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Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.

in)

3.3 Mechanical Impedance (and Receptance) Method


By this method behavior of complete system is obtained from the behavior of individual
components of the system. It is particularly convenient to use when the characteristics of shaft and
those of bearings are determined from independent experimental or theoretical investigations
carried over a range of frequencies. The simple addition of shaft impedance and bearing
impedance gives the impedance of complete system, which may be used to find system critical
speeds and forced response. General principles are discussed first with reference to a simple
spring-mass system as shown in Figure 3.18(a). Mechanical impedance Z: is defined as the force
required to produce unit displacement. It is generally a complex quantity because of the phase lag
of displacement behind force due to damping.

f
m
fs
x

fm
m
x

(a) A simple
spring-mass
system

(b) Impedance
of spring
alone

(c) Impedance
of spring
alone

(d) Equivalent system for analysis


purpose (since mass & the spring
have same amount of displacement
they can be thought of connected
in parallel)

Figure 3.18 A simple spring-mass system

The impedance of spring alone is given as (Figure 3.18(b))

Zs =

f s kx
=
=k
x
x

(49)

where fs is the force on the spring, x is the corresponding displacement and k is the stiffness of the
spring. The impedance of the mass alone is given as (Figure 3.18(c))

Zm =

f m mx m 2 x
=
=
= m 2
x
x
x

(50)

159

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

where fm is the force on the mass, x is the corresponding displacement, m is the mass and is the
simple harmonic forcing frequency to the system. The spring and mass are effectively connected in
parallel (Figure 3.18(d)) as far as force is concerned. For subsystems connected in parallel the net
system impedance is given by the sum of individual subsystem impedances (for example the
equivalent stiffness of two spring connected in parallel is given by the sum of the individual spring
stiffness). So for the system shown in Figure 3.18(d) the impedance at the forcing point is

Z = Z s + Zm = k 2m

(51)

At the resonance (i.e. forcing frequency is equal to the system natural frequency) system impedance
will be zero (since any force produces an infinite amplitude, exception being when the forcing point is
at a node whereupon impedance tends towards infinitely) so that

k n2 m = 0

that is

n =

k
m

(52)

where n is the natural frequency of the system. It is noteworthy that for subsystems connected in
series, the net system receptance is sum of the individual subsystem receptances (receptance being
the inverse of impedance). The above approach may be applied to machines whose shafts carry many
rotor inertias when the shaft free-free impedance has been determined independently of those of the
bearing, pedestals and foundations. Shaft free-free impedance means the impedance when the shaft is
not constrained at either support point. This can be determined experimentally by suspending the shaft
so that it is supported only in the vertical direction as shown in Figure 3.19, then determining the
impedance horizontal response to a known horizontal forcing. The individual impedances component
impedances may be combined according to the rules described above to determine the impedance of
the complete system.

F(t)

Figure 3.19 Suspended shaft in vertical direction: Free-free end conditions

160

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Line parallel to AB

Tangent to shaft

Light flexible shaft

x
Zero displacement, datum position
Figure 3.20 A flexible rotor under forced excitation

The impedance of a light flexible shaft carrying a number of disc masses may be determined
theoretically as follows. The shaft is considered to be forced, in the first instance, at locations A and B
(see Figure 3.20). The forcing causes the reaction forces and moments F1 , M 1 , F2 , M 2 etc. to be
set up as a consequence of disc mass inertias and these deform the shaft according to the relationship

12
13
14
l 1 11

22
23
24
l 2 21



 


n2
n3
n4
l n n1

=
a 1 n +1,1 n +1,2 n +1,3 n +1,4
a 2 n + 2,1 n + 2,2 n + 2,3 n + 2,4





 
2 n,1 2 n,2 2 n ,3 2 n,4
a n

1,2 n F1
2,2 n F2



n ,2 n Fn

n+1,2 n M 1

n+ 2,2 n M 2

 

2 n,2 n M n


(53)

where ij will be determined from the beam theory and back subscripts : l refers to the linear and a
refers to the angular shaft displacement. In general the loading applied to any rotor mass i to cause its
acceleration is

m Fi

= mi l  + x = 2 mi ( l + x )

(54)

and
m

M i = I di

 + ) = 2 I d

161

( a + )

(55)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

where mi and I di are the disc mass and the disc diametral mass moment of inertia respectively, x and

are shaft linear and angular displacements respectively, caused by movements at shaft locations A
and B and not caused by the inertia forces. The reaction loading on the shaft due to inertia will be

equal and opposite and is given by

Fi = 2 mi ( l + x )

(56)

M i = 2 I di ( a + )

(57)

and

where is the excitation frequency. Substituting equations (56) and (57), written for each disc, into
equation (53), we get

