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Laguna State Polytechnic University

Sta. Cruz Campus

Sta. Cruz, Laguna
College of Engineering

Soc. Sci. 426

Politics and Governance with Constitution

Submitted By :
Moran, Jhonie P.

Submitted To :
Ms. Karen S. Cruz

December 22, 2014

Meaning of Politics and Political Science

Politics- the activities associated with the governance of a country or other area, especially the debate or
conflict among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve power.
Political Science- Academic discipline concerned with the empirical study of government and politics.
Political scientists have investigated the nature of states, the functions performed by governments, voter
behaviour, political parties, political culture, political economy, and public opinion, among other topics.
Scope, function, and Importance of Political Science
A. Scope of Political Science
The scope of political science is vast and experts have divided the field of political science into five
sub-disciplines that are political theory, public administration, comparative politics, international
relations, and public law. It needs to be noted that these sub-disciplines cover the entire gamut of the
modern political economy and provide the basis for the study and understanding of how the global
political economy works. The study of the matters concerning the allocation and distribution as well as
the transfer of power is one of the main preoccupations of political scientists. The success or otherwise of
the governance structures is gauged by political scientists who examine the multifaceted and multilayered
factors at work that contribute to good or bad governance. The scope of the political scientists has now
been broadened to include the realm of the study of the democratic elections across the world. In other
words, with the explosion in the political systems all over the world, political scientists, and their scope of
study has been considerably enhanced.
B. Function of Political Science

Adequatereflexion of a political reality, disclosing of objective communications inherent in her

and laws allow political science to carry out epistemo-logical (gnoseological) function.

Its sense consists in revealing of the nature of imperious relations, the states, accumulating of
knowledge of the political phenomena and processes, the justification of efficiency of forms of
development of a society. Generalising world and national experience of creation of political
institutes, the political science helps to find an optimum political policy, to formulate
scientifically reasonable purposes and means of their achievement.

the political science not only is limited to adequate reflexion of a political reality, but also states
an estimation to a political system, institutes and events. In it its akseo-logic function is

The political science carries out function of rationalisation of political life, political institutes and
relations, politiko-administrative decisions, behaviour and etc. This science acts as a theoretical
basis of political building, political reforms and reorganisation. It proves necessity of creation of
one and liquidation of other political institutes, develops optimum models of government,
technology concerning the painless permission of sociopolitical conflicts.

the political science urged to determine conformity of programs, political policies as to tendencies
of social progress, and real possibilities and a condition of development of a concrete society. It
becomes possible within the limits of diagnostic function.

The political science performs prognosticheskuju function, in which frameworks probably

occurrence of desirable variants of development of political processes. It allows to determine
efficiency of accepted decisions beforehand. Availability of preliminary expert examination
allows to insure a society from negative consequences and inefficient actions.

within the limits of function of a political reflexion the political science has possibility to develop
capability rationally, critically to estimate political processes, is free samoopredeljatsja in
political life.

The political science carries out function of political socialisation which allows the person to be
guided adequately in difficult sociopolitical conditions.

C. The Importance of Political Science

The importance of political science lies in the fact that all of us live within political systems and we
are affected by the changes in the global political economy. With the advent of globalization, there has
been a concomitant rise in the interest taken by the people of the world in understanding the political
systems of other countries. Hence, political scientists become valued and important as they provide the
lens through which we can understand the global political economy. There are many universities that
provide graduate and higher-level degrees in political science and in recent years, because of the renewed
interest in political science as a field of study, there are many takers for these courses.
Goal in the study of political Science
Among the core concepts Political Science majors should understand are the following: The
interactions between institutions and individuals; and between different countries and regions of the
world; how regimes influence the character and priorities of their citizens; the national and international
roles played both by key individuals and large political and natural forces (e.g., famine, revolutions,
demographic shifts); the impact of globalization on a states institutions, culture, and economic wellbeing; the influence of nationalism and religious fundamentalism; the tension between liberty and
equality; liberty and order; change and continuity.
Meaning of State
A state is more than a government; that is clear. Governments change, but states endure. A state is the
means of rule over a defined or "sovereign" territory. It is comprised of an executive, a bureaucracy,
courts and other institutions. But, above all, a state levies taxes and operates a military and police force.
States distribute and re-distribute resources and wealth, so lobbyists, politicians and revolutionaries seek
in their own way to influence or even to get hold of the levers of state power. States exist in a variety of
sizes, ranging from enormous China to tiny Andorra. Some claim a long lineage, while others are of
modern construction. In all but the short term, states are in flux. They expand and contract as military and
political fortunes change.

