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Practice 004 401 PR015

Date Feb 2009


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ARMECO

WORKING AT HEIGHT
PURPOSE
The purpose of this procedure is to provide for the safety of persons that may
need to work at height. Wherever practicable, the need for personnel to work at
height should be eliminated.
SCOPE
This procedure describes controls for working at height and associated risk
assessments.
APPLICATION
This procedure applies to ARMECO Project and Contractor personnel.
DEFINITIONS
Anchor Point
A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices.
Competent Person
Any person who has been trained and authorized to inspect fall-arresting
equipment such as horizontal and vertical lifelines. A single individual can be
both qualified and competent. All projects/sites shall maintain a list of competent
and qualified persons.
Lanyard
A rope (nylon or steel cable) suitable for supporting one person.
Lifeline
A vertically suspended rope with one end attached to a stationary object (such as
a structural member), capable of supporting at Two thousands two hundred and
sixty eight Kilograms (2,268 kilograms) of dead weight, with the other end
attached to a lanyard or safety harness.

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WORKING AT HEIGHT
Open Sides and Ends
The edges of a platform that are more than 36 centimeters away horizontally
from a sturdy, continuous, vertical surface (such as a building wall) or a sturdy,
continuous horizontal surface (such as a floor), or a point of access. Exception:
For plastering and lathing operations, the horizontal threshold distance is 46
centimeters.
Qualified Person
One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional
standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has
successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve or resolve problems related to
the subject matter, the work, or the Project/Site.
Retractable Lifeline or Inertia Reel
A fall-arrest device that allows free travel, without slack rope, but locks instantly
when a fall begins. Retractable lifelines may be used, but horizontal movement
must be limited.
Rope Grabs (Fall Arrester)
Automatic lifeline devices that act by inertia (resistance to movement) to grab the
lifeline if a fall occurs. Rope grabs are used when vertical movement is required,
such as work from boatswain chairs or suspended scaffolds.
Safety Harness
A safety harness is an approved design of straps that may be secured about the
employees body in a manner to distribute the fall-arrest forces over at least the
thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders, with a means for attaching it to other
components of a personal fall-arrest system.
Scaffold
Any temporary elevated platform (supported or suspended) and its supporting
structure (including points of anchorage) used for supporting employees,
materials, or both.

Static Line or Catenary Line

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WORKING AT HEIGHT
A cable or rope strung horizontally and/or vertically from one substantial object to
another, providing a means of traveling between those two objects while
maintaining fall protection between those objects.
Type I Ladder
Portable ladder which can support at least one hundred and thirteen Kilograms
(113 kilograms) of weight.
Type IA Ladder
Portable ladder which can support at least One hundred and thirty six kilograms
(136 kilograms) of weight.
Working at Height
Access or egress to/from, ascending, descending or working in any position
where a person can fall from one level to another and injure himself or herself.