12
13
14
l 1 11

22
23
24
l 2 21
 





n2
n3
n4
1 l n n1
=
2
a 1 n +1,1 n +1,2 n +1,3 n+1,4

a 2 n + 2,1 n + 2,2 n + 2,3 n + 2,4





 
2 n ,1 2 n ,2 2 n ,3 2 n ,4
a n

m1 ( l 1 + x1 )
m ( + x )
2 l 2 2




n ,2 n mn ( l n + xn )

n +1,2 n I d1 ( a 1 + 1 )

n + 2,2 n I d2 ( a 2 + 2 )




2 n,2 n I d ( a n + n )
n

1,2 n
2,2 n

(58)

which can be rearranged as

[ A]{ } = [ R ]{x}
with

(1/ 2 m1a11 )

m1a21
[ A] =


m1a2 n ,1

(59)

m2 a12

(1/

I dn a1,2 n

m2 a22 )

I d n a2,2 n


m2 a2 n ,2

162

(1/

I dn a2 n ,2 n

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

a11m1

a m
[ R ] = 21 1


a2 n,1m1

a12 m2
a22 m2


a2 n ,2 m2

a1,2 n I d n

a2,2 n I dn
;



a2 n ,2 n I dn

l 1

{ } = l 2 ;

a n

x1
x
{ x} = 2

n

(60)

which gives

{ } = [C ]{x}

with

[C ] = [ A]1[ R]

(61)

In general the application of inertia loads Fi and M i to the shaft at some point causes proportional
reaction forces FA and FB at points A and B, where

FA b A1 b A2 Fi
=

FB bB1 bB 2 M i

(62)

the generalized form of equation (62), allowing for all inertias, is

FA bA1 bA2  bA,2 n


=
F1
FB bB1 bB 2  bB ,2 n

F2  Fn

M1

M 2  M n

(63)

where bij may be determined from static equilibrium considerations. Substituting for disc inertia
forces and moments from equations (56) and (57) into equation (63), we get

FA bA1 bA2
=
FB bB1 bB 2

m1 2 ( l 1 + x1 )

2
m2 ( l 2 + x2 )


bA,2 n

2
mn ( l n + xn )

bB ,2 n
I 2 ( a 1 + 1 )
d1

2
I dn ( a n + n )

(64)

On substituting for ' s in equation (64) from equation (61) (i.e. l 1 = c11 x1 + c12 x2 + + c1,2 nn etc.)
then gives

163

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

FA
= [ D ]{x}
FB

(65)

with

[ D ] = 2 bA1

{ x} = { x1

B1

bA 2
bB 2

m1 (1 + c11 )
m1c12
m1c13
m1c1,2 n

bA,2 n m2c21
m2 (1 + c22 ) m2c23
m2 c2,2 n

bB ,2 n






I dn c2 n ,2
I dn c2 n ,3 I dn ( c2 n ,2 n + 1)
I dn c2 n ,1

x2  n }

xB
x
xA

a
l

x = xA +

x A xB
a
l

Figure 3.21 Rigid body linear and angular displacements of the shaft
However, displacements x1 , 1 , x 2 , 2 etc. are related to displacements at forcing points, xA and xB ,
by a relationship of the form

x
{x} = [G ] A
xB

(66)

with

164

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

x1
x
2


{ x} = xn ;

1


n

g11


g
[G ] = g n1
n +1,1


g 2 n,1

g n +1,2


g 2 n ,2
g12

gn2

Element of [G] can be obtained by simple consideration of geometry. Substituting equation (66) into
equation (65), it gives

FA
x A Z AA
= [Z ] =
FB
xB Z BA

Z AB x A

Z BB xB

(67)

with

[ Z ] = [ D ][G ]

where [Z] is the impedance matrix for the shaft and rotor assembly, relating forcing and
displacements at points A and B. In the matrix [Z] now all quantities, one can known by theoretical
analysis. The more general form of equation (67) that allows also for the motion in y-direction is

FxA Z AA
F
xB Z BA
=
FyA 0
FyB 0

Z AB
Z BB
0

0
0
Z AA

Z BA

0 xA
0 xB

Z AB y A

Z BB yB

(68)

The response at any other location along the shaft can be obtained by pre-multiplying inverse of
impedance matrix in equation (68) to get displacements at A and B, then substituting these in
equations (66) and (61). If FB is chosen to be zero, the point A can be chosen as any convenient
location along the shaft and corresponding (direct) impedance so evaluated. Equation (68) can be
expanded for any number of forcing points, for example for third forcing point C

165

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

FxA Z AA
F
xB Z BA
FxC Z CA

=
F 0
yA
FyB 0
F 0
yC




Z AB
Z BB

Z AC
Z BC

Z CB

Z CC 
0

0
 Z AA

Z AB




Z BB
Z CB

0
0

0
0

0
0

Z BA
Z CA

0
0

0 xA
0 xB
0 xC


Z AC y A

Z BC yB
ZCC yC

(69)

