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# UN)VI:RSITV OF EDINBURGH

## FA CUL TV OF SCII:N CI: AND t: N G INI: J:KIN G

aVIL ENGINEERING 4
CML ENGINEERING 4M
CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 4
CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 4M
~
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT 4
CIVIL ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUcnON MANAGEMENT 4M
CIVIL ENGINEERING SM
CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SM

## M17 - DESIGN OF SILOS AND TANKS

Wednesd8Y 6th M8rt"h 2002

3.00pm - 4.30pm

CONVINORo' nil

BoARDo' EXAMINDS:

EXTl.RNAL I.XAMINER:

Professor 0 A Barry

ProfessorH. D. Wricbt

University of fAinoorgh

Designof Silos

## DegreeExamination April 2002

Eachquestionis worth 40 marks

## Time allowed: IIf2 hours

This exam is open book

1.

On-ground silos

## When building structuresare designed,the ultimate limit state is relatedto the

a) characteristichighest load state,which might be the highest live load or wind
load. However. in silo design,different extremevaluesof the propertiesof the
storedmaterialsmust be consideredas different load cases. Give the reasonfor
this, and statethe extremesof storedsolid propertiesthat shouldbe usedfor each
condition.
[8]

b)

Determinethe design wall loads for the following cylindrical on-ground mild
steel silo. The silo is constructedfrom rolled stnM:turalsteel plate and has a
vertical wall height of 25.0 m and a diameterof 10.0 m. It is ~
to store
alumina,and is concentricallyfilled and discharged.The roof slopesat an angle
of 300to the horizontaland the silo is filled until the solid just touchesthe top of
the vertical wall.
i)
Identify the designvalue of the angleof repose,and the stnICturaldesign
value of the unit weight r
[2]
ii)
Find the Wlit weight that shouldbe usedfor the purposeof detelminingthe
reliablestoragecapacityof the silo, anddeducethis capacity.
[3]
iii) Determine the surface c~ of the wall for which the silo should be
designed.
[2]
iv) Identify the upper and lower values of wall friction angle that should be
used for the design. Deducethe upper and lower characteristicvaluesof
wall friction coefficientJL
[3]
v)
Identify the upperand lower characteristicvaluesof lateral pressureratio ).,
asgiven in the table ofpro petties.
[2]
vi) Identify the upper and lower characteristicvalues of effective internal

friction

vii)

## appropriateequationto deducethe upperand lower characteristicvaJuesof

lateralpressureratio).. ComparethesecaJcu1ated
valueswith thosegiven in
the table of properties. Statewhy the equationis given at all, if it can lead
to different valuesfrom thosein the table.
Note: Usethe valuesfrom the table in all subsequent
caJculations. [5]
Find the total weight of solid that can be placedin the silo at the structural
designunit weight, and determinethe height of the effective surfaceabove
the base.
[3]

2
viii) f<X'
FCX'd1e
the coOOition
colXlition of maxim\an
maximmn normal sxasma
~
against the silo wall,
lpirm
pI'1
identify the appropriatevaluesof wall friction coefficient, lateral IX'eSSUI'e
ratio and Wtit weight to be used.
[2]
~
againstthe wall It die I8e
11;) Detamine the filling val~ 0f IXJmJaJ
[10J

2.

