2.3

New features
SPAC 2.7 adds several new features to the release SPAC 2.6:

Support of QAM128, QAM32 and QAM8 upstream services.

Support of the new OTXD module with additional features:


adjustable output power and Fiber Length Compensation.

Support of the new OAH module with additional feature:


adjustable output power.

Finetuned calculation of fiber effects in operation with OTX.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

1.2.4

Interdependencies Registered by SPAC

1.2.4.1

Optical Transmitters
The SPAC knows the amount of CSO/CTB to be created in optical
transmitters for an optimum channel modulation index when the
channel allocation is defined. The SPAC normally accomplishes
this automatically. The SPAC sets the channel modulation index to
a value where the clipping influence on the CATV signals can be
neglected (about 44% related to modulated carriers and 26% to
unmodulated carriers). The total modulation index is determined
by SPAC multiplying the channel modulation index by the square
root of the effective channel load. Afterwards, SPAC calculates the
C/N of the transmitter (it is mainly a function of the channel
modulation index and the transmitter RIN). The SPAC handles
transmitter clipping effects.

1.2.4.2

Optical Amplifiers
Optical amplifiers have a negligible CSO/CTB contribution. In spite
of this, SPAC adds the CSO/CTB of optical amplifiers to the
CSO/CTB of the transmission chain. The noise figure of the optical
amplifier is a function of the input level. This interdependency is
stored in the libraries for the different optical amplifiers. The C/N
contribution can be calculated when the input light level is stated.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

1.2.4.3

Fiber
Fiber effects arising in long optical feeders, such as fiber intensity
noise resulting from to Rayleigh BackScattering (RBS) or PM/AM
conversion caused by fiber chromatic dispersion, SBS (Stimulated
Brillouin Scattering), and SPM (SelfPhase Modulation) are partly
considered. The dynamic of RBS and PM/AM induced fiber
intensity noise is taken into account by the SPAC, the SBS
threshold is integrated as a limit value, according to the optical
transmitter and fiber length. The effects caused by SPM are also
included. However, due to the very complex nature of SPM and
CSO compensation effects, a high degree of accuracy is not
always achieved. In practice, the CSO rises very quickly if a
certain fiber length is exceeded. In this case, a difference of only a
few kilometers influences the CSO considerably and sometimes
render the accuracy of the calculation relatively low.

1.2.4.4

Optical Receivers
The CSO/CTB is calculated as a function of the optical input light
and electrical output power. C/N is determined by the light and
RMS noise received (stored in the library). The SPAC can handle
preemphased receiver outputs, too.

1.2.4.5

Coaxial Amplifiers
The SPAC requires the input levels and channel allocations for the
coaxial amplifiers. The C/N can be estimated from the noise
figures already stored and the CSO/CTB is calculated from the
channel allocation and output level. The frequency dependency of
the CSO/CTB of hybrid amplifiers is similar to SPAC. Flat and pre
emphased output levels can be created and are taken into account
when calculating CSO/CTB. The frequency reference point is 862
MHz.

1.2.4.6

General prerequisites
-

The output power levels of the optical amplifiers do not exceed


17 dBm.

BKtel 1570BB default transmitters are used.

All optical return losses are lower than 50 dB.

All electrical return losses are lower than 16 dB.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

1.2.5

Calculation Accuracy for C/N and CSO/CTB Figures

1.2.5.1

Influence of the Frequency Response on the System Parameters


Apart from the preemphased outputs of the optical receivers and
coaxial amplifiers, SPAC has no information on frequency
responses. Therefore, it assumes an ideal flat frequency response
without any ripples. The C/N, CSO and CTB figures are referred to
nominal (mean) carrier amplitudes.
If a carrier is down (e.g. 1 dB related to the nominal value) all three
transmission parameters are normally reduced by 1 dB and vice
versa. The more electrical interfaces are added to the
transmission chain, the more frequency response is added and the
more the C/N, CSO and CTB figures will differ in the individual
channels compared to the calculated nominal value.
Assuming a rippleless, steadily frequency response, the accuracy
of C/N calculations normally achieve 1 dB and CSO/CTB
calculations 2 dB. The frequency response deviations must be
added to this tolerances (see above). This fact has to be taken into
account when defining a system: Expert customers often require
the guaranteed system parameters for the worst case (minimum
level) carriers.

1.2.5.2

Addition Rules Used for SPAC Simulations


For calculations between the transmission blocks, SPAC uses:
-

10 log for C/N additions,

12 log for the CSO addition,

15 log for the CTB addition.

The 12 log and 15 log can be changed in Expert Mode.


The phase relationship between the individual transmission blocks
is never constant with regard to the number of blocks and the
individual transmission frequencies. Therefore, the 12 log rule for
CSO and the 15 log rule for CTB are only considered statistical
rules. It was mainly derived from extensive measurements,
particularly of HFC systems.
The individual IM beats within the transmission blocks themselves
cannot be changed. SPAC applies for block internal nonlinearity
calculations:
-

7 log for the CSO addition,

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

10

1.2.6

8 log for the CTB addition.

BER Calculation
Today, many of the services offered by an HFC platform are
digital. The type of service considered for calculation must be
selected for each simulation. If a digital modulated carrier is
selected, SPAC calculates the BER from the CNR and also a
correction factor, which accounts for some CSO and CTB.
However, the CSO and CTB contribution to the BER has not been
widely verified to date. The contributions of QAM AM-TV and
QAMQAM intermodulation to C/N is not considered.

1.2.7

Unmodulated and Modulated AMTV Carriers


The system parameters CSO/CTB and C/N can be defined to
either unmodulated AM-TV carriers or modulated AM-TV carriers.
In the case of unmodulated carriers, the carrier peak amplitude is
approx. 4.5 dB lower than that of the peak amplitude of the
modulated carriers if an LCA is used and the channel load only
consists of AMTV carriers. (If there are also FM and digital
channels, such as QAM, that have the same signal power at the
system input independent of the modulated or unmodulated AMTV carriers, the difference between the AM-TV peak levels
downstream from the LCA are somewhat lower than 4.5 dB since
the summation load difference is lower in this case. The SPAC is
now also capable of taking these effects into account properly).
The intermodulation and noise floor are always measured as
average values. Therefore, when using modulated carriers, the
C/N, CSO and CTB ratios differ about 4.5 dB to the modulated
case. The SPAC calculates the difference between the modulated
and unmodulated channel load in the summation load. It then
readjusts the peak carrier levels of the LCA and the following
modules correspondingly. If a pilot controlled optical receiver or
amplifier is used somewhere in the transmission chain following
the LCA, there is no readjustment of the peak carrier amplitude.
Please note that the CSO and CTB contributions also change for
these modules but there is no change in the C/N contribution if the
modulation of the AM-TV carriers is switched on. The SPAC then
calculates the correct peak output level as well as the correct C/N,
CSO and CTB contributions in all of these cases.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

11

1.2.8

Libraries
The system parameters CSO/CTB and C/N can be defined to
either unmodulated carriers or modulated carriers. In the case of
unmodulated carriers, the carrier amplitude is about 4 ... 5 dB
less than that of the peak amplitude of the modulated carriers. The
intermodulation and noise floor are always measured as average
values. Therefore, when using modulated carriers, the C/N,
CSO/CTB ratios are about 4.5 dB lower than those when using the
modulated case. By applying this rule of thumb, it would not be
necessary to use two libraries. However, the Load Controlled
Amplifier (LCA) changes the system parameters as a result of the
4.5 dB level shift, which is different to a constant gain amplifier.
Also, pilot controlled receivers behave differently at the system
output in comparison to nonpilot controlled receivers. Therefore,
the system parameter calculations between modulated and
unmodulated carriers are more complex and, thus, two individual
libraries are necessary.

1.2.9

Essential Use of a Load Controlled Amplifier (LCA)


NOTICE

It is necessary to use a Load Controlled Amplifier (LCA) in front


of most optical transmitter because the transmitter library module
assumes one is present.
If not, the results received are not correct. SPAC warns you if the
transmitter needs an LCA and you have forgotten it.

