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A

Practical Training Report


Submitted
In partial fulfillment
For the award of the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In
Civil Engineering

Submitted To:

Submitted By:

H.O.D

YOGENDRA KUMAR

Department of
Civil engineering

(CE11412)
VIRENDARA SINGH SHEKHAWAT
(CE11410)

Department of Civil Engineering


SHRI JAGDISH PRASAD JHABARMAL TIBREWALA UNIVERSITY,
VIDYANAGARI, JHUNJHUNU, RAJASTHAN 333001
Session 2014-2015
December 2014

Candidates Declaration
I hereby declare that the work, which is being presented in the practical training report, entitled
for partial fulfilment for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering and
submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering at Shri Jagdish Prasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala
University is a record of my own investigations at SUB TEHSIL BISSAU AT UNDER PUBLIC
WORKS DEPARTMENT SUB DIVISON ALSISAR JHUNJHUNU RAJASTHAN.
I have not submitted the matter presented in this report anywhere for the award of any other Degree.

YOGENDRA KUMAR

ABSRACT:
The summer training report in contains 7 chapters in which I try to explain my about 1.5 months
experience in sub-tehsil building at Bissau by public works department. The content of all chapters
is broadly explained and it is constructed from the practical basis of the site work ended all months.
In the opening chapter I try to explain the introduction of site location and about the project and I
gave the details of company background its mission, vision the project those runs through the
company consultation. In this chapter I put all recorded of the company consultation with its official
address. So it is give details of the company in terms of reader can easily know and access the
company.in the 1st chapter about the company profile in which the construction work projects in
Rajasthan.
In the second chapter the first steps in building from site clearance to the layout and total area is
about 5000sq.ft in which the construction work are casted after it keep the total area which means
site clearance by the equipments and placed the materials and after then layout of the excavation of
the site as per drawings by 3-4-5 tringle method with the plumb bob.
In the chapter 3ed about the materials in which included the quality of each materials whose were
used at the site I which cement, concrete, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, cover blocks,
admixtures, brick, water, stones and steel all the materials used as the field with the field test of the
each materials. The materials size are also included at the third chapter the size of cover blocks as
per RCC requirements and described the types of admixtures in which at the site used the water
reducing admixture.
In chapter no four all about the equipments were used at the site of building construction in which
dumpers, loaders, backhoe, tipper trucks, concrete mixers, vibrators and excavators and in the small
equipments used by labors and masons are trowel, plumb bob, water pipe, sprit level, plumb bob,
mortar pans, curing pipes, line-sting, chisel, sprit level, compaction rod, spades, aluminum hollow
box, squire, hammer and measuring tape these are described in this chapter
In the 5th chapter about the construction methodologies in which all work from excavation to curing
in which stages included excavation, pcc, footing, isolated foundation, stone foundation, d.p.c.
plinth beam, columns, beams, slab, after then for partition of walls used brick masonry then for
moisture contain in building curing process at last is DE shuttering of form-work in the all R.C.C.
work they used M20 (1:1.5:3) and in the masonry construction used 1:6 mortar to 9 wall total days
of curing of R.C.C. work and curing of brick work methods of curing, also included the time of deshuttering of the columns, beams, and slabs, and cover blocks of each R.C.C. work whose done at
there.
In the chapter 6th all testing of the materials in which test of cement, test of brick, test of concrete
and test of aggregates, in which concrete slump test was done by the beams and the slabs or
compressive strength test for the cement and concrete and cube test of the cement and test of the
fineness modules and silt content, organic impurities of water.
In the chapter seven I included represented the result and calculation in which fineness modulus
with their diagram and their calculations at the site in that compressive strength test of cement and
test of concretes in which slump test and compressive strength test, test of bricks in which water
2

absorbed test & compressive strength test and the test of sieve analysis of the coarse aggregate, also
test of water absorbed of coarse aggregates. And the apparatus used as slump cone apparatus with
tamping rod and sieve shaker with sieves.
At the reference there is the helping to the summer training, same books and help of code as the
covering values and IS400:2000 is useful to structure analysis at the site.
The main purpose to make the building of the sub-tehsil building is the old building on the rant and
it is not able to work better in that whether condition then under the department of public works
department is developed as two story building. And those building is not sufficient required place to
work easily then proposal of the building place the building some distance from old building to
good environment and easily worked.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:I am very thankful to Public Works Department Jhunjhunu. For given me the opportunity to
undertake my 50 days internship class in their working area. It was very good learning experience
for me to have worked at this area. I would like to convey my heartiest thanks to resident engineer
SH. RADHESHYAM MEENA, AEN P.W.D SUB DIVISION, ALSISAR and all staff members
of P.W.D unit.
I would also heartily deepest thank my mentor MR. ABHISHEK MATHUR for his endless
support at college and his office surveying lab by consulting me how to do things in site and how to
write this report in outstanding manner.
I want to thank MR. SOURABH KUMAR SINGH and all the teachers of civil engineering who
brought me to my present performance and shape me like during the last three successive years.
Before I finish I would like to give thanks to contractor Mr.Ghanesh Agarwal. And all workers
from the contractor and the consultant side starting from engineers to daily labourers. Also for those
who do not listed in the above but support me in different areas I would like thank all.

LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS:SR.NO.

PHOTOGRAPHS

PAGE NO.

4.1EXCAVATORS

10

4.2 LOADER

10

4.3 BACKHOE

11

4.4 DUMPER

12

4.5 TIPPER TRUCK

12

4.6 CONCRETE MIXER

13

5.1 FOUNDATION

18

5.2 STONE MASONRY

19

5.3 STATOR OF COLUMN

21

10

5.4BEFORE AND AFTER SHUTTERING

22

11

5.5 COLUMN REINFORCEMENT

22

12

5.6 BRICK WORK AT SITE

25

13

5.7 FORMWORK OF STAIRS

27

14

5.8 CURING

29

15

6.1 MEASURING OF SLUMP

30

16

6.2 LE-CHATELIERS APPARATUS TOP VIEW

32

17

6.3 LE-CHATELIERS APPARATUS AT SITE

33

18

6.4 VICATS APPARATUS

34

19

6.5 TESTING OF CEMENT CUBES

35

21

7.1 SIEVES SHAKER AND SIEVES

40

23

7.2 MOULD AND CUBE IN WATER

42

24

7.3 SLUMP CONE APPARATUS

43

25

7.4 BRICK FROG FILL BY MORTAR

44

LIST OF TABLES:SR.NO

TABLES

PAGE NO.

3.1 CEMENT GRADE

3.3 MINIMUM COVER TO REINFORCEMENT

5.1 MINIMUM PERIOD OF SHUTTERING

28

5.2 CURING PERIOD

29

6.1 MINIMUM SLUMP REQUIRED

31

6.2 FINENESS MODULUS LIMIT

36

7.1 FINENESS MODULUS RESULT

39

7.2 SIEVES ANALYSIS

40

7.3 CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT

41

10

7.4 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

42

11

7.5 SLUMP CONE TEST

43

12

7.6 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BRICKS

44

13

7.7 WATER ABSORBED TEST

45

14

7.8 COARSE AGGREGATE WATER ABSORBED TEST

46

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE

PAGE

ABSTRACT

I-II

CERTIFICATE

III-IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS

VI

LIST OF TABLES

VII

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1-1

1.1 COMPANY PROFILE

1.2 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2 SITE LEVELING AND LAYOUT

2-2

2.1 SITE CLEARANCE & LEVELING

2.2 DEMARCATION OF SITE

2.3 LAYOUT

CHAPTER 3 MATERILS

3-9

3.1 CEMENT

3.1.1 FRESHNESS

3.1.1.1-Manufacturing date

3.1.1.2- lump

3.1.2 FINENESS

3.1.2.1-Silky

3.1.2.2-Cool

3.1.3 WEIGHT OF BEGS

3.1.4 BAG TYPE

3.1.5 FLOTING TEST & PASTE TEST

3.2 COARSE AGGREGATES

4
8

3.3 FINE AGGREGATE

3.4 WATER

3.5 STEEL

3.5.1 Marks on Steel

3.5.2 Pitched of Twist of Bars

3.5.3 Color & Rusting

3.5.4 Length of Bars

3.6 BRICK

3.6.1 Quality of good bricks

3.6.2 English bond

3.7 STONES

3.8 COVER BLOCKS

3.9 ADMIXTURES

3.9.1 Water Reducing Admixtures

CHAPTER 4 EQUIPMENTS

10-16

4.1 EXCAVATORS

10

4.2 LOADERS

10

4.3 BACKHOE

11

4.4 DUMPERS

11

4.5 TIPPER TRUCKS

12

4.6 CONCRETE MIXERS

13

4.7 VIBRATORS

13

4.8 LITTLE EQUIPMENTS

14

4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4

Trowels
Hammer
Water pipe
Measuring tape
4.8.4.1Cloth Tape

14
14
14
15
15
9

4.8.4.2 Metallic tape


4.8.5 Leveling staff
4.8.6 plumb bob
4.8.7 Mortar pans
4.8.8 Compaction rod
4.8.9 Curing pipes
4.8.10 line-sting
4.8.11 hacking pick
4.8.12 Drilling
4.8.13 Sprit level
4.8.14 Squire
4.8.15 Chisel
4.8.16 Aluminum hollow box
4.8.17 Spades