All standardsthat define silo pressuresbegin by defining a filling pressureand
a) then modify it to obtain a dischargepressure. Briefly explain why this is, and
indicatethe differencesbetweenfilling anddischargepressures.
[4]
include a "patch" pressureto be placedat any position on the silo wall. Briefly
explain its purposeand the featuresof real silo pressuresthat it is intendedto
reprexnl
[4]
A cylindrical on-groundsilo of diameter 12.0mis madefrom polished stainless
steel and is used to store barley flour. The condition to be consideredin your
designis the maximum pressurecase,and for this the appropriatepropertiesare
as follows: unit weight 8.5 kN!m3; .u = 0.255; A.= 0.550; internal friction angle
;; = 28. It hasa vertical wall height 18 metresand is concentricallyfilled level
(flat top surface)to the top of this wall. Dischargeis through an outlet which is
slightly eccentricto the silo axis, with eo= 1.2m.
i)
A patch ~sure load will be appliedto the tilling pressures. Locate the
position of the centreof this patchas a depth zp below the surfaceof the
flour.
[4]
ii)
Determinethe filling vaJueof normal pressureagainstthe wall at the level
of the centreof the patch,ignoringpatchpressures.
[4]
iii) Determinethe filling value of the co-ex.isteDt
patch pressureand identify
the vertical andhorizontalextentof the patch.
[4]
iv) Deducethe total horizontalforce appliedby the filling patchpressure.[4}
v)
Find the flow pressuremultiplier C for normalpressures.and so d~.!~.ethe
flow pressureat the level zp.ignoringpatchpressuresduring discharge.[4]
vi) Determinethe dischargevaJueof the co-existentpatch pressureand the
total force appliedby the filling patchpressure.
[4]
vii) Find the vertical stressresultantN,rSd
developedat the baseof the silo wall
at the most highly stressedposition causedby the dischargepatch alone,
usingthe appropriatepartial safetyfactor YF.
[6]
viii) If the wall is madeof stainlesssteel of thicknesst = 12 mm, deducethe
[2]

3.
a)

Elevatedsilos1rit~ boppen
Name the two principal modes of solids flow from a silo, and st8te the key
differences between them, with the aid of sketches. An elevated silo with a
hopper can be designed so that the flow of M)1idson diJCblrge is in either of these
two m<MIes
.
[ 8]

## b) If a circular planform silo hIS a cooical OOppel'

with a half angle of 200 aIxi the
wall friction angle between the solid Ind the IM~
is 15, detennine the
probablemodeof flow in the silo KCOrdingto Eurocode1 Part4.
[4]

## entirely from alumini\DD, has . ~~

of
8.3 mettes aOOis used to store maize with a unit weiibt '1 = 8.S kN/mJ. It is
concentricallyfilled and dischqed through a hopper with an apex half angle
of 200. The vertical stresswithin the solid at the trIDIition bas beenevaluated
as4S.2 kPa when the ~~-'.8te
material pr-vj)CI'\ics
have been u.tCd(A.= 0.45
and ~ = 0.268).
(i) Dew.--n-Jne
whetherthehopperis steepor shallow;
[S]
(ii) FiIMIthe OOppel'
WIll .-e-ft ratio F/ for fillina COIMiitions;
[5)
(iii) FIIMithe ~
wall ix.-iI.& IXe8ft It the very ~ of tile 1M".. wall afts:
fillina.
[6]

## wall friction qIe is ;. = I S, 8Ixi the iDtemal &idion

d) Given dial the hc~
angle of dle solid is ~ = 28, find the design wall normal pressure at the very top
oftbe hopperwall during discharge.
[12]

## Strength of metal silo walls

4.
Where a metal silo is symmetricallyfilled and discharged,the cylindrical walls
a) must be designedagainst two key failure modes due to bulk solid loading.
most important in inducing that failure mode. Deducethe bulk solids property
limits which shouldbe usedwhen assessing
the silo for resistanceagainstthe two
modesof failure.
[8]
b)

## A cylindrical on-groundsilo of diameter 12 m is made from mild steel with a

yield stressof 230 MPa and Young's modulusof 2xlOSMPa. It bas a vertical
wall height 18 m and is concentricallyfilled level (flat top surface)to the top of
this wall. The stressresultantsevaluatedfor the silo wall at threedifferent levels,
including the partial factor on actions,'YF,are shown in Table 1. The internal
pressure,without a partial factor,is alsoshown.