The LCA permanently keeps the optical transmitter in its optimum


condition in terms of channel modulation index and the number of
channels. The system is modulated as high as possible thus
achieving a high degree of costeffectiveness. The LCA output
level and, thus, the transmitter channel modulation index should
only be corrected by experienced users. If the transmitter
CSO/CTB contribution is too high, it must be reduced. A manual
increase of the channel modulation index should be avoided in all
cases, even by expert users.

1.2.10

Definition of the Modulation Index


The total modulation index is about SQR(N) times the figure of the
channel modulation index. This is valid for both unmodulated and
modulated carriers. However, when using modulated carriers, the
peak amplitude is about 4.5 dB higher in comparison to the mean
value or unmodulated carriers. Therefore, the total modulation
index is also 4.5 dB higher when compared to unmodulated

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

12

carriers (44% in the modulated case compared to approx. 26% in


the unmodulated case).
The LCA keeps the total channel load constant. Therefore, in case
of modulated carriers, the peak level of a TV channel is about 4.5
dB higher in comparison to the unmodulated level or the mean
value of the modulated channel. This is valid for all BKtel 1570BB
units which are cascaded following the LCA.
However, a pilot controlled receiver, such as the CRX-LD,
compensates for this effect on the receiver side.
This 4 to 5 dB difference is currently being examined for PAL-B
and SECAM; in the case of PAL-M the difference could be 1 dB
lower. In the case of an OPAL 94 channel allocation with 62
effective PAL-B AM-TV channels, the channel modulation index
would be about 5.5% for modulated carriers and 3.8% for
unmodulated carriers.
It must be taken into account that, in practice, the total modulation
index may not be different for modulated and unmodulated
carriers. The LCA always controls this total channel load to the
same effective power at its output. But, when defining the channel
modulation index to the peak level of the carrier (e.g. the sync.
pulse level in case of PAL-B modulation), the channel modulation
index is 4.5 dB higher in comparison to the unmodulated
sinusoidal carrier. Therefore, if the above mentioned square root
(N) law for the total modulation index should be valid for
modulated and unmodulated carriers, the total modulation index is
also 4.5 dB higher compared to unmodulated carriers when using
modulated carriers.
SPAC users can select between both conditions. They should take
into account that the real TV picture behaves in the same way as
the modulated carrier condition, but unmodulated carrier
conditions are preferred for a lot of CATV system definitions
carried out by customers and CATV specialists for measurement
and definition purposes (e.g. CENELEC).
The influence of the LCA regulation, however, usually requires an
explanation being given to the customer. The planning engineer
must explain what will happen when switching an unmodulated
channel allocation to the modulated condition: The peak amplitude
of the modulated carrier is increased by about 4.5 dB and also,
therefore, the carrier amplitude at the output of the system when it
is not compensated for by the use of a pilot controlled receiver.
The influence of the system parameters C/N, CSO and CTB, when
switching from unmodulated to modulated carriers, can easily be

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

13

shown by the planning engineer using SPAC because he can


switch between the two conditions.
The result is that the planned C/N target can only usually be
achieved at an attractive price by using the modulated case. The
intermodulation ratio normally must be defined to the unmodulated
carrier condition (necessitated by a customer requirement). The
system output level is approx. 4.5 dB less in comparison to a
system which is not LCA controlled, thus providing an
improvement in CSO/CTB behavior (valid as long as no pilot
controlled receiver is used). This must normally be explained in
detail and seriously to the customer to convince him that
BKtel 1570BB equipment provides an optimum balance between
advantageous system parameters on the one hand and an
attractive price on the other.
NOTICE

The 4.5 dB offset between the unmodulated and the modulated


case is only a rule of thumb. If there are other services, such as
QAM and FM, this offset decreases according to the ratio of
signal power
of the AMTV channels and the other channels.

When the number of channels is increased (usually at a later date


when the system is already sold and in service), the channel
modulation index is reduced corresponding to the SQR(N) law if
the number of channels is higher than 40 and vice versa. Below 40
channels (assuming a nominal input level of 79 dBV) the
maximum gain of the LCA is achieved and the channel modulation
index remains constant. This behavior is fully reflected in the
SPAC tool. The planning engineer must request the maximum
number of TV channels which are planned to be transmitted with
the BKtel 1570BB system in future in order to plan using the
corresponding channel modulation index. Otherwise, the system
parameters cannot be fulfilled when the number of channels is
increased after subsequently being put into service.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

14

1.2.11

Balance Between Optimum C/N and CSO/CTB


The channel modulation index is the common parameter: the
higher it is, the better the C/N and the worse the CSO/CTB for a
specific channel load and receiver output level. Since the optical
amplifiers contribute almost nothing to the CSO/CTB, it is
preferable to define a pointtopoint link with SPAC first of all
using only one EPA, one LCA, one OTX and one optical receiver.
Then define the channel allocation and receiver output level which
needs to be achieved.

NOTICE

The output level of the optical receiver is defined at 862 MHz.

By using this quick exercise, it soon becomes apparent if the


default figures in the library will enable the required CSO/CTB
system figures to be achieved. If this is not the case, and neither
the number of TV channels nor the receiver output level can be
reduced, the only possibility is to reduce the OTX channel
modulation index by reducing the LCA output level by using the
SPAC Expert Mode.
This helps to solve the problem if a significant amount of
CSO/CTB (>50 %) is contributed by the optical transmitter. If the
optical receiver contributes the greater share of intermodulation,
the receiver output level for the specific channel load is too high.
When the channel modulation index has been optimized, the
optical amplifier chain can be embedded in the right way in order
to cover the optical budget in conjunction with the required C/N.

1.2.12

Links with Line Extenders


If the link includes Line Extenders, they should be included from
the beginning to determine their contribution in terms of
intermodulation. An attempt should be made to achieve minimum
degradation in intermodulation and C/N contribution through them
by selecting the correct electrical input level and line extender
gain. Generally, this is easier the smaller the gain selected.
However, the smaller the gain, the smaller the coaxial link budget.
Trial and error must be used on the SPAC to find a suitable
compromise.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

15

An optimized cascade of two Line Extenders should not degrade


the CSO/CTB more than 2 or 3 dB in comparison to the figure at
the output of the optical receiver. Their C/N degradation should be
less than 0.5 dB. If the total required CSO/CTB for the complete
link (fiber optic plus line extender cascade) cannot be achieved,
and the Line Extender CSO/CTB degradation is higher than that
mentioned above, do not attempt to correct the fiber optic part by
reducing the channel modulation index of the optical transmitter or
the optical receiver output level.
If the optical receiver CSO/CTB is dominant within the
transmission chain, it is useful to reduce the receiver output level
and increase the gain of the following Line Extender in order to
cover the same coaxial budget.

1.2.13

Links with Optical Amplifiers


It is recommended to retain the minimum input level for the optical
amplifiers, otherwise the simulation is interrupted.
Take the different minimum input levels for the different OAAs into
consideration:
Optical Amplifier

Min. input level

Optical Amplifiers of OAAS family:


OAAS815SA (1 output, +16 dBm)
OAAS815DA (2 outputs, +13 dBm)

-4 dBm

Optical Amplifiers of new OAH family:


OAHnppd

-4 dBm

Optical Amplifiers of OAH family:


OAH0216B (2 outputs, +16 dBm)
OAH0316A (3 outputs, +16 dBm)
OAH0413B (4 outputs, +13 dBm)
OAH0416B (4 outputs, +16 dBm)
OAH0613A (6 outputs, +13 dBm)
OAH0813B (8 outputs, +13 dBm)

-2 dBm

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

16

1.2.14

Transmitter Output Levels


The directly modulated 1310 nm transmitters provide either +8
dBm or +11 dBm.
The new directly modulated OTX family has adjustable output
levels.
The external modulated transmitter OTXE090 provides 2 outputs,
each with +7 dBm.

1.2.15

Receiver Input Level


Strictly seen, the minimum receiver CW level is a function of the
channel modulation index. In the case of normal channel loads
(higher than 40 AM TV channels), it must be higher than -8 dBm in
order to provide a useful C/N at its output. It should not exceed +2
dBm at the receiver input to prevent receiver overloading (even
when high C/N ratios are required). Also consider the fact that
most receivers have two input dynamic ranges (-7 dBm to +1 dBm
and -4 to +4 dBm, related to m=5%).
Planning should be performed in this way to allow a margin for the
CW regulation range limit of the receivers because there may be
tolerances in the optical pointtomultipoint budgets.

