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Page 1 of 40

Forward
While it is recognized that phased array technology is becoming more widespread and
popular within various industries, it has not yet been specifically addressed by the
AWS. The following document was written to satisfy customer requests. Its purpose is
to serve as a guideline to align the Phasor XS with the current methodology prescribed
in Clause 6, Part F, of the AWS D1.1, 2008 Code.
This is achievable due to the well-established fact that an array transducer with the
same physical properties of size, shape, and frequency, as a conventional monolithic
transducer, will have identical acoustic properties.
This document has been produced in typical procedure format, for the sake of
familiarity. As such, it is intended as a guideline only.

Page 2 of 40

Table of contents

SECTION

PAGE

1. Scope

2. References

3. Personnel

4. Equipment

5. Calibration

6. Examination

13

7. Indication evaluation and reporting

18

Annex A: dB Accuracy Procedure

23

Annex B: Horizontal Linearity Procedure

29

Annex C: Search Unit Check

33

Annex D: Drawings

37

Page 3 of 40

1. Scope
1.1. This procedure describes the use of the Phasor XS utilizing the sectorial and
A-scan views. For the detection and interpretation of discontinuities in groove
type welds and the associated heat affected zones (HAZ). Applicable part
thickness range is from 5/16 to 8 inclusive of material thickness as prescribed
by Part F of the AWS D1.1 2008 code. (herein referenced as the code)
1.2. Limitations
1.2.1. This procedure is not intended for the inspection of tube-to-tube (tubular)
T, Y, K connections
1.2.2. This procedure is not intended for the inspection of base material.
However, discontinuities discovered in the adjacent base material shall be
reported to the Owner / Engineer for disposition.
1.2.3. As a supplement to the method(s) described herein, RT is recommended
for the detection of piping porosity in ESW, and EGW weldament.
1.2.4. For discrepancies between this procedure, and the code, the code shall
hold precedence.
2. References
2.1. American Welding Society AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code Steel
2.2. American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) - SNT-TC-1A Personnel
Qualifications
2.3. GE Inspection Technologies (GEIT) - Phasor Owner Manual.
(www.geinspectiontechnologies.com)

Page 4 of 40

3. Personnel
3.1. Personnel shall be certified in accordance with the ASNT SNT-TC-1A, or be
certified in accordance with the employers written practice. Provided that the
employers written practice contains, as a minimum, the requirements of SNTTC-1A.
3.2. Personnel performing exams shall be a certified level I, II, or a level III who has
taken, and passed a Level II Practical certification test.
3.2.1. Level I personnel shall only perform exams under the direct supervision
of a level II, or III, and shall not independently (1) conduct exams, (2)
interpret exam results, or (3) write a report of exam results.
3.3. All personnel conducting exams in accordance with this procedure shall
demonstrate proficiency by successfully passing a general, specific and
practical exam administered by a level III, or a Level II so designated by a level
III, and applying the methodology of this procedure and the rules of AWS D1.1.
4. Equipment
4.1. The ultrasonic instrument shall be the Phasor XS.
4.1.1. For compliance with Sec. 6.22 of the AWS code, reference the Phasor
Owners Manual for the technical specifications.
4.2. The search unit shall be comprised of transducer model # 115-000-866,
coupled to wedge # 118-350-037 for straight beam, or the standard 60 AWS
wedge for angle beam. The use of other search units by engineer approval is
not addressed within this document.

Page 5 of 40

4.3. The International Institute of Welding (IIW) Type 1 or Type 2 ultrasonic


reference block(s) shall be used for distance and sensitivity calibration, a
drawing of which can be found in Annex D, Drawing 2. Other approved
reference blocks (DSC, DS, and SC) may also be used, provided that the
reference sensitivity of the instrument/search unit combination is adjusted to
achieve equivalent results as that of the IIW block. Drawings for these blocks
can be found in Annex D, Drawing 4.
4.4. Any suitable couplant material of glycerin type, or a cellulose gum and water
mixture shall be used between the search unit and base material. A wetting
agent may be added to improve consistency. Light machine oil or equivalent
may be used for coupling on calibration blocks.

