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Name of

the Drug

Classification
& Indication

Generic
Name:
Atorvastat
in

Classification:
Antihyperlipid
emic HMGCoa reductase
inhibitor

Brand
Name:
Lipitor

Indication:
-To increase
HDL-C in
patients with
primary
hypercholester
olemia and
mixed
dyslipidemia
- Adjunct to
diet to treat
elevated

Dose ,
Route
&
Freque
ncy
Dose:
80mg
Route:
NGT
Freque
ncy:
OD

Mechanism of
Action

Contraindication Side
Effects

Nursing
Responsibili
ties

Atorvastatin
competitively
inhibits HMGCoA reductase, the
enzyme that
catalyses the
conversion of
HMG-CoA to
mevalonic acid.
This results in the
induction of the
LDL receptors,
leading to lowered
LDL-cholesterol
concentration.
Absorption: Rapid
from the GI tract
(oral).
Distribution:
Protein-binding:
98%. Metabolism:
Extensively
hepatic; converted
to active inhibitors
of HMG-CoA
reductase.
Excretion: Faeces
(as metabolites);
14 hr (elimination
half-life).

Contraindicated
with allergy to
atorvastatin,
fungal
byproducts, active
liver disease or
unexplained and
persistent
elevations of
transaminase
levels, pregnancy,
lactation. Use
cautiously with
impaired
endocrine
function.

-Tell patient
to take drug
at the same
time each
day to
maintain its
effects.
-Instruct
patient to
take a
missed dose
as soon as
possible. If
its almost
time for his
next dose, he
should skip
the missed
dose.
-Advise
patient to
notify
prescriber
immediately
if he
develops
unexplained
muscle pain,
tenderness,
or weakness,
especially if
accompanied
by fatigue or
feve

Headache
,
flatulence
,
diarrhoea,
nausea,
vomiting,
anorexia,
xerostomi
a,
angioede
ma,
myalgia,
rash/pruri
tus,
alopecia,
allergy,
infection,
chest pain

Name of the
Drug

Classification &
Indication

Generic
Classification:
Fluoroquinolone
Name:
Levofloxacin antibiotic
Brand
Name:
Levaquin

Indication:
Treatment of acute
bacterial
exacerbation of
chronic bronchitis,
acute bacterial
sinusitis, acute
pyelonephritis,
anthrax
(inhalational,
postexposure),
chronic bacterial
prostatitis,
communityacquired
pneumonia,
complicated and
uncomplicated skin
and skin-structure
infections,
complicated and
uncomplicated UTI,
and nosocomial
pneumonia caused
by susceptible
strains of specific
microorganisms.

Dose ,
Route &
Frequency
Dose:
750mg

Mechanism
of Action

Contrai
ndicatio
n
Bactericidal: Hyperse
interferes
nsitivity
with DNA
to
by
fluoroqu
Route:
NGT
inhibiting
inolones
DNA synase ,
quinolon
Frequency: replication
OD
in
e
susceptible
antibioti
gramcs, or
negative and any
gramproduct
positive
compon
bacteria,
ent.
preventing
cell
reproduction

Side
Effects

Nursing
Responsibilities

Nausea,
diarrhea,
headache,
dizziness,
lighthead
edness,
or trouble
sleeping
may
occur.

-Arrange for
culture and
sensitivity tests
before
beginning
therapy.
-Continue
therapy as
indicated for
condition being
treated.
-Administer oral
drug 1 hr before
or 2 hr after
meals with a
glass of water;
separate oral
drug from other
cation
administration,
including
antacids, by at
least 2 hr.
-Ensure that
patient is well
hydrated during
course of
therapy.
-Monitor
clinical
response; if no
improvement is
seen or a relapse
occurs, repeat
culture and
sensitivity test.

Name of
the Drug

Classification
& Indication

Dose ,
Route
&
Frequ
ency
Generic
Classification: Dose:
50mg
Name:
Sitagliptin Indication:
Adjunct to diet Route
and exercise in :
Brand
type 2
NGT
Name:
Januvia
diabetes, as
Frequ
monotherapy
ency:
or combination OD
therapy.

Mechanism of
Action

Contraindication Side Effects

Nursing
Responsibili
ties

Decreases
hepatic glucose
production.
Decreases
intestinal glucose
absorption.Increa
ses sensitivity to
insulin.

Hypersensitivity,
metabolic
acidosis,
dehydration,
sepsis,
renaldysfunction,
hepaticimpairmen
t

-Assess for
patient's
history of
diabetes

Nasopharyng
itis, upper
respiratory
tract
infection,
headache;
hypersensitiv
ity reactions
(eg,
anaphylaxis,
angioedema,
StevensJohnson
syndrome),
discontinue
if occur.

-Monitor for
patient's
blood
glucose
before and
after giving
medications
-Assess for
hypersensitiv
ity to
Metformin
-Assess for
patient's
renal
function
-Monitor for
signs and
symptoms of
hypoglycemi
c reactions
(e.g. cold
andclammy
skin)
-Discontinue
if renal
impairment
occurs

Name of Classification &


the
Indication
Drug

Generic
Name:
SOSOR
BIDE
MONO
NITRAT
E
Brand
Name:
Imdur

Classification:
ANTIANGINAL
DRUGS
Indication:
Prevention and
treatment of
Angina Pectoris
in Adults

Dose ,
Route
&
Freque
ncy
Dose:
50mg
Route:
NGT
Freque
ncy:
BID

Mechanis
m of
Action

Contraindica
tion

Side Effects

Nursing
Responsibilities

Nitrates are
drugs that
act directly
on the
smooth
muscle to
cause
relaxation
and
todepress
muscle
tone.