If forcing is caused by imbalance and FA and FB are reaction forces at pinned bearing supports, the
forced response of the system can be determined by assigning zero values to xA , xB , y A and yB . From
equation (69) the third and sixth equations gives

Fxc = Z cc xc and Fyc = Z cc yc


which gives displacements at C as

xc = Fxc / Z cc

and

yc = Fyc / Z cc

(70)

From equation (69), 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th equations gives

FxA = Z AC xc ;

FxB = Z BC xc ;

FyA = Z AC yc ; FyB = Z BC yc

(71)

Noting equation (70), equation (71) can be combined as

FxA Z AC
F
xB Z BC
=
FyA 0
FyB 0

0
Z AC

0 xc Z BC
=
Z AC yc 0

Z BC
0

0
0 Fxc / Z cc

Z AC Fyc / Z cc

Z BC

(72)

Equation (72) gives reaction forces at A and B due to forcing at C. These reaction forces may be
substituted back into equation (69), which may be written more generally, to give response at any
other locations as

166

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

xA RAA
x R
B BA
xD RDA

=
y 0
A
yB 0
0
yD

with




RAB
RBB

RAC
RBC

RDB

RDC 
0

0
 RAA

RAB




RBB
RDB

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

RBA
RDA

0 FxA

0 FxB
0 FxD


RAC FyA

RBC FyB
RDC FyD

(73)

[ R ] = [Z ]1

where R are component of receptance matrix. In equation (73), [R] is already known to us
corresponding to new sets of chosen points, {F} matrix is now completely known. So the new xD and

yD can be obtained as

FxA + Z DB
FxB + Z DD
FxC = RDA FxA + RDB FxB + RDD FxD
xD = Z DA

(74)

FyA + Z DB
FyB + Z DD
FyC = RDA FyA + RDB FyB + RDD FyD
yD = Z DA

(75)

and

Example 3.5 Obtain transverse synchronous critical speeds of a rotor system as shown in Figure 3.3.
Take the mass of the disc, m = 10 kg, the diametral mass moment of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2, the polar
mass moment of inertia, Ip = 0.04 kg-m2. The disc is placed at 0.25 m from the right support. The
shaft is having diameter of 10 mm and total span length of 1 m. The shaft is assumed to be massless.
Take shaft Youngs modulus E = 2.1 1011 N/m2. Neglect gyroscopic effects. Take one plane motion
only.
Influence coefficients are defined as:

l=a+b

y 11 12 F
=

21 22 M
with

Figure 3.22 A rotor system

11 = a 2b 2 / 3EIl ;

12 = ( 3a 2l 2a3 al 2 ) / 3EIl

21 = ab(b a ) / 3EIl ;

22 = ( 3al 3a 2 l 2 ) / 3EIl

Solution: Figure 3.23 shows a schematic of the rotor system.

167

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

0.75m

0.25m

Figure 3.23 Schematic diagram of a rotor system

From equation (53), we have

l 1 11 12 F1
=

a 1 21 22 M 1
with
I=

64

d4 =

64

(0.01) 4 = 4.909 x1010 m 4 ;

a = 0.75 m;

b = 0.25 m;

l = 1.0 m.

(0.75) 2 (0.25) 2
a 2b 2
11 =
=
= 1.137 10 4 m/N
10
11
3EIl 3 2.1 10 4.909 10 1

(3a l 2a
=
2

12

3EIl

21 =

al 2 )

{3 (0.75)
=

1 2 0.753 0.75 12 }

3 2.110 4.909 10
11

10

= 3.3031 104 m/N

0.75 0.25 (0.75 0.25)


ab(b a )
=
= 3.0314 104 m/N = 12
10
11
3EIl
3 2.1 10 4.909 10 1

22 =

( 3 0.75 1 3 0.752 12 ) = 1.4146 103 m/N


(3al 3a 2 l 2 )
=
3EIl
3 2.11011 4.909 1010 1

From equation (59), we have

1 2 m111 2 I d112
[ A] =

2
2
m1 21 1 I d1 22

and

11m1 12 I d1

21m1 22 I d1

[ R] = 2

and

[ A]

1
=
A

1 2 I d1 22
2 I d112
2

1 2 m111
m1 21

a b
1 d b
since
=

ad bc c a
c d

with

168

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

A = 4 (11 22 12 21 )m1 I d1 2 (m111 + I d1 22 ) + 1


From equation (61), we have
2
2 I d112 11m1 12 I d1
1 (1 I d1 22 )

A 2 m112
(1 2 m111 ) 21m1 22 I d1

[C ] = [ A]1[ R ] =

(A)

