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ARTICLE

International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems

Adaptive Controller for 6-DOF


Parallel Robot Using T-S
Fuzzy Inference
Regular Paper

Xue Jian1,*, Tang Zhiyong1, Pei Zhongcai1, He Shao1 and Liu Lanbo1
1 School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, China
* Corresponding author E-mail: xxjjok@gmail.com

Received 7 Nov 2012; Accepted 11 Dec 2012


DOI: 10.5772/55475
2013 Xue et al.; licensee InTech. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract6DOFparallelrobotalwaysappearsintheform
of Stewart platform. It has been widely used in industry
for the benefits such as strong structural stiffness, high
movementaccuracyandsoon.Spacedockingtechnology
makes higher requirements of motion accuracy and
dynamic performance to the control method on 6DOF
parallel robot. In this paper, a hydraulic 6DOF parallel
robotwasusedtosimulatethedockingprocess.Basedon
thispoint,thispapergaveathoroughstudyonthedesign
of an adaptive controller to eliminate the asymmetric of
controlled plant and uncertain load force interference.
TakagiSugeno (TS) fuzzy inference model was used to
build the fuzzy adaptive controller. With TS model, the
controllerdirectlyimposesadaptivecontrolsignalonthe
planttomakesurethattheoutputofplantcouldtrackthe
reference model output. The controller has simple
structure and is easy to implement. Experiment results
show that the controller can eliminate asymmetric and
achieve good dynamic performance, and has good
robustnesstoloadinterference.

KeywordsParallelRobot,DockingMechanism,Adaptive
Control,TSFuzzyInference,RobustControl

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1.Introduction

Spacedockingtechnologyplaysanimportantroleinthe
fieldofmannedspaceflight.Spacedockingmechanismis
used to combine two spacecraft to a solid complex.
Peripheral docking mechanism, whose actuation
mechanisms are peripherally laid to make enough space
forthecentralchannel,waswidelyusedinmannedspace
areas of both Soviet Union and United States. Figure 1
showstheNASADockingSystem,passivepartontheleft
andactivepartontheright.Themotiondrivemechanism
isaStewartmechanism.

Figure1.MechanismofNASADockingSystem
J Adv
2013,Adaptive
Vol. 10, Controller
119:2013
Xue Jian, Tang Zhiyong, Pei Zhongcai,IntHe
ShaoRobotic
and LiuSy,
Lanbo:
for 6-DOF Parallel Robot Using T-S Fuzzy Inference

Stewart mechanism is now commonly used for 6DOF


parallel robot. Compared with classic serial mechanism,
parallelmechanismhasbetterstiffness,strongercarrying
capacity, more stable structure and higher motion
accuracy. Therefore, Stewart platform mechanism was
commonly used in peripheral docking system, as in the
NASADockingSystem.

In this paper, a selfdesigned hydraulic 6DOF parallel


robotwasusedtosimulateandstudythemotionfeatures
and control methods of space docking mechanism, as
showninFigure2.Stewartplatformmechanismishighly
nonlinear,variableloaded,andmultiparametercoupled.
To develop the working space, the six rods of the
platform are usually driven by asymmetrical cylinders,
whoseasymmetrywouldcausemorecontroldifficulties.

Mamdani fuzzy inference method, TS fuzzy inference


method is a more compact and computationally efficient
representation,andworkswellwithadaptivetechniques.

2.ParallelRobotMechanismAnalysis

2.1Mechanismstructure

The kinematics mechanism sketch of Stewart platform is


showninFig.3.Itismadeupofabase,amotiveplatform,
and six rods whose lengths are variable. Each rod is
connectedwithbaseandmotiveplatformviaauniversal
joint. In practical application, the rods are realized
commonlybycylinders,however,theuniversaljointsare
always replaced by spherical joints, such as in Figure 3,
which would not increase the DOFs of motive platform,
but only give cylinders and piston rods rotation DOFs
along their selfaxis. Decided by the lengths of six rods,
themotiveplatformhassixDOFs,threetranslationDOFs
andthreerotationDOFs.

