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rotordynamics

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Anda di halaman 1dari 29

in)

By this method behavior of complete system is obtained from the behavior of individual

components of the system. It is particularly convenient to use when the characteristics of shaft and

those of bearings are determined from independent experimental or theoretical investigations

carried over a range of frequencies. The simple addition of shaft impedance and bearing

impedance gives the impedance of complete system, which may be used to find system critical

speeds and forced response. General principles are discussed first with reference to a simple

spring-mass system as shown in Figure 3.18(a). Mechanical impedance Z: is defined as the force

required to produce unit displacement. It is generally a complex quantity because of the phase lag

of displacement behind force due to damping.

f

m

fs

x

fm

m

x

(a) A simple

spring-mass

system

(b) Impedance

of spring

alone

(c) Impedance

of spring

alone

purpose (since mass & the spring

have same amount of displacement

they can be thought of connected

in parallel)

Zs =

f s kx

=

=k

x

x

(49)

where fs is the force on the spring, x is the corresponding displacement and k is the stiffness of the

spring. The impedance of the mass alone is given as (Figure 3.18(c))

Zm =

f m mx m 2 x

=

=

= m 2

x

x

x

(50)

159

where fm is the force on the mass, x is the corresponding displacement, m is the mass and is the

simple harmonic forcing frequency to the system. The spring and mass are effectively connected in

parallel (Figure 3.18(d)) as far as force is concerned. For subsystems connected in parallel the net

system impedance is given by the sum of individual subsystem impedances (for example the

equivalent stiffness of two spring connected in parallel is given by the sum of the individual spring

stiffness). So for the system shown in Figure 3.18(d) the impedance at the forcing point is

Z = Z s + Zm = k 2m

(51)

At the resonance (i.e. forcing frequency is equal to the system natural frequency) system impedance

will be zero (since any force produces an infinite amplitude, exception being when the forcing point is

at a node whereupon impedance tends towards infinitely) so that

k n2 m = 0

that is

n =

k

m

(52)

where n is the natural frequency of the system. It is noteworthy that for subsystems connected in

series, the net system receptance is sum of the individual subsystem receptances (receptance being

the inverse of impedance). The above approach may be applied to machines whose shafts carry many

rotor inertias when the shaft free-free impedance has been determined independently of those of the

bearing, pedestals and foundations. Shaft free-free impedance means the impedance when the shaft is

not constrained at either support point. This can be determined experimentally by suspending the shaft

so that it is supported only in the vertical direction as shown in Figure 3.19, then determining the

impedance horizontal response to a known horizontal forcing. The individual impedances component

impedances may be combined according to the rules described above to determine the impedance of

the complete system.

F(t)

160

Line parallel to AB

Tangent to shaft

x

Zero displacement, datum position

Figure 3.20 A flexible rotor under forced excitation

The impedance of a light flexible shaft carrying a number of disc masses may be determined

theoretically as follows. The shaft is considered to be forced, in the first instance, at locations A and B

(see Figure 3.20). The forcing causes the reaction forces and moments F1 , M 1 , F2 , M 2 etc. to be

set up as a consequence of disc mass inertias and these deform the shaft according to the relationship

12

13

14

l 1 11

22

23

24

l 2 21

n2

n3

n4

l n n1

=

a 1 n +1,1 n +1,2 n +1,3 n +1,4

a 2 n + 2,1 n + 2,2 n + 2,3 n + 2,4

2 n,1 2 n,2 2 n ,3 2 n,4

a n

1,2 n F1

2,2 n F2

n ,2 n Fn

n+1,2 n M 1

n+ 2,2 n M 2

2 n,2 n M n

(53)

where ij will be determined from the beam theory and back subscripts : l refers to the linear and a

refers to the angular shaft displacement. In general the loading applied to any rotor mass i to cause its

acceleration is

m Fi

= mi l + x = 2 mi ( l + x )

(54)

and

m

M i = I di

+ ) = 2 I d

161

( a + )

(55)

where mi and I di are the disc mass and the disc diametral mass moment of inertia respectively, x and

are shaft linear and angular displacements respectively, caused by movements at shaft locations A

and B and not caused by the inertia forces. The reaction loading on the shaft due to inertia will be

Fi = 2 mi ( l + x )

(56)

M i = 2 I di ( a + )