1
A

(1 2 I d1 22 )11m + 2 I d112 21m1 (1 2 I d1 22 )12 I d1 + 2 I d112 22 I d1


2

2
2
2
m11211m1 + (1 m111 ) 21m1 m11212 I d1 + (1 m111 ) 22 I d1

Tangent to shaft
M1

F1

FB

FA

Parallel

Rigid body displacements


of the shaft

Figure 3.24 Displacement of the shaft

From free body diagram of shaft, we have

F = 0 F = F
1

+ FB

= 0 FBl M 1 F1a = 0

FB = a F1 + 1 M 1
l
l

(B)

so that

FA = FB + F1 = 1 a

) F 1l M
1

(C)

Combining equations (B) & (C), we get

FA (b / l ) (1/ l ) F1
=

FB (a / l ) (1/ l ) M 1

(D)

169

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Noting equation (D), from equation (65), we have

FA
x1
= [ D]
FB
1

(E)

with

m1c12
(b / l ) (1/ l ) m1 (1 + c11 )
I c

I d1 (1 + c22 )
(1/ l ) d1 21

[ D ] = (a / l )

( b / l ) m1 (1 + c11 ) (1/ l ) I d1 c21 (b / l )m1c12 (1/ l ) I d1 (1 + c22 )


=

(a / l )m1 (1 + c11 ) + (1/ l ) I d1 c21 (a / l )m1c12 + (1/ l ) I d1 (1 + c22 )

1
xA

x1

xB

Figure 2.25 Rigid body displacement of the shaft

From Figure 2.25, we have

x1 = x A +

( xb xA ) a = 1 a x
l

a
b
a
xB = x A + xB
l
l
l

(F)

and

1 =

xB x A
= ( 1 / l )x A + (1 / l )x B
l

(G)

On combining equations (F) and (G), we get

x1
xA
= [G ]
1
xB

with

(b / l ) (a / l )
[G ] =

(1/ l ) (1/ l )

Hence, from equations (E) and (H), we have

170

(H)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

FA (b / l )m1 (1 + c11 ) (1 / l )I d1 c 21
=
FB (a / l )m1 (1 + c11 ) + (1 / l ) I d1 c 21

(b / l )m1c12 (1 / l ) I d1 (1 + c 22 ) (b / l ) (a / l ) x A

(a / l )m1c12 + (1 / l ) I d1 (1 + c 22 ) (1 / l ) (1 / l ) x B

which can be simplified as

FA Z AA
=
FB Z BA

Z AB x A

Z BB xB

(I)

with

{( b / l ) m (1 + c ) (1/ l ) I c } (1/ l ) + {( b / l ) m (1 + c ) (1/ l ) I c } ( a / l ) +


{(b / l )m c (1/ l ) I (1 + c )} ( 1/ l ) {(b / l )m c (1/ l ) I (1 + c )} (1/ l )

Z AB
=
Z BB

Z AA
Z
BA

11

1 12

d1 21

d1

22

1 12

11

d1 21

d1

(a / l )m1 (1 + c11 ) + (1/ l ) I d1 c21 ( a / l ) +

(a / l )m1c12 + (1/ l ) I d1 (1 + c22 ) (1/ l )

{(a / l )m (1 + c ) + (1/ l ) I c } ( b / l ) + {
{(a / l )m c + (1/ l ) I (1 + c )} ( 1/ l ) {
1

11

1 12

d1 21

d1

22

22

}
}

Since A & B are pinned support x A = xB = 0 even at critical speeds hence Z AA = Z AB = i.e.

Z AB =

FA
= = Z BA . Hence denominator of any of impedance can be put equal to zero to get the
xB

frequency equation. Noting the equation (A), the common denominator of the [Z] matrix (or its
components) are determinant of matrix [A] i.e.

n4 (11 22 12 21 )m1 I d n2 (m111 + I d 22 ) + 1 = 0


1

or

n4 n2

(m111 + 22 I d1 )
(11 22 12 21 )m1 I d1

1
m1 I d1 (11 22 12 21 )

=0

From the present problem data, we have the frequency equation of the following form

n2 n2

(10 1.137 + 0.02 14.146) 104


1
+
=0
(10 0.02) (1.137 14.146 3.032 ) 108 (10 0.02) (1.137 14.146 3.032 ) 108

or

171

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

n4 n2 (8.44 104 ) + 0.7243 108 = 0


which can be solved as

n2 =

+8.44 104 (8.44 104 ) 2 4 0.7243 104 8.44 8.267


=
10 4
2
2

Natural frequencies of the system is given as

n = 29.45 rad/sec

n = 289.23 rad/sec.

and

3.4 Dynamic Stiffness Matrix Method


It is similar to the transfer matrix method, in that it involves a division of the shaft into a number of
smaller elements for the purpose of analysis. The difference is there in system equation formulation
and the response at all stations in the system is determined simultaneously. The method has the
advantage that once the system matrix has been assembled it can be used to calculate system stability
thresholds as well as response and critical speeds. The major disadvantage is that it requires the
storing and manipulation of large matrices and so is more demanding of computer power than is the
transfer matrix method.