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16

CHAPTER 5 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGIES

17-29

5.1 EXCAVATION

17

5.2 PCC

17

5.3 FOUNDATION

17

5.4 STONE MASONARY

18

5.5 PLINTH WORK

19

5.6 DPC

20

5.6.1 Rich mortar damp proof course

20

5.7 COLUMNS

20

5.7.1 Formworks for Columns

21

5.7.2 Check before concreting

22

5.8 BEAMS

23

5.9 SLABS

23

5.10 BRICK WORK

24

5.10.1 Process of Brick Work

24

5.11 PLASTERING

25

5.11.1 EXTERNAL PLASTERING

25
10

5.11.2 INTERNAL PLASTERING

26

5.12 STAIRS

26

5.12.1:-Trade

26

5.12.2:-Rise

26

5.12.3:-Soffit

26

5.13 DE-SHUTTERING OF FORM WORK

27

5.13.1 Precaution during de-shuttering

27

5.14 CURING

28

5.14.1 Moist curing

28

5.14.2 Membrane curing

28

CHAPTER 6 TEST OF MATERILS

30-38

6.1 TEST OF CONCRETE: -

30

6.1.1 Slump Test

30

6.1.2 Compressive Strength

31

6.2 TEST OF CEMENT: -

32

6.2.1 Fineness

32

6.2.2 Soundness test by le-chateliers apparatus

32

6.2.3 Consistency of cement paste

33

6.2.4 Cube test on the site

34

6.3 TEST OF COURSE AGGREGATES: -

35

6.3.1 Water absorbed test

35

6.3.2 Sieves analysis

36

6.4 TEST OF FINE AGGREGATES: -

36

6.4.1 Fineness modulus

36

6.4.2 Silt content

37

6.4.3 Bulking of sand

37

6.4.4 Organic impurities

37
11

6.5 TEST OF BRICKS: -

37

6.5.1 Water absorption test: -

37

6.5.2 Strength test of bricks: -

38

6.5.3 Compressive strength of bricks: -

38

CHAPTER 7 RESULT & CALCULATION

39-46

7.1 Fineness modules

39

7.2 Sieves analysis of coarse aggregates

40

7.3 Consistency of cement

41

7.4 Compressive strength test of concretes

42

7.5 Slump test of concrete

43

7.6 Compressive strength test of bricks

44

7.7 Water absorbed test of bricks

45

7.8 Coarse aggregate water absorbed test

46

REFERENCES

47

12

CHAPTER 1
COMPANY PROFILE:The Public Works Department has a glorious history in the development of the state since pre
independence. The department is mainly entrusted with construction and maintenance of Roads,
Bridges and Govt. buildings. The department also acts as Technical Advisor to the State
Government in these matters.
Initially, Irrigation, Public Health engineering were units of PWD. Subsequently these units
were given separate entities to handle increased scope of work in the respective field.
Since the inception of the Department, it has strived through its continuous quest for
excellence and putting milestones in the feat of Engineering. It is this time that the Department is
treading into a new era of information technology to keep pace with the modernization.
The Public Works Department being the oldest engineering department of the State, has its
well woven network even below tensile level which enables the P.W.D. to ensure the execution of a
variety of jobs/tasks anywhere in the state.
Total road length being maintained by the department is more than 87500 KM the
Department also maintains State buildings all over Rajasthan & outside. The current annual budget
allocation to the department for construction & maintenance activities is over Rupee 1000 Crores.
Public works department primarily executes following development works:
Design, Construction, Maintenance & Repair of Government buildings.
Design, Construction, Maintenance & Repair of Roads & Bridges.
Undertaking Deposit Contribution works of various Departments, Local Bodies & other

1.1 INTRODUCTION:Under public works department jhunjhunu at the Bissau building of sub tehsil construction work.
Two story building for purpose of sub-tehsil work
Total project is 1.75 crore.
I join the summer training from 02-06-2014 to 22-07-2014.
I achieve the information of excavation to plaster in 45 day.
The total area of the site (100*200ft

13

CHAPTER 2
2.1 SITE CLEARANCE & LEVELING: The first step is site clearance which involves removal of grass along with any other
objections which might be there in the site location.
Level of ground if required any cutting and filling as per required of building.
Cutting of plants, bushes
By the help of instruments
2.2 DEMARCATION OF SITE:-

The whole area on which construction is to be done is marked so as to identify the construction
zone. In our project, a plot of (50ft*111ft) sq. ft. was chosen and the respective marking was done.
2.3 LAYOUT:Center line method:To find the center line of column to as per drawing by 3-4-5 triangular method
by this method we have four wooden pegs and then it stay around the site then the distance
from first wooden pegs by the tape 3m and second side distance measures by tapes as 4m then a
rope needed to touch the distance should be 5m then
As per drawing we calculate the distance from first point to column center then cast other
wooden peg here and as same front of it and as other side the distance from 1 st point to column
center and same as front of that and where it cross each other thereby help of plumb bob we can find
the center of column.

14

CHAPTER 3 MATERILS
3.1 CEMENT
Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is normally used for pcc and also for R.C.C. the grade of cement is
43 grade.
There are following 3 types of grades in used in construction they are given some strength after
3/7/28 days.
TABLE 3.1.

GRADES OF CEMENT.

Grades

Days

Strength (Kg/Cm2)

33 Grade

3/7/28

160/220/330Kg/cm2

43 Grade

3/7/28

230/330/430Kg/cm2

53 Grade

3/7/28

270/370/530Kg/cm2

The Cement Should Following Some Requirements at the Site:3.1.1 FRESHNESS:3.1.1.1-Manufacturing date:

Choose any bag at random.


Check the printed manufacturing date.
It is given as W-for week, M-for month and Y-for year.
It should not be more than 30 days old.

3.1.1.2- Lump: Take any bag at random and test it for presence of lumps.
Fresh cement should be in the powder form only.
Any cement bag with lumps should be rejected.
3.1.2 FINENESS
3.1.2.1-Silky:-when we rubbing the cement in the figures then it should feel silky.
3.1.2.2-Cool:-when hand immersed in the bag it should be feel cool.
3.1.3 WEIGHT OF BEGS:Weight of each bag should be 50 kg.
3.1.4 BAG TYPE:The bag in which cement is used at the construction should be made by the
JUTE/POLYTHENE/PAPER bag.
15

3.1.5 FLOTING TEST & PASTE TEST:The cement is used in the construction work should float on water before sinking.
The cement is should be grain some strength after 24 hours curing.
3.2 COARSE AGGREGATES
Coarse aggregate for the works should be river gravel or crushed stone .It should be hard, strong,
dense, durable, clean, and free from clay or loamy admixtures or quarry refuse or vegetable matter.
The pieces of aggregates should be cubical, or rounded shaped and should have granular or
crystalline or smooth (but not glossy) non-powdery surfaces. Aggregates should be properly
screened and if necessary washed clean before use.
After 24-hrs immersion in water, a previously dried sample of the coarse aggregate should
not gain in weight more than 5%.
Aggregates should be stored in such a way as to prevent segregation of sizes and avoid
contamination with fines.
Depending upon the coarse aggregate color, there quality can be determined as:

Whitish-bad quality
Blue - good
Black -very good quality
The size of aggregates used for pcc varies from 20mm-25mm (3/4-1)
As the maximum size of aggregates is more it results in the reduction of cement
consumption
Coarse aggregates shall be clean and free from elongated flaky or laminated place
The coarse aggregates should be free from adhering coating clay lumps, coal residue,
clinkers, shag, alkali, mica, organic matter or other substances
3.3 FINE AGGREGATE
Aggregate which is passed through 4.75 IS Sieve is termed as fine aggregate. Fine aggregate is
added to concrete to assist workability and to bring uniformity in mixture. Usually, the natural river
sand is used as fine aggregate. Important thing to be considered is that fine aggregates should be
free from coagulated lumps.
Grading of natural sand or crushed stone i.e. fine aggregates shall be such that not more than
5 percent shall exceed 5 mm in size, not more than 10% shall IS sieve No. 150 not less than 45% or
more than 85% shall pass IS sieve No. 1.18 mm and not less than 25% or more than 60% shall pass
IS sieve No. 600 micron.
Requirement of good sand: Sand for concrete works should be clean will graded hard strong durable
16

Silt percentages not more than 7% if it is more than 7% then it should be used after washing.
Size should not as more coarse type and not more fine.
Very fine sand is not used for R.C.C
Organic impurities should be in the limits and should be identified by visualization
In case of important work like waterproofing plastering every truck load should be checked
for silt contents and register should be maintained. But for other works silt contents may be
checked after every 20 trips.

