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BreezeMAX

Architectural Concepts for


VoIP over BreezeMAX

September 2005
DN0873

Architectural Concepts for VoIP over BreezeMAX

Legal Rights

Copyright 2005 Alvarion Ltd. All rights reserved.


The material contained herein is proprietary, privileged, and confidential and owned by Alvarion or its
third party licensors. No disclosure thereof shall be made to third parties without the express written
permission of Alvarion Ltd.
Alvarion Ltd. reserves the right to alter the equipment specifications and descriptions in this publication
without prior notice. No part of this publication shall be deemed to be part of any contract or warranty
unless specifically incorporated by reference into such contract or warranty.
Alvarion, BreezeCOM, WALKair, WALKnet, BreezeNET, BreezeACCESS, BreezeMANAGE,
BreezeLINK, BreezeCONFIG, BreezeMAX, AlvariSTAR, MGW, eMGW, WAVEXpress,

MicroXpress , WAVEXchange , WAVEView , GSM Network in a Box and TurboWAVE and/or other
products and/or services referenced here in are either registered trademarks, trademarks or service
marks of Alvarion Ltd.
All other names are or may be the trademarks of their respective owners.
Limitation of Liability:
(a) Alvarion shall not be liable to the purchaser or to any third party, for any loss of profits, loss of use,
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shall the aggregate liability for damages to all parties regarding any product exceed the purchase price
paid for that product by that party (except in the case of a breach of a partys confidentiality obligations).

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Architectural Concepts for VoIP over BreezeMAX

Contents

Contents
1

Scope ........................................................................................................1

General VoIP Architecture.......................................................................2

Configuration Guidelines ........................................................................3


3.1

3.1.1

VG Configuration ................................................................................................. 3

3.1.2

BreezeMAX Configuration ................................................................................... 4

3.1.3

Other Network Elements...................................................................................... 5

3.2

Example 2 Using DRAP and Separate VLANs for Voice and Data Traffic........ 6

3.2.1

VG Configuration ................................................................................................. 6

3.2.2

BreezeMAX Configuration ................................................................................... 6

3.2.3

Other Network Elements...................................................................................... 7

3.3

Example 1 Using DRAP and No VLANs ............................................................... 3

Example 3 No DRAP Used..................................................................................... 8

3.3.1

VG Configuration ................................................................................................. 8

3.3.2

BreezeMAX Configuration ................................................................................... 8

3.3.3

Other Network Elements...................................................................................... 9

Summary ................................................................................................11

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Architectural Concepts for VoIP over BreezeMAX

Contents

Figures
Figure 1: General VoIP Architecture ........................................................................ 2
Figure 2: L2 Service Profile With DRAP Enabled ...................................................... 5
Figure 3: L2 Service Profile & Voice Service Profile................................................... 7

References
(1)

DN0846 Dynamic Resource Allocation Protocol (DRAP) March 2005

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Abbreviations

Abbreviations
AAA

Authentication, Authorization and Accounting

CIR

Committed Information Rate

CG

Continuous Grant

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DRAP

Dynamic Resource Allocation Protocol

DSCP

Differentiated Services Code Point

GW

GateWay

NPU

Network processing Unit

POTS

Plain Old Telephony Service

PPPoE

Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet

PSTN

Public Switching Telephony Network

QoS

Quality of Service

RT

Real Time

RTP

Real Time Protocol

SIP

Session Initiation Protocol

ToS

Type of Service

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

VG

Voice Gateway

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network

VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol

VPL

Virtual Path Link

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Scope

Scope
The purpose of this document is to describe different concepts for using
VoIP over the BreezeMAX system. The document provides a general
description of the architecture required for enabling voice services over the
BreezeMAX platform. It includes several examples of using the BreezeMAX
with the Alvarion Voice Gateway (VG) and the Dynamic Resource Allocation
Protocol (DRAP) as well as guidelines for providing a voice solution without
the DRAP.
The document focuses on the required configuration for the BreezeMAX
system as well as the Voice Gateway. It does not provide a detailed SIP
server/H.323 gatekeeper configuration or a detailed network design, but
rather provides guidelines for them.

IMPORTANT
All DRAP related configurations and examples should be used only with BreezeMAX
equipment running version 1.5 and up, on all components, i.e., NPU, AU and SU.