1.3

Requirements
SPAC runs under MSWindows 3.1 or higher. In order to use the
SPQA tool for subjective assessment of picture quality, a VGA
adapter with a color resolution of at least 16,777,216 colors is
necessary (true color resolution 24 or 32 bit) .
The user must be familiar with the basic features of Microsoft
Windows.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

17

Installation

2.1

SPAC
This version is equipped with a setup routine. To run the SPAC,
install the program as described below:
1. Run MSWindows 3.1 or higher.
2. Installation of SPAC by CD:
Insert the original SPAC CD. Display the directory \ of
the CD drive with your file manager. Run Setup.EXE
by double clicking the file name in the file manager.
Follow the installation procedure. The default installation
directory is C:\ProgramFiles\BKtel\spac but can be
changed during the installation process.
3. Start SPAC by double clicking on the icon created on
the desktop or by double clicking on SPAC.EXE in the
File Manager/Explorer.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

18

2.2

Dongle
BKtel ships SPAC with two different types of dongles: for parallel
interface or for USB.

2.2.1

Installation of Dongle
Please start the appropriate file to install the dongle driver.
It is located on the SPAC CD in the directory \dongle.
The dongle driver is the same for parallel and for USB dongle.
Drivers:
hldrv16.exe Driver for Windows 3.1

NOTICE

hldrv32.exe Driver for Windows 95/98, Win2000, Win ME, Win


NT and Win XP.
You need system administrator rights for Win NT and WinXP

Display the directory \dongle of the CD drive with your file


manager. Double click on the appropriate driver file to execute the
dongle driver software installation program given in the Readme
file.
Example: Double click on D:\dongle\hldrv32.exe to start the
Hardlock device driver installation program Hldrv32.exe for
WinXP.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

19

Figure 1

Hardlock Device Driver Installation Program (Example)

To unlock the SPAC applications first install the device driver as


described above before you connect the dongle.

NOTICE

2.2.2

It is not necessary to change the SYSTEM.INI. The driver will be


loaded automatically.

Connection of the dongle:

Connect the dongle to the parallel port or the USB port of the
PC.

If the dongle is not connected to the PC or the driver is not


installed an error message occurs when starting the SPAC
software.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

20

Operation

3.1

Getting Started
Start SPAC by double clicking on SPAC.EXE in the File
Manager, or on the icon in the Program Manager.
The following message appears:

Figure 2

About SPAC

Click on OK and then start your planning session.


The Read Channel List menu opens to select a channel list.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

21

Figure 3

Read Channel List

The following channel lists are available:

Channel List

Downstream/
Upstream

Note

BK2000

Downstream

Channel allocation of BK Upgrade for KDG Germany

BK256QAM

Downstream

40 256QAM channels

CENELEC

Downstream

Test channel allocation of 42 TV carriers defined by


CENELEC standardization group

EUROPE

Downstream

Test channel allocation applicable to European cable


operators

NTSC77

Downstream

Test channel allocation of 77 TV carriers and 30 FM


carriers defined by the NTSC standardization group

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

22

Channel List

Downstream/
Upstream

Note

NTSC110

Downstream

Test channel allocation of 110 TV carriers and 30 FM


carriers defined by the NTSC standardization group

NTSC129

Downstream

Test channel allocation of 129 TV carriers applicable to US


cable operators

U04X16QM

Upstream

4 16QAM channels, 1 FSK (LES / SET Top Box)

U04XQPSK

Upstream

4 QPSK channels, 1 FSK (LES / SET Top Box)

U08X16QM

Upstream

8 16QAM channels, 1 FSK (LES / SET Top Box)

U08XQPSK

Upstream

8 QPSK channels, 1 FSK (LES / SET Top Box)

U16X16QM

Upstream

16 16QAM channels, 1 FSK (LES / SET Top Box)

U16XQPSK

Upstream

16 QPSK channels, 1 FSK (LES / SET Top Box)

U20X16Q2

Upstream

20 16QAM channels, DVB Cable Modem System (2MHz


bandwidth), 1 FSK (LES / SET Top Box)

U20X64Q2

Upstream

20 64QAM channels, DVB Cable Modem System (2MHz


bandwidth), 2 FSK (LES, SET Top Box)

U32X16QM

Upstream

32 16QAM channels, 1 FSK (LES / SET Top Box)

U40X16Q2

Upstream

40 16QAM channels, DVB Cable Modem System (2MHz


bandwidth), 2 FSK (LES, SET Top Box)

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

23

Channel List

Downstream/
Upstream

U40X64Q2

Upstream

Note

40 64QAM channels, DVB Cable Modem System (2MHz


bandwidth), 2 FSK (LES, SET Top Box)

Table 1

Read Channel List Items

Select an item from the channel list and click on OK.

NOTICE

SPAC remembers the channel list of a previous session. If you


open SPAC for the next session, the main screen opens
immediately.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

24

The main screen of SPAC opens.

Figure 4

Main Window of SPAC

The SPAC window has a menu bar and tool bar at the top and a
status bar at the bottom.
To create or load several schematics into the main window, open
the File menu via the menu bar and select New or Open.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

25

3.2

New Schematic
To create a new schematic, open the File menu in the menu bar
and select New. The following window appears:

Figure 5

NOTICE

Creation of a New Schematic

The Schematic window contains a title window to enter


comments concerning a calculation. The Schematic window also
displays the modules representing the components (optical
transmitters, amplifiers, etc.) selected for the calculation.
Commands concerning a schematic can be executed via the File
Menu. Use the Add menu to add modules to the schematic. Use
the Edit menu to change modules.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

26

A CATV system typically has modules in the following order:


-

Coaxial (cascaded) Amplifiers (AMP) which may be Equalizer


Preamplifiers (EPA), Load Controlled Amplifiers (LCA) or any
other coaxial amplifiers, an optical transmitter (OTX), a mixture
of (i.e. cascaded optical amplifiers and fiber line)

optical loss which may be a fiber line, a splitter, a


combination of both or a tap

an optical analog amplifier (OAA)

optical loss which may be a fiber line, a splitter or


both

an optical receiver (ORX), coaxial loss related to the access


network or line extenders.

Select the modules in the order in which the system is to be


planned.

3.3

Existing Schematic
To load an existing schematic in the library, open the File menu
in the menu bar and select Open.

Figure 7

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

Load an existing Schematic

27

Main Window of SPAC

4.1

Overview
A calculation is always carried out for a specific service which can
be selected via the Channels Menu. A calculation is
automatically performed by the SPAC after changing module data,
changing the active library or selecting the command Calculate!.
CSO, CTB and MER calculation is only possible when the IM
simulator is activated.
Readonly libraries or individual modules can be created in user
libraries to carry out calculations.
When a new schematic is opened, SPAC automatically loads the
default source module. The default source module determines the
actual library. Change the default source by saving a source
module to the SPAC directory. Also refer to Edit Source.
To carry out a subjective picture quality assessment, run the
SPQA tool by selecting SPQA! from the main menu.
The Options menu enables switching to Expert mode and
executing other functions.
For more information, refer to:
-

Working with Libraries

Modifying Modules

Creating User Libraries

Using the IM Simulator

Subjective Picture Quality Assessment

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

28

4.2

Tool Bar
The tool bar at the top of the SPAC window provides some
commands from the File, Add and Edit menus:

File: New.

File: Open.

File: Save As.

File: Print Overview.

A list box for displaying and selecting the


active library.

CNRBw:

4.00 MHz

A text field for displaying either the


bandwidth to which all CNR values are
related to or a warning if the calculated
data is not updated.

Cut Module.

Add: ORX (Optical Receiver).

Add: OAA (Optical Analog Amplifier).

Add: OTX (Optical Transmitter).

Add: AMP (Electrical Signal


Amplifier).

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

29

Add: LCA (Load Controlled Amplifier,


electrical).

Add: OptLoss (Splitter or Fiber).

