Anda di halaman 1dari 11

Protozoa

Merupakan filum hewan bersel satu yang dapat melakukan reproduksi


seksual (generatif) maupun aseksual (vegetatif). Habitat hidupnya
adalah tempat yang basah atau berair. Jika kondisi lingkungan tempat
hidupnya tidak menguntungkan maka protozoa akan membentuk
membran tebal dan kuat yang disebut Kista. Ilmuwan yang pertama
kali mempelajariprotozoa adalah Anthony van Leeuwenhoek.

PROTOZOA DIBAGI MENJADI 4 KELAS BERDASAR ALAT GERAK

Rhizopoda (Sarcodina),
alat geraknya berupa pseudopoda (kaki semu)
Amoeba proteus
memiliki dua jenis vakuola yaitu vakuola makanan dan
vakuola kontraktil.
Entamoeba histolityca
menyebabkan disentri amuba (bedakan dengan disentri basiler
yang disebabkan Shigella dysentriae)
Entamoeba gingivalis
menyebabkan pembusukan makanan di dalam mulut
radang gusi (Gingivitis)
Foraminifera sp.
fosilnya dapat dipergunakan sebagai petunjuk adanya minyak
bumi. Tanah yang mengandung fosil fotaminifera disebut tanah
globigerina.
Radiolaria sp.
endapan tanah yang mengandung hewan tersebut digunakan

untuk bahan penggosok.


Flagellata (Mastigophora),
alat geraknya berupa nagel (bulu cambuk). Dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok,
yaitu:
Golongan phytonagellata
- Euglena viridis (makhluk hidup peralihah antara protozoa
dengan ganggang)
- Volvax globator (makhluh hidup peralihah antara
protozoa dengan ganggang)
- Noctiluca millaris (hidup di laut dan dapat mengeluarkan
cahaya bila terkena rangsangan mekanik)

Golongan Zooflagellata, contohnya :


- Trypanosoma gambiense & Trypanosoma rhodesiense.
Menyebabkan penyakit tidur di Afrika dengan vektor (pembawa)
lalat Tsetse (Glossina sp.)
Trypanosoma gambiense vektornya Glossina palpalis tsetse
sungai
Trypanosoma rhodeslense vektornya Glossina morsitans
tsetse semak
- Trypanosoma cruzl penyakit chagas
- Trypanosoma evansi penyakit surra, pada hewan ternak
(sapi).
- Leishmaniadonovani penyakit kalanzar
3

- Trichomonas vaginalis penyakit keputihan


Ciliata (Ciliophora),
alat gerak berupa silia (rambut getar)
Paramaecium caudatum disebut binatang sandal, yang memiliki dua
jenis vakuola yaitu vakuola makanan dan vakuola kontraktil yang berfungsi
untuk mengatur kesetimbangan tekanan osmosis (osmoregulator).
Memiliki dua jenis inti Makronukleus dan Mikronukleus (inti reproduktif).
Cara reproduksi, aseksual membelah diri, seksual konyugasi.

Balantidium coli menyebabkan penyakit diare.


Sporozoa,
adalah protozoa yang tidak memiliki alat gerak
Cara bergerak hewan ini dengan cara mengubah kedudukan tubuhnya.
Pembiakan secara vegetatif (aseksual) disebut juga Skizogoni dan secara
generatif (seksual) disebut Sporogoni.
Marga yang berhubungan dengan kesehatan manusia Toxopinsma dan
Plasmodium.
Jenis-jenisnya antara lain:

- Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria tropika sporulasi tiap hari


- Plasmodium vivax malaria tertiana sporulasi tiap hari ke-3
(48 jam)
- Plasmodium malariae malaria knartana sporulasi tiap hari
ke-4 (72 jam)
- Plasmodiumovale malaria ovale
Siklus hidup Plasmodium mengalami metagenesis terjadi di dalam tubuh
manusia (reproduksi vegetatif skizogoni) dan didalam tubuh nyamuk
Anopheles sp. (reproduksi generatif sporogoni). secara lengkap sebagai
berikut:
Sporozoit Masuk Tubuh Di Dalam Hati (Ekstra Eritrositer) Tropozoid
Merozoit (memakan eritrosit Eritrositer) Eritrosit Pecah (peristiwanya
Sporulasi) Gametosit Terhisap Nyamuk Zygot Ookinet Oosis
Sporozeit.
Pemberantasan malaria dapat dilakulcan dengan cara :
1. Menghindari gigitan nyamuk Anopheles sp.
2. Mengendalikan populasi nyamuk Anopheles dengan insektisida dan
larvasida

