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# S.

## Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines (May-2012, Set-1) JNTU-Kakinada

Code No: R21021/R10
II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations

May - 2012

Set-1

Solutions

## ( Common to EEE, ME, MM )

Time: 3 Hours

Max. Marks: 75
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
---

1.

(a)

Two large vertical plane parallel surfaces are 5 mm apart and the space between them is filled with a fluid. A thin
plate of 12.5 cm square falls freely between the planes along the central plane and reaches a steady velocity of
2 m/s. Determine the weight of the plate if the viscosity of the fluid filling the space is 0.02 Ns/m2.

## (Unit-I, Topic No. 1.1.2)

(b)

If 5.27 cm3 of a certain oil weighs 4482 kg, calculate the specific weight, mass density and specific gravity of the oil.

## (Unit-I, Topic No. 1.1.1)

2.

3.

(a)

Define and distinguish between streamline, path line and streak line. (Unit-II, Topic No. 2.1.1)

(b)

State and derive Bernoullis theorem, mentioning clearly the assumption underlying it. (Unit-II, Topic No. 2.2.1)

(a)

An oil of specific gravity 0.7 is flowing through a pipe of diameter 300 mm at the rate of 500 liters/s. Find the
head lost due to friction and power required to maintain the flow for a length of 1000 m. Take v = 0.29 stokes.

## (Unit-III, Topic No. 3.2)

(b)

What do you understand by the terms: major energy loss and minor energy losses in pipes?

## (Unit-III, Topic No. 3.2)

4.

(a)

Obtain an expression for the force exerted by a jet of water on a fixed vertical plate in the direction of the jet.

## (Unit-IV, Topic No. 4.1)

5.

6.

7.

8.

(b)

A blade turns the jet of diameter 3 cm at a velocity of 20 m/s by 60. Determine the force exerted by the blade on
the fluid. (Unit-IV, Topic No. 4.1)

(a)

What are the different types of hydropower plant? Describe each one briefly. (Unit-V, Topic No. 5.2)

(b)

Explain briefly how can be the power available for hydel project be estimated. (Unit-V, Topic No. 5.4)

(a)

Explain briefly the principles on which a Kaplan turbine works. (Unit-VI, Topic No. 6.3)

(b)

Explain the different types of the efficiency of a turbine. (Unit-VI, Topic No. 6.3)

(a)

What is the basis of selection of a turbine at a particular place? (Unit-VII, Topic No. 7.4)

(b)

What are unit quantities? Define the unit quantities for turbine. (Unit-VII, Topic No. 7.2)

What do you mean by manometric efficiency, mechanical efficiency and overall efficiency of centrifugal pump?

## (Unit-VIII, Topic No. 8.1.2)

WARNING : Xerox/Photocopying of this book is a CRIMINAL act. Anyone found guilty is LIABLE to face LEGAL proceedings.

S.2

Q1.

(a)

## Two large vertical plane parallel surfaces

are 5 mm apart and the space between
them is filled with a fluid. A thin plate
of 12.5 cm square falls freely between
the planes along the central plane and
reaches a steady velocity of 2 m/s.
Determine the weight of the plate if the
viscosity of the fluid filling the space is
0.02 Ns/m2.
May-12, Set-1, Q1(a)

Answer :

At terminal velocity,
Shear force = Weight of the plate,
F = W = 2 (.A)

W = 0.5 N
Hence, Weight of the plate , W = 0.5 N
(b)

Given that,
Velocity of plates, u = 2 m/s
Viscosity between the plates, = 0.02 Ns/m2.
Area of square plates, A = 12.5 cm 12.5 cm
A = 0.125 0.125 m
Vertical
plane

F Square
plate

## If 5.27 cm3 of a certain oil weighs 4482

kg, calculate the specific weight, mass
density and specific gravity of the oil.
May-12, Set-1, Q1(b)

Answer :

## Note: In the given question 5.27 m3 is misprinted as 5.27 cm3

Given that,
Volume of oil, V = 5.27 m3
Weight of oil, w = 4482 kg
Specific weight, W =

5 mm

W =

Weight
Volume

4482
5.27

W = 850.474 kg/m 3
W

Mass density,

Figure
We know that,
Shear stress, = .