Elements of State

A state is an organization of human beings living together as a community. The population of a

state comprises all individuals who, in principle, inhabit the territory in a permanent way. It may
consist of nationals and foreigners. As has repeatedly been pointed out by doctrine, the
requirement of a population is not necessarily an equivalent of the requirement of nationality. The
population of a state need not be completely homogeneous in culture, language, race or
otherwise. Indeed, it is even rare, except for Micro-States, to find a State with a homogeneous
people. International law does not require a minimum number of inhabitants constituting a State.
The smallest number of nationals in a Micro-State can be found in Nauru and in Monaco. This
figure can be even lower if we take into account that theoretically Pitcairn with 52 inhabitants has
the right to opt for statehood by virtue of its right to self-determination. No reservations have
been made by the international community with respect to statehood because of the limited
number of nationals of Micro-States, even if the nationals were outnumbered by foreign

The functions of a State, a political and legal community of human beings, must first of all be
exercised in a given territory.
Territory is a geographical area that is owned and controlled by a government or country to
exercise such state sovereignty.
Therefore, most of legal professors give and conclude the definition of the territory that territory
clearly comprises and refers to land territory which belongs to state and individuals, internal
waters and territorial sea (straits) which state claims for sovereignty, and the airspace above this
It is required that the State must consist of a certain coherent territory effectively governed and
the territory of a State need not be exactly fixed by definite frontiers.
"A defined geographical area" the existence of Micro-State with minimum land territory such as
Monaco (1.95 square kilometer), and the Vatican City (0.44 square kilometer) leads to the
conclusion that no minimum size is required for the territory, as this element was never a reason
for denying statehood.

The government is the executive branch of the state and has the role to administer the state
uniformly in the following aspects: political, economic, social, cultural, use of natural resources,
environmental protection, national defense and security, and foreign affairs.
Form of state is defined depending on the constitution drafted, generally structure of state can be
divided into: unitary state and federal state, this probably affects the government in exercising
limit on its power.

Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a territory. It can be
found in a power to rule and make law that rests on a political fact for which no purely legal
explanation can be provided. The definition of "the Sovereignty" is quite similar to "the
Independence" and they mostly used along together.
Origin of State
These are the theories on the origin of state as have been formed and developed as a result of the
political thought and philosophy in the ancient time until the enlightenment period in Europe.
1. Natural Theory. The social urge of the human being to be within a group of people in the
community as in sociology describes that man is a social being. The social group provides the
political development to stay and work together with common standard law in the community later on
transform as a state.
2. Patriarchal Theory. The origin of the state evolves from the enlargement of family under the
authority of the parents or the elders. Later on, it will develop into a tribe, kingdom then state.
3. Force Theory. The creation of the state through the constant war and invasion of the great warriors
in the ancient time dominated the weak that later on formed a state.
4. Divine Right Theory. The rulers of the past advocated the political dominance of authority and
power through their own ordained mandate that they represented the state as on the basis of the divine
right ( as God created the state).It was in this nature that the divine rights of kings has the absolute
power and influence over the subjects.
5. Social Contract Theory. This is the right of the people to have the deliberate and voluntary contract
on the right to overthrow the kings and rulers against corrupt governance to organize a new
government with common interest for all the people.
State distinguished from Nation
A state, or country, is a sovereign, self-governing political entity, for example any state in the United
Nations. (The term state is also used to refer to a division of a federal system, as in the United States.) A
nation is a group of people who feel bound by a common language, culture, religion, history, or ethnicity,
such as the Kurds, who reside mostly in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, and the Basque, who inhabit parts
of northern Spain and southern France. A nation-state occurs when a nation and a state largely coincide,
for example Egypt, Hungary, and Japan. The terms state building and nation building are most often used
these days as synonyms to refer to the process of building or rebuilding state institutions to create a
legitimate and sustainable state.
State distinguished from Government
State has four basic elements: people, territory, government and sovereignty. The absence of any of
these elements will not make a state a state. Thus, the state cannot exists without a government. There can
be a government however even without there being a state. Government may exist as long as a particular

