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Chemical Reaction
Why do potato chips manufacturers fill the packet of chips with nitrogen gas?
A student has been colleting silver and copper coins. One day he observed that a black coating on
silver coins and a green coating on copper coins. Give the chemical names of the black and green
coatings. How are they formed?
Tap water conducts electricity whereas distilled water does not. Explain, Why?
Five metals A, B, C, D and F are added to the following solutions one by one. The observations made
are below :
Iron(II)
Zinc
Silver
Aluminium
Metal
Copper(II) sulphate
sulphate
sulphate
nitrate
sulphate
Reddish
brown Coating on Coating on
A
No reaction
--deposit
it
it
No
Coating on
B
Grey deposit
----reaction
it
No
White
C
No reaction
No reaction
--reaction
deposit
No
D
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
No reaction
reaction
Reddish
brown New
New
No reaction
E
--deposit
coating
coating
Answer the following questions based on above observationsWhich is the most active metal and which is the least reactive? Why?
What would be observed when (a). B is added to a solution of copper (II) sulphate and (b). E is
added to the solution of iron sulphate? Explain, why?
Arrange the metals A, B, C, D and E in order of increasing reactivity.
Container of which metal can be used to store both zinc sulphate solution and silver nitrate solution.
Which of the above solutions can be easily stored in a container made up of these metals?
Identify the type of chemical reaction taking place in each of the following
Barium chloride solution is mixed with copper sulphate solution and a white precipitate is formed.
On heating copper powder in air in a china dish, the surface of the copper powder turns black.
On heating green coloured sulphate crystals, reddish brown solid is left and smell of gas having
odour of burning sulphur is experienced.
White silver chloride turns grey in sunlight.
Barium hydroxide reacts with ammonium chloride solution to give ammonia, barium chloride and
water.
Iron nails when left dipped in blue copper sulphate solution become brownish in colour and the blue
colour of copper sulphate fades away.
Quick lime reacts vigorously producing a hissing sound with water releasing a large amount of heat.
What is the colour of ferrous sulphate crystals? How does this colour change after heating? Name the
products formed on strongly heating ferrous sulphate crystals. What type of chemical reaction occurs
in this change?
What is an oxidation reaction? Give an example. Is oxidation an exothermic or endothermic reaction?
Define combustion reaction. Give an example of combustion reaction which is also exothermic.
Why should magnesium wire be cleaned before burning in air?
Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction which is used in black and white photography.
In electrolysis of water, why is the volume of gas collected over one electrode is double that of gas
collected over the other electrode?

12. What is observed when a solution of potassium iodide is added to a solution of lead nitrate taken in a
test tube? What type of reaction is this? What is the colour of the product formed? Write a balanced
chemical equation to represent the above reaction.
13. Crystals of copper sulphate are heated in a test tube. What is the colour of the copper sulphate
crystals before and after heating? What is the source of liquid droplets seen on the upper inner side
of test tube during heating?
14. State which of the chemical reactions will take place or not, giving suitable reason for each
Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) ------> ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)
Fe (s) + ZnSO4 (aq) ------> FeSO4 (aq) + Zn (s)
Zn (s) + FeSO4 (aq) ------> ZnSO4 (aq) + Fe (s)
15. Why do ionic compounds conduct electricity in aqueous solution and not in solid state?
16. Identify the type of chemical reaction in
Na2 SO4 (aq) + BaCl2 (aq) ------>BaSO4 (s) + NaCl (aq).
17. What happens to the crystals of sodium carbonate, if they are (i). left open in air, (ii). heated? Write
chemical equations to support your answer.
18. State electrolytic decomposition with the help of an example.
19. What are the effects of oxidation reaction in everyday life? Define these terms with an example each.
20. Balance the following chemical reactions