Page 6 of 40

5. Calibration
5.1. General
5.1.1. Reference Annex A and B for equipment qualification requirements.
5.1.2. A transducer element, cable, and coupling check shall be made prior to
an exam or series of exams, and again at the completion of an exam or
series of exams, but not to exceed intervals of 8 hours, and at any time of
suspected system irregularity. Reference Annex C for equipment
programming, and guidance.
5.1.3. The primary testing angle used for calibration shall be selected from
table 5.1
5.1.4. Calibration shall be performed with the Phasor set up in accordance with
table(s) 5.2, or 5.3.
5.1.5. Calibration intervals for sensitivity and horizontal sweep shall be made
by the operator at the location of each weld being tested, and at intervals
not to exceed 30 minutes as testing proceeds.
5.1.6. Recalibration shall be made after:
a) Change of personnel.
b) Time intervals not to exceed a maximum of 2 hours.
c) Any change to the search unit, or changing of the search unit.
d) Any disruption of the electronic circuitry. (i.e. battery swap, power
failure)
e) Any instance of system irregularity.
5.1.7. The use of corner reflectors shall be prohibited for calibration.

Page 7 of 40

5.2. Straight beam calibration


5.2.1. With the Phasor programmed in accordance with Table 5.2, place the
search unit on face A and adjust the leg function such that 2 plate
thicknesses are displayed on the screen.
5.2.2. For sensitivity, place the search unit at a location on the base material
that is free of discontinuities. Adjust the gain control to display the first back
reflection at 50% to 75% of amplitude. (A%A reading in the results
window).
5.3. Angle beam calibration
5.3.1. A linear screen range shall be achieved to represent the actual sound
path in metal. The following method describes the use of the IIW2
reference block. However any suitable block described in 4.3 may be used.
5.3.2. Using the primary testing angle, and with the Phasor programmed in
accordance with Table 5.3, adjust the instrument to achieve a linear screen
range as follows:
5.3.2.1.

Place the search unit at position D as depicted in Annex D


Drawing 1.

5.3.2.2.

Adjust the leg function to display the 2 and 4 radius on the


screen, maximizing the signal(s) amplitude. (NOTE: For this
process, the Material Thickness function may also be adjusted.
However, prior to examinations, the Material Thickness function
shall be returned to the actual component thickness as prescribed
in Table 5.3.)

5.3.2.3.

Place the beam cursor on the primary testing angle to ensure the
readings in the Results windows are for this angle.

Page 8 of 40

5.3.2.4.

In the CAL submenu (HOME > PART > CAL) adjust the gates to
surround where the beam cursor intersects the reflection from the
4 radius. (NOTE: the gates may also need to be narrowed.)
Maximize the signal response from the 4 radii by adjusting the
probe position. Adjust the gain such that the amplitude response
reads less than 100% in the A%A results window. Adjust the
VELOCITY S until the SA reading in the results window reads 4.

5.3.2.5.

In the same manner as described in 5.3.2.4, adjust the PROBE


DELAY such that the SA result reads 2 for the response from the
2 radii reflector.

(NOTE: Alternately, the method described in the Phasor Owners


Manual may be used to achieve a linear screen prescribed in 5.3.2.)
5.3.3. With the Phasor programmed in accordance with table 5.3, adjust the
DbD gain control such that the response from the 0.060 hole, when the
search unit is placed at position A from Annex D Drawing 1, is maximized
with the primary testing angle from Table 5.1, to display a resulting
amplitude in the A%A between 40% to 60%. The resulting DbD setting is
the zero reference level and shall be recorded on the Ultrasonic Test
Report Table 7.1 under Reference level (b).
(NOTE: The reference level may also be achieved by using only one side
of the gain in the Phasor. DbA or DbD. In this case toggle the steps key
to display the gain being used in the home screen. To activate the Level
above reference function, press and hold the orange key next to the gain
sub-menu box. In either case it is important to note the sum of all gain
applied above reference.

Page 9 of 40

Table 5.1

Page 10 of 40

Table 5.1 (cont.)