Add: OptInsert

Add: CoaxLoss (Coaxial Line).

Add: Combiner

Add: RCNoise

Add: Modul list

Table 2

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

Tool Bar

30

4.3

Menu Bar

4.3.1

File
The system to be simulated is entered as a schematic. Several
schematics can be displayed at a time. The File menu includes the
following commands with which to manipulate the schematics:

New

Starts a new schematic.

Open...

Loads a schematic from disk.

Title...

Activates the title window of the active schematic. If a mouse is


connected, simply click in the title window. This window can be
used to enter comments which are subsequently printed out when
printing the calculated schematic.

Library...

Selects a library with a channel allocation. If a mouse is


connected, simply click on the list box in the tool bar.

Save, Save As...

Saves the active schematic to disk.

Print Overview

Prints out the active schematic as a short overview, corresponding


to the display.

Print Details

Prints the active schematic in detail.

Print Setup...

Configures the printer.

Close

Closes the active schematic.

Exit

Exits the program.

filename.SCM

Loads
the
schematic
last
used
from
filename represents the file name of the schematic.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

disk.

31

4.3.2

Channels

Read Channel List

This command selects a channel list file.

Edit Channel Table

This command calls in the Edit Channel Table dialog.

Service

The services VSB-AM, FM, 256 QAM, 64 QAM, 16 QAM, DQPSK,


QPSK, FSK, PSK are available.

Edit Channel List

This command calls in an editor to edit a channel list file. As


default, the Windows Notepad is called. A different editor can be
used by adding the corresponding entry in the SPAC.INI file in the
windows directory. (First of all, add a [moddy] section and then
add the line editor=myeditor.exe).

Always use last


channel list at
startup

Select this item so that the channel list last used is called in at
startup.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

32

4.3.3

Edit
The Edit menu contains commands that enable modules to be
deleted and to change and view module parameters.

Cut module

Deletes a module from the schematic. This can also be executed


by the key combination <CTRL> + <DEL>.

NOTICE

Edit module

If Expert mode is not active or a library model is being edited, not


all parameters can be changed. Modules which cannot be edited
are indicated by the magnifier cursor. Modules which can be
edited are indicated by the screwdriver cursor.

Edits module data of the selected module. This can also be


activated by double clicking with the left mouse button on the
module or pressing the <Return> key. For detailed information,
refer to Chapter 5.
Each module has a specific editing dialog box. These are listed
below:
-

Source edits the CATV source.

Amplifier edits a coaxial amplifier.

Load Controlled Amplifier edits a load controlled amplifier.

Optical Transmitter edits an optical transmitter.

Optical Amplifier edits an optical amplifier.

Optical Loss edits an optical link (splitter, line or tap).

Coaxial Loss edits an electrical link.

Optical Receiver edits an optical receiver.

Module edits a module with fixed contributions.

Optical Insertion edits an optical insertion module.

Coaxial Combiner edits a coaxial combiner.

RCNoise edits a return channel noise module.

Module list edits a list of two combined modules.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

33

NOTICE

The following command is only available for AMP, LCA, OTX,


OAA and ORX modules.

Show contributation Displays the contribution data of the selected module. The
contribution data can be shown with the menu command, pressing
data
the <Space> key or by clicking on the module with the right mouse
button.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

34

4.3.4

Add
The Add menu can be used to add modules from a library to the
schematic. Figure 8 illustrates a module from the library.

Figure 8

Coaxial Loss Module in a Schematic

OTX ...

Adds an OTX (optical transmitter) from a library to the schematic.


This command is also available as a button in the tool bar.

OAA ...

Adds an OAA (optical amplifier) from a library to the schematic.


This command is also available as a button in the tool bar.

ORX ...

Adds an ORX (optical receiver) from a library to the schematic.


This command is also available as a button in the tool bar.

AMP ...

Adds an AMP (coaxial amplifier) from a library to the schematic.


This command is also available as a button in the tool bar.

LCA ...

Adds an LCA (load controlled amplifier) from a library to the


schematic. This command is also available as a button in the tool
bar.

OptLoss

Adds an optical link or loss into the schematic. This command is


also available as a button in the tool bar.

OptInser

Adds an optical insertion to the schematic. This command is also


available as a button in the tool bar.

CoaxLoss ...

Adds a coaxial link or loss to the schematic. This command is also


available as a button in the tool bar.

Combiner

Adds a coaxial combiner to the schematic. This command is also


available as a button in the tool bar.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

35

Adds a RCNoise (return channel noise) module to the schematic.


This command is also available in the tool bar.

RCNoice
MODULE

Adds a module with contributions which the user can individually


define to the schematic.

ModuleList

Adds a module list which consists of two combined modules.

Create module

Creates a user defined module (only available in Expert mode).


Use the command sequence Create module" Load..." to load
any user defined module from disk.

4.3.5

Calculate!
Calculates the active schematic.

4.3.6

Window
This menu is for titling, cascading, arranging, closing and selecting
the schematic windows.

Title

Displays the open schematics in columns.

Cascade

Displays the open schematics overlapping each other.

Arrange Icons

Places the schematic icons at the bottom left of the main SPAC
window.

Close All

Closes all open schematic files.

<schematic>

Displays the names of the opened schematics.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

36

4.3.7

Info

Displays information concerning SPAC and is symbolized by a


graphical symbol which appears beneath.

4.3.8

Options

Fonts

This option can be used to select the title and module font for the
schematics. The font is also used in the print out.

Schematic

This option can be used to select the number of columns used in


the schematics.

Expert Mode

This option can be used to toggle between Expert mode and


Normal mode.

Bar Sizes

This option can be used to vary the size of the tool bar and status
bar.

Picture

This option can be used to load any bitmap file from the disk to the
background of the SPAC window.

4.3.9

IM Simulator
This menu item can be used to enable and disable the IM
simulator (Intermodulation simulator).

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

37

4.3.10

SPQA!
Select this menu to run the SPQA tool. A subjective picture quality
assessment appears (see Figure ).

Figure 9

SPQA Picture

In order to run the SPQA! simulation, select modulated carriers


from the Edit Channel Table window (see Chapter 6.4).

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

38

4.4

Status Bar
The status bar at the bottom of the SPAC window displays the
selected service, current channel allocation, presence of
modulated AM carriers, a short help text and, if used, the version
of the selected readonly library (see Figure ).

Figure 10

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

Statusbar

39

Edit Module Dialog Boxes


To edit module data, click twice on a selected module or carry out
the following steps to call in the module dialog boxes described in
the following chapters:

5.1

Select the module in a schematic to be edited.

Select Edit Module from the SPAC Edit menu. The


corresponding dialog box opens.

Source

Figure 11

Edit Source Dialog Box

The Source module represents the upstream or downstream


source of the CATV.
SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

40

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the SOURCE
module from or to the disk respectively. Use OK to terminate
editing. Use the Cancel button to terminate editing without
affecting any changes to the module. The default values for the
source are changed if the module is saved in the SPAC directory.
The SOURCE module is specified with the following parameters.
None of the parameters are servicerelated, meaning they are
related to the nonlowered carrier level.
source name

The name of the source can be freely defined.

contributions

The CNR, CSO and CTB of the source.

output level

The output level of the source.

equivalent channels

The equivalent channel number of the source. This parameter is


completed during simulation and cannot be edited.

rules

This function determines how SPAC adds IM contributions of the


cascaded modules. The value can only be changed in Expert
mode if no library has been selected.

CNR bandwidth

The bandwidth to which all CNR values in the schematic are


related to.

Service bandwidth

The service or channel bandwidth.


The IM" button opens the dialog box Parameter for IM simulation
(refer to Figure 26).

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

41

Simulation behavior

5.2

This module defines the CSO CTB and CNR of the CATV signal at
the beginning of the transmission system. It also defines the
channel number when no IM simulator is active.