21. What are the decomposition reaction, combination reaction, precipitation reaction, endothermic
reaction, exothermic reaction, thermal decomposition reaction, displacement reaction and double
displacement reaction? Explain each with one example?
22. A person wanted his house to be whitewashed. He bought 15 Kg of quick lime and dissolved it in 30
liters of water. On adding lime to water he noticed that the water started boiling even when it was not
being heated. Hive reason for his observation. Write the corresponding chemical equation and name
product formed.
23. Which one of the following reaction is combination reaction
(a) a magnesium wire is burnt in air,
(b) limestone is heated,
(c)proteins are converted into amino acids and
(d) electricity is passed through water.
24. Which type of reactions are represented by the following equations

25. What are redox reactions? Explain with example.


26. A student dropped a few pieces of marble in dilute hydrochloric acid contained in a test tube. The
involved gas was passed through lime water. What change would be observed in lime water? Write
balanced chemical equation for both the changes observed.
27. What is meant by photochemical decomposition? Explain with an example.

28. Identify the substances oxidised, substances reduced, oxidising agents and the reducing agents in the
following reactions

29. Write two examples of everyday life, where redox reactions are taking place.
30. Food items can be preserved for longer time when kept in refrigerator. What is chemical reason
behind this fact?
31. Consider the following reaction NaOH + HCl -------> NaCl + H2O
What type of reaction is represented by this equation?
i.
ii.
Can this reaction be given any other name also?
32. Give reasons for the following
Keeping food in air tight containers help in preventing rancidity.
i.
ii.
Moist air and acidic gases are not good for some metals.
iii.
White coloured silver chloride turns grey when kept in sunlight.
Decomposition reaction called the opposite of combination reaction.
iv.
v.
Can a displacement be a redox reaction?
vi.
Corrosion of aluminium is considered to be advantageous.
Hydrogen peroxide is kept in coloured bottles.
vii.
viii.
Quick lime is used in whitewashing the walls.
ix.
Respiration is considered an exothermic process.
x.
We cannot stir silver nitrate solution with copper spoon.
Gold and platinum do not get affected even if there is a presence of moist air and acidic gases.
xi.
33. What are the two methods which can prevent the rancidity of fatty foods?
34. What type of reaction takes place when vegetable matter gets decomposed into compost?
35. How will you define rust chemically? Write the steps to prevent rusting.
36. Name the agents that can cause corrosion of metals.
37. What type of coating is formed on silver articles when they get corroded?
38. Write the observations which help us to determine that a chemical reaction has taken place.
39. What is a chemical reaction? What is the principle used in balancing the chemical equation?
40. What happens during digestion? Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction involved in
digestion.
41. A lead salt on heating brown fumes. Name the lead compound. What are the brown fumes due to?
Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction involved.
42. When brown copper powder is heated in a china dish, it becomes black. Name the black coloured
compound. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction involved. How can you make it
brown again?
43. Is corrosion always harmful? Justify your answer with the help of an example.
44. What type of salts is formed in precipitation reactions?
45.
Acids, Bases and Salts
1. During summer season, a milkman usually adds a very small amount of baking soda to milk. Why?
2. Tooth enamel is one of the hardest substances in our body. How does it undergo damage due to
eating chocolates and sweets? How do toothpastes prevent this damage?
3. How are all the acids and bases similar? Explain.
4. Baking soda is used in small amounts in making breads and cakes. It helps to make thes4e soft and
spongy. An aqueous solution of baking soda turns red litmus blue. It is also used in soda acid fire
extinguisher. Use this information to answer the following questions
i. How does baking soda help to make cakes and breads soft and spongy?