A3
A4
z

O
A5

The motion control of parallel robot is separated to two


branches: jointspace control and taskspace control.
Taskspacecontrol,whichisbasedonforwardkinematics
and inverse dynamics, is more energyefficient and has
betterdynamiccontroleffects,butneedsadditionalforce,
positionorattitudesensorsandbettercontrolprocessors
for kinematics solver. The dynamics analysis is also a
difficulty in this field. Jointspace control is more
commontobeusedforitslowerrequirementofhardware.
The controller design is based on how to make every
hinge of motive point track predetermined trajectories,
whichcanbesolvedoutfromthepredeterminedposition
and attitude trajectory of the motive platform. The
difficultyofthismethodistoeliminatetheunknownload
forceinterferenceineverysinglecontrolchannel.

Thispapergaveathoroughstudyonthejointspacecontrol
method,usingTSfuzzyinferencemodeltodesignamodel
referenceadaptivecontroller.Themodelreferenceadaptive
control method is based on measuring the output or/and
status differences between reference model and controlled
plant to make a control decision. It can well solve the
problems mentioned above. Fuzzy inference method is fit
for the process of the control decision to control such a
nonlinear uncertain system. Compared with the traditional
2

Int J Adv Robotic Sy, 2013, Vol. 10, 119:2013

B4
B5

A1

A6

Figure2.Hydraulic6DOFrobotfordockingsimulationstudy

A2
x

B3

B2

B6

B1

Figure3.Kinematicsmechanismsketchof6DOFrobot

2.2InverseKinematicsAnalysis

In Fig. 4, define Oxyz as the coordination system (CS) of


thebase,and O ' x ' y ' z ' astheCSofthemotiveplatform.

Sothepositionandorientationofthemotiveplatformin
Oxyz can be present as a 6D vector ( x, y, z , x , y , z )T ,
andthepositionvector r ( x, y, z )T .

Select any rod to analyze. a 'n is the position vector in

O ' x ' y ' z ' ,and an , bn , l n arethepositionvectorsin Oxyz .

a 'n canbetranslatedfrom O ' x ' y ' z ' to Oxyz as

an Ra 'n r

(1)

In(1), R istherotationmatrix,

R Rz Ry Rx

(2)
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cos z sin z

In (2), Rz sin z cos z


0
0

0
1

and Rx 0 cos x
0 sin
x

cos y
0

0 , Ry 0
sin
1
y

0 sin y

1
0
0 cos y

y p ispistondisplacement, u isvalvedrivevoltage, Fl is
load force, K u is valve voltage spool displacement
amplification coefficient, K c is valve flow pressure
amplificationcoefficient, Ap is piston effective area, Vt is

sin x .
cos x

cylinder equivalent total volume, M t is load equivalent


totalmass, y isequivalentvolumeelasticmodulus,and

AccordingtothevectorrelationshipinFig.4,

ln an bn Ra 'n r bn n 1, 2,3, 4,5,6

B ispistonmotiondampingcoefficient.

(3)

O
r

an
an

An
ln

bn

Bn

1.Servovalve;2.Cylinder;3.Equivalentload

Figure5.Mechanismsketchofvalvecontrolledcylinder

Figure4.Vectorrelationshipsketchforsinglerodanalysis

Thepositionoutputofeachrod pn canbepresentedlike

pn ln ln 0 ln ln 0 n 1, 2,3, 4,5,6

(4)

InEq.(4), ln 0 isthemedianlengthofarod.

3.2.Modelsimplification

K B By p K c Pf
, Pf is differential pressure
In Eq. (8), c 2

A1
Pf Ap Ap y p
between two chambers, By p is damping force, Pf Ap is

For a 'n and bn are decided by the structural parameters

piston output force, K c Pf is flow loss caused by

of the Stewart platform, the expected outputs


pn ( n 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) canbesimplysolvedoutwhenthe

differential pressure, and Ap y p is flow needed by piston

position and orientation of the motive platform


( x, y, z , x , y , z )T isdecided.