## safety margin against a yielding (bursting) failuret using the partial

resistance factor

ii)

## reducedif this is the key failure mode?

[10]
The silo is built to FabricationQuality Class B "High quali~tt and the
proposed wall thickness at z = 12.5 m is t = 8 min. Ignoring the
strengtheningeffect of internal pressure,determine the safety margin
againsta buckling failure, using the partial resi~ce factor YM- 1.10. Is

[22]

University of EdinburJb

## Examination April 2002

SOLUTIONS
This exam is open book
On-ground SUDS
Whenbuilding structuresare designed the ultimate limil slate is related to the
a)
characteristichighest load state, which might be the highest live load or wind
load However,in silo design.different extremevaluesof the properties of the
storedmaterialsmust be consideredas different load casu. Explain why this is,
and state the extremesof stored solid properties that should be usedfor each
condition.
[8}
1.

There are three different failure conditions for the silo wall which must all be
addressed:bursting. axial compressionbuckling and hopper collapse. Each is
critical undera different setof extremevaluesfor the materialproperties.
. For bursting failures, the minimum wall friction with maximwn lateral pressure
ratio mustbe considered.
. For axial compressionbuckling failures, the maximum wall friction with
maximumlateralpressureratio mustbe considered.

pressureratio mustbe considered.

## b) Determinethe design wall loadsfor the following cylindrical on-ground mild

steel silo. The silo is constructedfrom rolled structural steelplate and has a
vertical wall height of 25.0 m and a diameter of 10.0 m. It is used to store
alumirla,and is concentrically.filledand discharged. 118e
roof slopesat an angle
of 300to the horizontaland the silo isfilled until the solidjust touchesthe top of
the vertical wall.
i)
Identify the designvalue of the angle of repose,and the structural design
valueof the unit weight ]':
[2]
Angle of repose of solid = 270

il)

## Find the unit weightthat shouldbe usedfor thepurposeof determiningthe

reliable storagecapacityof thesilo, and deducethis capacity.
{3]

## Unit weight for reliablecapacityis the lowestvalue:Table4.1: 10.0kN/m3

Angle of reposeof solid = 270
Height of top coneof storedsolid he- R tan +r = 5.0 x tan 2~ = 2.548m

## Volumetriccapacityof silo = 7tR2(h + hJ3) - 7t5.~ (25+ 2.S48/3)= 2030 m3

Minimum reliable storagecapacity = 2030x 10.0kN - 20,300kN = 2070tonnes

in)

Determinethe surfilce class of the wall for which lhe silo .shouldbe
designed
[2]
RolledstnM:tura1 steelplate:Table4.2: Wall categoryis 02
iv)

Identify the upper and lower valuesof wall friction angle lhat should be
ILfedfor the design. Deducethe upper and lower characteristicvaluesof
[3]

## wall friction coefficient Jl.

Wall categcxyD2:
Upper +w: 300 Lower +w:

0 = 0.466

v)

## Identify the upperand lower characteristicvaluesof lateral pressureratio

), as given in the table of properties.
[2]
Lateralpream'eratio A: Upper A: 0.53 Lower 1..:0.42
vi)

## Identify the upper and lower characteristic values of effective internal

friction for the solid. aIwi lISean appropriateequationto deducethe upper
aIwi lower characteristicvaluesof lateral pressureratio A Comparethese
valueswith thosegiven in the table. ExpiDinwhy there is an equationthat
can lead to anomalousvaluesfor this paranwter. Usethe tabulatedvalues
infurther calculations.
[5]
Effectiveinternalfriction angles: U~~:
400 Lower +w: 250
Lateralpressureratios:(eq. 4.2)
Upper Au= 1.1.(1-siD25)= 0.635:
Lower AI = 1.1.(1-sin400)
= 0.393

The uppervalue is quite a lot larger than the value given abovefrom the table. The
lower valueis slightly lower thanthe tablevalue. Thusthe calculatedvaluesrepresent
a wider rangethan the tabulatedvalues. The reasonfor the equationis to permit the
rangeto be detenninedfor solidsnot listed in the table. The smallerrangein the table
also means that more efficient designs can be perfonned for materials whose
propertiesare better known than can be predictedby the equation. The equationis
empiricalandnot a goodrepresentation
of real properties.
vii)