society wanted to continue to have institutions that will carry out the rules of action which are necessary
for them to live in a social state.
A state is permanent while a government is not. A government may come and go, it may be
overthrown. But the state continues to be unimpaired and unaffected.
A state is an ideal person, intangible, indivisible and immtable. It can do no wrong. The government
is an agency of the state. It is perfect if it acts within the sphere. Whatever done wrong is attributed to the
government and not to the state.
Forms of Government
A. Democracy- The word "democracy" literally means "rule by the people." In a democracy, the
people govern.
B. Republic- A literal democracy is impossible in a political system containing more than a few
people. All "democracies" are really republics. In a republic, the people elect representatives to
make and enforce laws.
C. Monarchy- A monarchy consists of rule by a king or queen. Sometimes a king is called an
"emperor," especially if there is a large empire, such as China before 1911. There are no large
monarchies today. The United Kingdom, which has a queen, is really a republic because the
queen has virtually no political power.
D. Aristocracy- An aristocracy is rule by the aristocrats. Aristocrats are typically wealthy, educated
people. Many monarchies have really been ruled by aristocrats. Today, typically, the term
"aristocracy" is used negatively to accuse a republic of being dominated by rich people, such as
saying, "The United States has become an aristocracy."
E. Dictatorship- A dictatorship consists of rule by one person or a group of people. Very few
dictators admit they are dictators; they almost always claim to be leaders of democracies. The
dictator may be one person, such as Castro in Cuba or Hitler in Germany, or a group of people,
such as the Communist Party in China.
F. Democratic Republic- Usually, a "democratic republic" is not democratic and is not a republic. A
government that officially calls itself a "democratic republic" is usually a dictatorship.
Communist dictatorships have been especially prone to use this term. For example, the official
name of North Vietnam was "The Democratic Republic of Vietnam." China uses a variant, "The
People's Republic of China."
Pre-Spanish period
The Philippines is the only country in Southeast Asia that was subjected to Western colonization
before it had the opportunity to develop either a centralized government ruling over a large territory or a
dominant culture. In ancient times the inhabitants of the Philippines were a diverse agglomeration of
peoples who arrived in various waves of immigration from the Asian mainland and who maintained little
contact with each other. Contact with Chinese traders was recorded in 982, and some cultural influences
from South Asia, such as aSanskrit-based writing system, were carried to the islands by the Indonesian
empires of Srivijaya (7th13th century) and Majapahit (13th16th century); but in comparison with other

parts of the region, the influence of both China and India on the Philippines was of little importance. The
peoples of the Philippine archipelago, unlike most of the other peoples of Southeast Asia, never adopted
Hinduism or Buddhism.
Government in the Spanish period
During the Spanish colonization in the Philippines , the government was composed of two branches,
the executive and the judicial. There was no legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands
were coming from Spain . The only laws created in the Philippines are those who were ordered by the
Governor General.The government on that time was lead by the Governor General. He was considered as
the representative of Spain and the King himself. He is the highest officer in the island and responsible for
implementing laws from the mother country.He also has the power to appoint or relieve officer in the
government or priest in the parish, except with those personally appointed by the king of Spain .
The provinces in the island were called as Encomienda and were governed by the
Encomienderos, later they were replaced by the Alcalde Mayor. Alcalde Mayor had both the
executive and judicial power. He had also given the right to collect taxes. The Alcalde Mayor was also
allowed to establish a business because of its limited salary. In 1886, their executive power was abolished
but their judicial powers remain.Small towns were governed by the gobernadorcillo. Under his
authority were one police chief and the lower government employees from which he had
jurisdiction.Gobernadorcillo were elected by the married people but later a gobernadorcillo was
chosen by those outgoing in the position as his replacement.The city was governed by two mayors, 12
councilors and a police chief, a secretary and other employees. The city is called as Ayuntamiento.
The Encomienda system was implemented. It is a system from which the king has the right to
transfer the authority of a particular land to any Spanish individual or institution. Those individual who
posses the right of encomienda was called as Encomiendero.An Encomiendero has authority to
collect taxes from the people in his jurisdiction. He also has the duty to care and look for the benefits of
those citizens.Unfortunately, the encomienda system was misused by some encomienderos. A lot of
them use the encomienda for their own interest. They tend to abuse their power, collecting taxes more
than the real tax value.The encomienderos abuse their powers which sometimes made people revolts
against them. The encomienda system created hindrances for the economic development of the masses.
This making the elite richer and making the economic situation of the majority under developed.Although
the encomienda system is designed for governance, its implementation gives negative effects to the
people from which the encomienderos abuse their power against the people, to whom they are bound to
Government in the Revolutionary period
The Katipunan Government The Katipunan was secret society that precipitated our glorious
revolution on August 26, 1896. It was organized by Andres Bonifacio. The Philippine Governments
during the revolutionary eracentral government of the Katipunan was vested in a Supreme Council
(KataastaasangSanggunian). In each province there was a Provincial Council (SangguniangBalangay) and
in each town, a Popular Council (Sanggunian Bayan). The Judicial Power was exercised by a Judicial
Council (SangguniangHukuman). The Katipunan was replaced by another government whose officials
headed by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo as President, were elected in the Tejeros Convention held on March 22,
The Biak naBato Republic On November 1, 1897, a republic was established by Gen. Aguinaldo in
Biak-na-Bato (now San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan). It had a constitution which was to take effect for