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ARMECO

WORKING AT HEIGHT
PURPOSE................................................................................................................................................... 1
SCOPE........................................................................................................................................................ 1
APPLICATION............................................................................................................................................. 1
DEFINITIONS.............................................................................................................................................. 1
1.0
GENERAL......................................................................................................................................... 6
2.0
CONTROL MECHANISM.................................................................................................................. 6
3.0
PERMANENT MEANS OF CONTROL............................................................................................. 7
3.1
Guardrails / Handrails.................................................................................................................... 7
3.2
Permanent Fixed Platform / Walkway............................................................................................ 7
3.3
Permanent Industrial Fall Arrest System.......................................................................................7
4.0
TEMPORARY OR MOBILE MEANS OF CONTROL........................................................................7
4.1
Mobile Platforms............................................................................................................................ 7
4.2
Scaffolding..................................................................................................................................... 7
4.3
Mechanical Elevating Work Platforms........................................................................................... 8
4.4
Ladders......................................................................................................................................... 8
4.5
Man Cage/Work Box..................................................................................................................... 8
4.6
Fall Arrest Systems....................................................................................................................... 8
4.7
Industrial Rope Access.................................................................................................................. 9
5.0
WORKING AT HEIGHTS AND WORKING BELOW..........................................................................9
5.1
Elimination..................................................................................................................................... 9
5.2
Substitution.................................................................................................................................. 10
5.3
Isolation....................................................................................................................................... 10
5.4
Engineering Controls................................................................................................................... 10
5.5
Administration.............................................................................................................................. 10
5.6
Personal Protective Equipment................................................................................................... 10
5.7
Maintenance................................................................................................................................ 11
6.0
WORKING BELOW......................................................................................................................... 11
7.0
GRID MESH/HANDRAIL REMOVAL............................................................................................... 11
8.0
TRAINING....................................................................................................................................... 12
9.0
WORKING AT HEIGHT RISK ANALYSIS........................................................................................ 12
9.1
Purpose....................................................................................................................................... 12
10.0 RISK ASSESSMENT CONSIDERATIONS.....................................................................................13
10.1 Injury Outcomes.......................................................................................................................... 13
10.2 Frequency Of Exposure............................................................................................................... 13
10.3 Potential/Likelihood/Causes Of A Fall Occurring.........................................................................14
10.4 Consider Control Measures......................................................................................................... 14
10.5 Time And Further Considerations................................................................................................15
10.6 Eliminate, Substitute, Isolate, Or Redesign.................................................................................15
10.7 Permanent Or Engineered Solution............................................................................................. 16
10.8 Alternative Control Measures...................................................................................................... 17
10.9 Complete A New Job Risk Analysis On The Task........................................................................18
11.0 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................... 19
12.0 ATTACHMENTS.............................................................................................................................. 19

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WORKING AT HEIGHT

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ARMECO

WORKING AT HEIGHT
1.0

GENERAL
Training must be completed and recorded.
100% fall protection is required when working at height.
A risk assessment must be conducted for work at height.
Rescue equipment and vertical rescue trained personnel must be available.

2.0

CONTROL MECHANISM
Each working at height scenario shall have a risk assessment conducted. Every
effort must be made to provide fall protection for people required to work at
height. If, however, a fall restraint device is identified as being necessary,
personnel who are trained, assessed, and deemed competent to work at height
must be used. Contractors are responsible for the training and competency of
their employees to perform their allocated tasks in accordance with the
applicable standards. Documented proof of this training must be provided to the
HSE department prior to working at height.
A person will use both a fall-arrest harness and attachment device with a shockabsorbing lanyard or an inertia reel whenever they are at risk of falling and
incurring injury. The lanyard or reel must be attached to a suitable anchorage at
all times while the person is in an exposed position. At times, this requirement
may necessitate the use of two lanyards so that one can be left attached while
the second is being moved to the next anchorage. Back hooking and the tying of
knots in a lanyard are not permitted. An inertia reel device may be used in place
of a shock-absorbing lanyard.
Safety harnesses and other fall protection devices shall be used in accordance
with this procedure. There may be occasions when fall arrest harnesses are
used in addition to other control measures (e.g., harnesses must always be worn
when operating boom type Elevated Work Platforms).
However, when any person is working in an area where there is a possibility that
he/she may fall and is not protected by existing fall protection, he/she must use a
fall arrest harness.

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ARMECO

WORKING AT HEIGHT
3.0
PERMANENT MEANS OF CONTROL
3.1

Guardrails / Handrails
A guardrail, handrail system is an edge protection rail system with a handrail of
not less than 900 mm (35 inches) or more than 1100 mm (43 inches) from the
standing surface. A midrail or mesh panel and a fender (toe) board must be
securely fixed and designed to withstand a force of 0.55 kN (approx. 55 Kg)
applied at any point of the guardrail system.

3.2

Permanent Fixed Platform / Walkway


A permanently engineered standard platform with handrails attached to a
permanent structure (e.g., work platform or access way may be used).