Uv
QC

yA
MA

MC

MA

yB
MB

B
QA

QA

(a) A disc

QB
(b) A shaft segment

Figure 3.26 Free body diagram

If a beam element alone as shown in Figure 3.26(b), without concentrated mass, is considered, the
relationships between applied forces and moments and resulting deflections and slopes, are given as

172

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

M A k11
Q k
A 21
=

M B k 31
Q B k 41

k12

k13

k 22
k 32
k 42

k 23
k 33
k 43

k14 y A
k 24 A

k 34 y B

k 44 b

(76)

Elements of equation (76) can be obtained by rearranging equations (24-26) of the transfer matrix
method. From the transfer matrix method, a field matrix relates state vectors at two stations as follows

1 l l 2
y
2 EI


l
0 1

EI
=
M
1
0 0
Q
0 0
A
0

y
6 EI
l2

2 EI
l M

1 Q B
l3

(77)

which can be expanded as

y A = yB + l B + ( l 2 / 2 EI ) M B + ( l 3 / 6 EI ) QB

A = b + ( l / EI ) M B + ( l 2 / 2 EI ) QB
(78)

M A = M B lQB
QA = QB
Equation (78) can be regrouped as

l 2

1
y
l
y

2 EI
=
+
A 0 1 B l
EI

6 EI M
Q
l2
B
2 EI
l3

(79)

and

M
0 0 y 1 l M
=
+

Q A 0 0 B 0 1 Q B
On rearranging equations (79-80), we have

173

(80)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

1 0 y 1 l y
0 0 M l 2 / 2 EI


=
+
0 1 A 0 1 B 0 0 Q A l / EI

l 3 / 6 EI M

l 2 / 2 EI Q B

(81)

and

0 0 y 0 0 y
1 0 M 1 l M
0 0 + 0 0 = 0 1 Q + 0 1 Q

A
B

A
B

(82)

On combining equations (81-82), we get

1
0

0 1 l y 0 0 l 2 / 2 EI

1 0 1 A 0 0
l / EI

=
0 0 0 y 1 0
1

0 0 0 B 0 1
0

l 3 / 6 EI M

l 2 / 2 EI Q A

l M

1 Q B

(83)

which takes the form of equation (76), with

k11
k
21
k31

k41

k12
k22
k32
k42

k13
k23
k33
k43

k14 0 0 l 2 / 2 EI

k24 0 0
l / EI
=
k34 1 0
1

k44 0 1
0

l 3 / 6 EI

l 2 / 2 EI
l

1
0

0 1 l
1 0 1
0 0 0

0 0 0

(84)

For the most common type of forcing (i.e. the unbalance) the applied moments and shear forces takes
the form

M A = M Ae j t ;

QA = QAe j t ;

M B = M B e j t ;

QB = QB e jt

(85)

where M A , are complex in general. Deflections and slopes, similarly can be written as

y A = YAe j t ;

A = Ae jt ;

yB = YB e jt ;

B = B e j t

(86)

where YA , are complex in general. Substituting equations (85) and (86) into equation (76), it gives

174

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

M A k11


QA k21

=
M B k31
QB k41

k12
k22

k13
k23

k32
k42

k33
k43

k14 YA
k24 A

k34 YB

k44 b

(87)

which can be written in more compact form as

{FA } [u11 ] [u12 ] {d A }

{FB } [u 21 ] [u 22 ] {d B }

(88)

with

M
;
Q

{F } =

Y
;

[u12 ] = k13

{d } =

23

k14
;
k24

Equation (88) can be expanded to allow for the shear forces, moments, slopes and displacements in
the horizontal direction, as

0
[u12 ]
0 {d A }
{FA } [u11 ]
{F } 0
[u11 ]
0
[u12 ] {d Ah }
Ah

0 {d B }
{FB } [u21 ] 0 [u22 ]

{FBh } 0 [u21 ]
0 [u22 ] {d Bh }

(89)

where subscripts: v and h refer to the vertical and horizontal directions. Equation (89) relates to the
forces & moments at ends A and B to displacements at ends A and B. Now considering the forces and
moments acting on the concentrated mass (i.e. disc as shown in Figure 3.26(a)) at the end of the
element, equations of motion for disc mass are

QA + U v Qcv Bv = my;

QAh + U h Qch Bh = mx


(90)

M c M A I PAh = I dA ;

M ch M Ah + I PA = I dAh

where I pA is the gyroscopic moment, where B is the bearing force (equal to zero if the station
considered is not a baring location), U is a known imbalance, M is the magnitude of concentrated
mass, I P is the polar mass moment of inertia ( I P = 0 for gyroscopic effects are to ignored) and Id is
the diametral moment of inertia (Id is related to the rotary inertia). Note that the slopes and
175

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

displacements on each side of the concentrated mass are the same. The bearing reaction force may be
expressed in the form

Bv = Bv e jt ;

Bh = Bh e jt

and

(91)

where Bv and Bh are complex in general. On substituting equation (91) into equation (90) and it
gives: (shear force & bending moment at end A are related with at end C).