two years only. It declared that the aim of the revolutions was the separation of the Philippines from the
Spanish monarchy and their formation into an independence state. The Biak-na-Bato Republic lasted up
to December 15, 1897, with conclusion of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.
The Dictatorial Government - Following the outbreak of the Spanish-American war on April 25,
1898, Gen. Aguinaldo in view of the chaotic conditions in the country, established the Dictatorial
Government on May 24, 1898. The most important achievements of the Dictatorial Government were the
Proclamation of the Philippine Independence at Kawit on June 12, 1898 and the reorganization of local
The Revolutionary Government On June 23, 1898, Gen. Aguinaldo established the Revolutionary
Government replacing the Dictatorial Government. The decree-making such change stated that the aims
of the new government were struggle for the independence of the Philippines, until all nations including
Spain will expressly recognize it, and to prepare the country for the establishment of a real Republic.
The First Philippine Republic On September 15, 1898, a revolutionary Congress of Filipino
representatives met in Malolos, Bulacan and framed the so-called Malolos Constitution. The constitution
established a free and independent Philippine republic which was inaugurated on January 23, 1899 with
Gen. Aguinaldo as President. Our First Philippine Republic was not recognized by the family nations. It
was nevertheless accepted by the people. It existed from January 23, 1899 to March 23, 1901.
In February 1899, the United States annexed the Philippines as a result of the Spanish-American Was
in April 1901, Gen. Aguinaldo was captured. Thus, the Philippines began as a democratic society in 1899.
We were, in fact, the first democratic country in Asia and the West Pacific, but the Malolos Constitution
which provided for the establishment of a Philippine Republic and had no opportunity to operate.
Government during the American regime
Consequences of the American colonial rule
During the Spanish period the Spaniards had given enormous land properties to the Catholic
Church. One of the first things the Americans did was to take care for the redistribution of these land
properties. To do so they first had to pay an amount of US $7.2 million to the Vatican in 1904. The small
farmers or tenants didn't get any land however. The land became property of some large landowners.
Most of the small farmers couldn't pay the asked price or couldn't prove that they were the former owners
of the land. The economic development during the 'American period was rather typical colonial. The
Philippine economy was strongly related to and depending on the United States. The Philippine economy
was focused on mining and exporting crops. Industrial growth didn't take place.
Quezon, the first Philippine president. The Philippines was controlled by the Americans from
1900-1942. In 1934 an act was established, which made it possible that the Philippines could have a
"Commonwealth of the Philippines. The first president of this Commonwealth was Manuel Quezon. The
firstpresident was given certain power for some internal affairs.
Government during the Japanese occupation
After Manila became an occupied city, Gen. Masaharu Homma, Commander-in-Chief of the
Japanese Imperial Forces in the Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing the end of the American
rule in the country and the purpose of the Japanese expedition. This was on January 3, 1942 and reiterated
the avowed aim of the Japanese occupation to emancipate the Filipinos from the oppressive domination of
the United States and letting them establish "the Philippines for the Filipinos".