3.3

Permanent Industrial Fall Arrest System


An engineer-designed permanent system attached to suitable anchor points that
can withstand a minimum breaking force of 15 kN can be used. (e.g., steel cable
static lines, steel cable ladder climbing systems, and rigid rail ladder-climbing
systems).

4.0

TEMPORARY OR MOBILE MEANS OF CONTROL


4.1

Mobile Platforms
A mobile-engineered platform that is not mechanically driven and not extendable,
(e.g., wheel skid mounted platform and workshop platform) may be used.

4.2

Scaffolding
Scaffolding includes tube and couplers, modular frames, drop staging, swing
stages, purpose design stages all with full decking, guardrails, and fender
boards.
Scaffolding in light, medium, and heavy-duty applications must conform and be
constructed in accordance with local procedures.

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ARMECO

WORKING AT HEIGHT
4.3
Mechanical Elevating Work Platforms
Mechanical elevating platforms include cherry pickers, boom arms, scissors lifts,
order pickers, and building maintenance units.
4.4

Ladders
Portable ladders include stepladders and extension ladders. Generally, ladders
must:

Be secured to structures with rope or wire;

Be positioned on a solid stable base or be fitted with foot plates;

Are not to be used near electrical services or welding, if ladders are metal;

Be inspected before use;

Be positioned at a ratio of 4:1; and

Be inspected on a regular basis and taken out of service if defective.


A ladder inspection guide is included as in HSE PR015a

4.5

Man Cage/Work Box


A certified lifting cage suitable to lift personnel, that is constructed to meet local
standards and is designed by the manufacturer for use as a personnel hoist may
be used.
Note!!! Permits for use are required for each occasion when using a man cage
with crane or other lifting equipment.
Work from a man cage /work box or suspended platform is discussed in detail in,
Cranes and Lifting Equipment.

4.6

Fall Arrest Systems


Types of fall arrest systems are:

Fall arrest systems include work positioning/fall arrest harness;

Fall arresters;

Lanyards;

Energy absorbers (personal / industrial); and

Retractable lifelines.

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ARMECO

WORKING AT HEIGHT
4.7
Industrial Rope Access
An industrial rope access system using two separate anchor points, two ropes,
and specialized access equipment may be used by competent trained persons.
Note!!! Permits for use are required for each occasion when using industrial rope
access.
5.0

WORKING AT HEIGHTS AND WORKING BELOW


ARMECO has a commitment to achieve the highest possible level of prevention
of falls from heights. Consistent with this commitment, ARMECO will strive to
exceed the minimum standard of the current legislation, standards, and codes of
practice.
When any employee is working over operational equipment, they shall be
protected from falling.
ARMECO conducts regular audits of existing workplaces and will continually
identify hazards, assess these risks, and instigate appropriate control measures,
followed by constant monitoring. We will review the procedures to verify that the
process is working effectively and that risks are managed and control measures
are implemented.
The hierarchy of control of these identified hazards is:

Elimination;

Substitution;

Isolation;

Engineering Controls;

Administration; and

Personal Protective Equipment.


5.1

Elimination
Where possible, remove the need to complete tasks at height.

5.2

Substitution
Complete the task in a less hazardous location or manner (e.g., building as much
of a structure on the ground in preference to at height or use an elevating work
platform).

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ARMECO

WORKING AT HEIGHT
5.3
Isolation
Isolate the hazard or hazardous area (install handrails, edge protection, cages on
ladders, etc.).
5.4

Engineering Controls
Engineer or redesign the structure or equipment to reduce the hazard involved in
the task (e.g., move valves from height to a lower level for operation, install
remote valve operation devices, design and install walkways, and use fixed
ladders instead of using temporary staging). Consideration must be given to the
erection of structures and the provision of suitable anchor points for the steel
erectors.
Note!!! An anchorage must be capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of
2,268 kilograms for each person attached to it. An anchor point must be
an integral part of the structure and is often a beam, girder, column, or
floor beam. Handrails are not suitable anchor points.