3.4 WATER:Water is one of the most important elements in construction but people still ignore quality aspect of
this element. The water is required for preparation of mortar, mixing of cement concrete and for
curing work etc. during construction work. The quality and quantity of water has much effect on the
strength of mortar and cement concrete in construction work. It has been observed that certain
common impurities in water affect the quality of mortar or concrete. Many times in spite of using
best material i.e. cement, coarse sand, coarse aggregate etc. in cement concrete, required results are
not achieved. Most of Engineers/Contractors think that there is something wrong in cement, but
they do not consider quality of water being used. Some bad effects of water containing impurities
are following:
1. Presence of salt in water such as Calcium Chloride, Iron Salts, inorganic salts and sodium etc. are
so dangerous that they reduce initial strength of concrete and in some cases no strength can be
achieved. There is rusting problem in steel provided in RCC.
2. Presence of acid, alkali, industrial waste, sanitary sewage and water with sugar also reduce the
strength of concrete.
3. Presence of silt or suspended particle in water has adverse effect on strength of concrete.
4. Presence of oil such as linseed oil, vegetable oil or mineral oil in water above 2 % reduces the
strength of concrete up to 25 %.
5. Presence of algae/vegetable growth in water used for mixing in cement concrete reduce of the
strength of concrete consider ably and also reduce the bond between cement paste and aggregate. It
has been observed at various places that cement concrete start falling down in pieces after rusting
mild steel from RCC slab, which is due to use of bad quality/salty water in RCC slab. All this is due
to negligence or ignorance which creates great problems and also bears a heavy loss. It is advisable
that the water must be tested before using in construction work.
Main disadvantages of mixing too much water in mortar and concrete
The water occupies space in sand and it evaporates to create voids. Moreover the water
voids will be more and this will reduce the density, strength and durability of mortar or
concrete.
When more water is used in concrete excess water brings a mixture of excess cement paste
with water floating on the surface. This material forms a thin layer of chalky material on the
surface which reduces proper bonding with second layer of cement concrete in case of water
tank and dams etc. This will affect the strength of concrete.
17

When more water is used, the cement slurry starts coming out from cement concrete mix.
The excess slurry formed by water and cement comes out through shuttering joints. This
makes concrete of less cement and reduces the strength of concrete.
When more water is used, proper compaction is not achieved and there is bleeding, large
voids and more shrinkage, less durability and less strength.
When more water is mixed in cement concrete, the problem of segregation of material is
faced at the time of laying the mix. As a result Coarse Aggregate and cement paste separate
from each other. Hence strict control should be kept on water cement ratio for preparing the
mortar or concrete for qualitative finish/ strength.
3.5 STEEL:Steel reinforcements are used, generally, in the form of bars of circular cross section in concrete
structure. They are like a skeleton in human body. Plain concrete without steel or any other
reinforcement is strong in compression but weak in tension. Steel is one of the best forms of
reinforcements, to take care Bars range in diameter from 6 to 50 mm. Cold-worked steel high
strength deformed bars start from 8 mm diameter. For general house constructions, bars of diameter
6 to 20 mm are used
Transverse reinforcements are very important. They not only take care of structural
requirements but also help main reinforcements to remain in desired position. They play a very
significant role while abrupt changes or reversal of stresses like earthquake etc.
They should be closely spaced as per the drawing and properly tied to the main/longitudinal
reinforcement of those stresses and to strengthen concrete to bear all kinds of loads.
Before used the steel at the fields:3.5.1 Marks on Steel: - Tor Steel:Tor marking should be rolled on every meter length.
3.5.2 Pitched of Twist of Bars:8 to 12 times of nominal dia. of bars in mm.
3.5.3 Color & Rusting:The color should be as gray and it should not have the rusting at the surface on it so it
storage at safe place. The corrosion is main causes is the bars are placed in railed water.
3.5.4 Length of Bars:The length is generally is 11-12 meter and after the site it can used as requirement by cut.

18

3.6 BRICK:The art of brick laying consist in arranging and bidding brick in mortar in such a manner as to from
a well united mass known as brick work.
As assemblage of bricks properties bounded together in mortar is called brick masonry.
Brick masonry is commonly used for construction work of ordinary as well as important
buildings and other structure in areas where natural stone is not obtainable chiefly and abundantly
but there is penalty of suitable clay from the manufacture of bricks.
The mortar to be used in brick masonry may be mud mortar, lime mortar, or cement mortar,
depending upon the class and strength of work desired.
3.6.1 Quality of good bricks:

Visual check Bricks should be well burnt and of uniform size and color.
Striking of two bricks together should produce a metallic ringing sound.
It should have surface so hard that cant be scratched by the fingernails.
A good brick should not break if dropped in standing position from one meter above ground
level.
A good brick shouldnt absorb moisture of more than 15-20% by weight, when soaked in
water For example; a good brick of 2 kg shouldnt weigh more than 2.3 to 2.4 kg if
immersed in water for 24 hours.
3.6.2 English bond:English bond consists of alternate course of headers and stretches. In this English bond
arrangement, vertical joints in the header courses come over each other and the vertical joints in the
stretcher course are also in the same line. For the breaking of vertical joints in the successive course
it is essential to place queen closer, after the first header in each heading course. The following
additional points should be noted in English bond construction:
In English bond, a heading course should never start with a queen closer as it is liable to get
displaced in this position.
In the stretcher course, the stretchers should have a minimum lap of 1/4th their length over
the headers.
Walls having their thickness equal to an even number of half bricks, i.e., one brick thick
wail, 2 brick thick wall, 3 brick thick wall and so on, present the same appearance on both
the faces, i .e. a course consisting of headers on front face will show headers on the back
face also.
In walls having their thickness equal to an odd number of half brick, i.e. 1 brick thick
walls or 2 brick thick walls and so on, the same course will show stretchers on one face
and headers on the other.
19

In thick walls the middle portion is entirely filled with header to prevent the formation of
vertical joints in the body of the wall.
Since the number of vertical joints in the header course is twice the number of joints in the
stretcher course, the joints in the header course are made thinner than those in the stretcher
course.
3.7 STONES:It is obtained from rock by building stones is a natural materials of construction. It is obtained rock by a
suitable method of quarrying. Stones when derived from rocks are very irregular in shape and size. They
are therefore dressed for proper bedding, thin joints and speedy construction. When such stones blocks
are laid with cement or lime mortar in a systematic manner, they from a structural mass which can resist
load without disintegration. The art of building such as a structural mass in stones is known as stone
masonry.
Before placing the stone:-

The stones to be used for masonry should be hard, durable, and tough. All stones should be
free from defects and decays.
Through or bond stones should be selected separately from ordinary building stones.
All stones for masonry in cement or lime mortar must be thoroughly wetted before being
laid so that they may not absorb moisture from mortar and thereby reduce its strength.
Stones should be properly placed them position.
The stones should be placed in a structure on their natural quarry bed so that the pressure to
be taken by them is normal to the beds.
The stones must be laid in such a way that they should break the continuity of vertical joint
in the structure.
The prescribed number of through or bond stones must be used in order to provide sufficient
lateral stability to the structure
Quoins should be laid as header and stretcher in AlterNet courses
In case of vertical wall, the face of wall should be exactly vertical and good stones be use for
face work.
All lintels and inside stones not to be plastered over, should be of the full thickness of the
wall.
The joints all surface should be raked at list 25mm deep and pointed with rich cement mortar
The masonry in entire length of the wall should be uniformly raised.
Double scaffolding should be used.
All the surface of masonry work must be kept wet while in progress and also till the mortar
sets.
3.8 COVERS BLOCKS:Cover blocks are placed to prevent the steel rods from touching the shuttering plates and thereby
providing a minimum cover and fix the reinforcements as per the design drawings. Sometimes it is
commonly seen that the cover gets misplaced during the concreting activity. To prevent this, tying
of cover with steel bars using thin steel wires called binding wires (projected from cover surface and
placed during making
20

