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Faults

weve seen that during


geological development
of an area, there can be
time intervals during
which rock layers
become tilted, but how
does this happen?

Structure & Mountain Building


structural geology: study architecture of earth
reasons for study:
earth history
avoiding earth hazards
avoiding pollution
locating earth resources

energy
mineral
water

Rock Behavior and Deformation

stress

force applied to material that tends to change its


dimensions

strain

effect of stress shown by material

strength

limiting stress that a material can withstand without


failing by rupture or continuous plastic flow

Rock Behavior and Deformation

response of rock to stress depends on:

type of stress
amount of pressure
temperature
type of rock
length of time rock subjected to stress

Rock Behavior and Deformation

Types of Stress
compressional stress

forces directed toward one another


decreases volume of material
lithostatic pressure, example of all-sided
confining pressure produced by burial

tensional stress

stretching stress that tends to increase


volume of a material

Types of Stress
shear stress

force parallel, but in opposite directions


results in displacement of adjacent
layers along closely spaced planes

Types of Stress

Rock Response to Stress


strain
brittle deformation

rock breaks if applied


stress is too great
rocks at or near surface
(cold, low pressure) tend
to deform by brittle
rupture
results in fracturing and
faulting (rock shows
differential movement on
either side of the fracture
surface

Rock Response to Stress


strain

elastic deformation

strain is proportional to
stress
rock returns to original
volume/shape if stress
removed

Rock Response to Stress


strain
plastic deformation

permanent deformation
caused by flowing and
folding at stresses
above elastic limit
high confining pressure
and/or temperature
warm rocks tend to
deform plastically

The Time Factor


at particular temperature and pressure, response
of rock to stress is dependent upon

type of stress
length of time over which stress applied
rapid application of stress favors brittle
deformation
slow application of stress favors plastic
deformation

Strength of Rocks

different types of rock respond to stress differently


different strengths for different types of applied stress
tensional strength is less than compressional strength

Strength of Rocks
material will act

brittle when difference is large

near surface where temperature and pressure


are low

ductile when difference is small

before failure at high confining pressures and/or


high temperatures

how do we quantify
a rock layers
response to
application of force
from field
observations?

Measuring Rock Deformation


geologists use
concept of strike
and dip to
describe
orientation of
deformed rock
layers

Measuring Rock Deformation


strike - bearing
(direction) of
horizontal line
on rock bed or
structure
dip - angle
between
horizontal and
rock bed or
structure

Measuring Rock Deformation

Folding and
Plastic
Deformation

Folding and Plastic Deformation

rock layers folded by plastic and elastic deformation


during compressive stress

Folding and Plastic Deformation

Folding and Plastic Deformation

Folding and Plastic Deformation

Folding and Plastic Deformation

mechanism of folding falls in two


categories:
concentric (flexural slip)
folding
flow folding

Folding and Plastic Deformation


concentric (flexural
slip) folding bending of surface
rock beds without
change of thickness
or volume (= elastic
deformation)

Folding and Plastic Deformation

Folding and Plastic Deformation


flow folding - thickness
and volume of rock beds
change as plastic rocks
subjected to directed
stress at high pressures
and temperatures (=
plastic deformation)

Folding and Plastic Deformation

so what are
the different
types of folds
that can
form?

Types of Folds
anticline (antiform)
up-arched rock beds
oldest rocks in center of anticlines

Types of Folds
anticline (antiform)

rocks dip away from


center of fold

Types of Folds

Types of Folds
syncline (synform)

down-arched rock beds


youngest rocks in center of synclines
rocks dip toward center of fold

Types of Folds

Types of Folds

Types of Folds

Types of Folds

Types of Folds

Types of Folds

Monocline - simple, step-like bends caused by


elastic deformation of otherwise horizontal
sedimentary beds

Types of Folds

Types of Folds
Colorado
Plateau
monocline

Types of Folds
dome

beds dip away from


center of structure
oldest rocks at center

Types of Folds

Types of Folds
basin

beds dip toward center of structure


youngest rocks at center of basin

Types of Folds

a general
terminology has
been developed to
describe the
geometry of folds

Fold Terminology
limbs

- sides

or legs
of a
fold

Fold Terminology

Fold Terminology
axial plane

- imaginary
plane that
intersects
crest or
trough of fold
to divide it
into 2 equal
portions

Fold Terminology
axis - line

formed by
intersection
of axial
plane and
bedding
plane

Fold Terminology
plunge

- dip of
fold axis

Fold Terminology

symmetrical folds - mirror image on either


side of axial plane

Fold Terminology

asymmetrical folds - one limb steeper


than the other

Fold Terminology
overturned folds - one limb tilted beyond vertical,
but both limbs dip in the same direction