5.5

Administration
Research and develop safe work procedures for tasks, provide training, and use
warning signs and barricades to control the hazard.

5.6

Personal Protective Equipment


PPE should be used only as a last resort or to increase the protection of one of
the above controls. PPE is limited to a full body or parachute type harness, with
a proper means of attachment to a suitable anchor point by a shock absorbing
lanyard or an inertia reel.
Note!!! The date of manufacture must be printed on a label attached to the
harness.

5.7

Maintenance
Harness, lanyards and other equipment used to prevent or arrest a fall must be
inspected before use by the person using it and monthly by a competent person.
Each three (3) months in accordance with the electrical and rigging equipment
testing and tagging procedure, the equipment will be thoroughly inspected by a
trained competent person and color coded, and an entry made into the rigging
register.

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ARMECO

WORKING AT HEIGHT
Equipment unfit for use will be sent to the manufacturer.
6.0

WORKING BELOW
Personnel working below another work area must inform the people above of
their presence. Should tools and equipment be raised or lowered to the upper
work area, this work will be performed by crane or be raised and lowered by
hand using a rope (minimum 16 mm/0.64 inches diameter) with the tools and
equipment securely tied. These lifting areas shall be barricaded to prevent
unintentional access beneath the suspended load.

7.0

GRID MESH/HANDRAIL REMOVAL


Prior to the removal of any part of any access walkway or handrail, a floor
grating/handrail removal permit shall be completed and approved, and prior to
the work commencing:

A hazard checklist and JRA shall be completed;

A substantial barricade with appropriate signage shall be erected at all


approaches to the area where the grating will be removed;

Any personnel working inside the barricaded area shall wear appropriate fall
protection; and

The area below the intended opening that may be affected by overhead
hazards shall be barricaded and sign-posted to prevent access.
After work has been completed and prior to the barricade being removed, all
grating or floor plates and handrails are to be checked to verify that all clamps
and clips have been secured.

8.0

TRAINING
ARMECO and all contractors will allow only persons with the appropriate and
current accreditation/certification training specific to the task(s) required of them
to work in an area where there is a potential to be injured from a fall from one
level to another. This training may include current scaffolding, rigging, dogging, or
Elevating Work Platform certificates of competency. All persons required to use
industrial fall arrest equipment must be trained to personally inspect, fit, maintain,
and use such equipment.
Training in the event of an emergency such as rescue from height, accident, or
injury must be completed by all personnel entrusted with this responsibility on
site. These persons must have a current recognized certificate of competency to
perform these duties.

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WORKING AT HEIGHT
9.0
WORKING AT HEIGHT RISK ANALYSIS
9.1

Purpose
This process describes a systematic approach to controlling the risks associated
with working at heights, commencing with hazard identification of potential falls
through to selecting and implementing suitable control measures, including both
temporary and permanent solutions.
For any work where there is the potential risk of a person falling from height and
injury would result, a suitable means of control must be implemented.

In many instances there will be suitable control measures in place to control


these incidents, (e.g., fixed handrails and barriers). However, there may be
areas that do not have suitable protection in place, and the use of temporary
control measures may have to be implemented for short duration work or for
use while a permanent solution is commissioned.

To establish a suitable means of control for each risk, it may be necessary to


refer to the Risk Analysis Process shown in HSE PR015b. At times, the
situation may require referencing other documentation such as the
procedure Entry to Confined Spaces Procedure HSE PR016, to identify all
the hazards and control means.

If there is any doubt over the adequacy or use of permanent/fixed or


temporary systems to control the risks posed from working at height, then
they must be confirmed with the project HSE Superintendent/Advisor.
Identify the hazard(s) of the task/job to be completed.
Identify each hazard where a person is likely to be exposed to a potential fall
from one level to another at the workplace.
The identification of the need to control a hazard of falling from height can come
from many sources such as:

The result of a Job Risk Analysis;

The result of a Survey;

Reference to previous incidents or near miss accidents/incidents;

Inclusion as a part of another procedure, e.g., Confined Space Entry;

An audit by Supervisors / HSE Representative;

Detailed feedback from workers in the area; and

Site-specific height policy.