Find the total weightof solid tllat can beplaced hi the silo at the .ftnICtural
designunit weight. and detenninethe height of the effectivesurfaceabove
the base.
{3]
Unit weight for structuraldesign: 12.0kN/m3
Volurnebic capacityof silo = 7t R2 (h + bJ3)- 7t 5.02 (25 + 2.54&'3) - 2030 m3
Design storage capacity
2030 x 12.0 kN
24)62 kN - 2,483
tonnes

## Height of effective surface above the b8Ie - 2030 I (7tR1 = 25.85 m

viii)

For the condition of maximum normal pressures against the silo wall,
identify the appropriate values of wall friction coefficient, lateral pressure

## ratio andunit weightto beused

(2]
For maximumpressuresagainstthe wall, use the minimmn wall friction with
maximmn lateral pressureratio: Lower ~

- 0.466 : Upper

Au

= 0.530

ix)

## Determinethefilling value of normalpressureagainstthe wall at the base

of the silo, ignoringpatch loiMls.
{I 0]

I
Nonnal pressureagainstthe wall at the base:
Slendersilo, so 7.3.2 applies
AsymptoticJX'essure
Po = yR/2ti 12.0. 5.0 I (2 . 0.466) 64.4 kPa
5.0/ (2xO.466xO.530) 10.12m
Janssencharacteristicdepth = 7-0- R / (2~)
Depth at which pressureis to be determined(base)z = Height of effective surface
abovebase- 25.85m
0.9222
Pressurecoefficient Cz = 1 - e..Jme = 1- e-fl'.WIO.IZ)
=
0.9222)(64.4
Normal pressureagainstwall just abovehue = Cz x Po
59.37kPa

9
a) All standardsthat define silo pressuresbegin by defining a filling pressureand
then modify it to obtain a dischargepressure. Br~j1y explain why this is, and
indicatethe differencesbetweenfilling and dischargepressures.
[4]
Underconditionsof filling, the pressureregimeis relatively well definedand matches
values given by Janssen'stheory quite well, provided appropriateval~s for the
material properties are used. This is therefore used as the referencecase when
defining silo pressures,and all other pressureconditionsarenonnally referredbackto
this as a basis. However, when dischargebegins, parts of the silo wall may be
ex}X)sedto significant increasesin pressure,though someof thesemay be transient
However.their durationis sufficiently long for them to be classedas static shorttenD
loads rather than dynamic loads, and the flow pressuremultiplier, or flow pressure
factor is usedto attemptto relatethe dischargepressureto the filling pressure.In the
Eurocode,the value of the flow pressuremultiplier dependson the solid being
considered(its angle of internal friction) and the aspectratio of the silo (squat or
slender).
b) 1'18e
include a "patch" pressureto beplaced at any position on the silo wall. Briefly
explain its purpose and thefeatures of real silo pressuresthat it I.sintendedto
j .,
111.
[4J
Underboth filling anddischargeconditions,the pressuresagainstthe walls of silos are
not symmetrical with respectto the silo axis, even under apparentlysymmetrical
conditions. The loss of symmetryis causedby geometricimperfectionsin the silo
walls, andKCidentalasymmetriesin the filling and granularsolidspackingprocesses.
To account for this asymmetryand to ensurethat the structural design has some
margin of safety againstunsymmetricalloads,the E\D'ocodedefinesa patch pressure
that must be added to the filling pressures,and a secondpatch pressuremust be
applied to the dischargepreSS\D'Cs.
Whilst in principle the patch pressuremay act
anywhere,the standarddefinesthe position at which it should act to give the worst
effect.