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Architectural Concepts for VoIP over BreezeMAX

General VoIP Architecture

General VoIP Architecture


A basic VoIP architecture includes the following components:
1. Voice GW A device with 1, 2 or more POTS interfaces located at the
customers premises providing a gateway between the regular telephone
device and the SIP/H.323 network.
2. BreezeMAX platform The wireless access system providing the
connectivity between the operators transport network and the
customers premises.
3. SIP server/H.323 Gatekeeper A component serving as the registrar for
the SIP VoIP GWs (or the registry for the H.323 GWs). This device
registers all the GWs as well as provides AAA features and switching
information for the SIP/H.323 network.
4. SIP/H.323 GW An optional device used to connect the SIP/H.323
network to other telephony networks such as mobile networks or PSTN.
The following diagram provides a general view of a VoIP architecture.

SIP Server

SIP Voice
GW

Network
BreezeMAX base station

Subscriber Unit

SIP GW

Figure 1: General VoIP Architecture

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Configuration Guidelines

Configuration Guidelines
This section describes three different configuration scenarios for the
architecture described above. Two scenarios are based on the use of the
DRAP and the Alvarion VG and one is based on a non-DRAP solution. These
scenarios are commonly used scenarios, but do not reflect the only possible
configurations for the system.
Each example will include the general guidelines for the configuration of the
VG, the BreezeMAX system and any special notes regarding other network
elements.
For more specific and detailed information on how to configure VG
parameters or BreezeMAX parameters (such as service profiles and
services), please refer to the relevant VG and BreezeMAX system manuals.

IMPORTANT
The information provided in this section provides general guidelines and does not reflect a full
voice network design or a full configuration example.

3.1

Example 1 Using DRAP and No VLANs


NOTE
The same guidelines refer when using the same VLAN for the Voice and Data traffic. In such
cases, the VPL and the VLAN listed in the service profile and in the service should be set
according to the VLAN used and also VG configuration should enable VLANs.

3.1.1

VG Configuration
To enable the DRAP mechanism, the DRAP must be enabled in the BW
Reservation configuration tab. It is also recommended to have the Preallocation enabled; this allows the DRAP functionality to start when the
user picks up the phone. Hence, if no bandwidth is available a busy tone
will be heard. When this is not enabled, the DRAP functionality will start
only after the user has finished dialing.
All the relevant SIP/H.323 information should be configured in the VG
according to the specific network parameters used.
The VG IP address should be provided by a DHCP server or using a fixed IP.
If a fixed IP is used, the IP address has to be an address in the voice
network, which is unique and can be routed between the different voice
components. Also a default GW address must be configured in the VG. This
address should be of a router installed on the network side of the
BreezeMAX NPU.

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Configuration Guidelines

The ToS settings for the voice traffic in the VG should be set to a higher
priority than the regular data traffic, allowing the backbone network to
prioritize the traffic accordingly.
If a VLAN is used for the voice and data traffic, the VG should have the
VLAN configured in it. Make sure the VLAN list includes the required VLAN
ID and the LAN and WAN tagging options are configured correctly. In this
case, the VLAN priority field can be used for prioritization of the voice traffic
in the backbone network instead of the ToS bits.

3.1.2

BreezeMAX Configuration
On the BreezeMAX system, a service for the voice and data traffic should be
configured. As the DRAP is used, all voice configurations will be done
automatically. The operator should only configure an L2 service with the
required QoS for the data traffic and the appropriate VLAN and VPL
configurations. Following the initial DRAP discovery message from the VG
(automatically sent by the VG after DRAP is enabled) the BreezeMAX will
automatically allocate a RT connection for all VG management, SIP/H.323
signaling and DRAP messages from or to the VG IP address. All traffic with
source IP or destination IP equal to the VG IP address will be transmitted
on this automatically generated connection.
When a call is initiated, another automatic connection will be set by the
BreezeMAX system. This is a CG connection for the RTP traffic. This
connection will have priority over the RT service and all traffic with the
source or destination IP of the VG and the UDP port of the specific call will
be transmitted over this connection (the UDP port for each specific call is
exchanged between the VG and the BreezeMAX system using the DRAP
messages).

IMPORTANT
The QoS configured for the L2 service is applicable for the data traffic only. All signaling, VG
management and voice traffic will be transmitted over the automatically generated
connections as mentioned above.
Contrary to the above, the forwarding rule used will be applied to the voice traffic. Hence, to
allow voice traffic between two SUs in the same Base Station, the forwarding rule must allow
relaying.