Or casting of cover blocks) is recommended. Covers should be made of cement sand mortar
(1:3). Ideally, cover should have strength similar to the surrounding concrete, with the least
perimeter so that chances of water to penetrate through periphery will be minimized. Provision of
minimum covers as per the Indian standards for durability of the whole structure should be ensured.
Shape of the cover blocks could be cubical or cylindrical. However, cover indicates thickness of the
cover block. Normally, cubical cover blocks are used. As a thumb rule, minimum cover of 2 in
footings, 1.5 in columns and 1 for other structures may be ensured.
TABLE 3.3.
SR.
NO

MINIMUM COVER OF R.C.C. STRUCTURE

STRUCTURAL ELEMENT COVER TO REINFORCEMENT

(MM)

Footings

40 mm

Columns

40 mm

Slabs

15 mm

Beams

25 mm

Retaining wall

25 mm

for earth face

20 mm

3.9 ADMIXTURES:3.9.1 Water Reducing Admixtures:The water reducer admixture improves workability of concrete/mortar for the same water cement
ratio. The determination of workability is an important factor in testing concrete admixture. Rapid
loss of workability occurs during first few minutes after mixing concrete and gradual loss of
workability takes place over a period from 15 to 60 minutes after mixing. Thus relative advantages
of water reducing admixture decrease with time after mixing. These admixtures increase setting
time by about 2 to 6 hrs. During which concrete can be vibrated. This is particularly important in
hot weather conditions or where the nature of construction demands a time gap between the
placements of successive layers of concrete.
Advantages

It can reduce 10% of water consumption.


It can improve mixture of cement concrete for workability.
Compression strength improves by more than 15 %.
It can reduce initial stage of cement heat hydration by large margin.
It has no function of corrosion reinforcing bars.
It increase workability, density and strength without increasing the quantity of cement.
21

CHAPTER 4 EQUIPMENTS
4.1 EXCAVATORS:Excavators are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, stick, bucket and cab on a
rotating platform
The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels.
Excavators also called digger.

FIG. 4.1 EXCAVATORS


4.2 LOADERS:A loader is a heavy equipment machine often used in construction, primarily used to load material
such as raw minerals, rock, sand etc. into other types of machinery such as a truck.

22

FIG. 4.2

LOADERS

4.3 BACKHOE:A backhoe also called a rear actor or back actor, is piece of excavating equipment or digger
consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are typically mounted
on the back of a tractor or front loader.
The section of the arm closest to the boom, and the section which carries the bucket is
known as dipper.
\\\\\\\\\ \\

FIG. 4.3.

BACKHOE

4.4 DUMPERS:A dumper is a vehicle designed for carrying bulk material, often on building sites. Dumpers are
distinguished from dump trucks by configuration: a dumper is usually an open 4-wheeled vehicle
with the load skip in front of the driver, while a dump truck has its cab in front of the load.
23

The skip can tip to dump the load this is where the names dumper comes from. They are
normally diesel powered. A towing eyes is fitted for secondary use a site tractor.
Modern dumpers have payloads of up to 10 tones and usually steer by articulating at the
middle of the chassis.

FIG. 4.4.

DUMPERS.

4.5 TIPPER TRUCKS:A truck or lorry the rear platform of which can be raised at the front end to enable the load to be
discharged by gravity also called tip truck.

FIG. 4.5.

TIPPER TRUCKS.

24

4.6 CONCRETE MIXERS:A concrete mixer also known as cement mixer is a device that homogeneously combines cement,
aggregates such as sand or gravel, and water to form concrete. Atypical concrete mixer uses a
revolving drum to mix the components for smaller volume works portable concrete mixers are often
used so that the concrete can be made at the construction site, giving the works ample time to use
the concrete it hardens.

FIG. 4.6

CONCRETE MIXERS

4.7 VIBRATORS: Vibrators, along with the accessories, should be kept in the material yard/store, which can be
locked.
The needle should be stored in a separately, to avoid the storage of other heavy materials on
it.
The flexible pipe should not be tightened too hard and should be rounded to a smooth
diameter.\periodical testing and servicing should include oiling, keeping a uniform level of
petrol, tightening the fuel cap, checking beating of the needle, cleaning to spark plug etc.
Exercising precautions during operation also helps in increasing the working life of a
vibrator.
Following precautions: Check quantity of the petrol before operation.
Use the needle vertically straight or at a slight inclination.
25

Force applied in the needle should not exceed its own weight.
The needle pipe should be held in the hand before starting.
The vibrating head should not come into contact with hard objects like hardened concrete,
steel and wood, because impact may damages the bearings of the vibrator.
All necessary maintenance and servicing and servicing should be carried out by a trained
mechanic
4.8 LITTLE EQUIPMENTS:4.8.1 Trowels:In gardening, a trowel is a tool with a pointed, scoop-shaped metal blade and a handle. It is used for
breaking up earth, digging small holes, especially for planting and weeding, mixing in fertilizer or
other additives, and transferring plants to pots.
4.8.2 Hammer:The hammer made by the high compacted steel in which connected with a wooden pegs.
The use of hammer is to break the bricks and stones and to compact the surface with other materials.
4.8.3 Water pipe:It may be defined that level the surface and to use while shuttering plate casting.
There is following steps to use the water pipe
Fill the jug with water, and place it on a high surface. This will allow you to get the water
into the tube.
Attach one end of the tube to the jug, and place your mouth on the other end. Begin sucking
on the tube to get the water flowing. Siphon, or suck, on the tube hard enough to get the
water moving but not enough to get a mouthful of liquid. Once you get the water moving a
little, it should flow freely.
Pull out the tube from the water bucket once it is nearly full. Make sure you perform this
action before the tube is completely full to prevent the water from spilling as you are moving
around.
Hold both ends of the tube vertically so that no water can escape. Tap your finger along the
tubing to loosen and expel any trapped air bubbles. Hold the ends of the tube even with one
another, and verify that the water lines up equally. If it does, you are ready to go. If it does
not, you need to continue tapping the tube, as it's likely that air bubbles are still trapped.
Have a helper stand at the location you want to level. The person must hold the tube against
the surface you are leveling at a predetermined height. For example, if you are trying to
draw a straight line on a wall, choose a height you want the line at, and have the person hold
the tubing at the desired height.
Use chalk to mark the spot on the wall where the water line inside the tube falls. Have your
helper move further along the surface you are leveling, hold the tube up to the predetermined
height, and mark the spot where the water line is.
Repeat the leveling process until you have reached the end of the surface you are leveling.
26

4.8.4 Measuring tape:The measuring tape may be defined that to measure the length and area at the site generally at the
site two types measuring tape were used.
4.8.4.1 Cloth Tape:It is a tape the length of tape is 30 meter and it is made cloth mixed with plastic it is used to
measuring long distance like; total area and when the estimation is started.
4.8.4.2 Metallic tape:It is generally made by the steel and about 25ft and 10ft length and it is used to measuring the
shorter distance like; columns, beam (b&d). And measuring the brick masonry width
4.8.5 Leveling staff: The use of leveling staff is while the survey at the site in which is used level the surface and it stand
at one side and by the instrument and on the leveling staff have a graduated tape about 5m.
4.8.6 Plumb bob:It is device in which used to brick masonry and columns construction to vertically it is not tilting.
It is made by the steel with a rope insert on it to measuring the vertical then it touch upper surface
and then saw the plumb bob should not be touch at the bottom wall.
4.8.7 Mortar pans:The mortar pans is used to transfer the mortar in brick masonry and construction of a building in
which it is an equipments those is smaller than trolley and about 15-20 kg carries to mortar
transport.
4.8.8 Compaction rod:Compaction rod a steel rod minimum 16mm those used to compact the concrete in the columns and
heavy reinforced structure in which the vibrator is not good able to concrete placing.
4.8.9 Curing pipes:the pipes whos used to curing the building structure is known as curing pipes the size maybe
or1 inch it depend on the speed of flow and height of structure.
4.8.10 line-sting:-

27

It is a rope whose used to horizontally lining of brick masonry and used while line out with the
plumb bob and it placed one side with a brick and other side and mason can see the wall is straight
or not.
4.8.11 hacking pick:The hacking jack is an equipments those used to rough surface of beams and columns to prepare to
plastering.it is made by a metallic used by the labors.
4.8.12 Drilling:Drilling is defined that an instrument whose used to hanging any types of instrument on the wall the
top part of it known as bit and by the help of key it can be change as necessary.
4.8.13 Sprit level:Sprit level a type of equipments used to level the vertical and horizontally while construction of the
walls and also as the slab.
4.8.14 Squire:The squire is used by the mesons at the site to 90 angle and to maintain the area to used four sides.
Made by steel it have a graduated rod in which the measuring placed as 2ft.
4.8.15 Chisel:It is an equipment to use with the hammer and to small holes in the concrete and to remove the
unused old concrete.
4.8.16 Aluminum hollow box:It is hollow box to use while plastering and during the flooring to level the surface made by the
aluminum metal and the use of the aluminum box 6
4.8.17 Spades:Spades is a types of equipments to collecting the soils and materials and to make a hole in the earth
surface and it is mostly used by the labors. Made by two parts one of metal and other is wood.