The presence
of any
allergies to
nitrates. These
drugs arealso
contraindicate
d in the
following
conditions:
Severe
anemia, head
trauma or
hemorrhage,
pregnancy
and lactation.

(CNS)
Headache,
dizziness,
and
myasthenia.
(GI) N &
Vand
incontinence.
( CV)
Hypotension.
(SKIN)
Flushing
pallor
sweating and
increased
perspiration

Instruct patient to
take medication as
directed, even if
feeling better. Take
missed doses as soon
as remembered;
dosesof isosorbide
dinitrate should be
taken at least 2 hr
apart (6 hr with
extended-release
preparations); daily
doses of isosorbide
mono nitrate should
be taken 7 hr apart.
Do not double doses.
Do not discontinue
abruptly Caution
patient to make
position changes
slowly to minimize
orthostatic
hypotension

Name of
the Drug

Classificati Dose ,
on &
Route &
Indication Frequenc
y
Generic
Classificati Dose:
25/100 mg
Name:
on:
Levodopa Antiparkins
on Drug
Route:
NGT
Brand
Name:
Indication:
Sinemet
Manageme Frequenc
nt of
y:
Parkinson
BID
disease

Mechanism of
Action

Levodopa
inhibitsperipheral
but
notcentral,decarbox
ylation of levodopa
because itdoes not
cross theblood
brain barrier.Since
peripheraldecarbox
ylation isinhibited,
morelevodopa is
availablefor
transport to
thebrain where it
will beconverted
todopamine,
thusrelieving
thesymptoms of
parkinsonism

Contraindic
ation

Side Effects

Nursing
Responsibiliti
es

Neurolepticm
alignant
likesyndromei
ncludingsymp
toms of
muscularrigidi
ty

Hypothermia
Increase
serumphospho
kinase
Changes
inmental
status

Administration
of sustained
releaseform of
levodopaavaila
bility by
50%and
increased
peaklevodopa
levels by25%

Name
of the
Drug

Classification &
Indication

Generi
c
Name:
Albuter
ol

Classification:
Bronchodilator
(therapeutic);
adrenergics
(pharmacologic)

Brand
Name:
Salbuta
mol

Dose ,
Route &
Frequen
cy
Dose:

Route:
Inhalatio
n
Frequen
cy:

Indication:
1.To control and
prevent
reversible airway
obstruction
TID
caused by
asthma or
chronic
obstructive
pulmonary
disorder (COPD)
2.Quick relief for
bronchospasm
3.For the
prevention of
exercise-induced
bronchospasm
4.Long-term
control agent for
patients with
chronic or
persistent
bronchospasm

Mechanism
of Action

Contraindicat
ion

Side Effects

Nursing
Responsibilities

It relieves
nasal
congestion
and
reversible
bronchospas
m by
relaxing the
smooth
muscles of
the
bronchioles.
The relief
from nasal
congestion
and
bronchospas
m is made
possible by
the following
mechanism
that takes
place when
Salbutamol is
administered.

Hypersensitivit
y to adrenergic
amines

Nervousness
Restlessness
Tremor
Headache
Insomnia
Chest pain
Palpitations
Angina
Arrhythmias
Hypertension
Nausea and
vomiting
Hyperglycemia
Hypokalemia

-Assess lung
sounds, PR and
BP before drug
administration
and during peak
of medication.
-Observe fore
paradoxical
spasm and
withhold
medication and
notify physician
if condition
occurs.
- Administer PO
medications
with meals to
minimize
gastric irritation.
Extendedrelease tablet
should be
swallowedwhole. It should
not be crushed
or chewed.

Hypersensitivit
y to
fluorocarbons

-Albuterol may
cause an
unusual or bad
taste.

Name of
the
Drug
Generic
Name:
Paraceta
mol

Classificati
on &
Indication
Classificati
on:
Antipyretic

Brand
Name:
Biogesic

Indication:
Symptomat
ic relief of
pain and
fever

Dose ,
Route &
Frequency
Dose:
500 1000
mg
Route:
NGT
Frequency
:
PRN

Mechanis
m of
Action
Decreases
fever by a
hypothalam
ic effect
leading to
sweating
and
vasodilatio
n
Inhibits
pyrogen
effect on
the
hypothalam
ic-heatregulating
centers
Inhibits
CNS
prostagland
in synthesis
with
minimal
effects on
peripheral
prostagland
in synthesis
Does not
cause
ulceration
of the GI
tract and
causes no
anticoagula
nt action.

Contraindica
tion

Side Effects

Nursing
Responsibilities

Contraindicat
ed in patients
hypersensitive
to drug.
- Use
cautiously in
patients with
long-term
alcohol use
because
therapeutic
doses cause
hepatotoxicity
in these
patients.
-Hematologic:
hemolytic
anemia,
neutropenia,
leucopenia,
pancytopenia.
-Hepatic:
Jaundice
-Metabolic:
Hypoglycemi
a
-Skin: rash,
urticaria

Minimal GI
upset.
Methemoglob
inemia
Hemolytic
Anemia
Neutropenia
Thrombocyto
penia
Pancytopenia
Leukopenia
Urticaria CNS
stimulation
Hypoglycemi
c coma
Jaundice
Glissitis
Drowsiness
Liver Damage

Use liquid form for


children andpatients
who have
difficultyswallowing
. In children, dont
exceed five dosesin
24 hours. Advise
patient that drug is
only forshort term
use and to consult
thephysician if
giving to children
forlonger than 5
days or adults
forlonger than 10
days. Advise
patient or caregiver
thatmany over the
counter
productscontain
acetaminophen; be
awareof this when
calculating total
dailydose. Warn
patient that high
doses
orunsupervised long
term use cancause
liver damage