(57)

and

where is the excitation frequency. Substituting equations (56) and (57), written for each disc, into

equation (53), we get

12

13

14

l 1 11

22

23

24

l 2 21

n2

n3

n4

1 l n n1

=

2

a 1 n +1,1 n +1,2 n +1,3 n+1,4

2 n ,1 2 n ,2 2 n ,3 2 n ,4

a n

m1 ( l 1 + x1 )

m ( + x )

2 l 2 2

n ,2 n mn ( l n + xn )

n +1,2 n I d1 ( a 1 + 1 )

n + 2,2 n I d2 ( a 2 + 2 )

2 n,2 n I d ( a n + n )

n

1,2 n

2,2 n

(58)

[ A]{ } = [ R ]{x}

with

(1/ 2 m1a11 )

m1a21

[ A] =

m1a2 n ,1

(59)

m2 a12

(1/

I dn a1,2 n

m2 a22 )

I d n a2,2 n

m2 a2 n ,2

162

(1/

I dn a2 n ,2 n

a11m1

a m

[ R ] = 21 1

a2 n,1m1

a12 m2

a22 m2

a2 n ,2 m2

a1,2 n I d n

a2,2 n I dn

;

a2 n ,2 n I dn

l 1

{ } = l 2 ;

a n

x1

x

{ x} = 2

n

(60)

which gives

{ } = [C ]{x}

with

[C ] = [ A]1[ R]

(61)

In general the application of inertia loads Fi and M i to the shaft at some point causes proportional

reaction forces FA and FB at points A and B, where

FA b A1 b A2 Fi

=

FB bB1 bB 2 M i

(62)

=

F1

FB bB1 bB 2 bB ,2 n

F2 Fn

M1

M 2 M n

(63)

where bij may be determined from static equilibrium considerations. Substituting for disc inertia

forces and moments from equations (56) and (57) into equation (63), we get

FA bA1 bA2

=

FB bB1 bB 2

m1 2 ( l 1 + x1 )

2

m2 ( l 2 + x2 )

bA,2 n

2

mn ( l n + xn )

bB ,2 n

I 2 ( a 1 + 1 )

d1

2

I dn ( a n + n )

(64)

On substituting for ' s in equation (64) from equation (61) (i.e. l 1 = c11 x1 + c12 x2 + + c1,2 nn etc.)

then gives

163

FA

= [ D ]{x}

FB

(65)

with

[ D ] = 2 bA1

{ x} = { x1

B1

bA 2

bB 2

m1 (1 + c11 )

m1c12

m1c13

m1c1,2 n

bA,2 n m2c21

m2 (1 + c22 ) m2c23

m2 c2,2 n

bB ,2 n

I dn c2 n ,2

I dn c2 n ,3 I dn ( c2 n ,2 n + 1)

I dn c2 n ,1

x2 n }

xB

x

xA

a

l

x = xA +

x A xB

a

l

Figure 3.21 Rigid body linear and angular displacements of the shaft

However, displacements x1 , 1 , x 2 , 2 etc. are related to displacements at forcing points, xA and xB ,

by a relationship of the form

x

{x} = [G ] A

xB

(66)

with

164

x1

x

2

{ x} = xn ;

1

n

g11

g

[G ] = g n1

n +1,1

g 2 n,1

g n +1,2

g 2 n ,2

g12

gn2

Element of [G] can be obtained by simple consideration of geometry. Substituting equation (66) into

equation (65), it gives

FA

x A Z AA

= [Z ] =

FB

xB Z BA

Z AB x A

Z BB xB

(67)

with

[ Z ] = [ D ][G ]

where [Z] is the impedance matrix for the shaft and rotor assembly, relating forcing and

displacements at points A and B. In the matrix [Z] now all quantities, one can known by theoretical

analysis. The more general form of equation (67) that allows also for the motion in y-direction is

FxA Z AA

F

xB Z BA

=

FyA 0

FyB 0

Z AB

Z BB

0

0

0

Z AA

Z BA

0 xA

0 xB

Z AB y A

Z BB yB

(68)

The response at any other location along the shaft can be obtained by pre-multiplying inverse of

impedance matrix in equation (68) to get displacements at A and B, then substituting these in

equations (66) and (61). If FB is chosen to be zero, the point A can be chosen as any convenient

location along the shaft and corresponding (direct) impedance so evaluated. Equation (68) can be

expanded for any number of forcing points, for example for third forcing point C

165

FxA Z AA

F

xB Z BA

FxC Z CA

=

F 0

yA

FyB 0

F 0

yC

Z AB

Z BB

Z AC

Z BC

Z CB

Z CC

0

0

Z AA

Z AB

Z BB

Z CB

0

0

0

0

0

0

Z BA

Z CA

0

0

0 xA

0 xB

0 xC

Z AC y A

Z BC yB

ZCC yC

(69)