28

CHAPTER 5 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGIES


5.1 EXCAVATION:Excavation is the preliminary activity of the construction project. It starts from digging pits from
for the building foundation and continuous up to the handing of the project.
Excavation is doing 15cm more extra on each side of pcc length so there are excavated the surface
11*11ft.
Excavation was carried out by excavators (JCBs) were used for excavating the soil.
Adequate precautions are taken to see that the excavation operations do not damage the adjoining
structures. Excavation is carried out providing adequate side slopes and dressing of excavation.
Bottom. The soil present beneath the surface was too clayey so it was dumped and was not used for
back filling. The filling is done in layer not exceeding 20 cm layer and then its compacted. Depth
of excavation was 2.5ft from Ground Level and 10 ft. width
5.2 PCC: The size of pcc is 10*10 as depth is taken 10
Plain cement concrete is necessary to build up any buildings first concrete work. Pcc is
done to done on excavated level surface. It is ratio of 1:4:8.
It is mechanically process casted by mixer.
STAGES OF PCC

Check the center of excavated pit.


Check the dimension (length, breadth, depth) as per drawings
Clean the pit and all loose materials.
By heavy rammer it should to compact with water.
Prepare the shuttering box of pcc size and place it at position

5.3 FOUNDATION:Foundation used in building construction to transfer the load of super structure.
The size of footings keep 9ft*9ft
29

At our site, total isolated trapezoidal footings were used.

FIG. 5.1.

ISOLATED FOOTING ELEVATION.

Depth of block is 13 and upper sloped kept 15


Isolated footing generally used where Distributed the loads in sufficient area in the foundation bed.
To bear the bearing capacity
At each columns on footing
The cover is minimum used in footing is 50mm but at the site it kept 60 mm?
5.4 STONE MASONARY:The art of building the structures in stones with any suitable mortar is called stone masonry.
Stone is not easily and cheaply available in all parts of country. They are difficult to handle
because of their heavy weight. They are costly in construction.

30

FIG. 5.2

STONE MASONRY.

At the site of Bissau also the construction work of the stone masonry at 2.5ft above the ground
level. And 1.5ft fiat layer below the ground. There was a second layer 1
5.5 PLINTH WORK: - at the ground level to connect columns each others and to stop the
settlement of buildings at the ground
The depth of plinth level is kept 6
(1:1.5:3) mix
The plinth work involve:

Casting of columns upto plinth level.


Constructing rubble/brick masonry upto plinth level.
Casting of plinth/tie beams at designed level.
Anti-termite treatment in foundation.
Refilling of column pits and plinth with selected materials.
D.P.C. over plinth walls.
Floor P.C.C.
31

Plinth protection.
Check before plinth beams:

The size of beam (b*d)


Reinforcement of the beam as per drawings.
Proper anchorage of bottom and top bars in the columns.
Length of continuation of bent bars and extra top bars over supports.
Face of the columns on which the beam rests the diameter of stirrup bars and the spacing of
the stirrups.
The bottom and side covers for reinforcement to be provided.
Controlling the proportion of the concrete mix.
Ensuring and checking of line, level, plumb and supports of the shuttering.
Plugging of all possible joints of shuttering from where the cement slurry may flow out,
while vibrating the concrete.
Confirm the change in concrete grade for beams and columns.
Ensure the compaction of the concrete

5.6 DPC:The damp-proof course doing over the plinth beam


The moisture present in the ground or rain water may penetrate into the building from
below, from sides and also sometimes from the top of its roof causing the structure to remain in
damp conditions and thus detraining the structure as a whole. It is there for very essential to prevent
any moisture penetrating into a building.
Now a days care is taken while designing and constructing any buildings so that dampness
can be prevented from affecting it and its inhabitants
At the site the dpc is provided as rich mortar damp proof course.
5.6.1 Rich mortar damp proof course:A layer of rich mortar cement concrete (1:2:4) having 35mm thickness, painted with two coats of
hot bitumen is used as a horizontal D.P.C it also prevents the moisture penetration by capillary
action. Such layers are laid where the damp is not excessive.
5.7 COLUMNS:Columns are vertical members those used to building stable and transfer all the load of structure to
ground threw footing.
At site all columns taken rectangular
The height of columns kept 11.5ft
6 columns are 2ft*9
And other was 1.5ft*9
32

Cover is kept 40mm


The mix ratio is used as per drawings is M20 (1:1.5:3).
5.7.1 Formworks for Columns
The temporary structure erected to support the concrete in it is require shape, till it hardens and
become self-supporting is known as the form-work or centering.
The plates are used the steel size of that are 3*2
Process of casting: Plotting of grid lines for center of column above the plinth /floor slab
Locating and marking the center of columns.
Binding & placing column reinforcement above the upper floor slab, as per the required
height, considering lap length of the bar.
Check for column reinforcement & their arrangements as per the drawings.
Ring spacing their arrangement as per the RCC drawing.
Proper binding of reinforced with binding wire.
Fixing concrete or P.V.C cover blocks to reinforce.
To check the quality of shuttering plates before placing
Appling de-shuttering oil to plywood shuttering.
Fixing the shikanjas at every 2ft interval.
Check the stiffness of side supports applied to form-work in plumb.
There in following figure the columns process.

FIG. 5.3

STATOR OF THE COLUMNS


33

FIG:-5.4. BEFORE AND AFTER SHUTTERING.

FIG. 5.5

COLUMNS REINFORCEMENT AT GROUND AS PER DRAWINGS:

5.7.2 Check before concreting

Size as per drawings


To check diagonals
Oiling of shuttering
Plumb on both sides
Line
Level marking up to which concreting is to be done
Supports
Spacing of reinforcement above concrete level.
34

Sufficient lap length.


Proper filling of gapes from outside with soil paste.
5.8 BEAMS:The size of the beam at the site of 9 X 18 they are all continuous fixed beams.
Checking of shuttering of the beams

Height of beams from pith level.


Quality of shutter materials.
To ensure fixing of cap on the column to take the load.
Width of the beam bottom plank.
To ensure proper fixing of the beam bottom over cap.
Line and level of the beam bottom.
Depth of beam as per the RCC drawings.
Proper fixing of props for bottom in line and plumb, at every 2 interval.
Bamboo bracing for joining, prop to prop, at 4height from the floor.
Prop fixing of the side of beam in line, level and plumb.
Support to the vertical joint.
Gapes in beam sides should be filled.
Ensure fixing of the steel plates over beam sides, in flush position.
Outer lines of beam plates.

Checking of beam reinforcement.


Bottom bars, top bars, bent-up bars, stirrups, distance of bent up bars over the supports,
spacing of the stirrups as per the RCC drawing, proper tying of the stirrups.
Diameter of bars, binding of stirrups in plumb.
Length of bent up bars continuous in adjacent beams.
L for bent-up bars at discontinuing ends.
Side covers and bottom covers for beams.
Proper binding of apes in beams, if provided with the required length.
Extra stirrups at junction of beam.
5.9 SLABS:Checking of shuttering:

Height of slab from plinth level.


Diameter of bars as per drawings.
Side plank for slab panel periphery.
Individual level of each bay of the slab.
Mark the thickness of slabs.
Check if plates joints and ghabadi work is water light.
Oil the slab plates.
Location and depth of sunken slab.
Check the room sizes and diagonals.
35

Checking of reinforcement:

Spacing, diameter of bent-up bars.


Distance of bent-up bars from face of beams.
Length of bent-up bars projecting in adjacent panel.
Height of the bent-up bars.
Chair below every bent-up bars.
Covering for the slab at bottom.
Proper binging of laps at required length.
Distribution steel diameters, spacing and ties.
Check dowels of slab & beams.
Put the stirrups in the column for upper floor column size.