Page 11 of 40

Table 5.2

(Sub-menu)
PRB DAT
PRB GEO
WDGE DAT
WDGE GEO
OFFSET

(Sub-menu)
PLAN
CAL

(Sub-menu)
ELECTRNC

SCN PATT

APERTURE

(Sub-menu)
VIEW
BACKGRND
RESULTS1

(Sub-menu)
Base

Pulser
Receiver

GATEMODE

PROBE MENU
(Tab)

(Value)

Dialog Probe
Frequency
Number of Elements
Pitch
Elevation
Element 1 Position
Velocity
Wedge Front
Offset Z
Angle
Origin Offset

Load Def
2.3 MHz
16
0.040
0.650
Low end
.1086 in/s
0.000
1.00 (Annex C)
0.0 deg
0.000

PART MENU
(Tab)

(Value)

Material Thickness

Enter material thickness

as described in section 5.2

SCAN MENU
(Tab)

(Value)

Type
Focal Point
Wave Type
Angle Start
Angle Stop
Angle Step
Number of Steps
First Element
Aperture Size
Aperture Step

Linear
Unfocused
Longitudinal
0.0 deg
0.0 deg
1.0 deg
1
1
16
1

DISPLAY MENU
(Tab)

(Value)

View Mode
Angle corrected
Data Source
Color Leg
Reading 1
Reading 2
Reading 3
Reading 4

Frame
On
Amp A
On
Beam
A%A
SA
PA

UT MENU
(Tab)

Readings may be
displayed in any order

(Value)

Display Start
Display Delay
Leg
Voltage
Width
PRF Value
Frequency
Ascan Rectify

Material
0.000 in
2.3
150V
220ns
set to maximum
2MHz
Fullwave

Gate select

Gate A

Logic

Positive

Gate Display

On

Page 12 of 40

Table 5.3

(Sub-menu)
PRB DAT
PRB GEO
WDGE DAT
WDGE GEO
OFFSET

(Sub-menu)
PLAN
CAL

(Sub-menu)
ELECTRNC

SCN PATT

APERTURE

(Sub-menu)
VIEW
BACKGRND
RESULTS1

(Sub-menu)
Base

Pulser
Receiver

GATEMODE

PROBE MENU
(Tab)

(Value)

Dialog Probe
Frequency
Number of Elements
Pitch
Elevation
Element 1 Position
Velocity
Wedge Front
Offset Z
Angle
Origin Offset

Load Def
2.3 MHz
16
0.040
0.650
Low end
.1086 in/s
0.711
0.435 (Annex C)
47.5 deg
0.000

PART MENU
(Tab)

(Value)

Material Thickness

Enter material thickness

as described in section 5.3

SCAN MENU
(Tab)

(Value)

Type
Focal Point
Wave Type
Angle Start
Angle Stop
Angle Step
Number of Steps
First Element
Aperture Size
Aperture Step

Sector
Unfocused
Shear
35.0 deg
70.0 deg
1.0 deg
1
1
16
1

DISPLAY MENU
(Tab)

minimum

(Value)

View Mode
Angle corrected
Data Source
Color Leg
Reading 1
Reading 2
Reading 3
Reading 4

Frame
On
Amp A
On
Beam
A%A
SA
PA

UT MENU
(Tab)

Readings may be
displayed in any order

(Value)

Display Start
Display Delay
Leg
Voltage
Width
PRF Value
Frequency
Ascan Rectify

Material
0.000 in
2.3
150V
220ns
set to maximum
2MHz
Fullwave

Gate select

Gate A

Logic

Positive

Gate Display

On

Page 13 of 40

6. Examination
6.1. General
6.1.1. An X line for flaw location shall be marked on the test face of the
weldament in a direction parallel to the weld axis. The location distance
perpendicular to the weld axis is based on the dimensional figures on the
detail drawing and usually falls on the centerline of the butt welds, and
always falls on the near face of the connecting member of T and corner
welds, the face opposite Face C. (see Table 5.1 for Face descriptions.)
6.1.2. A Y accompanied with a weld identification number shall be clearly
marked on the base metal adjacent to the weld being examined at the left
end on Face A (see Table 5.1 for Face descriptions.) This identification
number serves as:
a)

Weld identification,

b)

Identification of Face A,

c)

Distance measurements and direction (+ or -) from the X line,

d)

Location measurements from weld ends or edges.