Amplifier

Figure 12

Amplifier Dialog Box

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the coaxial
amplifier module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK to
terminate editing. Use the Cancel button to terminate editing
without affecting any changes to the module. The AMP module is
SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

42

specified with the parameters listed below, which can only be


changed in Expert mode when no library is active. None of the
parameters are servicerelated, meaning they are related to the
nonlowered carrier level.
amp name

The name of the amplifier can be freely defined.

noise figure

Indicates the noise figure dependency on the optical input power.

preemphasis

The preemphasis in dB for the frequency span from 47 to 862


MHz.
The IM" button opens the dialog box Parameter for IM simulation
(refer to Figure 26).

contributions

Indicates the CSO and CTB contributions in dB at a reference


output level. These values are the maximum values in the
frequency range of the selected service. Ensure that CSO or CTB
beats are present between the band limits when changing these
values in order to prevent undefined behavior of the simulation
model.

saturation effects

Indicates the saturation effects 2nd and 3rd order.

Simulation behavior

The module calculates its CSO, CTB and CNR contributions


dependent on the input signal and channel allocation.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

43

5.3

Load Controlled Amplifier (LCA)

Figure 13

LCA Dialog Box

The Load Controlled Amplifier keeps the total modulation index of


the following optical transmitter constant when changing the input
power or the equivalent channel number. This is achieved by
controlling the total load.
Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the LCA
module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK to terminate editing.
Use the Cancel button to terminate editing without affecting any
changes to the module.
The LCA module is specified with the parameters listed below,
which can only be changed in Expert mode when no library is
active. When editing a library model, only the total load can be
changed. None of the parameters are servicerelated, meaning
they are related to the nonlowered carrier level.
SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

44

LCA name

The name of the Load Controlled Amplifier can be freely defined.

output

The electrical output of the LCA. The output can be changed


indirectly by adjusting the total load. This value can be fine tuned
by pressing the <Shift> key.

total mod. index

The total modulation index is determined by the following OTX.

noise figure

The noise figure of the LCA.

gain

Indicates the maximum gain of the LCA if the max. gain is


reached. The SPAC issues a warning to the user and calculates
the output level with the max. gain.

contributions

Indicates the CSO and CTB contributions in dB at a reference


output level. These values are the maximum values in the
frequency range of the selected service. Ensure that the CSO or
CTB beats are present between these band limits when changing
these values in order to prevent undefined behavior of the
simulation model.

Simulation behavior

The module calculates its CSO, CTB and CNR contributions


dependent on the input signal and channel allocation. The output
level is dependent on the total channel load.
The IM" button opens the dialog box Parameter for IM simulation
(refer to Figure 26).

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

45

5.4

Optical Transmitter (OTX)

Figure 14

Optical Transmitter Dialog Box

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the OTX
module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK button to terminate
editing. Use the Cancel button to terminate editing without
affecting any changes. The OTX module is specified with the
parameters listed below, which can only be changed in Expert
mode when no library is active. None of the parameters are
servicerelated, meaning they are related to the nonlowered
carrier level.
otx name

The name of the Optical Transmitter can be freely defined.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

46

mod. index

Indicates the channel modulation index of the laser. This index is


also calculated by the SPAC from the input level for the OTX and
a multiplication factor. Changing the channel modulation index, in
fact, changes the multiplication factor. This value can be fine
tuned by pressing the <Shift> key.

needs LCA

This check box determines a mandatory LCA located in front.

total modulation

The OTX is defined by its maximum total modulation index for


laser clipping; the total modulation index is calculated from the
equivalent channel number and the channel modulation index.
There are two limit values: limit1 is used at channel numbers >16,
limit 2 below or equal to 16 channels. This is due to different
calculation methods at high and low channel numbers. If one of
the limit values is set to 0, the other limit with the corresponding
calculation method is always used.

output

The module output is defined by its optical wavelength and output


power. Some OTX types have adjustable output power. It can be
specified if there is an isolator or not. If an isolator is missing there
will be additional bit errors due to impulse noise. The Fiber Length
Compensation is available for some OTX types. The OTX may be
optimised with this value to compensate fiber distortion effects.

laser

Indicates the Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) of the laser. The chirp
parameter describes the chirp characteristic of the optical
transmitter.

input attenuator

The input attenuator adds a variable or fix loss to the electrical


input.

clipping

Indicates the clipping value kclip. SPAC uses a clipping value for
a better precised calculation of the MER degradation.

contributions

Indicates the CNRO and CTB contributions at a reference channel


modulation index. These values are the maximum values in the
frequency range of the selected service. Ensure that the CSO or
CTB beats are present between these band limits when changing
these values in order to prevent undefined behavior of the
simulation model.
The Int" button opens the dialog box for internal OTX parameters.
The IM" button opens the dialog box Parameter for IM simulation
(refer to Figure 26).
The LHS" button opens the dialog box Parameter for long haul
simulation.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

47

Simulation behavior

5.5

The module calculates its CSO, CTB and CNR contributions


dependent on the input signal and channel allocation.

Optical Amplifier

Figure 15

Optical Amplifier Dialog Box

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the OAA
module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK to terminate editing.
Use the Cancel button to terminate editing without affecting any
changes. The OAA module is defined by the parameters listed
below, which can only be changed in Expert mode when no library
is active. None of the parameters are servicerelated, meaning
they are related to the nonlowered carrier level.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

48

oaa name

The name of the Optical Analog Amplifier can be freely defined.

output level

Indicates the optical output level. This is adjustable for some OAA
types.

input level

Indicates the minimum input level (for valid module parameters).

noise figure

Indicates the noise figure dependency on the optical input power.

optical window

Indicates the optical window in which the simulation model is valid.

contributions

Indicates the CSO and CTB contributions at a reference channel


modulation index. These values are the maximum values in the
frequency range of the selected service. Ensure that the CSO or
CTB beats are present between these band limits when changing
the values in order to prevent undefined behavior of the simulation
model.
The IM" button opens the dialog box Parameter for IM simulation
(refer to Figure 26).

Simulation behavior

The module calculates its CSO, CTB and CNR contributions


dependent on the input signal and channel allocation.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

49

5.6

Optical loss

Figure 16

Optical Loss Dialog Box

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the OptLoss
module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK to terminates
editing. Use the Cancel button to terminate editing without
affecting any changes. The OptLoss module is defined by the
following parameters:

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

50

optloss name

The name of your Optical Loss can be freely defined.

optloss type

Selcts the type of the optloss module. Possible types are tap, Xsplitter (OSCM) or a regular splitter (OSC/ODF). The last one may
be combined with a connected fiber of configurable length. For a
pure fiber without any splitter choose the splitter value 1:1.

fiber

Indicates the fiber length in km and the fiber attenuation in db/km.

splitter

Select a splitter: 1:1 for none, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32. These
splitters have predefined attenuations. To use other values, define
them with add.loss.

connector

Indicates the number of connectors and the connector attenuation.

add.loss

Indicates the additional loss in dB.

order

Indicates the position of the fiber. This is relevant for SBS.

tap attenuation

Selects a tap type: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or 12 dB attenuation. These


taps have predefined attenuations. To use other values, define
them with add.loss.

tap output

Selects the used output of the tap: tap output or insertion output.
This influences the tap attenuation of the optical line.
The SPM" button opens the dialog box Parameters for SPM
simulation.

Simulation behavior

This module reduces the optical power level by its insertion loss.
Long fiber effects are calculated from the input signal, fiber
characteristics, some OTX parameters, frequency range and
previous fiber lengths.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

51

5.7

Coaxial Loss

Figure 17

Coaxial Loss Dialog Box

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the CoaxLoss
module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK to terminate editing.
Use the Cancel button to terminate editing without affecting any
changes. The module is defined by its attenuation in dB.
coaxial name

The name of the Coaxial Loss (coaxial access network) can be


freely defined.

splitter

Select a coax splitter: 1:1 for none, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8. These splitters
have predefined attenuations. To use other values, define them
with additional loss.

additional loss

Indicates an attenuation which is added to the splitter attenuation.

total coax loss

Indicates the total attenuation of the module.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

52

Simulation behavior

5.8

This module simply inserts attenuation.