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Configuration Guidelines

Configured L2 service with QoS for Data traffic

Automatically Generated RT QoS for signaling & DRAP

SIP Voice
GW

Automatically generated CG QoS for each voice call

Subscriber Unit

BreezeMAX base station

Figure 2: L2 Service Profile With DRAP Enabled

NOTE
To activate DRAP on a network without DRAP when there is one L2 service configured for the
voice and data traffic similarly to the above mentioned, the operator needs only to activate the
DRAP functionality in the VG and the voice connections will automatically be configured as
described.

3.1.3

Other Network Elements


It is important to make sure the network supports prioritization according
to the ToS bits in the IP header. This will allow higher priority for voice
traffic in the network (and not just over the air in the BreezeMAX system).
If a VLAN is used, the appropriate configuration throughout the network
should be in place to allow the tagged traffic. In this case, the VLAN priority
can also be used instead of the ToS bits.

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3.2

Configuration Guidelines

Example 2 Using DRAP and Separate VLANs


for Voice and Data Traffic
In most networks the voice and data traffic is split on two or more different
VLANs to differentiate between them. In these cases, the voice traffic may
be tagged with one VLAN ID, and the data traffic may be tagged with several
different VLANs according to the data type.
NOTE
The VLAN tag for VG management traffic in these cases should be the same as the voice
VLAN tag on the access network, as both have the same IP address.

3.2.1

VG Configuration
The same guidelines mentioned in Example 1 apply, except for the following
ToS and VLAN issues:
The ToS setting for the voice traffic is not needed, as most likely the
prioritization of the voice traffic will be done according to the VLAN tag.
The VLAN configuration tab should include all the VLANs used (voice VLAN
and data VLANs). The VG can act as a tagging switch for the data traffic if
needed.

3.2.2

BreezeMAX Configuration
On the BreezeMAX system two separate services should be configured: one
for voice and one for data traffic.
The data service should be a regular L2 service (in this case a PPPoE service
can be used for the data traffic if PPPoE is used in the network) with the
appropriate VPL and VLAN list configured according to the data VLAN ID.
The Voice service should use a VOICE type service profile with the
appropriate VPL and VLAN list configured according to the voice VLAN ID.
This special service profile type does not require a QoS setting as it is
automatically configured with a RT connection. This service will create a
connection, which allows only DHCP, ARP and DRAP traffic on it. Hence,
when a DRAP enabled VG is connected, it first sends a DHCP message (if it
is not configured for a fixed IP), then it will send an ARP message searching
for its default GW and immediately after, it will send a DRAP discovery
message. All these messages will go over the VOICE type service. As
mentioned in example 1, following the DRAP discovery message the
BreezeMAX system will setup appropriate connections automatically for all
the voice related traffic. The original service configured will not be used
again until the system is rebooted. As it does not allow any traffic other
than the three protocols mentioned above this service cannot be used for
any malicious act.

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Configuration Guidelines

IMPORTANT
The voice service and the L2 service must be configured on two separate and different VPLs.

Configured L2 service with QoS for Data traffic VLAN Data

Configured Voice service (Automatically RT QoS) VLAN Voice


Only DHCP, ARP and DRAP packets

SIP Voice
GW

Automatically Generated RT QoS for signaling & DRAP


Automatically generated CG QoS for each voice call

BreezeMAX base station

Subscriber Unit

Figure 3: L2 Service Profile & Voice Service Profile

NOTE
To activate DRAP on a network without DRAP when there are two L2 service configured one
for the voice and one for data traffic similarly to the above mentioned, the operator needs only
to activate the DRAP functionality in the VG and the voice connection s will automatically be
configured as described.
As in this case the voice traffic will be running over an L2 service profile and not a Voice type
service profile, other traffic with the same VLAN as the voice can be transmitted on this
service. This might be an opening for malicious acts. Therefore, it is recommended in these
cases to delete the old services and the old service profile dedicated for the voice traffic and
then create a new service profile of type Voice and new services.

3.2.3

Other Network Elements


As the network uses multiple VLANs all network elements must be
configured correctly to pass the relevant VLAN tagged packets.

IMPORTANT
All voice traffic mentioned above as well as all call limitations configured in the BreezeMAX
system apply to DRAP based voice calls only. Any voice traffic from other non alvarion voice
gateways does not follow these rules and is handled as regular data traffic.