6.1.3. A couplant described in 4.4 shall be used between the search unit and
scanning surface.
6.1.4. All surfaces to which the search unit(s) is applied shall be free of weld
spatter, dirt, grease, oil, paint, loose scale, or any material/condition which
would prevent the transmission of ultrasound, and shall have a contour
allowing intimate coupling.

Page 14 of 40

6.2. Base metal examination


6.2.1. The entire volume of base metal through which ultrasound must travel to
examine the weld shall be examined for laminar reflectors utilizing the
straight beam search unit calibrated in section 5.2. If any area of base
material exhibits a total loss of back wall reflection or displays an indication
equal to, or greater than the original back wall reflection height, and is
located such that its presence will interfere with the transmission of the
ultrasound for the weld inspection, its size, location, and depth from the A
Face shall be determined and reported on the ultrasonic test report, and an
alternate weld scanning procedure shall be used.
6.2.1.1.

When the indication is larger than the search unit a full loss of the
back wall reflection will usually occur. By sliding the search unit off
the indication until a 50% drop in amplitude from the indication is
realized, and then by measuring to the centerline of the search
unit, is generally reliable for determining the edges of the
indication.

6.2.1.2.

The size evaluation of an indication which is smaller than the


search unit must be made by sliding the search unit toward the
indication until a signal begins to form. At this point, the leading
edge of the search unit is indicative of the edge of the indication.

6.2.2. If all or part of the weld is deemed inaccessible due to laminar


indications, and cannot be examined in accordance with the
requirements of table 5.1, the examination shall be conducted using one
or more of the following alternate procedures, as necessary, to attain full
weld coverage.
a)

Weld surfaces shall be ground flush in accordance with the


applicable paragraph(s) of the code,

b)

Test from Faces A and B,

c)

Utilize alternate search angles.

Page 15 of 40

Weld examination

6.3.

6.3.1. Welds shall be tested with the search unit described in Section 4.2, and
calibrated in Section 5.3. Following calibration, and during testing, the
only instrument adjustment permitted is the sensitivity level (gain)
setting.
6.3.1.1.

Sensitivity shall be increased from the reference level to scanning


level in accordance with scanning levels described in Table 7.5A,
or 7.5B as applicable.

Scan patterns (see Figure 6.4)

6.4.

6.4.1. It is intended as a minimum that all welds are to be examined by passing


sound through the entire volume of the weld and HAZ in two crossing
directions, wherever practical.
6.4.2. All butt welds shall be examined from each side of the weld axis. Corner
and T welds shall be primarily tested from one side of the weld axis only.
All Welds shall be examined using the applicable scanning pattern, or
patterns as shown in Figure 6.4, as necessary to detect both longitudinal
and transverse discontinuities.
6.4.3. To detect longitudinal defects, the following movements may be
combined from figure 6.4
6.4.3.1.

Scanning Movement A, Rotation angle a = +/-10deg.

6.4.3.2.

Scanning Movement B, Scanning Distance b shall be such that


the full section of the weld is being examined with the primary
angle from Section 5.3.

6.4.3.3.

Scanning Movement C, Progression Distance c shall be


approximately one half the array width.

6.4.4. To detect transverse defects, cover the full weld section with one of the
following movements from Figure 6.4

Page 16 of 40

6.4.4.1.

Scanning pattern D, when weld reinforcement is ground flush.

6.4.4.2.

Scanning Pattern E, when weld reinforcement is not ground


flush. Scanning Angle e = 15deg. maximum.

6.4.5. For electroslag or electrogas welds, use Scanning Pattern E, with the
search unit rotation angle e between 45deg. to 60deg.

Page 17 of 40

Table 6.4
Scanning Patterns

Page 18 of 40

7. Indication Evaluation and Reporting


7.1.

When a discontinuity indication appears on the screen, the maximum


attainable reflection from the indication shall be adjusted to produce
amplitude equivalent to the horizontal reference level (set in Sec. 5.3.3.).
The instrument reading in dB shall be used as the Indication Level, a, for
calculating the Indication Rating, d, as shown in the ultrasonic test report
Fig 7.1.