On January 23, 1942, General Homma issued an order re-naming the national government as
Central Administrative Organization, headed by a Chairperson. The Chairperson of the Executive
Commission was assisted by the Council of State. Jorge B. Vargas was appointed by Homma as the
Chairperson of the said Commission. The Central Administrative Organization was composed of six
executive departments: Interior, Agriculture and Commerce, Communications, Education, Finance,
Justice, Health and Public Welfare, and Public Works and Communications. Each of these departments
was under a Commissioner whose task was to "execute an administration within his jurisdiction under the
control of the Chairman of the Executive Commission."
It must be pointed out that the powers and prerogatives of the Commissioners were limited by the
fact that each department had a Japanese adviser and assistant adviser. Furthermore, Vargas'
recommendation for the Commissionership of any department or for any subordinate position had first to
be approved by General Homma. What can be taken from this set-up is that the Japanese advisers were
nothing more than the eyes and ears of the Japanese military authorities.
The organization of each department and the courts of justice remained essentially the same as
during the Commonwealth period but their general programs of work had to be approved by General
Homma. The provincial and municipal levels also remained on status quo.
The Japanese made the Filipinos believed that Japan's intention was to see the Philippines
become a Republic. Thus, as early as January 21, 1942, the Premier of Japan, Hideki Tozyo, stated in an
address before the Japanese Imperial Diet, that "Japan will gladly grant the Philippines its independence
so long as it cooperates and recognizes Japan's program of establishing a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity
On January 20, 1943, Jorge Vargas pledged support of the Filipinos in the attainment of
independence. On June 18, the KapisanansaPaglilingkodsaBagongPilipinas (KALIBAPI) was instructed
to form the Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence. On January 20, the KALIBAPI
announced the composition of the body with Jose P. Laurel as president and Benigno Aquino and Ramon
Avancea as vice-presidents.
What followed was the preparation of the draft of the prepared Constitution which was approved
on September 4 and ratified by a convention two days later. The new Constitution provided for a
unicameral National Assembly whose members were immediately chosen and who elected Laurel as
president of the future Republic. This was on October 14, 1943.
The Previous Philippine republic (3rd to 5th)

Independent Philippines and the Third Republic (1946-1972)

In April 1946, elections were held. Despite the fact that the Democratic Alliance won the
election, they were not allowed to take their seats under the pretext that force had been used to manipulate
the elections. The United States withdrew its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4, 1946, as
Manuel Roxas (Liberal Party), having been inaugurated as President as scheduled, on July 4,
1946 before the granting of independence, strengthened political and economic ties with the United States
in the controversial Philippine-US Trade Act, In Mar., 1947, the Philippines and the United States signed
a military assistance pact (since renewed) which allowed the US to participate equally in the exploitation
of the country's natural resourcesand rented sites for 23 military bases to the US for 99 years (a later
agreement reduced the period to 25 years beginning 1967). These bases would later be used to launch
operations in the areas of Korea, China, Vietnam, and Indonesia.

During the Roxas administration, a general amnesty was granted for those who had worked
together with the Japanese while at the same time the Huks were declared illegal. His administration
ended prematurely when he died of heart attack April 15, 1948 while at the US Air Force Base in
Vice President ElpidioQuirino (Liberal Party, henceforth referred to as LP) was sworn in as
President after the death of Roxas in April 1948. He ran for election in November 1949 against Jose P.
Laurel (Nacionalista Party, henceforth referred to as NP) and won his own four-year term.
During this time, the CIA under the leadership of Lt. Col. Edward G. Lansdale was engaged in
paramilitary and psychological warfare operations with the goal to hold back the Huk Movement. Among
the measures which were undertaken were psyops-campaigns which demoralized the superstition of many
Filipinos and acts of violence by government soldiers which were disguised as Huks. By 1950, the U.S.
had provided the Philippine military with supplies and equipment worth $200 million dollars.
The huge task of reconstructing the war-torn country was complicated by the activities in central
Luzon of the Communist-dominated Hukbalahap guerrillas (Huks), who resorted to terror and violence in
their efforts to attain land reform and gain political power. They were finally brought under control
(1954) after a dynamic attack introduced by the minister of national defense, Ramn Magsaysay. By that
time Magsaysay was president of the country, having defeated Quirino in Nov., 1953. His campaign was
massively supported by the CIA, both financially and through practical help in discrediting his political
enemies. He had promised sweeping economic changes, and he did make progress in land reform,
opening new settlements outside crowded Luzon Island. His death in an airplane crash in Mar., 1957, was
a serious blow to national morale. Vice President Carlos P. Garca succeeded him and won a full term as
president in the elections of Nov., 1957.
In foreign affairs, the Philippines preserved a firm anti-Communist policy and joined the
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization in 1954. There were difficulties with the United States over American
military installations in the islands, and, in spite of formal recognition (1956) of full Philippine
sovereignty over these bases, tensions increased until some of the bases were dismantled (1959) and the
99-year lease period was reduced. The United States rejected Philippine financial claims and projected
trade revisions.
Philippine opposition to Garca on issues of government corruption and anti-Americanism led, in
June, 1959, to the union of the Liberal and Progressive parties, led by Vice President
DiosdadoMacapagal, the Liberal party leader, who succeeded Garca as president in the 1961 elections.
Macapagals administration was marked by efforts to combat the mounting rise that had plagued the
republic since its birth; by attempted alliances with neighboring countries; and by a territorial argument
with Britain over North Borneo (later Sabah), which Macapagal claimed had been leased and not sold to
the British North Borneo Company in 1878.