3. Pengobatan penderita secara teratur dengan antimalaria chloroquin,


fansidar, dll

The protozoa are one-celled animals and the smallest of all animals. Most
of them can only be seen under a microscope. They do breathe, move, and
reproduce like multicelled animals. They live in water or at least where it is
damp. Animals in this group include the paramecium, the euglena and the
ameba.
Some protozoans are harmful to man as they can cause serious diseases.
Others are helpful because they eat harmful bacteria and are food for fish
and other animals.
Below is a link to a description of three types of protozoa.

Amoeba

Paramecium
Euglena

System Type

Protozoas System

MuscularSkeletal

A protozoa has no inner or outer skeleton.


They move a variety of ways. The ameba
has a false foot that extends as it moves.
The paramecium is covered with hairs and
the euglena has a whip-like tail to move.

Digestion

A protozoa takes in food via the water and


stores the food in sacs called vacuoles.
They eat tiny algae and bacteria.

Nervous

A protozoa has a very low level reaction to


the world around it and does not have a
brain per se. They can react to light and
temperature changes.

Circulation

A protozoa has water flow in through the


pores. The water contains the food and
oxygen the protozoa needs.

Respiration

A protozoa takes in oxygen through the


cell membrane and gives off carbon
dioxide through the cell membrane.

Reproduction

A protozoa reproduces by splitting in half.


This is called fission.

Excretion

A protozoa has sacs called vacuoles that


take in and get rid of water.

Symmetry

A protozoa is usually asymmetrical.

Coloration

A protozoa is very microscopic and is pale


in color generally.

Ameba Moving With Its False Feet (Pseudopodia)

The ameba is one of the simplest of the protozoa. It can be found in ponds
and rivers and on the surface of the leaves of water plants. It looks like a
grayish blob under a microscope. Its shape is constantly changing as it
moves along.
One characteristic of the ameba is its false feet, that scientists call
pseudopodia. The false feet extend out and then the rest of the body
follows the false feet along. The ameba eats little animals and plants. It
sends out its false feet to surround the plant or animal and then pops it
right into the cell!
The ameba has tiny sacs in its body called vacuoles. Some of the vacuoles
have food in them. Others collect water and squeeze the extra water out.
Oxygen enters the ameba through its thin covering called a cell membrane.
The carbon dioxide leaves the ameba through the cell membrane as well.
The ameba avoids light but swims faster in warmer temperatures. The
ameba reproduces by splitting in half. This is called fission. The ameba's
nucleus or center splits in half and goes to opposite ends of the cell. Then
the cell narrows and splits in half.

Paramecium feeding

Paramecium can take in food only at the cytostome. The cilia in the oral groove create a
current of water which wafts the food organisms up to the cytostome where they are
ingested in a food vacuole. This food vacuole then follows a specific route through the
cytoplasm. On its travels, enzymes are secreted into the vacuole and the food is digested.
The digested substances are then absorbed into the cytoplasm.

Paramecium Reproduction
Paramecium reproduces, like amoeba, by binary fission. The ciliate stops moving and
both mega- and micronucleus divide and move to opposite ends of the organism.The
cytoplasm then divides at right angles to the long axis and the daughter paramecia
separate. Binary fission may take place 2 or 3 times each day.

Vorticella has a stalk which attaches it to pondweed or pond debris and


which can retract if the protozoan is disturbed. The cilia do not cover the body but are
restricted to a double row on the upper margin. The cilia create a feeding current which
wafts food particles into the oral groove.

If paramecium encounters an obstacle, it reverses the ciliary beat and moves back. It then
changes direction slightly and moves forward. It will do this repeatedly until it gets past
the obstruction. This reaction also shows that paramecium is sensitive to stimuli (in this
case, the stimulus of touch).