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Code No: RR420403


Set No. 1
IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007
BIO MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) What are the di erent types of muscles? Explain the importance of motor
unit in the muscular contraction.
(b) What is meant by central nervous system? Explain the di erent parts of it
and their activity. [8+8]

2. (a) With the help of a neat sketch explain the functioning of the heart.
(b) With the help of a neat diagram explain the working principle of heart lung
machine. [8+8]

3. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of an ECG isolation ampli er and explain its work-
ing.
(b) Explain the principle of operation of a biomedical pre ampli er with neat
diagram. [8+8]

4. (a) What is bio-feedback instrumentation. Explain how it is used in ECG and


EMG.
(b) What are the di erences in ampli cation and bandwidth requirement of am-
pli ers for ECG and EMG? [8+8]

5. (a) Explain the lead con guration in ECG with neat sketches
(b) Draw the basic building blocks of electro cardiograph and explain. [8+8]

6. (a) With the help of a neat block diagram explain the operation of a visual and
auditory evoked potential system.
(b) Given that EEG output is 51 p-p (to a 100 p-p di erential EEG input)
and the noise output is 0 005 p-p (to a 100 p-p common mo de noise
input). Calculate the CMRR. [10+6]

7. (a) Compare the merits and demerits of both internal and external pace makers.
(b) Write short notes on bloo d pressure monitor. [8+8]

8. (a) What is the basic principle of computerized tomography ? Explain.


(b) Write a note on CT number scale used in CT. [8+8]
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Code No: RR420403


Set No. 2
IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007
BIO MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Give an account on the di erent chemical compositions in the intra and extra
cellular uids and their e ects in the case of bloo d serum.
(b) How does the blood circulate through out the body. [8+8]

2. (a) Give the classi cation of heart sounds based on their origin and explain brie y
about each.
(b) Explain how the heart sounds are measured or recorded? [10+6]

3. (a) What is Metal-Electrolyte interface? Explain.


(b) Discuss the di erent tape recording methods used in medical systems. List its
advantages and disadvantages? [6+10]

4. (a) Draw and explain a typical strength-duration curve.


(b) Derive the expressions for rheobase and chronaxie. [8+8]

5. (a) Explain the Frank lead system.


(b) Explain how this Frank lead system is di erent from the other lead systems?
[8+8]

6. (a) Explain the system of placement of electrodes while recording the brain activ-
ity of a human.
(b) Describe the features EEG
(c) What are the characteristics of an abnormal EEG [6+5+5]

7. (a) With the help of a neat block diagram explain the working of an internal pace
maker.
(b) With a neat diagram explain the operation of an Arrythmia monitor. [8+8]

8. Write short notes on:

(a) Displays used in patient monitoring system.


(b) Calibration and repeatability of patient monitoring equipment. [8+8]
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Code No: RR420403


Set No. 3
IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007
BIO MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain how action potentials are generated in the muscles. Also explain
Depolarization and Repolarization of cells.
(b) What are the di erent types of Bio electric potentials generated in the body ?
Explain. [8+8]
2. (a) With the help of a neat sketch explain about the physiology of the heart.
(b) What are the di erent parts and how bioelectrical potentials are generated
within it? [8+8]
3. (a) What are the di erent types of electro des? Discuss the advantages and disad-
vantages of them?
(b) What are the various errors associated with electrodes in measurement of body
potential. [10+6]
4. (a) Explain the qualitative requirements of the di erent blocks of a muscle stim-
ulator.
(b) Explain the various types of stimulating and recording electro des used in a
muscle stimulator. [8+8]
5. (a) Explain in detail the genesis of the ECG signal.
(b) Draw and explain the Einthonen triangle and prove the Einthoren triangle.
[6+10]
6. (a) Explain the system of placement of electrodes while recording the brain activ-
ity of a human.
(b) Describe the features EEG
(c) What are the characteristics of an abnormal EEG [6+5+5]
7. (a) With a circuit diagram explain the working of a short wave diathermy unit.
(b) Explain the terms w.r.t shortwave diathermy treatment:
i. Condensor method.
ii. Inductive method. [8+8]
8. (a) Explain the types of leakage currents.
(b) What are the precautions to be taken to minimize electric shock hazards?
[8+8]
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Code No: RR420403


Set No. 4
IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007
BIO MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) With the help of a neat diagram explain the relationship between the action
potential and muscle contraction.
(b) What is stimulus threshold? Explain the terms absolute refractory period and
relative refractory perio d. [6+10]

2. (a) With the help of a neat sketch explain about the physiology of the heart.
(b) What are the di erent parts and how bioelectrical potentials are generated
within it? [8+8]

3. (a) Discuss the signi cance of time constant, damping co e cient and frequency
response with respect to biomedical transducers.
(b) What are active and passive transducers? [10+6]

4. (a) Describe the components of a typical EMG recording system.


(b) What are the technical di erences between the recorders used for EMG and
ECG? [8+8]

5. (a) Explain the Frank lead system.


(b) Explain how this Frank lead system is di erent from the other lead systems?
[8+8]

6. (a) Explain the system of placement of electrodes while recording the brain activ-
ity of a human.
(b) Describe the features EEG
(c) What are the characteristics of an abnormal EEG [6+5+5]

7. (a) Write a note on the power sources employed in implantable pacemakers.


(b) With a functional block diagram, explain programmable pacemaker. [8+8]

8. (a) Explain the principle behind the generation and detection of ultrasound.
(b) Explain with a neat diagram how ultra sounds are used in medical eld. [8+8]