3.Singlechannelmodeling

In this paper, the spacedocking simulator is a hydraulic


6DOF.parallel robot. Each rod is driven by a valve
controlled asymmetrical cylinder. The six channels have
thesamestructuretype.

3.1.Modelofvalvecontrolledcylinder

The mechanism sketch of valvecontrolled cylinder is


shown in Figure 5. According to the load flow equation,
flow continuity equation and load balance equation,
ignoring the elastic load, piston displacement output
modelofvalvecontrolledcylinderisestablishedas

Ku
K V
u c2 ( t S 1) Fl
Ap
Ap 4 y
(5)
yp
VM
VM
KM
KB
S t t 2 S 2 ( t t 2 c 2 t ) S (1 c 2 )
Ap
Ap
4 y Ap
4 y Ap
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motion. Considering the actual situation, Pf Ap By p


and Ap y p K c Pf . Therefore,

Kc B
1 ,and the model in
A12

Eq.(8)canbesimplifiedas

Ku
K V
u c2 ( t S 1) Fl
Ap
Ap 4 y

(6)
yp
Vt M t 2

Vt M t
Kc M t
)S S

S
S (
2
4 y Ap 2
Ap 2
4 y Ap

3.3.Actualparametermodel

Intheexperimentsystem,thevalvesandcylindersareall
from Atos. The input voltage of valve solenoid drive is
10V.Thepistonstrokeofthecylinderis280mm.Setting
the median of stoke as the initial position, the actual
parametersoftheexperimentsystemareshowninTable
1. Ap1 is piston effective area of chamber without rod,
and Ap 2 beofchamberwithrod.

Substitutingtheparametersinto(6),theactualparameter
modelisshowninTable1.
Xue Jian, Tang Zhiyong, Pei Zhongcai, He Shao and Liu Lanbo: Adaptive Controller
for 6-DOF Parallel Robot Using T-S Fuzzy Inference

Parameters

Ku

Mt

2.10 10

1.67 1010

y
Ap1
Ap 2

Kc
Vt

Values

1 1

mV s

m5 N 1s 1

3.50 104

2.00 10
1.50 109

m3
kg
Pa

1.96 103

m2

1.00 103

m2

effectively simplify the controller design. Figure 7 is the


blockdiagramofthedesignedfuzzyinferencesystem.

Units

Table1.Actualparametersofexperimentsystem

yp

1.07 102 u (2.54 1018 S 4.35 105 ) Fl

3.04 106 S 3 8.70 103 S 2 S

(7)

yp

2.10 10 2 u (9.74 10 18 S 1.67 104 ) Fl

1.17 105 S 3 3.34 102 S 2 S

(8)

Ifthepressureoilgointothechamberwithoutrod, u 0 ,
y p y p ;elseif u 0 , y p y p .

Meanwhile, 10 u 10 and 0.14 y p 0.14 .

4.DesignofTSfuzzyadaptivecontroller

4.1.Controlsystemstructure

Consideringthatthecontrolplantisnonlinearandtheload
forceisvariable,amodelthatmeetsthecontrolrequirement
can be introduced to be the reference model to reduce the
controldifficultyandmakethesystemmorestable.

ThestructureofthecontrolsystemisshowninFigure6.
e istheerrorsignalbetweenreferencemodeloutput ym
andplantoutput y .Accordingto e and e ,theadaptive
controller generates adaptive control signal uc . The
adaptivecontrollerisbasedonTSfuzzyinference.

ym

uc

e, e

Figure6.Blockdiagramofcontrolsystem

4.2TSFuzzyAdaptiveControllerDesign

The main difference between Mamdani and TS fuzzy


models is that the TS output membership functions are
linear expresses of input variables. The experimental
results showed that it is enough only to linearly express
e for the output to make a good control effect. This can

K e

uc

Figure7.Blockdiagramoffussyinferencesystem

Kc

f ( K ee, K e e)

Ke

Int J Adv Robotic Sy, 2013, Vol. 10, 119:2013

Theadaptivecontrolsignal uc canberecordedas

uc K c f ( K ee, K ee) K ee

(9)

Settingthedomainofboth K e e and K ee as[6,6].Defining


fuzzysubsetsof K e e and K e e as{NB,NM,NS,NO,PO,PS,
PM,PB}and{NB,NM,NS,O,PS,PM,PB}.Threetypesof
membershipfunctionswereusedasfollows.