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ii. How does it help in extinguishin


hing fire?
iii. Is the pH value of baking sodaa ssolution lower than or higher than 7?
Dry HCl gas does not turn blue litm
litmus red whereas hydrochloric acid does. Give
Gi one reason.
A student drooped few pieces of marble in dilute hydrochloric acid contai
tained in a test tube. The
evolved gas was passed through
h lime
li
water. What change would be observe
rved in lime water? Write
balanced chemical equation when
n (i)
( gas was evolved (ii) gas was passed throu
rough lime water.
Answer the following questions
i. Why is the formula of Plaster of Paris written as CaSO4.H2O? How is it possible to have half of
water molecule attached to CaSO4?
ii. Why is sodium bicarbonate an essential
es
ingredient of most antacids?
iii. Sodium bicarbonate is an essen
ential ingredient of baking powder. What iss the
t function of it?
iv. When electricity is passed thro
rough aqueous solution of NaCl, three prod
roducts are obtained. Why
this process is called chlor-alkalii process?
pr
Fresh milk has a pH of 6. When it cchanges into curd, will its pH value increase
ase or decrease? Why?
A compound which is prepared
d from
f
gypsum has the property of hardeni
ning when mixed with a
proper quantity of water. Identify
fy tthe compound. Write the chemical equation
ion for its preparation. For
what purpose it is used in hospitals
tals?
Why does tooth decay start when the
th pH of mouth is lower than 5.5?
What effect does an increase in concentration
co
of hydrogen ion in a solution
ion have on the pH of the
solution?
Why does 1 M HCl solution havee a higher concentration of H+ ions than 1M CH
C 3COOH solution?
Write the name and chemical form
ormula of calcium compound used for disin
sinfecting drinking water.
How is this compound manufactur
tured?
Why are acid not stored in metall ccontainers? Containers made from which materials
m
are safe to store
acids?
How will you prepare bleaching po
powder? Give chemical reaction involved. W
Why is tartaric acid added
along with sodium bicarbonate in baking
b
powder?
What is pH? How does pH change
nge on changing H+ concentration? How doe
oes acidic or basic nature
change?
Answer the following questionss a. A metal compound A reacts with
th dilute HCl to produce
effervescence. The gas evolved extinguishes
ext
a burning candle. Write balance
ced chemical equation for
the reaction if one of the compound
nds formed is calcium chloride.
b. Why do HCl, HNO3, etc show acidic
ac
characters in aqueous solution while
le ssolutions of compounds
like alcohol and glucose do not sho
how acidic characters?
c. How is the concentration of hydr
dronium ion affected when a solution of an
n acid
a
is diluted?
d. What happens when sodium bic
icarbonate is heated? Write the balanced chem
hemical equation.
You have two solutions A and B. the pH of A is 6 and the pH of B is 8. Which
W
solution has more
+
H ion concentration? Which onee is acidic and which one is basic?
A milkman adds a very small amou
ount of baking soda to fresh milk. Why doe
oes he shift the pH from 6
to slightly alkaline? Why does this
is milk take a long time to set as curd?
Give reasons for the following