Fold Terminology

Fold Terminology
recumbent fold - axial plane horizontal, so
fold lies on its side

Fold Terminology
change in orientation of axial plane indicates
increased directional stress

Fold Terminology
isoclinal fold - fold limbs are parallel to one another

Fold Terminology

Fold Terminology

all but open folds probably require more than one deformation period

Fold Terminology

Fold Terminology

plunging synclines have V-shaped outcrop pattern where V


points away from direction of plunge

Fold Terminology

plunging synclines have V-shaped outcrop pattern where V


points away from direction of plunge

Fold Terminology

Fold Terminology

Brittle
Deformation

Brittle Deformation

...how does brittle


deformation affect rock
layers and compare to
plastic or ductile
deformation?

Brittle Deformation
joints

fracture along
which no
differential
movement has
taken place
often occur in
parallel groups
called joint sets

Brittle Deformation
joints

intersecting
joint sets
produce a joint
system
joints caused by
compression or
tension

Brittle Deformation

Fold Axis Jointing


compressional
stress
produces joints
in area of a
fold axis

Columnar Jointing
produced by
tensional
stress in
cooling
volcanic rock

Sheet Jointing
closely spaced
jointing parallel
to rock's
surface
produced by
unloading
(tensional
stress)

Tension Gashes

Faults

fractures along which displacement occurs


rocks on either side move relative to one another

Faults
classified on basis
of relative direction
of movement,
because absolute
direction of
movement usually
cannot be
determined

... what
results from
movement
along a
fault?

Faults
produce:
fault scarps cliff formed by
vertical motion
fault breccia
angular blocks
along fault

Faults

Faults

Faults

Faults

... what terms


are used to
describe
movement
along a fault?

Fault Terminology
hanging wall (rock above the
fault surface)
versus

foot wall (rock


below the fault
surface)

Fault Terminology
throw (amount of
displacement
or offset
across fault)

... what are the


different types
of faults
recognized?

Fault Movement
three basic groups of fault motion recognized:

dip-slip faults
strike-slip faults
oblique-slip faults

Normal Faults
caused by
tensional
stress
hanging-wall
moves down
relative to
footwall

Normal Faults

horst and graben structure produced by a series of


normally faulted blocks- Basin and Range

Normal Faults
down-dropped
block - graben
& up-raised
block is horst

Normal Faults

Normal Faults

Normal Faults

Normal Faults

half-graben
where only one
side is downdropped =
East African
rift of Kenya

Normal Faults

movement may be restricted to basement layers


or as growth fault, synchronous with deposition
of younger sedimentary/volcanic layers

Reverse Faults
caused by
compressional
stress
hanging wall
moves up
relative to
foot wall

Reverse Faults

Reverse Faults

Thrust Faults
low-angle
(fault plane
dips <45
degrees)
reverse
fault

Thrust Faults

result in older rock layers overlying younger rock layers

Thrust Faults

Thrust Faults

Strike-slip Faults
caused by shear
stress
faults having
primarily
horizontal
displacement
along strike of
fault plane

Strike-slip Faults

Strike-slip Faults

Strike-slip Faults

Strike-slip Faults

Strike-slip Faults
right-lateral
- rock on
opposite
side of fault
moves to
right

Strike-slip Faults
left-lateral - rock on opposite side of fault moves to left

Strike-slip Faults

transform fault is strike-slip fault that allows lateral


movement of new crust away from mid-ocean ridge
without relative position of ridge segments changing

Oblique-slip Faults

involves both dip-slip and strike slip movement


left-laterial, reverse or right-lateral, normal

A Practical
Aside: Oil and
Gas Traps

Practical Aside: Oil and Gas Traps


oil and gas are formed from organic sediments and can
migrate through permeable strata
two requirements for economic plays:

source rocks - mature organic rich sediment [oil and gas


window is thermal range for formation and stability
of
hydrocarbons]
traps - permeable rocks that are capped by impermeable
strata

Practical Aside: Oil and Gas Traps

Stratigraphic Traps

Practical Aside: Oil and Gas Traps

Stratigraphic Traps

Practical Aside: Oil and Gas Traps

Stratigraphic Traps

Practical Aside: Oil and Gas Traps

Stratigraphic Traps

Practical Aside: Oil and Gas Traps

Structural Traps

Practical Aside: Oil and Gas Traps

Structural Traps

Practical Aside: Oil and Gas Traps

Structural Traps