QA = B m 2Y + Qc U ;
QAh = Bh m 2 X + Qch U h
(92)

M A = M c jI p Ah + I d Av ;
2

M Ah = M ch + jI p 2 A + I d 2 Ah

On substituting equation (92) into equation (89), it gives

QCv

QCh

k11
U + B
2
k21 + m

2
M Ch
jI p

U h + Bh
0
=
M Bv
k31
k41
QBv

0

M Bh

0
QBh

M Cv

k12 I d 2
k22
0
0

0
0
k11
k21 + m 2

jI p 2
0
k12 I d 2
k22

k13
k23
0
0

k14
k24
0
0

0
0
k13
k23

k32
k42
0
0

0
0
k31
k41

0
0
k32
k42

k33
k43
0
0

k34
k44
0
0

0
0
k33
k43

0 YC

0 C
k14 ZC

k24 C

0 YB

0 B

k34 Z B

k44 B
(93)

which can be written as

{ F0 } [ M 00 ] [ M 01 ] {d 0 }

F
{
}
1 [ M 10 ] [ M 11 ] {d1}

(94)

176

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

where subscripts refer to node numbers and the matrix [ M 0 ] is the dynamic stiffness matrix for
element 0. Similarly for element 1, it will take the form:

{ F0 } M 11

=
{F1} [ M 21 ]

[ M 12 ] {d1}

[ M 22 ] {d 2 }

(95)

where {F1} is similar to {F1 } but also contains imbalance forcing terms and bearing force terms (as
does {F0 } ). Equations (94) and (95) may be combined to eliminate the internal force and moment
terms of the matrix {F1 } and it will give overall equation for element 0 and 1

{ F0 }
[ M 01 ]
[0] {d 0 }

[ M 00 ]
*

{ F1} = [ M 10 ] [ M 11 ] + [ M 11 ] [ M 12 ] {d1}
{ F } [0]
[ M 21 ]
[ M 22 ] {d 2 }
2

(96)

{ }

where { F1} contains only the imbalance and bearing force terms of matrix F1 . Equation (96) may
*

be extended for any number of system elements to give an overall system matrix equation of the form

{F0 }

*
{F1}
*
{F2 }

=

{Fn1}*

{Fn }

{d 0 }
{d }
1
{d 2 }

or {P} = [ Z ]{s}

{d n1}

{d n }*

(97)

The left hand side of equation (97) contains only known imbalance forcing terms, known applied
forces and moments at the shaft ends (usually zero), and unknown bearing reaction forces. Bearing
reaction forces can be found in the following steps

{s} = [ Z ] 1{P}

(98)

Equation (98) will give an expression for displacement at each bearing location. In the case of
bearings, which behave as pinned supports, these expressions can be equated to zero and solved

177

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

simultaneously to give values for the bearing reaction forces. The back substitution of these forces
into equation (98) then enables the shaft displacements at all other locations to be evaluated. It is
noteworthy that the system dynamic stiffness matrix [Z] is banded about the leading diagonal; this can
be made use of when storing the matrix in the computer, since only non-zero elements values need to
be stored.
Example 3.6 Obtain transverse synchronous critical speeds of a rotor system as shown in Figure 3.27.
Take the mass of the disc, m = 10 kg, the diametral mass moment of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2, the polar
mass moment of inertia, Ip = 0.04 kg-m2. The disc is placed at 0.25 m from the right support. The
shaft is having diameter of 10 mm and total span length of 1 m. The shaft is assumed to be massless.
Take shaft Youngs modulus E = 2.1 1011 N/m2. Neglect gyroscopic effects. Take one plane motion
only.

l=a+b

Figure 3.27 A rotor system


Solution: Figure 3.28 shows the free body diagram of shaft elements and disc without gyroscopic
effects.