If forcing is caused by imbalance and FA and FB are reaction forces at pinned bearing supports, the

forced response of the system can be determined by assigning zero values to xA , xB , y A and yB . From

equation (69) the third and sixth equations gives

which gives displacements at C as

xc = Fxc / Z cc

and

yc = Fyc / Z cc

(70)

From equation (69), 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th equations gives

FxA = Z AC xc ;

FxB = Z BC xc ;

FyA = Z AC yc ; FyB = Z BC yc

(71)

FxA Z AC

F

xB Z BC

=

FyA 0

FyB 0

0

Z AC

0 xc Z BC

=

Z AC yc 0

Z BC

0

0

0 Fxc / Z cc

Z AC Fyc / Z cc

Z BC

(72)

Equation (72) gives reaction forces at A and B due to forcing at C. These reaction forces may be

substituted back into equation (69), which may be written more generally, to give response at any

other locations as

166

xA RAA

x R

B BA

xD RDA

=

y 0

A

yB 0

0

yD

with

RAB

RBB

RAC

RBC

RDB

RDC

0

0

RAA

RAB

RBB

RDB

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

RBA

RDA

0 FxA

0 FxB

0 FxD

RAC FyA

RBC FyB

RDC FyD

(73)

[ R ] = [Z ]1

where R are component of receptance matrix. In equation (73), [R] is already known to us

corresponding to new sets of chosen points, {F} matrix is now completely known. So the new xD and

yD can be obtained as

FxA + Z DB

FxB + Z DD

FxC = RDA FxA + RDB FxB + RDD FxD

xD = Z DA

(74)

FyA + Z DB

FyB + Z DD

FyC = RDA FyA + RDB FyB + RDD FyD

yD = Z DA

(75)

and

Example 3.5 Obtain transverse synchronous critical speeds of a rotor system as shown in Figure 3.3.

Take the mass of the disc, m = 10 kg, the diametral mass moment of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2, the polar

mass moment of inertia, Ip = 0.04 kg-m2. The disc is placed at 0.25 m from the right support. The

shaft is having diameter of 10 mm and total span length of 1 m. The shaft is assumed to be massless.

Take shaft Youngs modulus E = 2.1 1011 N/m2. Neglect gyroscopic effects. Take one plane motion

only.

Influence coefficients are defined as:

l=a+b

y 11 12 F

=

21 22 M

with

11 = a 2b 2 / 3EIl ;

12 = ( 3a 2l 2a3 al 2 ) / 3EIl

21 = ab(b a ) / 3EIl ;

22 = ( 3al 3a 2 l 2 ) / 3EIl

167

0.75m

0.25m

l 1 11 12 F1

=

a 1 21 22 M 1

with

I=

64

d4 =

64

a = 0.75 m;

b = 0.25 m;

l = 1.0 m.

(0.75) 2 (0.25) 2

a 2b 2

11 =

=

= 1.137 10 4 m/N

10

11

3EIl 3 2.1 10 4.909 10 1

(3a l 2a

=

2

12

3EIl

21 =

al 2 )

{3 (0.75)

=

1 2 0.753 0.75 12 }

3 2.110 4.909 10

11

10

ab(b a )

=

= 3.0314 104 m/N = 12

10

11

3EIl

3 2.1 10 4.909 10 1

22 =

(3al 3a 2 l 2 )

=

3EIl

3 2.11011 4.909 1010 1

1 2 m111 2 I d112

[ A] =

2

2

m1 21 1 I d1 22

and

11m1 12 I d1

21m1 22 I d1

[ R] = 2

and

[ A]

1

=

A

1 2 I d1 22

2 I d112

2

1 2 m111

m1 21

a b

1 d b

since

=

ad bc c a

c d

with

168

From equation (61), we have

2

2 I d112 11m1 12 I d1

1 (1 I d1 22 )

A 2 m112

(1 2 m111 ) 21m1 22 I d1

[C ] = [ A]1[ R ] =

(A)

1

A

2

2

2

2

m11211m1 + (1 m111 ) 21m1 m11212 I d1 + (1 m111 ) 22 I d1

Tangent to shaft

M1

F1

FB

FA

Parallel

of the shaft

F = 0 F = F

1

+ FB

= 0 FBl M 1 F1a = 0

FB = a F1 + 1 M 1

l

l

(B)

so that

FA = FB + F1 = 1 a

) F 1l M

1

(C)