## c) A cylindrical on-ground silo of diameter 12.Om if made from polished stainless

steel and is used to store barley flour. The corJdition to be considered in your
design is the moxim"", prUSfl1'e CD8e,and for this the appropriate properties are

asfollows: unit weight 8.5 k;NW; ,II = 0.255; .4.= 0.550; internalfriction angle

;; -

280: It has a vertical wall height 18 metres and is concentrically filled level

(flat top surface) to the top of this wall. Discharge is thrmlgh an outlet which is
slightly eccentric to the silo axis, with eo = 1.2 In.
i)

A patch pressure load will be applied to the filling pressures. Locate the
position of the centre of this patch as a depth zp below the surface of the
}lour.

## Locationoftbe patchis given by z,: Eq. 7.17:z, is the lesserof Zo andhJ2

For theseproperties,Zo= R/2~ = 6.0/(2xO.2SSxO.SSO)
= 21.39m
The heightis identicalto heso bJ2 - 18/2- 9.0 m

[4J

10
ThusZp

ii)

9.0m
Determinethefilling valueof normalpreuwe againstthewall at thelevel
of thecentreof thepatch,igrlOring
patchj:W'e.f8IIrU.
[4]

- yR/21-L

## = 8.Sx6.0/(2xO.2SS)= 100.0 kPa

Janssencharacteristicdepth 70 21.39m
Depthat which pressureis to be evaiulted Zo 9.0m
Pressure
coefficientCz = 1- c'. = 1 e..(9.CV1.1.39)
s 0.3435
Norn18lfilling pressureat heightZp = Cz)( Po = 0.3435)( 100.0

- 34.35kPa

iii)

## Detemt;nethefilling Nlw of the co-existentpatch pressureand identify the

vertielll and horizontalmerit of thepatch.
[4]
Filling patchpressure(Eq. 7.13)is ppr- 0.2 PPh!
in which P = 1 + e;/(2R)
Filling is concentric,so Ct- 0 80 P = 1
Thuspatchpressureis ppr- 0.2 ~ - 0.2x~.3S = 6.87tPa
The vertical extentof the patch(Eq. 7.8) is givenby s = 0.4R = O.4x6.0
= 2.4m
The patchon a thin walled steelsilo extendsall aroundthe circwnference,from a peak
outwardvalue of p,f at 9 - 0 to a peakinward value of -Ppf at 9 = 7t. The variation
betweentheselimits is given by Pp6- pPf cos9
Iv) Deducethe total horizontalforce applied by thefilling patchpressure [4}
Thetotal horizontalforce appliedby the patchpressureis Ppf where
Ppr- 'JtsRp,r='Jtx2.4x6.0x6.87
= 310.8kN
\1)

## theflow pressureat the level Zpoignoringpatchpressvresduring discharge.

[4J
Flow peaures are fo\md by multiplying the filling pressuresby the flow pressure
multiplier C. This dependson the silo aspectratio bJde.
bJde.= 18.0/12.0= 1.50
SincebJde ~ 1.5,this placesthe silo in the category"slender".(Section8.2.2)
For slendersilos, Ch= Co,whichdeperlds
on dIesolid.
The valuefor this solid is not given in Table4.1, so seeEq. 8.6
Eq. 8.6 givesminimum value of Co as 1.35,with increasesabovethis if +i> 300. But
+i = 28, so Co = 1.35

= 34.35kPa
Nonnal dischargepressureat heightZp.~ = c.x p.,.

