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# 8.

Applications of thermodynamics

## The wire of length L is pulled to increase the area of the film

A A + dA
Work done to the system
dW = - dA

## When the volume is increased, V , V

Liquid-surface at equilibrium
The properties of the molecules at the surface are taken to be different from those in the bulk
of the liquid
When the surface area is increased, more molecules from the bulk of the liquid will be added
to the surface

dQ = dA

dT

= T

## Consider isothermal process,

dW = dA
dQ = dA

Internal energy :

d
U
dU = dQ dW = ( + )dA

= + = T
dT
A T

A = 0 (U = 0)

dU = T dT dA
0
0

U = T
A
dT

U
d
= T
A
dT

d
d 2
d 2 d
U
= AT

CA =
= A
2
2

T
dT
dT
dT
A

dT

## Specific heat capacity :

d 2
CA
= T 2
cA =
A
dT

F
Helmholtz function : U = F T

T V

Compare

U = T
A
dT

Entropy:

d
F
S =

= A
T
dT

Specific entropy :

s=

d
dT

F=A

[nota: V A]

## 8.2 Vapour pressure of liquid drop

A freely suspended liquid drop assume spherical

(2r)

(Pi - Pe) r2
Consider one half of the drop,
Net force :

(Pi - Pe) r2

(2r)

Pi Pe =

2
r

Pi = Pe +

2
r

## At thermodynamic equilibrium, Pe = P, the vapour pressure

internal pressure

Pi = P +

2
r

## This is the internal pressure of a liquid drop with radius r

A blackbody is an object that absorp 100% radiation energy that is impinged onto it, and
the radiation energy density emitted from it, u is expressed by Stefan Law

u = T 4

## = 7.56 10-16 J m-3 K-4

Total internal energy :

Stefan constant

U = uV = T4 V

U
3
CV =
= 4VT
T V
T
T
1
4
S = CV dT = 4VT 2 = VT 3
Entropy :
3
0T
0
4
1
Helmholtz function :
F = U TS = VT 4 VT 4 = VT 4
3
3
1

1
G = F + PV = VT 4 + T 4 V = 0
Gibbs function :
3

## Heat capacitr for V unchanged :

8.4

Magnetic material
Work :

dW = - , dM

where

## , is the external magnetic field strength

M is the magnetic moment

When the magnetic material (paramagnetic) is placed into magnetic field, its potential
energy is

Ep = - , M
Hence, the total energy : E = U - , M

[H = U + PV]

dE = dU -, dM - Md,
TdS equation :

TdS = dU + dW
= dE + , dM + Md, - , dM
= dE + Md,

TdS = dH VdP

## In general, in our study of the thermodynamics of magnetism, we can take analogy of

PVT system :
Magnetic material

,
M
E
C,

PVT
P
V
H
CP

CM=

T M

U
CV =

T V

F = E - TS

F = U - TS