FA (b / l ) (1/ l ) F1

=

FB (a / l ) (1/ l ) M 1

(D)

169

FA

x1

= [ D]

FB

1

(E)

with

m1c12

(b / l ) (1/ l ) m1 (1 + c11 )

I c

I d1 (1 + c22 )

(1/ l ) d1 21

[ D ] = (a / l )

=

1

xA

x1

xB

x1 = x A +

( xb xA ) a = 1 a x

l

a

b

a

xB = x A + xB

l

l

l

(F)

and

1 =

xB x A

= ( 1 / l )x A + (1 / l )x B

l

(G)

x1

xA

= [G ]

1

xB

with

(b / l ) (a / l )

[G ] =

(1/ l ) (1/ l )

170

(H)

FA (b / l )m1 (1 + c11 ) (1 / l )I d1 c 21

=

FB (a / l )m1 (1 + c11 ) + (1 / l ) I d1 c 21

(b / l )m1c12 (1 / l ) I d1 (1 + c 22 ) (b / l ) (a / l ) x A

(a / l )m1c12 + (1 / l ) I d1 (1 + c 22 ) (1 / l ) (1 / l ) x B

FA Z AA

=

FB Z BA

Z AB x A

Z BB xB

(I)

with

{(b / l )m c (1/ l ) I (1 + c )} ( 1/ l ) {(b / l )m c (1/ l ) I (1 + c )} (1/ l )

Z AB

=

Z BB

Z AA

Z

BA

11

1 12

d1 21

d1

22

1 12

11

d1 21

d1

{(a / l )m (1 + c ) + (1/ l ) I c } ( b / l ) + {

{(a / l )m c + (1/ l ) I (1 + c )} ( 1/ l ) {

1

11

1 12

d1 21

d1

22

22

}

}

Since A & B are pinned support x A = xB = 0 even at critical speeds hence Z AA = Z AB = i.e.

Z AB =

FA

= = Z BA . Hence denominator of any of impedance can be put equal to zero to get the

xB

frequency equation. Noting the equation (A), the common denominator of the [Z] matrix (or its

components) are determinant of matrix [A] i.e.

1

or

n4 n2

(m111 + 22 I d1 )

(11 22 12 21 )m1 I d1

1

m1 I d1 (11 22 12 21 )

=0

From the present problem data, we have the frequency equation of the following form

n2 n2

1

+

=0

(10 0.02) (1.137 14.146 3.032 ) 108 (10 0.02) (1.137 14.146 3.032 ) 108

or

171

which can be solved as

n2 =

=

10 4

2

2

n = 29.45 rad/sec

n = 289.23 rad/sec.

and

It is similar to the transfer matrix method, in that it involves a division of the shaft into a number of

smaller elements for the purpose of analysis. The difference is there in system equation formulation

and the response at all stations in the system is determined simultaneously. The method has the

advantage that once the system matrix has been assembled it can be used to calculate system stability

thresholds as well as response and critical speeds. The major disadvantage is that it requires the

storing and manipulation of large matrices and so is more demanding of computer power than is the

transfer matrix method.

Uv

QC

yA

MA

MC

MA

yB

MB

B

QA

QA

(a) A disc

QB

(b) A shaft segment

If a beam element alone as shown in Figure 3.26(b), without concentrated mass, is considered, the

relationships between applied forces and moments and resulting deflections and slopes, are given as

172

M A k11

Q k

A 21

=

M B k 31

Q B k 41

k12

k13

k 22

k 32

k 42

k 23

k 33

k 43

k14 y A

k 24 A

k 34 y B

k 44 b

(76)

Elements of equation (76) can be obtained by rearranging equations (24-26) of the transfer matrix

method. From the transfer matrix method, a field matrix relates state vectors at two stations as follows

1 l l 2

y

2 EI

l

0 1

EI

=

M

1

0 0

Q

0 0

A

0

y

6 EI

l2

2 EI

l M

1 Q B

l3

(77)

y A = yB + l B + ( l 2 / 2 EI ) M B + ( l 3 / 6 EI ) QB

A = b + ( l / EI ) M B + ( l 2 / 2 EI ) QB

(78)