Fourth Republic of the Philippines

The opposition boycotted the June 16, 1981 presidential elections, which pitted Marcos and his
KilusangBagongLipunan party against retired Gen. Alejo Santos of the Nacionalista Party. Marcos won
by a margin of over 16 million votes, which constitutionally allowed him to have another six-year term.
Finance Minister Cesar Virata was elected as Prime Minister by the BatasangPambansa.

In 1983, opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. was assassinated at Manila International
Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile in the United States. This coalesced
popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a series of events, including pressure from the United
States, that culminated in a snap presidential election on February 7, 1986. The opposition united under
Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, and Salvador Laurel, head of the United Nationalists Democratic
Organizations (UNIDO). The election was marred by widespread reports of violence and tampering with
results by the Marcos side.
The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC), declared Marcos the
winner, despite a walk-out staged by disenfranchised computer technicians on February 9. According to
the COMELEC's final tally, Marcos won with 10,807,197 votes to Aquino's 9,291,761 votes. By contrast,
the final tally of NAMFREL, an accredited poll watcher, said Aquino won with 7,835,070 votes to
Marcos's 7,053,068.[8] However, the complete NAMFREL count done in 1987 revealed that Marcos
would still have won with 10,635,458 against Aquino's 9,853,456.

Fifth Republic of the Philippines

The worlds eye was on the Philippines after it successfully toppled down almost a decade of
dictatorship rule through a peaceful demonstration tagged as the EDSA Peoples Power Revolution. After
the widowed wife of former Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Sr. was elected into office, President
Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino faced both economic and political problems of the country. Her rule as
president began on February 25, 1986 after taking oath at the Club Filipino in San Juan, Metro Manila.
She was the 11th president of the Philippines and the first woman to become president of the country. She
was tasked to put together a nation devastated by the rule of her predecessor Ferdinand E. Marcos. It was
not an easy task since the countrys economic condition was in its worse state since 1982. Filipinos living
below the poverty line is alarmingly increasing in number. Aquino also struggled with Marcos supporters
in the Armed Forces of the Philippines who attempted to remove her from power. The group of soldiers,
who called themselves members of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement or RAM, staged seven
coup attempts against the Aquino administration. The attack held in August 28, 1987, which killed at least
53 people and injured more than 200 others, was the most serious attack the government experienced.
These attacks worsened the economic condition of the Philippines as investors became wary about
Aquinos ability to rebuild the country. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the
United States also forced the government to fulfill its obligations to pay an estimated $27.2 billion worth
of debt Aquino inherited from the previous administration. To be eligible for IMFs rehabilitation
programs, Aquino instigated reforms towards a freer economy. These reforms ended monopolization of
the agricultural industry of the country, reduced tariffs and lifted import controls in the Philippines.
Former President Corazon Cojuangco-AquinoThe political condition of the country at that time
did not look any better. To resolve the issue, Aquino commissioned a referendum that would be the
framework for the new government. It tackled various issues from shifting the government from
presidential to parliamentary, to economic reforms involving foreign participations. Due to its immediate
necessity, details of the referendum were left to the legislature to determine. Released in February 1987,
the new charter easily won the approval of the public.
Fidel V. RamosThe rule that followed Aquinos presidency established steadier governance of the
Philippines. Fidel V. Ramos took office in 1992 and immediately worked on the countrys recovery.
Ramos initiated the Social Reform Agenda or SRA that was geared towards alleviating poverty. The
Gross National Product reached an average of 5 percent annually, which translated to a growth in the
average family income of the Filipinos. He undertook the implementation of Build-Operate-Transfer