Optical Receiver (ORX)

Figure 18

Optical Receiver Dialog Box

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the ORX
module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK to terminate editing.
Use the Cancel button to terminate editing without affecting any
changes. The ORX module is defined by the parameters listed
below, which can only be changed in Expert mode when no library
is active. When editing a library model, only the output level can
SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

53

be changed. None of the parameters are servicerelated, meaning


they are related to the nonlowered carrier level. The CSO/CTB
reference values, however, are the maximum values in the
frequency range of the selected service. Ensure that the CSO or
CTB beats are present between these band limits when changing
these values in order to prevent undefined behavior of the
simulation model.
orx name

The name of the Optical Receiver can be freely defined.

amp section

This field describes the amplifier section of the ORX.

output level

Indicates the electrical output level in dBmV at 862 MHz.

pilot/cw controlled

The Pilot Controlled checkbox indicates that the output level is


always constant. The cw controlled checkbox indicates that the
output level is independent of the optical input level. If the ORX is
neither pilot nor cw controlled, the output is dependent on the
channel modulation index and the optical input power. If the ORX
is not pilot controlled the output power can be changed indirectly
by adjusting the gain of the amp section.

preemphasis

Indicates the pre-emphasis for the frequency span from 47 .... 862
MHz in dB.

CSO

Indicates the CSO contribution of the amplifier section at the


reference output level.

CTB

Indicates the CTB contribution of the amplifier section at the


reference output level.

ref.

Indicates the reference output level for the CSO and CTB
contributions.

limit

Indicates the maximum output level of the ORX.


o/e section
This section describes the optical/electrical conversion of the
ORX.

CSO

Indicates the CSO contribution of the o/e section at the reference


channel modulation index and reference input power.

CTB

Indicates the CTB contribution of the o/e section at the reference


channel modulation index and reference input power.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

54

at

Indicates the reference channel modulation index for the CSO and
CTB contributions.

limit and ref.

Indicates the maximum input level and reference input power for
the CSO and CTB contributions.

eff. noise current

Indicates the dependency of the effective noise current on the


optical input power.

eff.res./at

Indicates the effective responses in two optical windows.


The "IM" button opens the dialog box Parameter for IM simulation
(refer to Figure 26).

Simulation behavior

The module calculates its CSO, CTB and CNR contributions


dependent on the input signal and channel allocation.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

55

5.9

Module

Figure 19

Module Dialog Box

Enter a MODULE in the Module dialog box to add a module with


fixed contributions and a fixed output level. Use the Load and
Save buttons to load or save the module from or to disk,
respectively. Use OK to terminate editing. Use the Cancel
button to terminate editing without affecting any changes. The
MODULE is specified with the following parameters. None of the
parameters are servicerelated, meaning they are related to the
nonlowered carrier level.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

56

module name

The name of the MODULE" (fixed additional contribution) can be


freely defined.

contributions

Indicates the CNR, CSO and CTB as fixed contributions. These


values are the maximum values in the frequency range of the
selected service.

output level

Indicates the output level as an electrical value in dBmV when


using MODULE with an electrical input signal, and as an optical
value in dBm when using MODULE with an optical input signal.

channel bandwidth

Indicates the equivalent noise bandwidth to which the CNR


contribution is related.
The IM" button opens the dialog box Parameter for IM simulation
(refer to Figure 26).

Simulation behavior

Fixed contributions for CSO, CTB and CNR are added.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

57

5.10

Optical Insertion

Figure 20

Optical Insertion Dialog Box

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the Optical
Insertion module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK to
terminate editing. Use the Cancel button to terminate editing
without affecting any changes. None of the parameters are
servicerelated, meaning they are related to the nonlowered
carrier level.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

58

optical name

The name of the optical insertion can be freely defined.

input insertion path

The input insertion path is defined by its input level, input CNR and
insertion loss.

modulation index
insertion path

It is possible to define whether the modulation index should be


automatically adjusted for equal carrier levels of main and
insertion paths at the output, or freely defined.

insertion loss main


path

It is possible to define whether the insertion loss of the main path


should be automatically adjusted complementary to the insertion
path, or freely defined.

Simulation behavior

This module is for the insertion of a second optical signal path.


Only CNR is considered. The new modulation index at the output
is calculated.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

59

5.11

Coaxial Combiner

Figure 21

Coaxial Combiner Dialog Box

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save the Combiner
module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK to terminate editing.
Use the Cancel to terminate editing without affecting any
changes. The module is defined by its concentration factor. The
corresponding insertion loss is displayed.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

60

combiner name

The name of the Coaxial Loss (coaxial access network) can be


freely defined.

concentration factor This can be changed in steps of 2n.


min. insertion loss

This value indicates the insertion loss of the combiner itself. It may
be different from the modules attenuation in automatic attenuation
mode.

no input loss

Indicates a combiner with no insertion loss.

multiply carrier

The number of carriers (channels) is multiplied by the number of


inputs.

auto attenuation

The attenuation is adapted to keep the total load constant when


the channel number is changed. (The attenuation cannot be lower
than the minimum insertion loss.)

define eq. Number


(of channels at
output)

In this mode, the number of channels at the output can be


overwritten.

Simulation behavior

The combiner reduces the CNR by 3xn dB at a concentration


factor of 2^n. This is due to addition of several input noise signals.
CSO and CTB are left unchanged.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

61

5.12

Return Channel Noise

Figure 22

Return Channel Noise Dialog Box

Use the Load and Save buttons to load or save your Return
Channel Noise module from or to disk, respectively. Use OK to
terminate editing. Use the Cancel button to terminate editing
without affecting any changes.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

62

RCNoise name

The name of the RCNoise module (coaxial access network) can


be freely defined.

homes passed

Indicates the number of passed homes (coax cell size).

radio background
noise per home

Indicates the parameters that define radio background noise; they


can only be changed in Expert mode.

ingress noise

Changing these parameters is only possible in Expert mode.


Ingress noise is simulated either with a reference network or
measured network. In case of a reference network, ingress noise
is described by means of three parameters. In case of a measured
network, it is defined as a list of interferers. A list of interferers can
be loaded from an ING-file via the "Load" button.

impulse noise
amplitude threshold

This threshold indicates a maximum impulse noise amplitude for a


maximum BER at the output of the last module in the schematic. If
the schematic is not calculated (after changing some module data)
or the maximum BER is lower than the BER after the last module,
the threshold is displayed. The input for a max. BER can only be
entered in Expert mode.

Simulation behavior

The combiner reduces the CNR due to addition of several input


noise signals. CSO and CTB are left unchanged.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

63

5.13

Module list
Module lists handle two combined modules like a single module.
There are three predefined modul lists offered:

an OTX combined with a LCA to represent an OTXE090

a double stage amplifier

a combiner with an amplifier to represent an UCC

Figure 23

Available module lists

A double click on a module list opens a dialog where the two


underlying modules are visible.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

64

Figure 24

Opened module list

The two underlying modules can be treated separately like


explained before, e.g. opened with a click.
A double click in the dark grey area closes the module list and
shows the combined module like before.
A right mouse click in the dark grey area opens a dialog which
allows to save the module list.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

65

Procedures

6.1

Working with Libraries


This is the normal use for SPAC. A library contains simulation
models for optical transmitters, optical receivers, optical amplifiers
and coaxial amplifiers. There are readonly libraries (with the
extension .dll) which are delivered with SPAC, and user libraries
(extension .lib) which can be created by the user. Select a library
by using the list box in the tool bar. If a library is selected in the
tool bar (user or readonly, refer to Section 4.2), no editing of
module data is possible (except SOURCE, OptLoss, OptInsert,
CoaxLoss, Combiner, RCNoise and MODULE which cannot have
library models, and the output level of the ORX). A readonly
library is indicated in a schematic by a special icon and the library
name is displayed in the Edit Dialog Box as well as in the print out.
Detailed information concerning the simulation models in the
readonly libraries is available by clicking on the right mouse
button in the title bar of a library model. This information can also
be called in by clicking on the Info button from Load in the Library
dialog box. This dialog box is opened after adding a module from a
readonly library.

6.2

Modifying Modules
Library models can only be modified in Expert mode. The library
must then be disabled by selecting [.] from the library list box in the
tool bar. The module data can then be changed using the Edit
module in the Edit menu.
Expert mode can also be used to create userdefined modules
(refer to Section 4.3.4 ). If a library is selected and SPAC
calculates the schematic, SPAC always tries to use a library model
instead of a user created module. To prevent SPAC from replacing
userdefined models with library models, disable the library by
selecting the sign [.] in the library list box in the tool bar. Replacing
with a library model occurs when the same library names are
used. The library name is the file name given to the library model
when it was saved to disk.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

66

6.3

Creating User Libraries


NOTICE

This function is only available in Expert mode.