M A = M B lQB

QA = QB

Equation (78) can be regrouped as

l 2

1

y

l

y

2 EI

=

+

A 0 1 B l

EI

6 EI M

Q

l2

B

2 EI

l3

(79)

and

M

0 0 y 1 l M

=

+

Q A 0 0 B 0 1 Q B

On rearranging equations (79-80), we have

173

(80)

1 0 y 1 l y

0 0 M l 2 / 2 EI

=

+

0 1 A 0 1 B 0 0 Q A l / EI

l 3 / 6 EI M

l 2 / 2 EI Q B

(81)

and

0 0 y 0 0 y

1 0 M 1 l M

0 0 + 0 0 = 0 1 Q + 0 1 Q

A

B

A

B

(82)

1

0

0 1 l y 0 0 l 2 / 2 EI

1 0 1 A 0 0

l / EI

=

0 0 0 y 1 0

1

0 0 0 B 0 1

0

l 3 / 6 EI M

l 2 / 2 EI Q A

l M

1 Q B

(83)

k11

k

21

k31

k41

k12

k22

k32

k42

k13

k23

k33

k43

k14 0 0 l 2 / 2 EI

k24 0 0

l / EI

=

k34 1 0

1

k44 0 1

0

l 3 / 6 EI

l 2 / 2 EI

l

1

0

0 1 l

1 0 1

0 0 0

0 0 0

(84)

For the most common type of forcing (i.e. the unbalance) the applied moments and shear forces takes

the form

M A = M Ae j t ;

QA = QAe j t ;

M B = M B e j t ;

QB = QB e jt

(85)

where M A , are complex in general. Deflections and slopes, similarly can be written as

y A = YAe j t ;

A = Ae jt ;

yB = YB e jt ;

B = B e j t

(86)

where YA , are complex in general. Substituting equations (85) and (86) into equation (76), it gives

174

M A k11

QA k21

=

M B k31

QB k41

k12

k22

k13

k23

k32

k42

k33

k43

k14 YA

k24 A

k34 YB

k44 b

(87)

{FB } [u 21 ] [u 22 ] {d B }

(88)

with

M

;

Q

{F } =

Y

;

[u12 ] = k13

{d } =

23

k14

;

k24

Equation (88) can be expanded to allow for the shear forces, moments, slopes and displacements in

the horizontal direction, as

0

[u12 ]

0 {d A }

{FA } [u11 ]

{F } 0

[u11 ]

0

[u12 ] {d Ah }

Ah

0 {d B }

{FB } [u21 ] 0 [u22 ]

{FBh } 0 [u21 ]

0 [u22 ] {d Bh }

(89)

where subscripts: v and h refer to the vertical and horizontal directions. Equation (89) relates to the

forces & moments at ends A and B to displacements at ends A and B. Now considering the forces and

moments acting on the concentrated mass (i.e. disc as shown in Figure 3.26(a)) at the end of the

element, equations of motion for disc mass are

QA + U v Qcv Bv = my;

(90)

M c M A I PAh = I dA ;

M ch M Ah + I PA = I dAh

where I pA is the gyroscopic moment, where B is the bearing force (equal to zero if the station

considered is not a baring location), U is a known imbalance, M is the magnitude of concentrated

mass, I P is the polar mass moment of inertia ( I P = 0 for gyroscopic effects are to ignored) and Id is

the diametral moment of inertia (Id is related to the rotary inertia). Note that the slopes and

175

displacements on each side of the concentrated mass are the same. The bearing reaction force may be

expressed in the form

Bv = Bv e jt ;

Bh = Bh e jt

and

(91)

where Bv and Bh are complex in general. On substituting equation (91) into equation (90) and it

gives: (shear force & bending moment at end A are related with at end C).

QA = B m 2Y + Qc U ;

QAh = Bh m 2 X + Qch U h

(92)

M A = M c jI p Ah + I d Av ;

2

M Ah = M ch + jI p 2 A + I d 2 Ah

QCv

QCh

k11

U + B

2

k21 + m

2

M Ch

jI p

U h + Bh

0

=

M Bv

k31

k41

QBv

0

M Bh

0

QBh

M Cv

k12 I d 2

k22

0

0

0

0

k11

k21 + m 2

jI p 2

0

k12 I d 2

k22

k13

k23

0

0

k14

k24

0

0

0

0

k13

k23

k32

k42

0

0

0

0

k31

k41

0

0

k32

k42

k33

k43

0

0

k34

k44

0

0

0

0

k33

k43

0 YC

0 C

k14 ZC

k24 C

0 YB

0 B

k34 Z B

k44 B

(93)