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WORKING AT HEIGHT
10.0
RISK ASSESSMENT CONSIDERATIONS
All working at height must be preceded by a risk assessment. The personnel and
their supervisor must conduct a risk assessment of the work, duration, frequency,
and potential consequences prior to work commencing. This assessment may
include the following factors.

If a person were to fall what severity of injury would result?

How often will personnel be exposed to the hazard?

What is the potential/likelihood of a fall occurring?


Conduct a thorough risk assessment of the hazards by considering the following
contributing factors.
10.1

Injury Outcomes

10.2

Frequency Of Exposure

10.3

How far would a person fall?


What would the person fall onto / into?
What injuries may result from the fall?

How often is the person likely to be exposed to the hazard?


How many persons at any given time are exposed to the hazard?

Potential/Likelihood/Causes of A Fall Occurring


A person will fall if his/her center of gravity (postural stability) is affected in an
uncontrolled manner. The mechanism to maintain and control stability receives
sensory input from three sources:

Vision;

Inner ear; and

Skin/weight bearing joints.


There are numerous factors that can affect the above sensory control
mechanisms. Listed below are some of the factors that can affect these control
mechanisms, and a fall may result.

Will personnel need to move from one surface to another unprotected area?

Will all the surfaces support the intended load?

Are there any holes or opening in the surface?

Are there any unprotected edges, openings?

Do any levels change?

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WORKING AT HEIGHT

Is the surface slippery or steep (over 30%)?


Will ladders need to be used?
Are the surfaces unstable?
Is the existing lighting a problem?
Will adverse weather affect the site conditions?
Will falling objects affect the safety of people or equipment?
Are there any other identified hazards that may affect the job, (e.g.,
chemical, electrical, mechanical, noise, pressure, radiant, biochemical, or
microbiological hazards)?
Will any step of the task involve or introduce an instability/stability factor?

If the answer is YES to any of the above, then further details will be required.
10.4

Consider Control Measures


At this point, a hazard of falling has been identified, and the risk assessment
requires that a suitable control measure be implemented.
There are numerous control measures available. To establish the most effective,
appropriate, and practicable control measure by preferred order consider the
following points.

Can the need for the work be eliminated? (There are many tasks still
conducted at height because that is the way we have always done them.)
Consider does the task still need to be completed at height.

Can the work be substituted or completed another way?

Can the process be altered, redesigned?

Can the equipment be changed?

Can the equipment or job relocate to another safer area?


If the answer is YES to any of the above, then move to Step 4 (Height Safety
Procedure flow chart) of Attachment a.
If the answer is NO to all of the above, then move to Step 6 of Attachment a

10.5

Time And Further Considerations

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Is time a factor?
What is the frequency of exposure?
What is the duration of exposure?
Does the job need to be done before elimination or an alternative is
implemented?

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WORKING AT HEIGHT
If the answer is NO, then proceed to Step 5 of Attachment a
If the answer is YES, then proceed to Step 10 of Attachment a
10.6

Eliminate, Substitute, Isolate, Or Redesign

Implement a more effective means of control of the identified risk eliminating


the task. Complete the task another way.
Engineer or redesign the equipment to remove the need for the task.
Move the equipment to a safe level where height is not a risk.
Separate the risk by installing a handrail.

Commence a detailed analysis into alternative controls.

At this point it is clear that the task still needs to be completed and that it is
not possible to eliminate, substitute, redesign, or separate the risk.

It is now necessary to commence a detailed study into the task.