To create a user library, create a directory with the extension .lib in


your SPAC directory (e.g. using the with Windows File Manager).
After saving a module in such a directory (refer to Section 5.1), a
model is created in the user library. A default source module must
always be saved in a user library. This default source determines
the regulation parameters of the CATV source when using the
library.

6.4

Edit Channel Table


Select the Edit Channel Table... from the Channels menu to
open the Channel Types window illustrated in the figure below.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

67

Figure 25

Channel Type List

This dialog is used for enabling and disabling single services of


the actual channel table. The back off level of each channel type
can be edited. This concerns the amount which a specific service
level is lowered. The default values are read from the channel list
file.
modulated carriers must be selected in order to run SPQA!
Simulation (refer to Chapter 4.3.10) .
Select the
button of a channel type in the Channel Types
window to open the Edit Channel Table window, illustrated in the
following figure.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

68

Figure 26

Edit Channel Table

This dialog is used to enable or disable single channels of a


service. The sound carriers of TV channels can be enabled or
disabled using the checkbox enable sound carriers. The channel
bandwidth edit field displays the default bandwidth read from the
channel list file for this service. It can be overwritten.
NOTICE

The letters in the channel table depend on the service operator


and country. The letter required can be selected by the user from
the channel list file.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

69

6.5

Channel List File


A channel list file is a file with the extension *.lst. It is used to
define the channel allocation. The channel list file can be edited
with a standard text editor. When the command Edit Channel List
is entered in the Channels Menu, Windows Notepad (or another
editor defined) is opened in which to edit a channel list file. If
Windows 95 is used, the file type *.lst must be registered.
Otherwise, NOTEPAD cannot be used to edit and save new
channellist files.
The channel allocation is defined in the following form:
1. Add a [channels] section into the file. The following are
supported:

[VSBAM] for VSBAM (video) channels

[FM] for FM (audio) channels

[256QAM] for 256QAM channels

[128QAM] for 128QAM channels

[64QAM] for 64QAM channels

[32QAM] for 32QAM channels

[16QAM] for 16 QAM channels

[8QAM] for 8 QAM channels

[DQPSK] for DQPSK channels

[QPSK] for QPSK channels

[FSK] for FSK channels

[PSK] for PSK channels

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

70

Add a line in the following format to add a channel or


carrier:
name =
cf,lr,ds,rs
with
name

name of channel which is displayed in the


Edit Channel Table dialog.

cf

frequency of video carrier in MHz


(frequencies have to be entered in steps
of 50 kHz)

lr

level reduction of video carrier in dB


relative to service backoff

ds

distance of sound carrier to video carrier


in MHz

rs

level reduction of sound carrier in dB


relative to video carrier.

If the last items of a line are omitted, the simulator


assumes the default values. These are 0 dB for level
reductions and no sound carrier.
2. Add a [REF] section.
In order to define a level backoff for each service (e.g.
64 QAM channels are normally reduced by 10 dB
against analog video carriers), add an entry in the
following form:
[REF]
FM=4
64QAM=10

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

71

NOTICE

It is important to set the references to proper values, because


the simulated CNR, CSO, CTB, MER and BER are always
related to the level backoff of the selected service !

3. To specify other channel bandwidths as the integrated default


values, add a [BANDWIDTHS] section containing entries for each
service bandwidth. The example below illustrates this:
[BANDWIDTHS]
VSBAM=4e6
The default values relate to VSBAM 5 MHz, FM 150
kHz, 16QAM 3,2 MHz, 64QAM 8 MHz, DQPSK 2,25
MHz, QPSK 3,2 MHz, FSK and PSK 300 kHz
Sample with 2 TV channels ( K2 and K4) but no level
reduction, sound carrier at 5.5 MHz above with 13 dB
level reduction, FM channels with 4 dB level reduction,
QAM channels with 10 dB level reduction.
4. Sample channel list file
Sample with 2 TV channels ( K2 and K4) with no level
reduction, sound carrier at 5.5 MHz above with 13 dB
level reduction, FM channels with 4 dB level reduction,
QAM channels with 10 dB level reduction.
[REF]
FM=4
64QAM=10
[VSB-AM]
K2=48.25,0,5.5,13
K4=62.25,0,5.5,13
.
.
[FM]
U1=87.55
U2=87.85
.
.
[64QAM]
K38=610.00
K39=618.00

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

72

IM Simulator

7.1

Using the IM Simulator


After activating the IM simulator in the IM Simulator menu, the
CSO, CTB and MER contributions are calculated and displayed in
the schematic.
The simulator is initialized when the SPAC is started up. The
simulator requests a channel allocation through the Read Channel
List dialog. After selecting a channel list, the simulator completes
its initialization. For an automatic initialization at startup with the
last used channel list file, select Always use last channel list at
startup from the Channels Menu. The following icon appears for
the IM Simulator:

Figure 27

IM Simulator Icon

The IM spectrum at the output of the last module is displayed in


the IM simulator window (to display the simulator window press
<Alt>+<TAB> or use the IM Simulator menu in the main menu of
SPAC). To show the contributions of a single module, simply
select the IM button in the modules edit dialog.
Use the vertical and horizontal scroll bars in the simulator window
to scroll through it. To scroll vertically, use the <PageUp> and
<PageDown> keys. No scrolling is possible when the spectrum is
displayed at full scale.
Information on the current marker position is displayed below the
simulator window:
CSO/CTB

Indicates the CSO or CTB at the marker position.

TOT

Indicates the sum of the CSO and CTB at the marker position.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

73

CSO count/CTB
count

Indicates the number of equivalent CSO or CTB beats at the


marker position.
To change the marker position, enter a frequency in the edit
control, click on the scroll bar below the edit control or simply use
the <left> and <right> arrow keys. If the marker position is in the
frequency range displayed, the marker is displayed in the
spectrum.

Figure 28

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

IM Simulator Window

74

7.2

IM Calculating Options
The Calculating Options dialog box can be used to change the
band limits and upper calculation limit. Select the Calculate...
menu in the IM Simulator window. The following window opens.

Figure 29

NOTICE

Calculating Option IM Button

The simulator determines the band limits from the first and last
channel defined in the channel list file (not the channel table)
related to the selected service.

The band limits are used to find the maximum CSO and CTB
values which are written back to the SPAC schematic.
The upper calculation limit is the frequency value up to which the
calculation is performed. The value can be reduced to minimize
simulation time. This value cannot be set to a value lower than the
upper band limit.
If enable monitoring is selected, a frequency can be entered at
which the generation of beats is monitored in the console (the

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

75

frequencies of the carriers which generate a beat at this frequency


are displayed).

7.3

Calculation Test
To start the calculation test and edit parameters for IM Simulation,
select the Test... menu in the IM Simulation window.

Figure 30

Calculation Test

This dialog is simply for testing the IM simulator. A normalized


spectrum is displayed with an offset and slope specified by the
values defined by Offset and Slope. By clicking the Add
button, several contributions can be added using the addition rules
defined by Add.law.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

76

7.4

IM Print Options

Figure 31

IM Print Options

The Print Options dialog can be used to print out either the
channel table or the IM spectrum. It is also possible to enter a
comment as a header for the spectrum printout and the page
number.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

77

Menu Control in IM Simulator

8.1

x Scaling
This menu item is used to change the scaling factor of the
frequency axis. Scaling can also be modified by using the <+> and
<-> keys in the numeric block of the keyboard.

8.2

y Scaling
This menu item is used to change the scaling factor of the yaxis.

8.3

Display

Carriers

Select this item to display the carriers.

Total

Select this item to display the total IM contributions.

CSO

Select this item to display the CSO.

CTB

Select this item to display the CTB.

SPM

Select this item to display the SPM.

CSO peak

Select this item to change the marker position to the maximum


CSO value.