(BOT) law which improved public infrastructure and deregulated several industries to help liberalize the
economy. The country also saw improvements in its relations to secessionist Moro Islamic Liberation
Front or MNLF as Ramos achieved a peace agreement with the group. Ramos bagged the first UNESCO
Peace Award yet given to an Asian for this effort. He also came to be known as the Centennial President
for his successful supervision of the 100th anniversary of the countrys independence from the Spanish
rule celebrated in June 12, 1998.
Former president Joseph EjercitoEstradaA film actor, Joseph Ejercito Estrada, succeeded Ramos
as president in 1998. He was the previous mayor in the municipality of San Juan, Metro Manila and vice
president of Ramos, Estrada was placed into office by a wide margin of vote. He gained support in the
election for his promise to begin a pro-poor administration that his predecessors failed to promote in their
respective platforms. This support dwindled down as his administration was rattled by corruption. Critics
accused him of failing to live up to his promises due to the resurfacing of cronyism in the government.
Efforts made by Ramos to resolve political conflicts in Mindanao were also threatened as Estrada
launched an all-out war against the Islamic group in Mindanao called the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
in March 21, 2000. In the same year, Ilocos Sur Governor Luis Chavit Singson accused Estrada of
receiving Php 400 million from him as payoff from illegal gambling profits. The revelation led to
Estradas impeachment in November 12, 2000 and his ouster from presidency in January 20, 2001. Then
Supreme Court Chief Justice HilarioDavide, Jr. swore-in vice-president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as
president the same day.
The Philippine Constitution allows the president to ran for a second term if he/she was sworn into
office by succession and served in less than 4 years, otherwise the president is limited to one term of
office. President Gloria Macapagal-ArroyoArroyo was qualified to ran for another term. Indeed, she did.
In the 2004 Philippine General Election, Arroyo declared her presidential candidacy and she was seated
into office for the second time. Arroyo promoted a Stronger Republic under her rule, which was geared
toward vigorous economic reforms. However, her administration was bombarded with several
controversies and impeachment attempts in the last five years. Hence, as she announced her disinterest to
extend her term or run for office in the 2010 elections, critics expressed their apprehensions. Once,
Arroyo had broken the peoples trust when she declared that she was not interested to run in the 2004
elections. Protesters express their disappointment every so often rallying at the streets calling against the
Charter Change (Cha-Cha) and now the Constituent Assembly (Con-Ass), which is currently promoted by
the Arroyos supporters in Congress when the Cha-Cha attempt has become improbable receiving critical
disapproval. The representatives in the lower house of Congress were said to have made the move
independently to pass the Con-Ass however, many are skeptic of the true agenda of the Arroyo
administration as the 2010 election countdown nears. Supporters of Arroyo are pushing for a change of
government from a Presidential to a Parliamentary form. This will enable Arroyo run for parliament and
become prime minister.
On the May 10, 2010 general elections, Arroyo run and won for congresswoman for the 2nd
district of Pampanga province. Making her the first president to hold a lower office after occupying the
highest office of the land. On her first day as congresswoman, Arroyo filed a resolution calling for
Congress to hold a Constitutional Convention to amend the constitution.
On June 30, 2010, Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III, a.k.aNoynoy Aquino, was proclaimed as
president of the republic together with JejomarCabauatanBinay as vice-president.

Provisional Government of 1986

The provisional government of 1986 in the Philippines was a result of protests over election results.
The majority wanted Cory Aquino to win the election but the Ferdinand Marcos emerged the
winner.Before Corazon C. Aquino took her oath of office on the morning of February 25, 1986 at Club
Filipino, San Juan, Metro Manila, the last Sunday of a four-day people power revolt (Feb. 22-25) that
culminated in the ouster of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, she read Proclamation No. 1 wherein she
declared that she and her vice-president were talking power in the name and by the will of the Filipino
people on the basis of the clear sovereign will of the people expressed in the election of February 7,
1986. In sovereign will of the people expressed in the fundamental law (not the Constitution) and
execute just laws (instead of its laws).
The Concept of Constitution
The Constitution refers to that body of rules and principles in accordance with which the powers of
sovereigntyare regularly excercised.
Nature and Function or concept of Constitution

Serves as the supreme fundamental law

Establish basic framework and underlying principles of Government

Kinds of Constitution

Origin and history



Conventional of enacted
Cumulative or evolved


Manner of amending

Rigid or inelastic
Flexible or elastic

Requisites of a good Constitution


a. Brief
b. Broad
c. Definite


a. Constitution of Government
b. Constitution of Liberty
c. Constitution of Sovereignty

Constitution of the Philippines


The 1935 Constitution was written in 1934, approved and adopted by the Commonwealth of the
Philippines (19351946) and later used by the Third Republic (19461972). It was written with an eye to
meeting the approval of the United States Government as well, so as to ensure that the U.S. would live up
to its promise to grant the Philippines independence and not have a premise to hold onto its possession on
the grounds that it was too politically immature and hence unready for full, real independence.
The Preamble reads:
The Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine Providence, in order to establish a government
that shall embody their ideals, conserve and develop the patrimony of the nation, promote the general
welfare, and secure to themselves and their posterity the blessings of independence under a regime of
justice, liberty, and democracy, do ordain and promulgate this constitution."