The Job Risk Analysis will detail the steps involved in the task. It is
necessary to consider the following questions to assist with a suitable
solution to the risk involved.
How often is the job/task completed? - If constant or 6+ times a year, consider
a permanent engineered solution. If frequency is low, the control means is
reduced.
What is the nature of the job? - Complex jobs often require a firm stable
working platform; simple tasks can be completed from temporary safety systems.
What equipment is required to complete the task(s)? - The use of heavy
equipment to complete a task may result in exceeding the safe working load of
the supporting platform or control means, e.g., a heavy rattle gun cannot be used
while working off a ladder.
How many people are required to complete the task at one time? - The
control measure may require multiple persons to complete the task. Can the
solution support these numbers (e.g., an elevating work platform can only lift two
persons)?
Will the job/task take long to complete? - A stepladder is suitable for short
duration tasks, but it is not a working platform and therefore should not be used
for complex and long-term tasks. Mechanical platforms are expensive to use
over long time periods.

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WORKING AT HEIGHT
How much notice is required to commence the task? - A fixed platform may
take months to install, a mechanical platform may need advance booking for
availability, and scaffolding being installed and removed may restrict access to
the surrounding facility.
How high will the control measure need to reach? - A mobile platform or
mechanical platform has height restrictions on reach, stability, and certification.
Is special training required in the installation or use of the control
measure? For example, a person working in a EWP must wear a fall arrest
harness and be trained in its correct fitting and use.
10.7

Permanent Or Engineered Solution


As a result of the detailed analysis study of the possible solutions, is a permanent
or engineer designed fixed solution the result?
Use the risk analysis process to assist in considering solutions.
If the answer is YES, then proceed to Step 8 of Attachment a
If the answer is NO, then proceed to Step 10 of Attachment a
Time and financial considerations:

Is time a limiting factor? Does the job need to be completed before a


permanent solution is designed, constructed, and installed?
Is money to design, construct, and install the control measure a limiting
factor that may take time to be provided?

If the answer is YES to any of the above, refer to Step 10 of Attachment a


If the answer is NO, then refer to Step 9 of Attachment a
Engineer, design, construct, and install the control solution.
The permanent control measure is now clearly identified, the finances are
available, and the identified hazard is isolated awaiting the completion of the
installation.
Temporary control measure:

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Due to financial or time restrictions to the ultimate control measure, it is
necessary to still complete the task while the permanent solution is engineered,
designed, constructed, and installed. A temporary control measure must be used
at this point while the permanent control measure is commissioned.
Refer to Step 11 of Attachment a
10.8

Alternative Control Measures


By referring to the current Job Risk Analysis, the risk assessment of the hazard
combined with detailed suggestions from the risk analysis process, it should be
possible to select a suitable alternative control measure such as:

Using a mobile platform;

Erecting suitable scaffolding to the area;

Using a suitable elevating work platform;

Using another type of mechanical platform;

Using a Fall Arrest System and Fall Arrest Harness;

Using mobile ladders with appropriate safety equipment and a safe working
procedure to provide adequate protection; and

Enlisting the services of a specialized industrial rope access team.

10.9

Complete A New Job Risk Analysis On The Task

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The use of an alternative control measure may have introduced further


safety considerations that may still need attention.
Conduct or review the existing JRA to complete the task.
Produce an area-specific procedure.
The control measure now chosen may require a detailed area-specific
procedure to establish exact details on the new process.
This area-specific procedure should include details on any new HSE
requirements, additional equipment, and specific training requirements.
Proceed with the task and constantly review for improvements to the
system.

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WORKING AT HEIGHT
11.0

REFERENCES
Corporate HSE
General Health, Safety and Environmental Practice
Office Health, Safety and Environmental Practice
Engineering Health, Safety and Environmental
Practice
Execution Health, Safety and Environmental
Practice
Confined Space Entry
Cranes And Lifting Equipment

12.0

ATTACHMENTS

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Attachment #

File Title

Attachment a

Working at Height Risk Analysis


Process Flowchart

Attachment b

Ladder Inspection Guide

Health, Safety & Environmental