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i. While diluting an acid, it is recommended that the acid should be added to the water and not water
to acid.
ii. Dry ammonia has no action on litmus paper but a solution of ammonia in water turns red litmus
blue.
iii. Plaster of Paris should be stored in a moisture proof container.
iv. Distilled water does not conduct electricity whereas rain water does.
v. Curd and sour substances should not be kept in brass or copper vessels.
vi. Bleaching powder pollutes when left open air.
vii. Acetic acid is a weak acid while hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.
viii. Sodium carbonate is regarded as a basic salt.
Rajesh took sulphur powder on a spatula and heated it. He collected the gas evolved on lowering a
test tube over it.
(a). What will be the action of gas in
i. dry litmus paper
ii. Moist litmus paper.
(b). Write balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
What are the special properties of plaster of Paris, which makes it useful in hospitals?
Which one of the medicines antibiotic, analgesic, or antacid is used for treating indigestion?
Five solutions A, B, C, D and E when tested with universal indicator showed pH 5, 2, 10, 7 and 12
respectively. Arrange the pH in increasing order of hydrogen ion concentration.
You must have seen tarnished copper vessel being cleaned with lemon and tamarind juice. Explain
why these sour substances are effective in cleaning the vessels.
An element reacts with oxygen to give a compound of high melting point. This compound is highly
soluble in water. Is this element carbon, calcium, silicon or iron?
Which gas is produced in when dilute HCl is added to a reactive metal? Write chemical equation
when iron reacts with dilute sulphuric acid.
Why is PoP written as CaSO4.H2O? How is it possible to have half water molecule attached to
CaSO4?
You have been provided with three test tubes. One of them contains distilled water and the other two
contain an acidic and a basic solution respectively. If you are given only red litmus paper, how will
you identify content of each test tube?
How are bases different from alkalis? Are all bases alkalis?
What are antacids? Give an example. Name the acid produced in our stomach.
Mention names of two oxides each which on reacting with water give acids and bases.
Explain the role of pH in our digestion and tooth decay.
Name the gas evolved when dilute sulphuric acid reacts with sodium carbonate. Give three uses of
plaster of Paris.
Write the name and the chemical formula of organic compound which is present in vinegar.
Name an acid base indicator prepared at home. Which acid is present in vinegar, sour milk or curd,
tamarind, lemon, orange and ant sting.
What is the colour of methyl orange in baking soda solution?
What is the colour of phenolphthalein in dilute HCl, soap solution and baking soda solution?
Why does copper not react with dilute sulphuric acid or HCl to give hydrogen gas?
What is aqua regia? Name the metals which are soluble in it
What are antacids? Give an example. Name the acid produced in our stomach.
Mention names of two oxides each which on reacting with water give acids and bases.
Explain the role of pH in our digestion and tooth decay.
Name the gas evolved when dilute sulphuric acid reacts with sodium carbonate. Give three uses of
plaster of Paris.

45. Write the name and the chemical formula of organic compound which is present in vinegar.
46. Name an acid base indicator prepared at home. Which acid is present in vinegar, sour milk or curd,
tamarind, lemon, orange and ant sting.
47. What is the colour of methyl orange in baking soda solution?
48. What is the colour of phenolphthalein in dilute HCl, soap solution and baking soda solution?
49. Why does copper not react with dilute sulphuric acid or HCl to give hydrogen gas?
50. What is aqua regia? Name the metals which are soluble in it.
51. What do all
(i). Acids,
(ii). Bases have in common? What is milk of magnesia? Is it a strong or mild base?
52. Which chemical compound is present in our tooth enamel? Is toothpaste acidic or alkaline?
53. Which will have more H+ ion concentration a solution with pH=0 or a solution with pH=14?
54. Which acid and base are used in the formation of CuSO4, NaNO3, NaHCO3, and NaHSO4?
55. What is the role of tartaric acid or citric acid present in baking powder?
56. Name an indicator which indicates the various levels of the H+ ion concentration.
57. When the concentrated aqueous solution of a substance X is electrolysed sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen gas are produced. Name the substance X. What is the special name of this
process?
58. When a green iron salt is heated strongly, its colour finally changes to black and odour of burning
sulphur is given out. Name the iron salt and type of reaction. Write the chemical equation for the
above.
59. Name the acid formed when (i). CO2, (ii). SO2 is dissolved in water.
60. A gas highly soluble in water turns colorless solution to pink when a few drops of phenolphthalein
solution is added to it. What is the nature of the gas?
61. State for what purpose is bleaching powder used in water treatment plants.
62. A compound Y loses water of crystallization when exposed to air. Identify compound and write its
formula.
63. A calcium compound yellowish white in colour is used as disinfectant and also in textile industry.
Name the compound. How is it prepared? Give chemical reaction involved.
64. When phenolphthalein was added to a solution of X, it turned pink. After some time pink colour
fades away. Identify X and give reason for the observation.
65. Define natural, synthetic and olfactory indicators with two examples each.
66. What are the substances called which are used to prevent oxidation?
67. How will you provide the following information in a chemical reaction aqueous solution, a liquid,
evolution of heat, evolution of gas, steam and precipitation?