7.2.

The Attenuation Factor, c, in the ultrasonic test report shall be attained by


subtracting 1 inch of sound path (SA in the results window) from the
distance to the indication and multiplying the remainder by 2, and rounded to
the nearest dB value.

7.3.

The Indication Rating, d, in the ultrasonic test report represents the


algebraic difference in decibels between the indication level with correction
for attenuation as indicated by the following expression:
Gain in dB:

a c =d

(Use: a b c = d if the method noted under 5.3.3. is being used)


NOTE: Traditionally the indication level a is the sum of all gain applied. For
the purpose of this document the indication level is expressed as the amount of
gain OVER the reference gain. Therefore the equation will be a c = d, and
NOT a b c = d
7.4.

Lengths of indications with ratings more severe than Class D shall be


determined by measuring the distance between the transducer centerline
locations where the indication drops 50% in amplitude (6dB) below the
rating for the applicable flaw classification. The length shall be recorded as
discontinuity length on the ultrasonic test report.

Page 19 of 40

7.5.

Each weld discontinuity shall be accepted or rejected on the basis of its


indication rating, and its length in conformance with the applicable Table
7.5A or 7.5B. Only those indications that are found to be unacceptable need
be recorded on the test report. The exception being those welds identified in
the contractual documents as being fracture critical. Fracture critical welds,
which are within 6dB inclusive of the minimal unacceptable rating, shall be
included on the test report.

7.6.

Each unacceptable discontinuity shall be indicated on the weld by a mark


directly over the discontinuity for its entire length. The depth from the
surface and indication rating shall be clearly noted on the adjacent base
metal.

7.7.

Retesting of welds that have been repaired shall be documented on a new


line in the ultrasonic report, if the original is used, and shall be designated by
an R prefix in the indication number. If additional report forms are used, the
R designation shall prefix the report number, and / or the weld number, or
any such manner that clearly identifies the weld as being previously
repaired.

Page 20 of 40

Table 7.1
Ultrasonic Report Form

Page 21 of 40

Table 7.5A
AWS D1.1

STRUCTURAL WELDING CODE STEEL

UT ACCEPTANCE-REJECTION CRITERIA (Statically Loaded Nontubular Connections)

Page 22 of 40

Table 7.5B
AWS D1.1

STRUCTURAL WELDING CODE STEEL

UT ACCEPTANCE-REJECTION CRITERIA (Cyclically Loaded Nontubular Connections)

Page 23 of 40

Annex A
dB accuracy procedure

1. dB Accuracy Procedure.
Note: In order to attain the required accuracy (+ 1%) in reading the indication
height, the Display must be graduated vertically at 2% intervals at horizontal
midscreen. These graduations shall be placed on the Display between 60%
and 100% of screen height. This may be done with use of a graduated
transparent screen overlay. If this overlay is applied as a permanent part of
the ultrasonic unit, care should be taken that the overlay does not obscure
normal testing displays.

(1)

Program the Phasor in accordance with Table 5.2. Then


couple the straight beam search unit to the block shown in
Drawing D.1 and position "T".

(2)

Adjust the distance calibration so that the first 2 inch back


reflection indication (hereafter called "the indication") is at
horizontal mid-screen.

(3)

Adjust the calibrated gain or attenuation control so that the


indication is exactly at or slightly above 40% screen height.
(NOTE: the pulser voltage may be turned down if the gain
value will not go low enough to establish a 40% value.)

(4)

Move the search unit toward position U, until the indication


is at exactly 40% screen height.

(5)

Increase the sound amplitude 6dB with the calibrated gain


or attenuation control. The indication level theoretically
should be exactly 80% screen height.

(6)

Record the dB reading under "a" and actual % screen


height under "b" from step 5 on Line 1 of the "Ultrasonic
Unit Calibration Report", Form A.1 of this annex.

(7)

Move the search unit further toward position U, until the


indication is exactly 40% screen height.

(8)

Repeat step 5.

Page 24 of 40

(9)

Repeat step 6. Except, information should be applied to


the next consecutive line on the "Ultrasonic Unit Calibration
Report", Form A.1.