## du = Relative velocity between thin plate and

upper large plane surface.
du = 2 0 = 2 m/s
dy = Distance between thin plate and upper
large plane surface.
dy =

5
= 2.5 mm = 0.0025 m
2
(Q Thickness of plate is neglected)

= 0.02

## Specific weight of oil

Specificgravity

850.474
9.81

du
dy

Where,

2
= 16 N/m2
0.0025

= 86.695 kg/m3
Specific gravity,
S=

Density of liquid
Density of water

S=

850.474
= 0.85
1000

S = 0.85

WARNING : Xerox/Photocopying of this book is a CRIMINAL act. Anyone found guilty is LIABLE to face LEGAL proceedings.

S.3

Q2.

(a)

## Define and distinguish between

streamline, path line and streak line.

Answer :

hf =

(b)

## State and derive Bernoullis theorem,

mentioning clearly the assumption
underlying it.

Answer :

(a)

## An oil of specific gravity 0.7 is flowing

through a pipe of diameter 300 mm at
the rate of 500 liters/s. Find the head
lost due to friction and power required
to maintain the flow for a length of 1000
m. Take v = 0.29 stokes.

P=

Given that,

(b)

## Specific gravity of oil, S = 0.7

Diameter of pipe, d = 300 mm = 0.3 m
Length of pipe, L = 1000 m
Q4.

(a)

## Stokes = 0.29 cm2/s = 0.29 104 m2/s

Density of oil, = 0.7 1000 = 700 kg/m3

(b)

(Q =

## Obtain an expression for the force

exerted by a jet of water on a fixed
vertical plate in the direction of the jet.
May-12, Set-1, Q4(a)

0.29 10 4

Coefficient of friction,

0.079
0.079
1/4 =
( 7.317 10 4 )1 / 4
( Re )

Q5.

(a)

= 7.317 104
Re = 7.317 104

## A blade turns the jet of diameter 3 cm

at a velocity of 20 m/s by 60. Determine
the force exerted by the blade on the
fluid.

Answer :

7.074 0.3

f = 0.0048

## What do you understand by the terms:

major energy loss and minor energy
losses in pipes?

= 7.074 m/s

f=

1000

Answer :

0.5
Q
Velocity, V =
=
Area
(0.3) 2
4

kW

V d
Vd
=

1000

Answer :

Re =

g.Q.h f

Answer :

## 4 0.0048 1000 (7.074) 2

0.3 2 9.81

= 163.234 m of water

## For answer refer Unit-II, Q27, Q23, Topic: Assumptions

Made in the Derivation of Bernoullis Equation.
Q3.

4 f L V 2
d 2g

What are the different types of hydropower plant? Describe each one briefly.
May-12, Set-1, Q5(a)

Answer :
For answer refer Unit-V, Q7.
(b)

## Explain briefly how can be the power

available for hydel project be estimated.

Answer :

## For answer refer Unit-V, Q13.

WARNING : Xerox/Photocopying of this book is a CRIMINAL act. Anyone found guilty is LIABLE to face LEGAL proceedings.

S.4
Q6.

(a)

## Explain briefly the principles on which a Kaplan turbine works.

May-12, Set-1, Q6(a)

Answer :

Kaplan turbine is one of the important axial flow reaction turbines. Kaplan turbines are suitable for relatively low
heads and hence it can produce very large amount of power, provided the water quantity should be more.
Working Principle
The principle of this turbine is that during the process of transfer of energy, the water enters the runner in axial
direction, it travels across the passage of the blades axially and leaves the runner axially.
The pressure at the exit of the blade is less than the pressure at the inlet of the blades. Since,the blades of the turbine
is fixed). Thus, the efficiency of a Kaplan turbine is high even at part load.
Under all the working conditions, the flow of the water through the runner blades is without the shock, due to which
the eddy losses are eliminated in case of a Kaplan turbine. The flow in a Kaplan turbine is purely axial flow.
(b)

## Explain the different types of the efficiency of a turbine.

May-12, Set-1, Q6(b)

Answer :
For answer refer Unit-VI, Q26.
Q7.

(a)

## What is the basis of selection of a turbine at a particular place?

May-12, Set-1, Q7(a)

Answer :
For answer refer Unit-VII, Q24, Topic: Selection of Turbines
(b)

What are unit quantities? Define the unit quantities for turbine.

Answer :

## For answer refer Unit-VII, Q6.

Q8.

What do you mean by manometric efficiency, mechanical efficiency and overall efficiency of
centrifugal pump?

Answer :

May-12, Set-1, Q8

## For answer refer Unit-VIII, Q8(i), (ii) and (iii).

WARNING : Xerox/Photocopying of this book is a CRIMINAL act. Anyone found guilty is LIABLE to face LEGAL proceedings.