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1) Noble gases do not react with other elements because they all have a full outer

electron shell
2) all other elements are wannabees. They would each like to be stable like the
noble gases that they are closest to. In order to become stable they must either lose
or gain an electron so that they have a full a valence electron shell or empty
valences so that their outer electron shell is empty.
3) Metals will lose electrons to form ions
Non-metals will gain electrons to form ions
4) Atoms that have unequal numbers of protons and electrons are called IONS.
5) Ex: when a metal atom like sodium (has 1 electron in valence shell) bumps into
an atom of chlorine (has 7 electrons in valence shell and needs 1 more), one
electron jumps from the sodium atom to the chlorine atom. The sodium ion now had
a positive charge while the chlorine ion has a negative charge. Because their
charges are equal and opposite, these two ions attract each other and are stuck
together. This electrical attraction between two ions is called an ionic bond.
6) Any compound containing only non metals is a molecular compound, except
compounds containing the ammonium ion (NH4+) which are ionic
7) positively charged ions called cations
8) negatively charged ions called anions
1. Do metals gain or lose electrons when they form ions?
Metals lose electrons to form ions.
2. Do metal ions have a positive or negative charge?
Metal ions have a positive charge.
3. Do non-metals gain or lose electrons?
Non metals gain electrons.
4. Do non-metals form positive or negative ions?
Non metals form negative ions.
5. Do noble gases form ions?
The Noble Gases do not have an ionic radius . This is because they don't
form ions. Ions are charged particles, and atoms become charged particles
when they gain or lose electrons. Atoms only gain or lose electrons in an
attempt to establish an octet, or 8valence electrons. Octets are
particularly stable electron arrangements. Noble gases already have 8
valence electrons (except for helium) and are in very stable states. They
have no need to gain or lose electrons, so they are "happy".

6. Is there a similarity between an atoms ion charge and the electrons lost or
gained when it forms an ion? Explain.
7. Ions and atoms of an element are similar because they have the same number of
____________ and ____________
8. Ions and atoms of the same element have different numbers of ____________.
What to think about
if the compound contains a metal or the ammonium ion then it is ionic, otherwise it
is molecular.
(A) Na is a metal
(B) Cu is a metal
(C) P and O are both non metals

(A) NaCl is an ionic compound

(B) Cu(NO3) is an ionic compound
(C) P2O5 is a molecular compound

Random Unicorn space:


The Nature of Matter Overview

1) Graph data
for marks include:
Title, x-y intercepts, labels, dependent: y , units, scale, independent
variable = x(time), best fit line.
2) Give a physical property of an element boiling point.

3) An atom are the basic building blocks of ordinary matter. Atoms can
join together to form molecules, which in turn form most of the objects
around you. Atoms are composed of particles
called protons, electrons and neutrons. Protons carry a positive
electrical charge, electrons carry a negative electrical charge and
neutrons carry no electrical charge at all. The protons and neutrons
cluster together in the central part of the atom, called the nucleus, and
the electrons 'orbit' the nucleus. A particular atom will have the same
number of protons and electrons and most atoms have at least as many
neutrons as protons.

4) Give the characteristics of a compound

Compounds are made up of 2 or more elements and they are all

chemically bonded.
The properties of a compound are different from the elements that
make it up.
Compounds can be broken back into elements by chemical reaction,
exposure to light, etc.
Compounds can be separated only chemically, not by physical means
The mass of the compound is determined by the mass of the
elements that make it up.
When compounds are formed heat and light is given out or
5) Anything that has mass and takes up space is an example of matter.
6) Which is a physical property?
Density, colour, melting/boiling point
7) A chemical bond is ionic or covalent
8) Groups of atoms held together by chemical bonds form molecules and
9) A compound is a compound is a substance formed when two or more
chemical elements are chemically bonded together. Two types of chemical
bonds common in compounds are covalent bonds and ionic bonds. The
elements in any compound are always present in fixed ratios.
10) The parts of a mixture can be easily separated

11) Give an example of a change of state:

there are four types of states, solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. the three
common ones are solid liquid and gas. so a change is when something

goes from one of those states to another. so

when something melts, freezes, boils,
condenses (condensation), or sublimates
(sublimation). so making water into ice, ice
into water, water to steam, dry ice (solid to
12) Every chemical or physical change in matter
includes a change in energy
13) solution is an example of a homogenous
mixture, one that looks pure, that is very evenly
14) chemical bonds are covalent Bonds. Covalent chemical bonds involve the
sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms, in contrast to the
transfer of electrons in ionic bonds. Such bonds lead to stable molecules if
they share electrons in such a way as to create a noble gas configuration
for each atom.
15) NOT true of atoms : atoms cant be separated
16) energy is stored in the bonds that hold atoms together
17) During a chemical change, the form of a substance is altered , but not its
18) Breaking down water into the elements hydrogen and oxygen is an example
of a chemical change.
19) Ice is an example of the solid state of matter
Heat of fusion In a chemical reaction, solids can be heated to the point where the
molecules holding their bonds together break apart and form a liquid. The most
common example is solid ice turning into liquid water.
Heat of evaporation is to change state into gas
20) Give example of chemical changes
-rusting of iron
-cooking an egg
-combustion (burning) of wood
- Neutralization
- single replacement
-double replacement

21) the amount of matter in an object is its ________________ and