5.10 BRICK WORK


Brickwork is masonry done with bricks and mortar and is generally used to build partition walls. In
our site, all the external walls were of concrete and most of the internal walls were made of bricks.
English bond was used and a ratio of 1:4 (1 cement: 4 coarse sand) and 1:6 were used depending
upon whether the wall is 4.5 inches or 9 inches.
The using of Modular Bricks- Indian standard institution has established a standard size of
bricks such a brick is known as a modular brick. The normal size of brick is taken as 20*10*10 cm
whereas its actual dimensions are 19*9*9 cm masonry with modular bricks workout to be cheaper
there is saving in the consumption of bricks, mortar and Labour as compared with masonry with
traditional bricks.
5.10.1 Process of Brick Work: Bricks should be soaked in water for adequate period so that the water penetrates to its full
thickness. Normally 6 to 8 hours of wetting is sufficient.
A systematic bond must be maintained throughout the brickwork. Vertical joints shouldnt
be continuous but staggered.
The joint thickness shouldnt exceed 1 cm. It should be thoroughly filled with the
Cement mortar 1:4 to 1:6 (Cement: Sand by volume)
All bricks should be placed on their bed with frogs on top (depression on top of the Brick for
providing bond with mortar).
Thread, plumb bob and spirit level should be used for alignment, verticality and
horizontality of construction.
Joints should be raked and properly finished with trowel or float, to provide good bond.
A maximum of 1 meter wall height should be constructed in a day.
Brickwork should be properly curing for at least 10 days.

36

FIG. 5.6

BRICK WORK AT THE SITE

5.11 PLASTERING:Plastering provides a finished surface that is firm and smooth the plaster acts as a sound & thermal
insulating layer, to an extent. It also severs as a fire protecting layer. Plaster is a layer of cementsand mortar, applied over the masonry work, which also acts as a damp-proof coat over the masonry
work plastering enhance the appearance of the building. The objectives of plastering can be briefly
summed up as below

To protect the surface form atmospheric influences.


To cover the defective workmanship in masonry.
To cover up unsound & poors material.
To provide a suitable by base for color wash/paint.

Plaster is divided into two parts:


5.11.1 EXTERNAL PLASTERING:The proration is 1:6
Depending upon factors like the desired performance of the building, degree of maintenance, cost
etc. the external walls of the buildings are finished with suitable materials, there are various forms
of external finishes. E.g.; sand faced, pebble dashed, rough cast, smooth cast etc.
Producer of External plaster: Before starting external plastering ensure that all the points are complete as per the
preparations external plaster
Do not max more than 3 bags depo at a time, (according to number of masons), so as to
avoid the initial set of mortar before use.
37

Alignment and fixing level pegs on external wall surfaces will be done using the surveying
instrument / center plumb bobs.
Projections on the wall surfaces will be chipped off and cleaned after completing the level
pegs on walls.
First coat mortar filling (1:4 Cement and Sand) upto 15 mm will be applied on surfaces
where required mortar thickness exceed 25mm.
Cement paste on concrete surfaces will be applied to improve the bonding of plaster to the
concrete surfaces.
Maximum width of 20mm horizontal grooves between walls and beams will be formed by
cutting using grinders with diamond wheels after plastering the wall surface. This groove
will be filled with approved weather sealant.
External wall plaster will be finished with rough surface.
1:10 slope at the external side of the window sill will be formed while plastering the window
reveals.
5.11.2 INTERNAL PLASTERING: Surface where plastering is to be done will be cleaned.
Level pegs on walls will be fixed with reference to the off lines to brick walls set out in
floors. (Using center plumb bob and nylon thread).
All the brick walls will be watered before pasting mortar on walls.
First coat mortar filling (1:4 Cement and Sand) upto 15 mm will be applied on surfaces
where required mortar thickness exceed 25mm.
Walls and columns will be plastered 1:4 Cement and Sand to achieve semi rough finished
surface.
Vertical joint of structural columns / walls & brick walls will be treated by fixing 200mm
width chicken mesh with wire nails / concrete nails by centering the mesh to the vertical
wall joint.
All the embedded service lines and provisions (Conduits, Boxes and etc.) will be completed
on brick walls and check with the drawings.
Joints between walls and beams will be formed up to a maximum of 20mm and will be
sealed using 30 minutes fire rated flexible filler. Internal plastering on surfaces of concrete
columns, beams & walls which are aligned with surfaces of brick walls will be plastered and
other concrete surfaces will be finished with cement base easy plaster.
5.12 STAIRS: To connect on floor to other floor by the stairs.
The riser boards can be ripped from any good, straight forming lumber, keeping in mind that
imperfections on the surface of the boards also will appear on the stair risers. To allow finishers to
have access as far back on the tread as possible the riser at a 45-degree angle. If a fall is required for
drainage, the risers also can be cut to automatically incorporate that. Based on the example
considered the 7-inch riser could be cut at 6 inches to provide a built-in -inch fall on each stair.

38

When all the stringers are in place, the riser boards are attached to the extension angles. After
applying form release to the riser boards and the extension angles, the formwork is ready for
concrete.
The stair in most modern residential and public building of multistory buildings.
5.12.1:-trade:-to place the feet on the surface is trade the breadth of trade is 12
5.12.2:-Rise:-the place to rising types it kept 6
5.12.3:-soffit:-the lower part of stairs is known as soffits.

FIG. 5.7

FORMWORK OF STAIRS

5.13 DE-SHUTTERING OF FORM WORK:5.13.1 PRECAUTIONS DURING DE-SHUTTERING: While de-shuttering the form-work of columns, ensure that the edges of columns are
protected.
While de-shuttering the external sides of the floor beams ensure that nobody is working in
the nearby area so as to prevent possible accidents.
While de-shuttering the internal beam sides ensure that supports of slab and beam bottom
are not disturbed.
De-shuttering of slab plates should be after making scaffolding. No plates should be
removed from the slab without proper scaffolding. Also, ensure that nobody is working in
the nearby area.

39

TABLE. 5.1. RECOMMENDED PERIODS OF DE-SHUTTERING.


SR.

ITEM

MINIMUM PERIOD

NO.

FOR DESHUTTERING

01

COLUMN

16-24 HRS.

02

SIDES OF BEAMS

24 HRS.

03

BEAM BOTTOM UPTO 3 m.

14 DAYS.

04

BEAM BOTTOM ABOVE 3 m.

21 DAYS.

05

SLAB SPAN UPTO 3.5 m.

07 DAYS.

06

SLAB WITH SPAN BETWEEN 3.5 TO 6 m.

14 DAYS.

07

SLAB OF SPAN MORE THAN 6 m.

21 DAYS.

5.14 CURING:Curing can be defend as keeping the concrete moist and warm enough, so that hydration of cement
can continue. It is the process of maintaining satisfactory moisture content and a favorable
temperature of concrete, during the period immediately after placing, so that hydration of cement
continues until the desired properties develop to the required degree.
Importance of curing:-if curing is neglected in the early period of hydration, the quality of
concrete experiences irreparable losses, for preparing, good concrete, curing is as important as other
criteria, such as mixing, vibrating and placing of concrete.
5.14.1 Moist curing:Exposed surface shall be kept continually in a damp or wet condition by covering with a layer of
sacking, canvas, hessian or similar materials and kept constantly wet for least 7 days from the date
of placing the concrete in the case of ordinary Portland cement and at least 10 days for concrete
exposed to dry and hot weather condition. In the case of concrete where mineral admixtures or
blended to 14 days.
5.14.2 Membrane curing:Approved curing compounds may be used in lieu of moist curing with the permission of the
engineer-in-charge. Such compounds shall be applied to all exposed surfaces of the concrete as soon
as possible after the concrete set. Impermeable membranes such as polyethylene sheeting covering
closely the concrete surface may also be used to provide effective barrier against evaporation.

40

TABLE 5.2 CURING PERIODS.


Construction

Days

Actual

BEAM

14 days

15 days

COLUMNS

14 days

12 days

BRICK WORK

10-14 days

16 days

SLAB

10-14 days

12 days

PCC

10-14 days

8 days

FIG 5.8 CURING.

41

CHAPTER 6 TEST OF MATERILS


6.1 TEST OF CONCRETE:6.1.1 SLUMP TEST:This test is performed to determine the workability of fresh concrete and to check the uniformity of
concrete from batch to batch the test is conduct where the nominal size of aggregate doesnt exceed
40mm the apart consist of a mold shaped like the frustum of a con with the following.

FIG NO:-6.1 MEASURING OF SLUMP


Procedure of measuring slump:

Clean the internal surface of the mould.


Fill the mould with concrete in four layers.
Temp each layers with 25 strokes of the rod.
Distribute stokes uniformly over the entire cross section of mould.
The rod should penetrate every underlying layer.
Strike of excess concrete after the top layer, which a trowel.
Remove the mould slowly and vertically.
The concrete will slump or slide.
Measure the height of slump in mm.
Clean the slump cone.