CTB peak

Select this item to change the marker position to the maximum


CTB value.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

78

8.4

Calculate
This command opens the Calculating Options dialog box.

8.5

Test
This command opens the Calculation Test dialog box.

8.6

Print
This command opens the Print Options dialog box.

Console for Monitoring


The Console Program is part of the IM simulator. After selecting
the option enable monitoring in the Calculating Options dialog
box (refer to Chapter 7.2), the generation of beats is monitored
here. The Console menu control is illustrated in the figure below.

Figure 32

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

Console Menu Control

79

9.1

Clear
Clears the monitoring point from the buffer.

9.2

Buffer
Select between two options:

No limits

The number of entries is limited to 20,000.

Limited

The last 20 entries are listed.

9.3

Position
Select the position of the console (always on top or not).

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

80

10

Appendix

10.1

Create a Sample Schematic


-

Create a new schematic with the command New in the File


menu. See chapter 3.2.

1. Set the desired channel list and the correct service which shall
be calculated.
2. Select the modules in the order in which the system is to be
planned.
3. Edit the modules and enter the values of each module in the
corresponding dialog box (see Chapter 5). Changements in
optloss and coaxloss modules force a calculation start
immediately. Dont worry if the calculation aborts because of
missing channel definition, this is done within the next steps.

A sample of a CATV distribution system with an active library is


provided below.
Note the text in the tool bar: DATA NOT VALID!

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

81

Figure 33

Sample CATV Distribution System Without Calculated CSO and CTB Values

4. Select the command IM Simulator enabled from the menu IM


Simulator.
5. Select the Edit Channel Table... from the Channels menu to
open the Channel Types window.
6. Select the
button of a channel type in the Channel Types
window to open the Edit Channel Table window. The Edit
Channel List appears.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

82

Figure 34

Edit Channel List

7. Enable or disable the channels and sound carriers and click OK.
The calculation options are performed.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

83

Figure 35

Schematic With Calculated Contributions

8. Change to the main SPAC program and click on Calculate.


The CSO and CTB values appear in the schematic.
9. Press the <Alt>+<TAB> keys to open the IM Simulator
window. The spectrum complies to the last module or the
schematic.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

84

The following figure illustrates the spectrum with the complete


intermodulation product.

Figure 36

Simulated Sample Spectrum

There are several representations of the calculated spectrum to


select from.
It is possible to zoom, select the CSO, CTB, sum of
intermodulations or any combination of them.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

85

10.2

Warnings and Error Messages

Channel Table

No service defined! Calculation is aborted


An empty or invalid channel list file has been loaded or all the
services have been disabled. At least one service must be
enabled.

Data not valid

Schematic has to be calculated !


Only calculated schematics can be saved or printed.

IM Simulator
[filename]

TOO MUCH CHANNELS DEFINED IN LISTFILE! only 250


channels are used.
A maximum of 250 channels can be used per service and 500
carriers in total. Carriers above this limit are ignored.

Interferer List Error

too much interferers defined ! only 255 interferers are used


A maximum of 255 interferers can be defined in the ingress list file.
Entries exceeding this number are ignored.

Interferer List Error

too much or too long interferer names in ing-file!


Reduce the interferer names or the number of interferers.

Load data

invalid data file


This message appears when loading an incompatible data file.

Load data

no such module in library


Corrupt library.

Load library

library not found or invalid data


Corrupt library.

LCA (# nn)

GAIN LIMIT REACHED


The LCA is at its gain limit.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

86

OAA (# nn)

INPUT LEVEL TOO LOW !


The input level is too low for the OAA. The calculation is aborted.

OptLoss (# nn)

Input level exceeds Brillouin threshold!


Calculation is aborted
The input level in the fiber is too high. The calculation is aborted.

ORX (# nn)

INPUT OVERLOAD ! Calculation is aborted


The input level is too high for the ORX. The calculation is aborted.

ORX (# nn)

OUTPUT LEVEL TOO HIGH ! Calculation is aborted


The output level is too high. The calculation is aborted.

OTX (# nn)

CLIPPING ! Calculation is aborted


The OTX is within its clipping region. The calculation is aborted.

OTX (# nn)

This OTX can not be used without LCA in front !


Calculation is aborted
An LCA must be used in front of this module.

Out of band limits !

Actual library supports channels between ... and ... MHz, the
calculation is aborted
This happens when the band limits of a read-only library are
exceeded. In this case, disable the highest and/or lowest channels
in the channel table or change the frequencies in the channel list
file.

Subjective Picture
Quality Assessment

IM Simulator not enabled !


Only start the SPQA tool within SPAC when the IM Simulator is
enabled.

Subjective Picture
Quality Assessment

This service has no analog video !


Only start the SPQA tool within SPAC when the selected service
has analog video channels.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

87

Subjective Picture
Quality Assessment

Video carriers are not modulated !


Only start the SPQA tool within SPAC when the analog video
channels of the selected service are modulated.

Unsupported Color
Resolution

Please change your display properties to TrueColor


resolution (at least 24 bit or 16,777,216 colors)
This message appears when an attempt is made to use the SPQA
tool at low color resolutions. Only TrueColor with 24 or 32 bit are
supported. For details, please refer to your WINDOWS manual.

Warning !

Module data will be overwritten with library data


This warning appears when selecting a library after deselecting a
library whereby the SPAC tries to replace the user defined
modules with library models. Select Cancel to abort or OK to
accept.

... (# nn)

INPUT SIGNAL OUT OF OPTICAL WINDOW


The input signal has the wrong optical wavelength for this module.
Select Cancel to abort the calculation.

... (# nn)

NO LIBRARY MODEL
This message appears after selecting a library and the schematic
contains a module that the SPAC cannot replace by a library
model.

... (# nn)

Module contains incompatible data!


Create new library model or use actual library
This message appears when using a module created with an older
SPAC version. Create a new model or save the schematic to disk
after updating it with the latest read-only library.

... (# nn)

Module can not be used at this position ! Calculation is


aborted
This message indicates a misplaced module, that is when using
modules with optical inputs after modules with electrical outputs or
modules with electrical inputs after modules with optical outputs.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

88

... (# nn)

NO CHANNELS DEFINED !
Calculation is aborted
At least one channel must be defined, otherwise the calculation is
aborted.

... (# nn)

Subjective Picture Quality Assessment not possible with this


module at last position !
The SPQA tool cannot be started with this module at the last
position. Delete this module from the current schematic.

......

NO DEFAULT SOURCE FOUND


This message appears when the user library or SPAC directory
contains no *.src file. Save a Source module in this directory.

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

89

10.3

List of Abbreviations
A

AMP

Amplifier, coaxial

AM

Amplitude Modulation

BER

Bit Error Rate

CATV

Community Antenna for Television

CENELEC

Comit Europen de Normalisation


Electrotechnique

CNR , C/N

Carrier to Noise Ratio

CRX

Compact BONT

CSO

Composite Second Order

CTB

Composite Triple Beat

CW

Continous Wave

ENC

Effective Noise Current

EPA

Equalizer Preamplifier

EPA800

Equalizer Preamplifier (800 MHz)

FM

Frequency Modulation

FSK

Frequency Shift Keying

HFC

Hybrid Fiber Coax

IM

Intermodulation

LCA

Load Controlled Amplifier

LHS

Long Haul Simulation

MER

Modulation Error Ratio

MS-DOS

Microsoft Disc Operating System

OAA

Optical Analog Amplifier

OAH

Optical Analog Amplifier High Power

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

90

OAAS

Optical Analog Amplifier Standard

OTXD

Optical Transmitter Direct Modulated

OTXE

Optical Transmitter External Modulated

PC

Personal Computer

PM

Phase Modulation

PSK

Phase Shift Keying

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

RCN

Return Channel Noise

RF

Radio Frequency

RIN

Relative Intensity Noise

RBS

Rayleigh Back-Scattering

SBS

Stimulated Brilloin Backscattering

SPAC

System Performance Analysis for CATV


System

SPQA

Subjective Picture Quality Assessment

SQR

Square Root

TV

Television

VGA

Video Graphics Adapter

VSB

Vestigial Side Band

SPAC Operating Instructions - Edition 8 May 2004

91