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# u06d1 Multiple Regression

Address one of the following questions and post your analysis to the discussion:
1. When we assess X1 as a predictor of Y, there are several ways we can add a third variable
(X2), and several stories that may describe the relations among variables. Explain what
information can be obtained from these two different analyses:

## Partial correlation (partial r of Y with X1 controlling for X2):

o Which of these analyses (I or II) makes it possible to detect an interaction
between X1 and X2? Which analysis assumes that there is no interaction)?
o If there is an interaction between X1 and X2 as predictors of Y, what pattern would
you see in the scatter plots in part I
o Identify a research question from your professional life, research interests, or
everyday experience that could be addressed by the above analysis.
o Describe two (of many possible) problems that would make a partial correlation
nonsense or uninterpretable.

2. For a regression (to predict Y from X1 and X2), is it possible to have a significant R, but
non significant b coefficients for both X1 and X2? If so, under what circumstances would
this be likely to occur? Identify a research question from your professional life, research
interests, or everyday experience that could be addressed by this analysis.

When we assess X1 as a predictor of Y, there are several ways we can add a third variable (X2),
and several stories that may describe the relations among variables. Explain what information
can be obtained from these two different analyses:

## Partial correlation (partial r of Y with X1 controlling for X2):

o Which of these analyses (I or II) makes it possible to detect an interaction
between X1 and X2? Which analysis assumes that there is no interaction)?

## o If there is an interaction between X1 and X2 as predictors of Y, what pattern would

you see in the scatter plots in part I
o Identify a research question from your professional life, research interests, or
everyday experience that could be addressed by the above analysis.
o Describe two (of many possible) problems that would make a partial correlation
nonsense or uninterpretable.
I. Assess the X1, Y relation separately for each group on X2 variable.
II. Partial correlation (partial r of Y with X1 controlling for X2)
a. Which of these analyses (I or II) makes it possible to detect an interaction between X1 and X2?
(I): When X1 and Y are examined separately for each value of X2 and the resulting correlation is
different across levels of X2, this is evidence that a possible interaction between X1 and X2
exists as predictors of Y. If such an interaction is detected and not reported, then an overall
partial correlation for X1 and Y would be a misleading computation (Warner, 2008).
b. Which analysis assumes that there is no interaction?
(II): When a partial correlation is computed to determine the nature of the relationship between
X1 and Y, while controlling for X2, it assumed that X1 and X2 do not have an interaction since
X2 is controlled or partialed out.
c. If there is an interaction between X1 and X2 as predictors of Y, what pattern would you see in
the scatter plots in part I?
If there is an interaction between X1 and X2, the scatterplot should show a linearly large and
positive bivariate correlation.
d. Identify a research question from your professional life, research interests, or everyday
experience that could be addressed by the above analysis.
A possible partial correlational study could involve understanding the presence of prejudice or
bias among counseling practitioners based upon the constructs of religious identity and race
across levels of multicultural competency may serve to provide valuable insights on the levels of
multicultural sensitivity provided in professional counseling services. The Y variable would be
multicultural competency and the predictor variables race (X1) and religious identity (X2).
Religious identity would be included because of the challenges a deeply religious counselor
faces to completely abandon the rigidity of ones religious worldview in a secular, multicultural
counseling environment.

There are numerous psychometric inventories that can be used to compile the data set for this
study. Religious identity might be measured using the Multi-Religion Identity Measure (MRIM)
which conceptualizes religious identity from three specific domains: 1) Religious Affiliation and
Belonging, 2) Religious Identity Achievement, and 3) Religious Faith and Practice.
Multicultural competency can be measured by use of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge,
and Skill Survey (MAKSS). A first order partial correlation between X1 and Y, while controlling
for X2, would determine how X1 and Y are related. It would also be interesting to determine
whether an interaction exists between race (X1) and religious identity (X2) as predictors of Y.
This could be detected if the slope or correlation between X1 and Y differ across levels of X2.
e. Describe two (of many possible) problems that would make a partial correlation nonsense or
uninterpretable.
1. When a correlation between X1 and Y is 0 when controlling for X2, one cannot propose a
causal model of X2 mediating a causal relationship between X1 and Y.
2. When a spurious correlation involves improbable X2 variables that create a misleading
appearance of a relationship between X1 and Y (Warner, 2008).
Anthony Rhodes
General Psychology PhD

References
Warner, R.M. (2008). Applied statistics: From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN: 9780761927723.