M D QD

QC

(a)

(b)

QA, yA

QC

MA,
A

QB, yB

MB,
B

(c)

MC
(d)

yC = y A

C = A

Figure 3.28 A shaft-disc element free-body diagram

178

MA
QA
(e)

MC

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

For the shaft element DC as shown in Figure 3.28(b), we have

QD
12 6l 12 6l yD
M

4l 2 6l 2l 2 D
D

= k1

12 6l yC
QC

MC
4l 2 1 C
sym

(A)

with

k1 =

EI
l13

For the beam element AB as shown in Figure 3.28(c), we have

QA
12 6l 12 6l yA
M

4l 2 6l 2l 2 A
A

=
k

12 6l yB
QB

MB
4l 2 2 B
sym

(B)

with

k2 =

EI
l23

For a disc as shown in Figure 2.38(e), we have the following relationship

QA QC = myC

and M C M A = I dC

which can be rearranged as

QA = QC + myC

and M A = M C I dC

(C)

Following conditions hold at disc

y A = yC

and

C = A

(D)

179

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Substituting equations (C) and (D) into equation (B), we get

6l
QC + myC
12
M I 

4l 2
C d C

= k2

QB

M B
sym

12 6l yC
6l 2l 2 C

12 6l yB

4l 2 2 B

(E)

yC = n 2 yC and C = n 2 C , from equation (E), we have


For SHM, we have 
(12 + m n2 / k2 )
QC

= k2
QB

M B

sym

12

6l

( 4l

I d n2 / k2 )

6l
12

6l yC

2l 2 C


6l yB


4l 2 2 B

(F)

On combining equations (A) and (F), we get

12k1

QD

6l1k1
M

D

12k1
QC + QC

=
M C + M C
QB
6l1k1


M B 0

6l1k1
4l 2 k1

12k1
6l1k1

12k1 + 12k2
6l1k1

2
+ m n

2l k

6l1k1 + 6l2 k2

12k2

6l2 k2

2
1 1

6l1k1
2l12 k1

0
0

6l1k1 + 6l2 k2

12k2

4l12 k1 + 4l2 2 k2

6l2 k2
2
I d n

6l2 k2
12k2
2l2 2 k2

6l2 k2

yD

6l2 k2 D
yC

C
2
2l2 k2
yB

6l2 k2 B

4l2 2 k2
0
0

(G)

Boundary conditions are

y D = y B = 0, M D = M B = 0

(H)

On application of boundary conditions, equation (G) can be written as

180

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

4l12 k1
6l1k1

0 6l k 12k1 + 12k2

0 1 1 + m 2
n


=
0
2
2l1 k1
( 6l1k1 + 6l2 k2 )
0

6l2 k2
0

2l12 k1


6l2 k2 D
yC
C
2l22 k2
B

4l22 k2

( 6l1k1 + 6l2 k2 )
4l12 k1 + 4l22 k2

2
I d n

2
2l2 k2

(I)

Equation (I) represents an eigen value problem. The non-trivial solution can be obtained by equating
determinant equal to zero, which will give natural frequencies of the system.

2
n4 (16mI d k1k2l12l22 ) + n2 48k1k2l12l22 m ( k1l12 k2l22 ) + I d ( k2 k1 ) + 144k12 k22l12l22 ( l1 + l2 ) = 0

After substituting values k1 = 2.443102 N/m , k2 = 6.597102 N/m, l1 = 0.75 m, l2 = 0.25 m, m = 10


kg and I d = 0.02 kgm2, we get

1.814 105 n4 7.132 109 n2 + 1.316 1013 = 0

Natural frequencies of the system is given as

n = 44.05 rad/sec
1

n = 193.36 rad/sec

and

Example 3.7 Obtain the bending critical speed of the rotor system as shown in Figure 3.29. Take the
mass of the disc, m = 5 kg and the diametral mass moment of inertia, Id = 0.02 kg-m2. Take shaft
length a = 0.3 m and b = 0.7 m. The diameter of the shaft is 10 mm. Use the dynamic stiffness matrix
method. Neglect the gyroscopic effects.

Figure 3.29 An overhang rotor system


For a beam element as shown in Figure 3.30, following relations holds

181

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

12 6l y1
6l 2l 2 1

12 6l y2

4l 2 2

F1
12 6l
M

4l 2
1 EI
= 3
F2 l

M 2
sym
M1, 1 F1, y1

F2, y2

M2, 2

Figure 3.30 Positive sense of beam displacements and forces


Solution: Figure 3.31 shows the free body diagram of the rotor elements with neglecting the
gyroscopic effects.