Nonnalfilling pressure
at height~ ~

vi)

## Determinethe dischargevalueof the co-existent

patchpressureand the
totalforce appliedby thefilling patchpressure.
[4]
Discharge .-wh pressure(Eq. 8. 10) is Ppc= 0.2PPIle
in which

P-

1 + emax/(2R)

in which en.xis the largerof CIandeo. HereCI 0, but Co 1.2~ soe- = 1.2m.
So P = 1+ 1.2/(2)(6.0) 1.10

11
Thus patch pessure is p,,- 02x P xi"l - 0.2xl.10x46.37-

10.20tPa

The total borimntal force applied by the patch plaS\D'e is Ppc where
Ppc = 1[ s R p,. =1[ x 2.4x 6.0x 10.20= 461.5kN

KsRp,.

vii}

## FlIwl 1M verlical.Jtn-u ".nIltN&t.-.."loped ,. 1111

~
of 1111
silo wall
at 1M most highly stn.f.redposition CaU.f.dby 1M dLrcharrepatch alont,
IIIIng the apprOpI'iDIe
pcrtlDl s.afety
faclor 'fF.
[6]

- z - 18m

## The mostbisbiY iU~

positionis at e - 0, when~ ~ 1.0
VerticalstIe8I resultantN&t.-developedat the molt highly .~
position in the wall
at z (Eq. 10.20)
Val~ of YF is taken fnMn Table 10.2: this is . ~
8:tion. uotber solids"
\mfavourablec':f~~ ~ die vaI~ is YF- 1.50.
N~ = - 'YF
p, s z z,)/R) COt 9
- -SS.08 kN/m

viii}

If lilt 'MIalJ
I.f ...

-1.SOxI0.20x2.4x18.0-9.0)'6.0)

of 1tGtMc.u
slftl of iI.::.~-==-~
12-. ~

correSINJrwling
wrticaI.rtre.u
due10tIwpchlDIId
...
{5]
{5]
Vertical
- N.sJ1
V mica! ~brane
membranestress
sftSS in
in the
the wall
wall is
is liven
givenby
by ~
, ,=
Nasi'
2
-'
Units: (kN/m)/mm - (N/mm)/mm N/mm: =MPa

~-

-SS.08/12

1M
[2]

- ..S9 MPa

12

3.
Elevated .ilos wit~ lIoppen
a) Namethe two principal modesof solldf flow fro," a Itlo, and .ftatl the by
differetk"Ubetweenthem.with the aid of It.tcllu. All ekUed IUD with a
hoPIWr
CQ1I
bedesigned
sothai tileflow of solidi. 4SlCUp i.rill ""
of tIIt.JI
two1IIodes.
[8]
The ~ ~peI
flow mc:NIes
in silos are Mass Flow and FUlmeIFlow. The key
differencebetweenthem is IS follows. In MassFlow all ~cles of the storedsolid
are in motian when the outlet is o~.
In FunnelFlow, only someof the solid is in
motion: different peuemscan occur in ft8mel flow, with the moving solid IOmetimes
entirely internal to the silo: in other ciICumstances,
the Oowina ~
outwards from the outlet and reach the wall, above which all material will be in
motion.

O
.
. . 0.1
,

._~

.~~

pi.,..

## sUo Iwu a conica/1tOppeT with a 1IDIIangle of 100 aIwJthe

b) If a circIIlIr
wall fHction angle betweenlhe solid a1ki 1M #tDppIr i.f 15, dele""ine the
IN'O~ modeofjlow ill 1111
"Uo accordingto EIII'c* J Part 4.
[4]

The DM)(ieof flow can be fOtBMIfrom die chart of flow mode predictions:Fig. 6.2 w
Fig. 1.5:
The hopper is conical so Fig. 6.2c applies.
The wall 6'ictiOI1qie- is I 50.

## of 200 8M! ... = I So,it is clearthat this hopperwill

exhibit MassFlow.
c)

from all.iIIi.-,

## 8.3",.tres and is usedto storematz,.with a unit wig#rl r

Iwu a ~/er

- 8.5 k,N1",J. It

of

is

## COIICe.,.;caliyftJ/d aIKl dUchDI-geilt/rough a hopper with QII apex JWJlfangle of

200. n. wrtica/ .rIre.J.fwlthill tile solid at tIle trtDI.rilicm Iwu bee" ,.~d
Q\$
45.1 kPa wi... tIle Of'OJ"'iDle 1Itat,.rlG/JW'Opertiel1wnJe." Kfed (A 0.45 aIKl

.u - 0.268).