42

TABLE NO 6.1

SLUMP IS RECOMMENDED OF DIFFERENT STRUCTURE:-

SR.NO. ITEMS

SLUMP (MM)

Columns

75-150 mm

Beams

50-100

Slabs

50-100

Foundation

25-75

6.1.2 Compressive strength: - The compressive strength of concrete M20 using as per drawing
then the compressive strength after 28 days should be 20 N/MM2. It can be check 7days also.
Compressive strength of concrete: Out of many test applied to the concrete, this is the
utmost important which gives an idea about all the characteristics of concrete. By this single test one
judge that whether Concreting has been done properly or not. For cube test two types of specimens
either cubes of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm or 10cm X 10 cm x 10 cm depending upon the size of
aggregate are used. For most of the works cubical moulds of size 15 cm x 15cm x 15 cm are
commonly used.
This concrete is poured in the mould and tempered properly so as not to have any voids.
After 24 hours these moulds are removed and test specimens are put in water for curing. The top
surface of these specimen should be made even and smooth. This is done by putting cement paste
and spreading smoothly on whole area of specimen.
These specimens are tested by compression testing machine after 7 days curing or 28 days
curing. Load should be applied gradually at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute till the Specimens
fails. Load at the failure divided by area of specimen gives the compressive strength of concrete
Procedure for casting of cubes:

Take three metallic Cast Iron mould of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm.


Clean the mould and oiling the all inner surface
Make the ratio 1:1.5:3 and cast the in the three layer with help of vibrators at the surface.
After then it should be placed for 24 hr. and after then it should be placed in the water for 7
days and 24 days.
As per days 7, 14 days Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and
wipe out excess water from the surface.
Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m
Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine
Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the
opposite sides of the cube cast.
Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine.
Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of the specimen.
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Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously at the rate of 140kg/cm2/minute
till the specimen fails
Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure.
It broken at 22 KN//m2
6.2 TEST OF CEMENT: - the test of cement is about types at the site in which field test and
laboratory test included
6.2.1 FINENESS: - To determine the fineness of cement by dry sieving. And The apparatus used
are 90m IS Sieve, Balance capable of weighing A bristle brush, preferably with 25 to 40mm,
bristle, for cleaning the sieve.
Procedure: Weigh approximately 10g of cement to the nearest 0.01g and place it on the sieve.
Shake the sieve by swirling, planetary and linear movements, until no more fine material
passes through it.
Weigh the residue and express its mass as a percentage R1, of the quantity first placed on the
sieve to the nearest 0.1 percent.
Gently brush all the fine material off the base of the sieve.
Repeat the whole procedure using a fresh 10g sample to obtain R2. Then calculate R as the
mean of R1 and R2 as a percentage, expressed to the nearest 0.1 percent. When the results
differ by more than 1 percent absolute, carry out a third sieving and calculate the mean of
the three values.
The value of R, to the nearest 0.1 percent, as the residue on the 90m sieve.

6.2.2 SOUNDNESS TEST BY LE-CHATELIERS APPARATUS:The soundness test a specimen of hardened cement paste is boiled for a fixed time so that any
tendency to expand is speeded up and can be detected. Soundness means the ability to resist volume
expansion.

FIG. 6.2

LE-CHATELIERS APPARATUS
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Apparatus:Le-chateliers apparatus, Water bath 1000C (min), Caliper, Measuring cylinder, Balance, Glass
sheets (2 nos), Enamel tray, trowel.
Place the mould on a glass sheet and fill it with the cement paste formed by gauging cement
with 0.78 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency.
Cover the mould with another piece of glass sheet, place a small weight on this covering
glass sheet and immediately submerge the whole assembly in water at a temperature of 27
2oC and keep it there for 24hrs.
Measure the distance separating the indicator points to the nearest 0.5mm (d1).
Submerge the mould again in water at the temperature prescribed above. Bring the water to
boiling point in 25 to 30 minutes and keep it boiling for 3hrs.
Remove the mould from the water, allow it to cool and measure the distance between the
indicator points (d2).
(d2 d1) represents the expansion of cement.
The expansion should not be more then 10mm.

FIG. 6.3

SOUNDNESS TEAT OF CEMENT

6.2.3 CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT PASTE:The required the preliminary determination of the amount of mixing water required to produce a
cement of standard consistency. The test determined by the vicats apparatus.
The basic aim is to find out the water content required to produce a cement paste of standard
consistency. The principle is that standard consistency of cement is that consistency at which the
Vicat plunger penetrates to a point 5-7mm from the bottom of Vicat mould. The apparatus is 300g
45

slides. At the end of rod and a needle 1mm sq., 5 cm long is fitted or a plunger of 10 mm dia. And a
graduated rod on the apparatus and also a glass plates.

FIG. 6.4

VICATS APPARATUS

Test procedure: Weigh approximately 400g of cement and mix it with a weighed quantity of water. The time
of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes.
Fill the Vicat mould with paste and level it with a trowel.
Lower the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface.
Release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste.
Note the reading on the gauge.
Repeat the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different quantities of water
until the reading on the gauge is 5 to 7mm.
This test were done at room temp.
6.2.4 CUBE TEST ON THE SITE

Prepare 5cm X 5cm cube of cement paste.


Plastic or tin boxes can be used for this purpose.
Place cube in water immediately.
After 24 hours the edges and should gain some strength.

46

FIG. 6.5

TESTING OF CEMENT CUBES

6.3 TEST OF COURSE AGGREGATES:6.3.1 WATER ABSORBED TEST:This test helps to determine the water absorption of coarse aggregates.
Apparatus required: - hangers for suspending it from the balance, Water-tight container for
suspending the basket, Dry soft cloth Shallow tray and Oven.
Procedure: The sample should be thoroughly washed to remove finer particles and dust, drained and
then placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22
and 32C.
After immersion, the entrapped air should be removed by lifting the basket and allowing it to
drop 25 times in 25 seconds. The basket and sample should remain immersed for a period of
24 + hrs. Afterwards.
The basket and aggregates should then be removed from the water, allowed to drain for a
few minutes, after which the aggregates should be gently emptied from the basket on to one
of the dry clothes and gently surface-dried with the cloth, transferring it to a second dry cloth
when the first would remove no further moisture. The aggregates should be spread on the
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second cloth and exposed to the atmosphere away from direct sunlight till it appears to be
completely surface-dry. The aggregates should be weighed (Weight A).
The aggregates should then be placed in an oven at a temperature of 100 to 110oC for 24hrs.
It should then be removed from the oven, cooled and weighed (Weight B).
Formula used is Water absorption = [(A B)/B] x 100%.
The coarse aggregates not more than 5% of total weight
6.3.2 SIEVES ANALYSIS: - Sieve analysis helps to determine the particle size distribution of the
coarse and fine aggregates. The apparatus used are A set of IS Sieves of sizes 80mm, 63mm,
50mm, 40mm,31.5mm, 25mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 6.3mm,4.75mm, 3.35mm, 2.36mm,
1.18mm, 600m, 300m, 150m and 75m., Balance or scale.
6.4 TEST OF FINE AGGREGATES:6.4.1 Fineness modulus: - Fineness modulus is an empirical factor obtained by adding the
cumulative percentages of aggregate retained on each of the standard sieves ranging from 4.75mm
to 150 micron.
Fineness modulus is generally used to get an idea of how coarse or fine the aggregate is.
More fineness modulus value indicates that the aggregate is coarser and small value of
fineness modulus indicates that the aggregate is finer.
Generally sand having fineness modulus more than 3.2 is not used for making good concrete
Fineness modulus of different type of sand is as per given belowTABLE 6.2

FINENESS MODULES

Type of Sand

Fineness Modulus Range

Fine Sand

2.2 2.6

Medium Sand

2.6 2.9

Coarse Sand

2.9 3.2

S.R
NO.

Sieve the aggregate using the appropriate sieves (80 mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 10 mm, 4.75 mm,
2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 micron, 300 micron & 150 micron)
Record the weight of aggregate retained on each sieve.
Calculate the cumulative weight of aggregate retained on each sieve.
Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate retained.
Add the cumulative weight of aggregate retained and divide the sum by 100. This value is
termed as fineness modulus
Refer the following example calculation.