Triangularshapedmembershipfunction
xa
0
x a

a xb
b a
f ( x)

(10)

c x b x c
cb
0
xc

Zshapedmembershipfunction
xa
1

2
ab
1-2 x a
ax
b a
2
f ( x)

x
b
a
b

xb
2 b a
2


0
xb

Sshapedmembershipfunction
0
xa

2
ab
2 x a
ax
b a
2
f ( x)

2
ab
xb

1-2
x
b
ba
2


xb
1

(11)

(12)

The parameters of membership functions are in Table 2


andTable3.

The input membership functions of K ee and K e e are


showninFigure8andFigure9.ThefuzzysetsNOand
PO of K e e are specially designed in those shapes to
increasethetrackingaccuracyandtoreducesteadystate
error.
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Membership
Functions
NB
NM
NS
NO
PO
PS
PM
PB

FunctionType
Zshaped
Triangularshaped
Triangularshaped
Triangularshaped
Triangularshaped
Triangularshaped
Triangularshaped
Sshaped

Parameters
a
b
c
6
3.5
/
6
4
2
4
2
0.3
2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
2
0.3
2
4
2
4
6
3.5
6
/

K e e

Table2.Membershipfunctionparametersof K e e

K ee

NB

NB
f3

NM
f3

NS
f2

NM

f3

f3

f2

NS

f3

f2

f1

f3

f1

f0

PS

f2

f1

f0

PM

f1

f0

f0

PB

f0

f0

f0

NO
f1

f1

f0

f0

f0

f0

f0

PO
f0

f0

f0

f0

f0

f1

f1

PS
f0

f0

f0

f0

f1

f2

f2

PM
f0

PB
f0

f0

f1

f1

f2

f1

f3

f2

f3

f3

f3

f3

f3

Table4.Fuzzycontroltableofdesignedcontroller
Membership
Functions
NB
NM
NS
O
PS
PM
PB

FunctionType
Zshaped
Triangularshaped
Triangularshaped
Triangularshaped
Triangularshaped
Triangularshaped
Sshaped

Parameters
a
b
c
6
3
/
6
4
2
4
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
4
2
4
6
3
6
/

uc
Kc

Table3.Membershipfunctionparametersof K e e

K e e

K ee

Figure10.Inputoutputrelationshipsurface

5.Simulation

A signal fuzzy controller based on the algorithm


mentioned in Chapter 4 was established in Simulink,
with 1kHz sampling frequency, in order to lay a
foundation for the hardware implementation of the
controller.ThefuzzycontrollerestablishedinSimulinkis
showninFigure11.

Figure8.Membershipfunctionof K e e

Figure9.Membershipfunctionof K e e

Choose f 0 0 , f1 0.3K e e , f 2 0.6 K e e , f 3 K e e to

establishthefuzzyinferencetableinTable4.Thedesign
was according to the general control experience. The
inputoutput relationship surface of the designed fuzzy
systemisinFigure10.

By adjusting the scale factors K e , K e and quantization

Figure11.FuzzycontrollerestablishedinSimulink

According to the system requirement of dynamic


performance, the reference model was chosen as
Gm ( S )

152
. The factors were adjusted as
S 2 2 15 1S 152

factor K c ,themodeltrackingcapabilityofthesystemwould

K e 2 104 , K e 1 107 and K c 3 104 .

be well improved. In fact, these parameters are associated


withphysicalquantities.Therefore,itseasyforexperienced
engineerstoadjusttheparametersofthecontroller.