(I)

o.tet--

WMtMr,. ."""

I.r.rlftpM.tWIow,.

[5J

## Eq. 7.26 8i'\'a a'iterion for --=-+~~

The hoppei' is shallow if:

tm.8>{!:&}

2P11
that is if t8I2OO> (1-O.4S)I(2xO.268)

,... ,.

(fI)

wGll~

..

## 0.364> 1.026No, m this IM~

r8io

Ff .forflU,. co.JlIjONJ

## Eq.7.31:Tt. hopperwall pressure

ratiofor filling is
Ff

- ~.~~;;;~- (I

+ 0.8xO.268xCQC200)I(1
+ 0.268x~)

to

is steep.
~

(S)

- 0.915

13

..

## JWWS.I~ '" ,.",

NI

"..,. flam,.
The nonna1pressureon the wall on filling me (Eq. 7.27)p.

in whichthe~
Pvf

,.

of '"

r N/

(6]

FfPY/

P-1is aivmby

J +. ~t~
~{(~-(fJ}
h
".(rJ
n
n - 2(F~co~+Ff-l)

- D-Il~~-~~

~
2(F~ cotp + Ff- I)
verticalstressbaabeengivenin thequestionas Pvft -- 45.2
45.2kPa
kPa
In this ~
the ~
to be ~
areat the top of the oopper.10
X - ~ ~1Ih ~
~~
may IXJtIecoIn~ tb8t Ibis Ie.Is to . coasidcrablesJX)rt
cut in the questicxl:
~ { 1.0-1.0 n} + Pvft1.0n Pvft - 45.2 kPa
Ifx ~ thenPvf = -;;:t

## PM- F(Pvf- O.915x4S.2

- 41.4kPa
If the It.xIaIt ck>esDOt~lIIise that aUothertams ~
tIxn it is i:~:~~ -,. to ~
~ density,to determinethe hopperheipt, to look up the appr\Jf'i:'aate
val~ ofoopper
wall friction angle taking cognisanceof whether this should be an upper or lower
bow1dva1~, to evaluatethe hopperwall friction coefficient, and to use aU theseto

find n -

## leaveonly die above,aIKIdlis hugeeffort will be ratherwastedin this question. This

questionis dlereforerathereasyfor tOOIewho have8 aood\mderstanding~ onerous
for thosewho lack it.
iIIIenkll friction
d) Give" 1.IkIt1M ,."..,. 'wall/rlclloll angle is ;., - JjO, IftlIM
angle of 1M solid I.J~ - 18,fl"" "" designwall ,...,/ JW'e.f.nl1'e
a"'" ~ry lOp
of 1M hopperwall dwl"g di.Jclrarp.
[11]

ia .. IMw- i81i'w81
by(Eq. 8.1S)

TheditcI.-~
Pac- FePw

~Pw

~{(~-(!J} P.I(!J
+

+_a8
IIxt Fe - 1 - 1lint
~2P+e)
.:

{~}

=+-+ sin-'

Onc:eagain,the vertical ~
at the TOP of the hopper~~
to:
Pw=Pvft
However,the val.. of F am mustbe fotmd.
The hopperwall friction is givenby 1.111
- tan .. - tan 1So- 0.261

14

## {~} -15+ sin-I {~}

Now Fc = 1 _1:"'-=+8)
- (1 + 1iD2rc0e48.46~ I - siD2JOcoI(2x200+48.46
so

E -..+

sin-I

1.328
at
the
iMJPPertop, PM
Now

PM-

1.321~S.2

-15+

P. '-

6O.0kPa

8M!

Pw -,.. m

33.46

-48.460

IS

4II)

## Strength of metal sUo waUs

Where a metal silo is symmetrically filled and discharged, the cylindrical walls
must be designed against two key failure modes due to bulk solid loading.
Identify the two modes and indicate the aspects of bulk solids loading which are
most important in inducing that failure mode. Deduce the bulk solid\' property
limits which should be ILJedwhen assessingthe silo for resistance against the two
modes offailwe.