48

6.4.2 Silt content: Take a clean 200ml. measuring cylinder.


Fill with sand upto certain mark. Add water above it up to 200ml. and shake well. (assume
the reading X)
Allow a period of 2 ours for settlement.
Clean sand will settle at the bottom with silt and clay impurities top of the sand layer.
Now observe the top level reading for sand.
Assume that it is Y. then the silt contain in %is given by
% silt content = (X- Y)/X}*100
The total silt content should not be more than 7% for good quality sand.
6.4.3 Bulking of sand: Take 250 ml. glass cylinder.
Fill up with damp sand upto the 200 ml. mark.
Slowly pour some water. The sand settles to its actual volume which is less than 200ml.
mark this level. Let us assume that it is D ml.
Then Bulkage is calculated by using the formula
% Bulkage = {(200-D)/D}*100
This bulking of the sand should be known for proper correction to be applied when
calculating dry sand requirement.
6.4.4 Organic impurities: Observe the sand while unloading the truck.
Visual inspection shows colored particles other than sand such as shells, gravels, lime
impurities etc.
This should not be more than 1% of the total sand received.
6.5 TEST OF BRICKS:6.5.1 Water absorption test: Select 3nos. of bricks of proper size and shape at random.
Weight each sample and note it down as W1, W2, and W3. Take the average as
{(W1+W2+W3) /3}=W
Submerge the samples in the water in water for 24 hrs. weight the wet samples again as W1,
W2and W3. Take the average
{(W1+W2+W3)/3}=W
Calculate the % of absorption by the formula.
% absorption = (difference in weight /original weight)*100
= {(W1-W)/W} X100
For good quality brick. This value should not more than 20%.

49

6.5.2 Strength test of bricks: Choose a brick from site hold in one hand up to a height of 60 com for brick and 90 for
block.
Drop it on the flat surface. A good brick should not break.
If any breakage is noticed, the lot should be immediately rejected.
In case of the block it should not break at all. Even corners and edges should remain intact.
This testing of blocks should be done after the curing period is over.
6.5.3 Compressive strength of bricks: Unevenness observed in the bed faces of bricks is removed to provide two smooth and
parallel faces by grinding. It is immersed in water at room temperature for 24 h.
The specimen is then removed and any surplus moisture is drained out at room temperature.
The frog and all voids in the bed face is filled with cement mortar cement, clean coarse sand
of grade 3 mm and down). It is stored under the damp jute bags for 24 h followed by
immersion in clean water for 3 days.
The specimen is placed with flat faces horizontal, and mortar filled face facing upwards
between two 3 ply plywood sheets each of 3 mm thickness and carefully centered between
plates of testing machine.
Load is applied axially at a uniform rate of 14 N/mm2 per minute till failure occurs. The
maximum load at failure is noted down. The load at failure is considered the maximum load
at which the specimen fails to produce any further increase in the indicator reading on the
testing machine.
Compressive strength = {(Maximum loads in failure N) / (avg. area in bed)} N/mm2
(i) Common building bricks35 kg/sq. cm,
(ii) Second class bricks70 kg/sq. cm,
(iii) First class bricks 105 kg/sq. cm.
(iv) Crushing strength of bricks not less than 140 kg/sq. cm are graded as AA class.

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CHAPTER 7 RESULT & CALCULATION


7.1 FINENESS MODULES OF COARSE AGGREGATES:At the Bissau site we doing the test of the fine aggregates to the fineness modules test in which
taken the sieves as 4.75, 2.36, 1.18, 600mic, 300mic, 150mic and pan in which taken a sample of
the 500gm. First point in which includes weight retained on the each sieves at 300mic, maximum
weight is retained and other hand is cumulative weight of sand retained on before at the each sieves,
the last index in which cumulative % of sand retained those total is 235 to find the fineness modules
divided by 100 and fineness modulus is 2.35.
TABLE 7.1. AT THE UNDER GIVEN THE TABLE OF FINENESS MODULES.

The oven dry should be 105-110 temperature the sieve shaker used for 10 minutes minimum
The fineness modulus should be between 2.2 -3.2

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7.2 SIEVES ANALYSIS OF COARSE AGGREGATES:In the sieves analysis for find the maximum aggregate at the site for requirement of the beams,
columns, and R.C.C. structure in the test table 5 types of sieves in which 40mm, 20mm, 10mm,
4.75mm and pan the total weight is taken is 4796gm and at the first sieves it retained nil at the
second sieves it left as 1832gm at the 10mm sieves is 2892 and maximum present at this sieves. In
the other column cumulative weight retained. In the Weight retained % the total weight retained on
the each sieves in the percentages. And limits shows the range of the acceptable limits in
percentages.

FIG. 7.1

SIEVES SHAKIER & SIEVES

TABLE 7.2. SIEVES ANALYSIS

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7.3 CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT: In the consistency of cement which initial and final setting time of cement at the construction site
the materials takes 500gm and by using of vicats apparatus we can fined the initial and final setting
time of the cement 30 minutes it is penetrate is 29mm and their the two sample in the second it is
penetrate is 32mm at second consistency of cement in which after 600minuts in which should not
should be penetrate.
TABLE 7.3

CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT

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The test consist of making a number of cement paste with different amount of mixing water. Each
paste is placed in turn in the mould under the vicats plunger which is lowered into contact with
surface of the paste and quickly released.
The all producer should be at the temperature of 27-29 the final setting time needle projects out of
an annular attachment by 0.5 mm.

7.4 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF CONCRETES CUBES: - In the


compressive strength test of the concrete paste in the size of mould of 15cm X 15cm X 15cm. size it
casted in the three layers by the tamping rod it placed at the room temp. For 24hr. after 24hr. it
placed in the water bottom for 28days after 28 days it taken out from the water and weight of
specimen is different and weight of specimen is around 8kg. And the load applied on it uniformly
and average the compressive strength is 358.09kg/cm2.

54

FIG.NO:- 7.2 MOULDS & CUBES IN THE WATER

TABLE 7.4 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

7.5 SLUMP TEST OF CONCRETE:In the find the workability of concrete in which use slump cone the dia. Of the slump cone is
200mm top dia. Is 100mm height of slump cone is 300mm. after in filling concrete cement paste in
the three layers each layer is compacted by a graduated rod 25 times the dia. of the rod is 16mm and
height of the road is 2ft. the slump result is 115 mm from top.
55

TABLE 7.5 SLUMP TEST

FIG. 7.3

SLUMP CONE APPARATUS

7.6 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF BRICKS:The compressive strength of bricks is to calculate the compressive strength of bricks those used at
the site at our size the bricks available as per size (9*4*3) first of all we filled the form of bricks
by cement mortar (1:4). Then the compressive load on each bricks is different and while we testing
56

the compressive strength as load/ actual size of the bricks those are maximum is 114.30 and average
is 112.11N/mm2

FIG. 7.4
TABLE 7.6

BRICKS FROG FILL WITH MORTAR

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF BRICKS

7.7 WATER ABSORBED TEST OF BRICKS:-

57

in which measure water absorption of brick in taken the sample from site as 5 bricks after then fill
the frog of each bricks with(1:4) cement mortar it lifted and weight of bricks then it left in the water
at room temp. for 24 hours after 24 hours it weight and calculate the water absorbed weight it
should not be more than 20% of total weight
.

TABLE 7.7

WATER ABSORBED TEST OF COARSE AGGREGATES

The cause due to water is sample is very high damageable in the building then if it
more than 20% then should be rejected.

7.8 COARSE AGGREGATE WATER ABSORBED TEST: 58

The water absorbed of coarse aggregate may be defined that the water absorbed by the coarse
aggregates at the 3 samples are done in which taken the saturated sample by the 25 sec. water
passing after they placed in the oven for 24 hr. (110-115) temp. After the 24 hrs. It taken out from
oven and weight of samples (B) to calculate the % water absorbed by {(A-B)/A}*100. It should be
>5%.and at the site the results was came 1.98%.
TABLE 7.8

WATER ABSORBED TEST OF COARSE AGGREGATES

.
The sample taken before using should be oven dried then it should not be no moisture in the top and
inner surface of the aggregates and after the sample subtract the sample from saturated aggregates

REFERENCES
List of IS codes Referred
59

IS 456 -2000 Plain & Reinforced concrete code of practice


IS 383-1993 Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregate from natural
Sources for concrete
IS: 383 Zone-III- specifications for Coarse & Fine aggregates from natural sources for
Concrete.
IS 1786 -1985 Specification for High strength Deformed steel bars and wires for Concrete
Reinforcement
IS 2386 (Part - II) 1991 Method for Test for aggregates for concrete Part - II Estimation of
deleterious materials and organic impurities
IS 9103 1979 Specification for admixtures for concrete
IS-383-1970.The grading of coarse aggregates should be as per specifications
IS: 516 1959 Methods of tests for Strength of Concrete.
Books

Design of R.C.C. Structural Elements by S.S. Bhavikatti


Significance of tests and properties of concrete by Joseph F.Lamond, J. H. Pielert
Materials in construction: an introduction by Geoffrey D. Taylor
Building Materials by k.l Arora
R.C.C designs by Dr.B.C punmia

60