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3.3

Configuration Guidelines

Example 3 No DRAP Used


NOTE
When working with VoIP in the BreezeMAX system it is always recommended to work with
DRAP, as this provides better air efficiency as well as additional voice features, such as
automatic voice connection configuration, call limitation per sector and call limitation per
service profile.

When DRAP is not used all voice service configuration have to be done
manually by the operator.
The following VG configuration guidelines are based on the Alvarion VG
capabilities but can be used with any Voice GW with similar features.

3.3.1

VG Configuration
The DRAP must be disabled in the BW Reservation configuration tab.
All the relevant SIP/H.323 information should be configured in the VG
according to the specific network parameters used.
The VG IP address should be provided by a DHCP server or using a fixed IP.
The traffic coming out from the VG should be marked with different DSCP
marking according to its priority:
1. Voice (RTP packets) - should be marked with a high DSCP mark, for
example 60.
2. SIP/H.323 signaling traffic should be marked with a different mark for
example 40.
3. Data and other traffic should not be marked, i.e., 0.
If a VLAN tag is used, the differentiation between the traffic types can be
done using the VLAN priority in a similar manner.

3.3.2

BreezeMAX Configuration
On the BreezeMAX system a service for the voice and data traffic should be
configured. As the DRAP is not used, the operator should configure an L2
service with the needed QoS for the data as well as the voice traffic. For
this, the priority classification should be used in the service profile in the
following way. If DSCP is used (as in the example above):
1. Classification 0-30 should use the QoS designated for the data traffic.
2. Classification 31-50 should use a RT QoS for the SIP/H.323 signaling
traffic. Typically a RT with 256 kbps CIR QoS should be enough.

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Configuration Guidelines

3. Classification 51-63 should use a CG QoS for the actual voice traffic.
Typically, the CG service should be configured according to the Codec
used, for example for 20ms G729 packets a packet size of 78 bytes and
a sample rate of 20 ms should be used. If more than one simultaneous
call is expected, the sample rate should be divided by the number of
simultaneous calls expected (up to sample rate of 5 ms). For example,
for 2 calls use sample rate of 10 ms; for 4 calls use 5 ms.
NOTE
The CG connection will always be configured (unlike the situation with the DRAP mode). The
capacity of the system can therefore be affected.
A CG connection with no traffic running for more than 2 seconds will stop allocating air
resources until the next packet is received, at which time the CG connection will again be
allocated resources every sample rate.

If VLANs are used, the same guidelines apply, but the VLAN priority can be
used to differentiate between the different QoS required.

IMPORTANT
The packet size should take into account the entire RTP packet size including all headers
(RTP, UDP, IP, Ethernet). For example, if VLANs are used, 4 additional bytes should be
added to the packet size.
It is important that the packet size be greater or equal to the actual packets expected, never
smaller, to assure the best voice quality.

If the Voice Gateway does not support different marking for the RTP and the
signaling traffic, all voice traffic will be marked with the same DSCP or
VLAN priority. As this will include signaling messages and not just the voice
RTP packets, the operator may use a RT service for the voice traffic. In this
case, the RT QoS should be allocated with a CIR of 250 kbps plus 50 to 150
kbps per each expected simultaneous call. For example, a service for 2
simultaneous calls using G729 20 ms should have a RT QoS of 350 kbps
CIR.

NOTE
In these cases the operator might still consider using a CG connection in order to achieve
better voice quality at the expense of a possible degradation of the sector capacity.

3.3.3

Other Network Elements


It is important to make sure the network supports prioritization according
to the DSCP bits in the IP header or the VLAN priority. This will allow
higher priority for voice traffic in the network (and not just over the air in
the BreezeMAX system).

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Architectural Concepts for VoIP over BreezeMAX

Configuration Guidelines

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Summary

Summary
This document provides general guidelines for the overall system
configuration of a combined VoIP and BreezeMAX system. The document
provides several examples of common architectures and the relevant
guidelines for them.
As mentioned in the document it is always recommended to use the DRAP
when working with VoIP as this allows for improved air efficiency as well as
additional voice features such as call limitation per sector and automatic
voice service configuration.
It is always important to properly design the specific network according to
the operators needs, as well as perform a detailed capacity plan and a
detailed network design. This document should not replace any of these,
but rather assist the operator with general architectural guidelines.

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