[8)

## The two key modesare:

+ plasticcollapse,ruptureor bursting
+ buckling underaxial compression
Key aspects:
+ Plastic failure: high internal pressures, induced by solids flow (so discharge is
critical). Low wall friction causesincreasesin these pressures
+ Buckling under axial compression: high wall frictio~ leading to cumulative vertical
loads in the wall. Geometric imperfections seriously affect the strength.
+ Plastic failure verification must be perfonned using a von Mises check
+ Buckling under axial compression verification may include the effect of a patch load
on the wall, and the strengthening effect of internal pressm'eat all positions
The material property extremes which are neededto addressthese two modes are:
+ Plastic failure: Maximum lateral pressure ratio A, and minimum wall friction
coefficient ~
+ Buckling: Maximwn lateral pressme ratio ~ and maximumwall friction coefficient

1.1
b) A cylindrical on-groundsilo of diameter 12m is madefrom mild steel with a

## y;eldstress of 230 MPa and Young'smodulusof2xloS MPa. It has a vertical

wall heighl 18 m and ;s concentricallyfilled level (flat top surface)to the top of
this wall. Thestressresultantsevaluatedfor the silo wall at threedifferentlevels,
including the partial factor on actions. YF.are shown in Table I. The internal
pressure,without a partial factor, is also shown.

16

## Jfthe wall thicknessat z - 10 m is proposedto be t = 6 mm, determine

the safety margin against a yielding (bursting)failure, using the partwl
resistance
factor ru = 1.10. To what value could the wall thicknessbe
reducedif this is the Uy failure mode?
[10]

I)

## Choosethe valuesarisingfrom Max. PreIS1ft.

NeSd 444 kN/m andNxSd= 1~ kN/m.
~

So NvmSd= ..J(NeSd2Ne~xSd

389kN/m
Checkfor 6mm wall: Nv8Rd= 230.6/1.1 = 1254kN/m
So safetymarginagainstburstingis 1254/389 3.23 verysafe!
+ NxSd2)

~uired

= (NvmSdfrM)/fy

1.71mm

## would be usedif this werethe critical consideration.

ii)

The silo is built to Fabrication Quality Class B "High quality", and the
proposed wall thickness at z = 12.5 In is t - 8 mm. Ignoring the
strengthening effect of intemaJ presnlFe, determine the safety margin
against a buckling failure, using the partial resistancefactor YM= 1.10. Is

[16J

## NOSd= 445kN/m andNxSd-

230kN/m.

Buckling assessment:
Radius to thickness ratio: R/t = 6(XM)I8- 750
Fabrication quality class is High, so Q = 25

.LI!
Q\Jt =(8.005) ..J(7S0)= 8.76 mID

Characteristicimperfectionamplitude= Wk

Unpressurised
elasticimperfectionreductionfactor a cr(

0.62

~-;:;~;:;

## For uniform meridional compression", =1.0, 80 ~ - 0.195.

Elastic critical stress= O'xRt = 0.605Ei

= 161.33MPa

## Dimensionlessslenderness:1..= ..J(f.,lO'xaIt)- ..J(230, 161.33)= 1.194

Limiting dimensionlesssler.derness:1.., ="'(2.5.0.194)- 0.698
..J(2.5aJ

Since 1..>

Kx=aJ~2

1.., .

## this silo wall is in the mne 3, elasticb~kling

= (0.195/1.1941-0.137

xn

## Sobuckling resistanceis NxRd- (O~)~

- (31.46/1.1).8 - 228.8kN/m
Comparedesignvalueof stressresultant:NxSd= 230 kN/m
Safetymarginagainstbuckling is 228.8/230= 0.995just unsafe!But JX'Obably
OK.