{ F0 } [ M 00 ] [ M 01 ] {d 0 }

F

{

}

1 [ M 10 ] [ M 11 ] {d1}

(94)

176

where subscripts refer to node numbers and the matrix [ M 0 ] is the dynamic stiffness matrix for

element 0. Similarly for element 1, it will take the form:

{ F0 } M 11

=

{F1} [ M 21 ]

[ M 12 ] {d1}

[ M 22 ] {d 2 }

(95)

where {F1} is similar to {F1 } but also contains imbalance forcing terms and bearing force terms (as

does {F0 } ). Equations (94) and (95) may be combined to eliminate the internal force and moment

terms of the matrix {F1 } and it will give overall equation for element 0 and 1

{ F0 }

[ M 01 ]

[0] {d 0 }

[ M 00 ]

*

{ F1} = [ M 10 ] [ M 11 ] + [ M 11 ] [ M 12 ] {d1}

{ F } [0]

[ M 21 ]

[ M 22 ] {d 2 }

2

(96)

{ }

where { F1} contains only the imbalance and bearing force terms of matrix F1 . Equation (96) may

*

be extended for any number of system elements to give an overall system matrix equation of the form

{F0 }

*

{F1}

*

{F2 }

=

{Fn1}*

{Fn }

{d 0 }

{d }

1

{d 2 }

or {P} = [ Z ]{s}

{d n1}

{d n }*

(97)

The left hand side of equation (97) contains only known imbalance forcing terms, known applied

forces and moments at the shaft ends (usually zero), and unknown bearing reaction forces. Bearing

reaction forces can be found in the following steps

{s} = [ Z ] 1{P}

(98)

Equation (98) will give an expression for displacement at each bearing location. In the case of

bearings, which behave as pinned supports, these expressions can be equated to zero and solved

177

simultaneously to give values for the bearing reaction forces. The back substitution of these forces

into equation (98) then enables the shaft displacements at all other locations to be evaluated. It is

noteworthy that the system dynamic stiffness matrix [Z] is banded about the leading diagonal; this can

be made use of when storing the matrix in the computer, since only non-zero elements values need to

be stored.

Example 3.6 Obtain transverse synchronous critical speeds of a rotor system as shown in Figure 3.27.

Take the mass of the disc, m = 10 kg, the diametral mass moment of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2, the polar

mass moment of inertia, Ip = 0.04 kg-m2. The disc is placed at 0.25 m from the right support. The

shaft is having diameter of 10 mm and total span length of 1 m. The shaft is assumed to be massless.

Take shaft Youngs modulus E = 2.1 1011 N/m2. Neglect gyroscopic effects. Take one plane motion

only.

l=a+b

Solution: Figure 3.28 shows the free body diagram of shaft elements and disc without gyroscopic

effects.

M D QD

QC

(a)

(b)

QA, yA

QC

MA,

A

QB, yB

MB,

B

(c)

MC

(d)

yC = y A

C = A

178

MA

QA

(e)

MC

QD

12 6l 12 6l yD

M

4l 2 6l 2l 2 D

D

= k1

12 6l yC

QC

MC

4l 2 1 C

sym

(A)

with

k1 =

EI

l13

QA

12 6l 12 6l yA

M

4l 2 6l 2l 2 A

A

=

k

12 6l yB

QB

MB

4l 2 2 B

sym

(B)

with

k2 =

EI

l23

QA QC = myC

and M C M A = I dC

QA = QC + myC

and M A = M C I dC

(C)

y A = yC

and

C = A

(D)

179

6l

QC + myC

12

M I

4l 2

C d C

= k2

QB

M B

sym

12 6l yC

6l 2l 2 C

12 6l yB

4l 2 2 B

(E)

For SHM, we have

(12 + m n2 / k2 )

QC

= k2

QB

M B

sym

12

6l

( 4l

I d n2 / k2 )

6l

12

6l yC

2l 2 C

6l yB

4l 2 2 B

(F)

12k1

QD

6l1k1

M

D

12k1

QC + QC

=

M C + M C

QB

6l1k1

M B 0

6l1k1

4l 2 k1

12k1

6l1k1

12k1 + 12k2

6l1k1

2

+ m n

2l k

6l1k1 + 6l2 k2

12k2

6l2 k2

2

1 1

6l1k1

2l12 k1

0

0

6l1k1 + 6l2 k2

12k2

4l12 k1 + 4l2 2 k2

6l2 k2

2

I d n

6l2 k2

12k2

2l2 2 k2

6l2 k2

yD

6l2 k2 D

yC

C

2

2l2 k2

yB

6l2 k2 B

4l2 2 k2

0

0

(G)

y D = y B = 0, M D = M B = 0

(H)