(10)

Repeat steps 7, 8 and 9 consecutively until the full range of


the gain control or attenuator is reached (60 dB minimum).

(11)

Apply the information from Rows "a" and "b" to the below
referenced equation (Section 2. Annex A) or the
nomograph (Form A.2) to calculate the corrected dB.

(12)

Apply corrected dB from step 11 to Row "c".

(13)

Subtract Row "c" value from Row "a" value and apply the
difference in Row "d", dB error. These values may be
either positive or negative and should be noted with a plus
sign "+" or a minus sign "-".

(14)

Information shall be tabulated on a form, including


minimum equivalent information as displayed on the
"Ultrasonic Unit Calibration Report" (Form A.1) and the unit
evaluated in accordance with instructions shown on that
form.

(15)

Form A.2 provides a relatively simple means of evaluating


data from item (14). Instructions for this are given in (16)
through (18) below.

(16)

Apply the dB information from Row "e" (Form A.1) vertically


and dB reading from Row "a" (Form A.1) horizontally as X
and Y coordinates for plotting a dB curve on Form A.2.

(17)

The longest horizontal length, as represented by the dB


reading difference, which can be inscribed in a rectangle
representing 2 dB in height, denotes the dB range in which
the equipment meets the Code requirements. The
minimum allowable range is 60 dB.

(18)

Equipment that does not meet this minimum requirement


may be used, provided correction factors are developed
and used for discontinuity evaluation outside the instrument
acceptability linearity range, or the weld testing and the
discontinuity evaluation is kept within the acceptable
vertical linearity range of the equipment.
Note: The dB error figures (Row d) may be used as
correction factor figures.

Page 25 of 40

2. Decibel Equation.
The following equation shall be used to calculate decibels:

%
+ dB
dB = 20 x log
%
2

dB1 = Row a
dB2 = Row c
%1 = Row b
%2 = Is the average of Row b disregarding the first and
last three tabulations

Page 26 of 40

Form A.1
Ultrasonic Unit Calibration Report Form

Ultrasonic Unit Model:

Serial No.:

Search Unit - Size:

Type:

Calibration - Date:

Interval:

Block Serial No.:

Data:

Frequency:
2 Months

MHZ

Method:

As Found

As Adjusted

Supplemental Instructions:

Start with the lowest dB level that you can obtain a 40 percent display height indication from. Add 6 dB's and
record this dB reading in Row A and display height Row B as the starting points on the tabulation chart.

After recording these values in Rows A and B, slide the transducer to obtain a new 40 percent display
height. Without moving the transducer add 6 dBs and record the new dB reading and the new display height in
Rows A and B. Repeat this step as many times as the unit allows.

Find the average % screen values from Row B by disregarding the first 3 and the last 3 tabulations. Use
this as %2 in calculating the corrected reading.

The following equation is used to calculate row


c:

%
=
20
x
log
+ dB
dB
%
2

%1 is Row B

%2 is the average of Row B disregarding the


first and last three tabulations.
dB1 is Row A
dB2 is Row C

The dB Error "Row D" is established by subtracting Row C" from Row A": (A - C = D).

The Collective dB Error "Row E" is established by starting with the dB Error "Row D" nearest to 0.0,
collectively add the dB Error Row D values horizontally, placing the sub-totals in Row E".

Moving horizontally, left and right from the Average % line, find the span in which the largest and smallest
Collective dB Error figures remain at or below 2 dB. Count the number of horizontal spaces of movement,
subtract one, and multiply the remainder by six. This dB value is the acceptable range of the unit.

In order to establish the acceptable range graphically, Form D-9 from AWS D1.1 may be used as follows:

(1)

Apply the collective dB Error Row E values vertically on the horizontal offset coinciding with the dB reading
values from "Row A".

(2)

Establish a curve line passing through this series of points.

(3)

Apply a 2 dB high horizontal window over this curve positioned vertically so that the longest section is
completely encompassed within the 2 dB Error height.

(4)

This window length represents the acceptable dB range of the unit.

Page 27 of 40

Ultrasonic Unit Calibration Report Form A.1 (cont.)

