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1. State and explain the mechanisms and laws of conduction, convection and radiation in detail with
neat sketches and examples.
2. Identify the mode of heat transfer in the following examples.
a. Coffee in a vacuum flask
b. A domestic boiler
c. Disc brake of a car during braking
3. Derive the general three dimensional heat conduction equation in Cartesian coordinate
system and hence obtain Laplace and Poisson equations.
4. Derive general differential heat conduction equation in cylindrical co-ordinate system.
5. Derive general differential heat conduction equation in spherical co-ordinate system.
6. Derive the heat conduction equation for a hollow spherical shell, taking the heat flow
at the inner surface and temperature at the outer surface to have constant values.
7. Derive steady state general heat conduction equation without heat generation in spherical systems.
8. What is a boundary condition? Explain all the boundary conditions in detail. How many boundary
conditions do we need to specify for a two-dimensional heat conduction problem?
9. Explain how the three thermal boundary conditions be produced in laboratory.
10. Explain the physical significance of boundary condition of the third kind.
11. What is an initial condition? How many initial conditions do we need to specify for a twodimensional heat conduction problem? Explain all the initial conditions in detail.
12. Explain Lumped system analysis in detail with derivations.
13. What are Biot and Fourier numbers? Explain their physical significance.
14. What is critical thickness of insulation, explain its significance and derive the same for cylinder
and sphere?
15. Explain the importance of Heisler charts in solving the transient heat conduction problems.
16. The wall of a house 7m wide and 6 m high is made from 0.3 m thick brick with a thermal
conductivity of 0.6 W/mk. The surface temperature on the inside of the wall is 160C and that as
the outside is 60C. Find the heat flo w through the wall and the total heat loss through it.
17. The parallel outer and inner walls of a building are 4m high and 5m long. The walls
are 10 cm apart. The inner surface of the inner wall is at 250C and the inner surface of
the outer wall is at 50C.
a. Calculate the total heat loss per hour.
b. If the air space is divided in half by a sheet of aluminium foil 0.025 mm thick
parallel to the walls, what would be the heat loss per hour.
18. A slab of Aluminum 10cm thick is originally at a temperature of 5000C. It is suddenly immersed
in a liquid at 1000C resulting it a heat transfer coeffi ient of 1200 W/m2k. Determine the
temperature at the centerline and the surface 1 min after the immersion. Also the total thermal energy
removal per unit area slab during this period. The properties of aluminum for the given condition
are: = 8.4 105m2 /s, K=215 W/mk, = 2700 kg/m3, Cp= 0.9 kJ/kg.
19. Water at 500C enters a 1.5cm diameter and 3m long tube with a velocity of 1m/s. The tube
wall is maintained at a constant temperature of 900C. Calculate the heat transfer coeffi ient and

the total amount of heat transferred if the exit water temperature is 640C.
20. A refrigerator stands in room where the air temperature is 200C. The surface
temperature on the outer side of the refrigerator is 160C, the sides are 30 mm thick
having a thermal conductivity of 0.1 W/m K. The heat transfer coefficient on the outer
side is 10 W/m2K. Assuming one dimensional conduction through the sides; calculate
the net heat fl w and the surface temperature inside the refrigerator.
21. A plate 20 mm thick and 100 mm wide is used to heat a fluid at 300C. The heat
generation rate inside the plate is 7 106 W/m3. Determine the heat transfer coefficient
to maintain the temperature of the plate below1800 C. Given K = 26 W/m0C.
22. On a hot summers day a concrete high way reach a temperature of 550C. Suppose
that a stream of water is directed on the high way so that the surface temperature is
suddenly lowered to 350C. How long will it take to cool the concrete to 450C at a
depth of 5cm from the surface?
23. A solid steel, 160mm long cylinder with a 80mm diameter initially at 8000C, is
cooled in a medium which is at a constant temperature of 300C. The surface heat transfer
coefficient is 120 W/m2k. Determine the centre line temperature at the midpoint of
length 30 minutes after cooling is initiated. Take = 0.022 m2 /hr, k=23.5 W/mk.
24. A steel tube of length 20 cm with internal and external diameters of 10 and 12 cm is quenched
from 500 C to 30 C in a large reservoir of water at 10 C. Below 100 C the heat transfer
coefficient is 1.5 kW/m2K. Above 1000C it is less owing to a film of vapour being
producing at the surface, and an effective mean value between 500 C and 100 C is 0.5
kW/mK. The density of steel is 7800 kg/m3 and the specific heat is 0.47 kJ/kg K. Neglecting
the internal thermal resistance of the steel tube, determine the quenching time.
25. A steel tube (k = 43.26 W/mK) of 5.08 Cm LD and 7.62 cm OD, is covered with a 2.54cm
layer of asbestos insulation (k=0.208 w/mk). The inside surfac-e of the tube receives heat by
conversion from a hot gas at a temperature of T,= 3l 6C with a heat transfer coefficient
h:.=284 w/m K, while the outer surface of insulation is exposed to the ambient air at
Tb=38C with a beat transfer coefficients of bb=l7 W/m2K. Calculate, The heat loss to
ambient air for 3m length of the tube and The temperature drop across the tube material and
insulation layer.
5 2
26. An iron sphere [k=60w/mC, Cp=460 J/kgC, =7850 kg/m 3 , =l.6*10- m /s) of dia,
D=5 cm is initially at uniform temperature Ti=225C , suddenly the surface of the sphere
is exposed to an ambient at Tb==25C with a heat transfer coefficient. h=500 W/m2 C.
Calculate the center temperature at t=2min after the start of the cooling. Calculate the
temperature at a depth of 1.0 cm from the surface at t =2min after the start of cooling. Also
calculate the energy removed from the sphere during this period of time.