All the simulation results were compared with a PID


controller tuned with Control System Toolbox of

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Xue Jian, Tang Zhiyong, Pei Zhongcai, He Shao and Liu Lanbo: Adaptive Controller
for 6-DOF Parallel Robot Using T-S Fuzzy Inference

MATLAB.Inevery curve figure, there are threecurves:


No.1 is the desired output response, No.2 is the output
responsecontrolledbythedesignedcontroller,andNo.3
istheoutputresponsecontrolledbyPIDcontroller.

Figure12showsthatthedesignedcontrollermakesagood
stepresponsetomeetthesystemrequirement,withasetting
time less than 0.8s, and the step response of PID controller
has a shorter rise time but with overshoot and a longer
settingtime.Thestepresponsesfrom1.5sto2sinFigure13
showthesteadystateerrors.Thedesignedcontrollerisless
than0.1%,andPIDcontrollermorethan0.7%.

Figure15.Sinewaveresponsecurves

The curves in Figure 16 are gotten by adding a 2000N


constant interference. The designed controller made a
muchbetterantiinterferenceabilitythanPIDcontroller.

Figure12.Stepresponsecurves

Figure16.Stepresponsecursesunderconstantinterference

Figure13.Steadystateerrorscomparison

In Figure 14, the designed controllers square wave


responseshowsagoodsymmetry,however,theresponse
of PID controller is obviously asymmetrical, since one
group of PID parameters cannot adapt to systems with
different parameters. Sine wave responses in Figure 15
alsoillustratethispoint.

Figure 17 shows a dynamic model of a parallel robot


established with SimMechanics of MATLab. Its used to
verifythefeasibilityofcontrolalgorithmfortheplatform.In
simulation experiment, 1000kg centrosymmetric load was
addedonthemotiveplatform.Duringthemotionprocessof
platform,uncertainloadwouldbeimposedoneachchannel.

Figure14.Squarewaveresponsecurves

Int J Adv Robotic Sy, 2013, Vol. 10, 119:2013

Figure17.DynamicsimulationmodelinSimMechanism

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UsingtheanalysisresultofChapter2,thedesiredoutput
ofeachchannelcanbesolvedwhenthedesiredtrajectory
of motive platform is given. One motion trajectory was
selected to simulate a yaw motion along Zaxis with
amplitudeof20andfrequencyof0.5Hz.

Astheplatformiscentrosymmetric,thedesiredchannel
outputs are of two kinds, shown in Fig. 18 and Fig. 19.
Thefiguresprovethatwithuncertainload,thedesigned
controllermadeagooddynamictrackingperformance,as
thePIDcontrollerwaspoor.

Figure20.Hydraulicoilsourcesystemforexperiment

6.2Experimentresultsanalysis

Considering the flow supply ability of hydraulic oil


sourcesystem,onlyminorandslowermotionsthanthose
in simulations could be achieved. The working oil
pressurewassetto7MPa.

Figure18.DesiredresponseandactualoutputsofChannel1,3,5

Figure 21 shows the result of the experiment to apply a


sine signal of 50mm amplitude and 0.25Hz frequency to
eachchannel.Line0isthedesiredsignalandLine16are
the response curves. The response curves of different
channels are almost overlapped. The tracking
performance is satisfactory and the asymmetry problem
is well solved. In fact, the controller parameters were
adjusted with one channel and then used in other
channels.Thisprovesthatthecontrollerisnotsensitiveto
theparameterdifferencesofmodels.

Figure19.DesiredresponseandactualoutputsofChannel2,4,6

6.Experiments

6.1ExperimentSystemIntroduction

The hydraulic 6DOF parallel robot for experiments is


showninFigure1,withsixvalvecontrolledservocylinders
fromATOS.Theproportionalvalvesreceive+/10Vvoltage
signal,andthelineardisplacementsensorsfeedback0~10V
voltagesignal.Thestrokeofcylindersis280mm.