The original 1935 Constitution provided for unicameral National Assembly and the President was
elected to a six-year term without re-election. It was amended in 1940 to have a bicameral Congress
composed of a Senate and House of Representatives, as well the creation of an independent electoral
commission. The Constitution now granted the President a four-year term with a maximum of two
consecutive terms in office.
A Constitutional Convention was held in 1971 to rewrite the 1935 Constitution. The convention
was stained with manifest bribery and corruption. Possibly the most controversial issue was removing the
presidential term limit so that Ferdinand E. Marcos could seek election for a third term, which many felt
was the true reason for which the convention was called. In any case, the 1935 Constitution was
suspended in 1972 with Marcos' proclamation of martial law, the rampant corruption of the constitutional
process providing him with one of his major premises for doing so.


The 1973 Constitution, promulgated after Marcos' declaration of martial law, but having been in
the planning process for years before this, was supposed to introduce a parliamentary-style government.
Legislative power was vested in a unicameral National Assembly whose members were elected for sixyear terms. The President was ideally elected as the symbolic and purely ceremonial head of state chosen
from amongst the Members of the National Assembly for a six-year term and could be re-elected to an
unlimited number of terms. Upon election, the President ceased to be a Member of the National
Assembly. During his term, the President was not allowed to be a member of a political party or hold any
other office.
Executive power was meant to be exercised by the Prime Minister who was also elected from
amongst the sitting Assemblymen. The Prime Minister was to be the head of government and
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. This constitution was subsequently amended four times
(arguably five, depending on how one considers Proclamation 3 of 1986, see below).

From 1617 October 1976, a majority of barangay voters (also called "Citizen Assemblies")
approved that martial law should be continued and ratified the amendments to the Constitution proposed
by President Marcos.[17]


Immediately following the 1986 People Power Revolution that ousted Marcos, President Corazon
C. Aquino issued Proclamation 3 as a provisional constitution. It adopted certain provisions from the
1973 Constitution while abolishing others. It granted the President broad powers to reorganise
government and remove officials, as well as mandating the President to appoint a commission to draft a
new, more formal Constitution. This document, described above, supplanted the "Freedom Constitution"
upon its ratification in 1987.
Officers of the 1986 constitutional commission
Cecilia Munoz-Palma
Ambrosio B. Padilla
Napoleon G. Rama
Floor Leader
Jose D. Calderon | Ahmad DamacaoAlonto
Assistant Floor Leaders
Members of the Constitutional Commission
Chairman Decoroso R. Rosales
Vice-Chairman Gregorio J. Tiongson
Chairman Jose B. Laurel, Jr.
Vice-Chairman Joaquin G. Bernas
Chairman Hilario G. Davide, Jr.

Vice-Chairman Adolfo S. Azcuna

Chairman Lorenzo M. Sumulong
Vice-Chairman Florenz D. Regalado
Chairman Roberto C. Concepcion
Vice-Chairman Ricardo J. Romulo
Chairman Vicente B. Foz
Vice-Chairman Cirilio A. Rigos
Chairman Jose N. Nolledo
Vice-Chairman Jose D. Calderon
Chairman Christian S. Monsod
Vice-Chairman Jose C. Colayco
Chairman Bernardo M. Villegas
Vice-Chairman Jaime S. L. Tadeo
Chairman Wilfredo V. Villacorta
Vice-Chairman Lugum L. Uka
Chairman Florangel Rosario Braid
Vice-Chairman Teodoro C. Bacani
Chairman Jose E. Suarez
Vice-Chairman Blas F. Ople
Chairman Jose F.S. Bengson, Jr.
Vice-Chairman Napoleon G. Rama
Chairman Yusuf R. Abubakar
Vice-Chairman Minda Luz M. Quesada

Chairman Teresa F. Nieva

Vice-Chairman Jose Luis Martin C. Gascon
Chairman Francisco A. Rodrigo
Vice-Chairman Efrain B. Trenas
Chairman Serafin V.C. Guingona
Vice-Chairman Edmundo G. Garcia
Chairman Edmundo G. Garcia
Vice-Chairman Jose Luis Martin C. Gascon
Chairman Flerida Ruth Romero
Vice-Chairman Roberto M. San Andres
1987 Constitution
We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and
humane society, and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the
common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity, the
blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom,
love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.
The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters
embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction,
consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil,
the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of
the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the

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