NUMBER

Row A

dB READING

Row B

DISPLAY HEIGHT

10

11

12

Row C CORRECTED READING

Row D

dB ERROR

Row E COLLECTIVE dB ERROR

Accuracy Required: Minimum allowable Range is 60 dB.

%2 (Average)

Equipment is: Acceptable for Use

Not Acceptable for Use

Total qualified range

dB

to

dB

Total qualified range

dB

to

Calibrated by:

Recalibration Due Date:

dB

Total error

dB (From the Chart above)

dB =

dB

Total error

dB (From AWS Form D-9)

Level:

Location:

13

Page 28 of 40

Form A.2
dB Accuracy Evaluation Report Form

Ultrasonic Unit Model:

Search Unit - Size:

Serial No.:

Type:

Frequency:

MHZ.

Page 29 of 40

Annex B
Horizontal Linearity, Internal Reflectors, and Resolution

1.

Horizontal Linearity Procedure.


1.1
This qualification procedure is performed with the straight beam
search unit, which produces longitudinal wave with a sound velocity
of almost double that of shear wave. It is necessary to double the
shear wave distance ranges to be used in applying this procedure.
Example:
The use of a 10 in. [250 mm] screen calibration in shear wave would
require a 20 in. [500 mm] screen calibration for this qualification procedure.
The following procedure shall be used for instrument certification:

2.

(1)

Couple a straight beam search unit meeting the requirements


of paragraph 4.2 to the DS block (Drawing D.1 in Position U).

(2)

To attain a 20 in. [500 mm] screen calibration, adjust the first


and fifth back reflections to their proper locations with use of
the distance calibration and zero delay adjustments.

(3)

Each indication shall be adjusted to reference level with the


gain or attenuation control for horizontal location examination.

(4)

Each intermediate trace deflection location shall be correct


with +2% of the screen width. With the display width at 20 in.
[500 mm] the +2% would be equivalent to +.400 in. [10 mm].

Internal Reflections Procedure.


(1)
Calibrate the equipment in accordance with 5.3
(2)

Remove the search unit from the calibration block without


changing any other equipment adjustments.

(3)

Increase the calibrated gain or attenuation 20 dB more


sensitive than reference level.

(4)

The screen area beyond 1/2 in. [12 mm] sound path and
above reference level height shall be free of any indication.

Page 30 of 40

3.

Resolution Requirements.
3.1 The combination of search unit and instrument shall resolve three holes
in the RC resolution reference test block shown in Drawing D.1, or D.3.
The search unit position(s) from Drawing D.1 are as follows:
(1)

The 45 degree shall be placed at position S.

(2)

The 60 degree shall be placed at position R.

(3)

The 70 degree shall be placed at position Q.

3.2 The resolution shall be evaluated with the instrument controls set at
normal test settings and with indications from the holes brought to
midscreen height. Resolution shall be sufficient to distinguish at least
the peaks of indications from the three holes. Use of the RC resolution
reference block for calibration shall be prohibited. Each combination of
instrument search unit (shoe and transducer) shall be checked prior to
its initial use. This equipment verification shall be done initially with
each search unit and UT unit combination. The verification need not be
done again provided documentation is maintained that records the
following items:
(1)
(2)

(3)

UT machines make, model and serial number.


Search units manufacturer, type, size, angle, and serial
number.
Date of verification and technicians name.

Page 31 of 40

Form B.1
Ultrasonic Unit Calibration Report Form B.1

Ultrasonic Unit Model:

Serial No:

Search Unit - Size:

Type:

Frequency:

DS Block Serial No:

MHZ

Calibration Interval: 40 hours use

Horizontal linearity :
INDICATION
NUMBER

LOCATION

ACCEPTABLE
RANGE

4.0"

3.6 to 4.4

8.0"

7.6 to 8.4

12.0"

11.6 to 12.4

16.0"

15.6 to 16.4

20.0"

19.6 to 20.4

ACTUAL
LOCATION

Internal Reflections:
IIW Block SN:

Reference Level:

dB

Remove search unit from block without changing any equipment settings
Increase the calibrated gain 20 dB more sensitive than reference level
Is the CRT screen area beyond 1/2" sound path and above reference level height free of
any indications? Yes:
No:___