The hydraulic oil source system, shown in Figure 20, is


mainly made up of a constant pressure variable pump
from Vickers with 33mL maximum discharge capacity,
and an AC motor from ABB with 1440r/min rated
rotation speed. The oil source system can provide
maximum47.5L/minflow.

ThehardwarecontrollerisanIPCfromAdvantechwith
16bit multichannel A/D and D/A cards. IntervalZero
RTXrealtimeoperationsubsystemisusedtoensurethat
thecontrolalgorithmprogramscanrunreliably.
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Figure21.0.25Hzmultichannelsinewavecurves

The enlarged part of Figure 21 is in Figure 22, which


shows that the maximum error among six curves is less
than0.5mm.

In the next experiments, only one channel was enabled,


andotherchannelswerelockedwithzerostrokes.During
this experiment process, the motion of motive platform
was more complex, and the load force from the motive
platformtothecontrolledchannelwaschangingobviously
becauseoftheinertiaandreactionofmotiveplatform.
Xue Jian, Tang Zhiyong, Pei Zhongcai, He Shao and Liu Lanbo: Adaptive Controller
for 6-DOF Parallel Robot Using T-S Fuzzy Inference

controller continues to show good tracking characters.


However, the PID controller cannot play well as in
0.25Hz experiment. The curves shift down obviously by
the more significant effect of the dynamic load from
motiveplatforminertia.

Figure22.EnlargedpartofFigure21

To illustrate the character of the designed controller, a


traditionalPIDcontrollerwasintroducedforreference.In
the figures of experiment results, Line 1 is the desired
signal, Line 2 is the response curve of the designed
controller,andLine3isthatofatraditionalPIDcontroller.

InFigure23,thecurvesshowthatthedesignedcontroller
can well eliminate the asymmetry of controlled plant,
which PID controller cannot achieve. The positive and
negative step responses of designed controller show
consistency. The variable load force to the rod can also
worsen the dynamic response of PID controller, but the
effecttothedesigncontrollerisverysmall.

Figure24.0.25Hzsinglechannelsinewavecurves

Figure25.0.5Hzsinglechannelsinewavecurves

Figure23.Singlechannelsquarewavecurves

Figure 24, Figure 25 and Figure 26 are the response


curvesundersinesignalsof50mmamplitudeand0.25Hz
frequency,30mmamplitudeand0.5Hzfrequency,andof
10mmamplitudeand2Hzfrequency.

In 0.25Hz response experiment, both the designed


controller and PID controller can achieve satisfying
tracking characteristics. The designed controller shows
betterconsistencyindifferentdirections.

With the increasing of frequency, the differences of two


controllers are more and more obvious. The designed
8

Int J Adv Robotic Sy, 2013, Vol. 10, 119:2013

Figure26.2Hzsinglechannelsinewavecurves

The comparative tests provethat the designed controller


has a better robustness than the conventional PID
controller,andcanobviouslyeliminatetheasymmetryof
controlledplant.

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7.Conclusions

Thedesignedadaptivecontrollerfor6DOFParallelrobot
can control the nonlinear system to obtain a good
dynamic and tracking performance, and is effective on
eliminating the asymmetry. This controller demands a
low hardware requirement, and the control algorithm is
simple and effective. The robustness of the controller is
much better than traditional PID controller, and is not
sensitive to the parameter differences of models.
Therefore,thecontrollerparameteradjustmentwouldbe
moreefficient.Asthecontrollerwasdesignedasa1kHz
digital controller, the experiment results also prove the
feasibilityofimplementingthealgorithminhardware.

Theworkinthispaperlaysfoundationforfurtherstudies
ofthespacedockingmechanism.

8.Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the China National Defense


Fund on Key Discipline Construction (Fund Number:
BHBKGW12).

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Xue Jian, Tang Zhiyong, Pei Zhongcai, He Shao and Liu Lanbo: Adaptive Controller
for 6-DOF Parallel Robot Using T-S Fuzzy Inference