180

4l12 k1

6l1k1

0 6l k 12k1 + 12k2

0 1 1 + m 2

n

=

0

2

2l1 k1

( 6l1k1 + 6l2 k2 )

0

6l2 k2

0

2l12 k1

6l2 k2 D

yC

C

2l22 k2

B

4l22 k2

( 6l1k1 + 6l2 k2 )

4l12 k1 + 4l22 k2

2

I d n

2

2l2 k2

(I)

Equation (I) represents an eigen value problem. The non-trivial solution can be obtained by equating

determinant equal to zero, which will give natural frequencies of the system.

2

n4 (16mI d k1k2l12l22 ) + n2 48k1k2l12l22 m ( k1l12 k2l22 ) + I d ( k2 k1 ) + 144k12 k22l12l22 ( l1 + l2 ) = 0

kg and I d = 0.02 kgm2, we get

n = 44.05 rad/sec

1

n = 193.36 rad/sec

and

Example 3.7 Obtain the bending critical speed of the rotor system as shown in Figure 3.29. Take the

mass of the disc, m = 5 kg and the diametral mass moment of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2. Take shaft

length a = 0.3 m and b = 0.7 m. The diameter of the shaft is 10 mm. Use the dynamic stiffness matrix

method. Neglect the gyroscopic effects.

For a beam element as shown in Figure 3.30, following relations holds

181

12 6l y1

6l 2l 2 1

12 6l y2

4l 2 2

F1

12 6l

M

4l 2

1 EI

= 3

F2 l

M 2

sym

M1, 1 F1, y1

F2, y2

M2, 2

Solution: Figure 3.31 shows the free body diagram of the rotor elements with neglecting the

gyroscopic effects.

(a)

a

(l1)

b

(l2)

Disc

QB

QA

Shaft

l1

MA

QC MC

MB

(b)

Q A MA

(c)

QC

C

(d)

MC

D

l2

QD MD

For shaft segment AC as shown in Figure 3.31(b), we have following relations

QA

12 6l1 12 6l1 QA

M

A EI

= 3

12 6l1 QC

QC l1

M C

4l12 M C

sym

For the disc as shown in Figure 3.31 (c) for SHM, we have

182

(A)

QA = QB n2 y

QA Qb = my

(B)

M B M A = I dB

M A = M B + I d n2

QB m n2 y

12 6l1 l2 6l1 yB

2

4l1 6l1 2l12 B

M b + I d n EI

= 3

12 6l1 yC

QC

l1

M C

4l12 C

sym

(C)

6l1k1

12k1 6l1k1 yB

QB (12k1 + m n2 )

2

2

(4l1 k1 I d n ) 6l1k1 2l12 k2 B

B

12k1 6l1k1 yC

QC

M C

sym

4l12 k1 C

where k1 = EI

(D)

l13

QC 12k 2

M

C

=

QD

M D

6l 2 k 2

4l 22 k 2

12k 2

6l 2 k 2

12k 2

6l 2 k 2 y C

12l 22 k 2 C

6l 2 k 2 y D

4l 22 k 2 D

where k 2 = EI / l 23

183

(E)

QB

(12k1 + m 2 )

6l1 k1

6l1 k1

0

12k1

2

2

2

M

6

(

4

)

6

2

0

l

k

l

k

I

l

k

l

k

B

d

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

QC + QC

(12k1 + 12k 2 )

(6l1 k1 + 6l 2 k 2 ) 12k 2

12k1

6l1 k1

=

6l1 k1

2l12 k1

( 6l1 k1 + 6l 2 k 2 ) (4l12 k1 + 4l 22 k 2 ) 6l 2 k 2

M C + M C

QD

0

0

12k 2

12k 2

6l 2 k 2

M D

0

0

6l 2 k 2

12l 22 k 2

6l 2 k 2

y B

b

6l 2 k 2 y C

12l 22 k 22 C

6l 2 k 2 y D

4l 22 k 2 D

0

0

The boundary conditions are QB = M B = M D = 0 and yC = yD = 0 . On right hand side already third

and fourth columns elements are zero. So fifth row and fifth column has eliminated from equation (3)

and it is given as

(12k1 + m 2 )