Equipment Status:
As Found
Not Acceptable for Use

As Adjusted
Acceptable for Use

Calibrated By:

Level:

Date:_____________

Reviewed By:

Location:____________________

Page 32 of 40

Form B.2
Ultrasonic Unit Resolution Report Form B.2

Ultrasonic Unit Model:

Serial No:___________________________

IIW Block Serial No:


RESOLUTION REQUIREMENTS:

Resolution Block Serial No:_____________

Longitudinal Mode - Transducer and instrument shall resolve all 3 distances


Shear Wave Mode - Transducer and instrument shall resolve the 3 test holes
TRANSDUCERS:
Serial No.

Size

Equipment is: Acceptable for Use

Type

Frequency

Angle(s)

Not Acceptable for Use_________

Performed By:

Level:

__ Date:_________

Reviewed By:

Location:_____________________

Page 33 of 40

Annex C
Search unit check

1.

2.

This annex is written as a supplemental document to support this procedure and


describes the method(s) to perform the following:
1) Transducer element, cable, and coupling check.
2) Calculate the Z offset.
Due to the proximity of each element in relation to the face of the wedge (e.g. the
1st element is closer to the bottom of the wedge than the last due to the slope of the
angle.) each individual element will have a different delay in succession from
lowest to highest. To display this, program the Phasor according to the table in this
annex.
2.1. Elements that do not produce a response are dead elements.
2.1.1. The number of dead elements shall not exceed more than 3 total in the
array, and no more than 2 adjacent for the array to be considered
acceptable.
2.1.2. Poor coupling will display a decrease, or lack of sound transmission
through all or part of the wedge. In this case remove the wedge, and
re-couple the probe.
2.2. Elements that do produce a response, but appear out of sequence, or
otherwise not in line with the rest of the slope, are wired incorrectly and not
firing in the proper sequential order.

Page 34 of 40

PROBE MENU
(Sub-menu)
Probe Geometry
Wedge Dat
Wedge Geometry
Offset

(tab)
Number of elements
Pitch
Elem 1 Pos
Offset Z
Angle
Probe Delay

(value)
16
0.040
Low End
0
0
0.000s

PART MENU
(Sub-menu)
Part

(tab)
Velocity L

(value)
.1080 in/us

SCAN MENU
(Sub-menu)
Electronic
Scan Pattern
Aperture

(tab)
Type
Focal Point
Wave Type
Angle Start
Number of Steps
First Element
Aperture Size
Aperture Step

(value)
Linear
Unfocused
Longitudinal
0.0 deg
16
1
1
1

DISPLAY MENU
(Sub-menu)
View
Results1

(tab)
Angle Corrected
Reading 1
Reading 2
Reading 3
Reading 4

(value)
On
P%A
PSA
Beam
SA

UT MENU
(Sub-menu)
Base
Pulser
Receiver
Gate mode

(tab)
Display Delay
Voltage
Width
Frequency
TOF mode

(value)
0.0
150V
220ns
2MHz

Flank

Page 35 of 40

Results for a 1D probe


The pattern created is the result of firing each individual element in sequence,
and the step like slope that is created is due to the different thickness in
wedge material, or delay, beneath each element.

Page 36 of 40

3.

Determining the Z Offset.


Material thickness and leg functions must be adjusted to your wedge in order
to display the step pattern on the screen.
The A gate must frame the wedge echoes.
The gain must be high enough so that the P%A reading is the result of the
first element being barely > 100% FSH.
Position the beam cursor to the last element so that it is reading in the SA.

For formulas use:


D1 = delay of first element (PSA)
D2 = delay of last element (SA)
N = number of elements
To determine the Z offset:
Z offset = (D1 + D2) / 2
1) Z = (9.14mm + 13.60mm) /2
2) Z = (22.74mm) /2
3) Z = 11.37mm
Specified value 11.5mm Measured value 11.37mm

Page 37 of 40

Annex D
Drawings
Drawing D.1

Page 38 of 40

Drawing D.2

Page 39 of 40

Drawing D.3

Page 40 of 40

Drawing D.4