6l1k1

6l1k1

(4l1k1 I d 2 )

12k1

6l1k1

6l1k1

2l12 k1

0

0

12k1

6l1k1

6l1k1

2l12 k1

6l2 k2

12l22 k2

y B 0

0

B

6l2 k2 =

c

12l22 k2

D 0

4l22 k2

0

0

( 6l1k1 + 6l2 k2 ) (4l12 k1 + 4l22 k2 )

[ K ]{d } = {0}

The non-trivial solution can be obtained by equating determinant equal to zero, which will give

natural frequencies of the system, as

n4 4mI d k2l22 ( 3k2l22 4k1l12 ) + n2 48k1k2l22 m ( k1l14 k2l12l22 ) + I d ( 3k2l22 k1l12 ) 144k12 k22 l14l24 = 0

Given data: mass of the disc, m = 5 kg, diametral mass moment inertia I d = 0.02 kg-m2, shaft

lengths 0.3 m and 0.7 m. Diameter of the shaft d = 0.01 m. After substituting values k1 = 3.818103

N/m, k2 = 3.005102 N/m, l1 = 0.3, l2 = 0.7, m = 5 kg and Id = 0.02kgm2, we get

n = 41.83 rad/sec

1

and

n = 206.44 rad/sec

2

Exercise 3.6. Obtain the bending critical speeds of an overhang rotor system as shown in Figure E3.6.

The end B1 of the shaft is having fixed end conditions. Length of the shaft is 0.4 m and diameter is 0.1

184

m. The disc is thin and has 1 kg of mass, 0.04 kg-m2 of polar mass moment of inertia and 0.02 kg-m2

of diametral mass moment of inertia. Neglect the mass of the shaft and consider the gyroscopic

effects. Take the shaft speed of 10,000 rpm. Use the dynamic stiffness method.

D1

Figure E3.6

B1

It can be used to calculate the machine natural frequencies without recourse to the numerical

methods. This method gives very crude estimation of natural frequency. From influence coefficient

method the natural frequency of the system is obtained by the following conditions

A = 0

(99)

1

1

2 + (a11m1 + a 22 m2 + a33 m3 ) 2 +

(100)

but for a polynomial whose first coefficient is unity, the second coefficient is equal to minus of the

sum of the roots of the equation

m1 + a22 m2 + a33m3

(101)

2

= m1 / k1 + m2 / k2 + m3 / k3 = 1/ 112 + 1/ 22

+ 1/ 332

(102)

2

1

2

2

2

3

11

where 11 , 22 and 33 are the natural frequencies of the system (i.e. roots of the polynomial in

equation (100)) when only mass m1 , m2 or m3 is present. In most cases the fundamental frequency

1 will be much lower than the other natural frequencies, so equation (4) may be approximated, in

general, to

185

2

1

2

11

2

22

(103)

332

Dunkerley first suggested this. Equation (103) always gives a value for fundamental frequency, which

is slightly lower than the true value, by virtue of the approximation involved.

Example 3.8 Find the fundamental critical speed of the rotor system shown in Figure3.32. Take EI =

2 MN.m2 for the shaft and mass moment of inertia of disc is negligible.

3m

1.5 m

Fixed end

80 kg

100 kg

Solution:

F1

F2

l/2

(a) Case 1

l/2

(b) Case 2

k11 =

3EI

;

l13

k22 =

3EI

l23

with l1 = l

186

and

l2 = l / 2

112 =

3EI

;

m1l13

2

22

=

3EI

m2l23

112 222

m1l13 m2l23

+

= 4.1625 10 4

3EI 3EI

= 49.014 rad/sec

or

(Fundamental frequency)

Exercise 3.7 Find the fundamental bending critical speed of the rotor system shown in Figure E3.7.

B1 and B2 are simply supported bearings and D1 and D2 are rigid discs. The shaft is made of steel with

modulus of rigidity E = 2.1 (10)11 N/m2 and uniform diameter d = 10 mm. The various shaft lengths

are as follows: B1D1 = 50 mm, D1D2 = 75 mm, and D2B2 = 50 mm. The mass of discs are: md1 = 4 kg

and md2 = 6 kg. Consider the shaft as massless and neglect the diametral mass moment of inertia of

both discs.

Figure E3.7

B1

B2

D1

D2

Finite element method is now very popular among all other methods for continuous and complex

rotor-bearing systems. In subsequent chapters we will discuss this method in detail.

187

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