(a)

a
(l1)

b
(l2)

Disc
QB

QA
Shaft

l1

MA

QC MC

MB

(b)

Q A MA

(c)

QC
C

(d)
MC

D
l2

QD MD

Figure 3.31 Free body diagram of rotor elements


For shaft segment AC as shown in Figure 3.31(b), we have following relations

QA
12 6l1 12 6l1 QA
M

4l1 6l1 2l12 M A


A EI

= 3

12 6l1 QC
QC l1

M C
4l12 M C
sym
For the disc as shown in Figure 3.31 (c) for SHM, we have

182

(A)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

QA = QB n2 y

QA Qb = my

(B)

M B M A = I dB

M A = M B + I d n2

On substituting and rearranging equation (B) into equation (A), we get

QB m n2 y
12 6l1 l2 6l1 yB

2
4l1 6l1 2l12 B
M b + I d n EI

= 3

12 6l1 yC
QC
l1

M C
4l12 C
sym

(C)

On rearranging equation (C), we get

6l1k1
12k1 6l1k1 yB
QB (12k1 + m n2 )

2
2
(4l1 k1 I d n ) 6l1k1 2l12 k2 B
B

12k1 6l1k1 yC
QC

M C
sym
4l12 k1 C
where k1 = EI

(D)

l13

For shaft C-D as shown in Figure 3.31(d), we have

QC 12k 2
M
C
=

QD
M D

6l 2 k 2
4l 22 k 2

12k 2
6l 2 k 2
12k 2

6l 2 k 2 y C
12l 22 k 2 C

6l 2 k 2 y D

4l 22 k 2 D

where k 2 = EI / l 23

By assembling equations (D) and (E), we get

183

(E)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

QB

(12k1 + m 2 )
6l1 k1
6l1 k1
0
12k1


2
2
2
M
6
(
4
)
6
2
0
l
k
l
k
I
l
k
l
k

B
d
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1


QC + QC
(12k1 + 12k 2 )
(6l1 k1 + 6l 2 k 2 ) 12k 2
12k1
6l1 k1

=
6l1 k1
2l12 k1
( 6l1 k1 + 6l 2 k 2 ) (4l12 k1 + 4l 22 k 2 ) 6l 2 k 2
M C + M C
QD

0
0
12k 2
12k 2
6l 2 k 2


M D
0
0
6l 2 k 2
12l 22 k 2
6l 2 k 2

y B

b
6l 2 k 2 y C

12l 22 k 22 C
6l 2 k 2 y D

4l 22 k 2 D
0
0

The boundary conditions are QB = M B = M D = 0 and yC = yD = 0 . On right hand side already third
and fourth columns elements are zero. So fifth row and fifth column has eliminated from equation (3)
and it is given as

(12k1 + m 2 )
6l1k1

6l1k1
(4l1k1 I d 2 )

12k1
6l1k1

6l1k1
2l12 k1

0
0

12k1
6l1k1

6l1k1
2l12 k1

6l2 k2

12l22 k2

y B 0
0
B
6l2 k2 =

c
12l22 k2
D 0
4l22 k2
0
0

(12k1 + 12k2 ) ( 6l1k1 + 6l2 k2 )


( 6l1k1 + 6l2 k2 ) (4l12 k1 + 4l22 k2 )

[ K ]{d } = {0}
The non-trivial solution can be obtained by equating determinant equal to zero, which will give
natural frequencies of the system, as

n4 4mI d k2l22 ( 3k2l22 4k1l12 ) + n2 48k1k2l22 m ( k1l14 k2l12l22 ) + I d ( 3k2l22 k1l12 ) 144k12 k22 l14l24 = 0

Given data: mass of the disc, m = 5 kg, diametral mass moment inertia I d = 0.02 kg-m2, shaft
lengths 0.3 m and 0.7 m. Diameter of the shaft d = 0.01 m. After substituting values k1 = 3.818103
N/m, k2 = 3.005102 N/m, l1 = 0.3, l2 = 0.7, m = 5 kg and Id = 0.02kgm2, we get

5.494 104 n4 + 2.4375 109 n2 4.0967 1012 = 0

Natural frequencies of the system is given as

n = 41.83 rad/sec
1

and

n = 206.44 rad/sec
2

Exercise 3.6. Obtain the bending critical speeds of an overhang rotor system as shown in Figure E3.6.
The end B1 of the shaft is having fixed end conditions. Length of the shaft is 0.4 m and diameter is 0.1
184

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

m. The disc is thin and has 1 kg of mass, 0.04 kg-m2 of polar mass moment of inertia and 0.02 kg-m2
of diametral mass moment of inertia. Neglect the mass of the shaft and consider the gyroscopic
effects. Take the shaft speed of 10,000 rpm. Use the dynamic stiffness method.

D1
Figure E3.6

B1

3.5 Dunkerleys Formula


It can be used to calculate the machine natural frequencies without recourse to the numerical
methods. This method gives very crude estimation of natural frequency. From influence coefficient
method the natural frequency of the system is obtained by the following conditions

A = 0

(99)

For three degrees of freedom system; above equation will give

1
1
2 + (a11m1 + a 22 m2 + a33 m3 ) 2 +

(100)

but for a polynomial whose first coefficient is unity, the second coefficient is equal to minus of the
sum of the roots of the equation

(1/ ) + (1/ ) + (1/ ) = a

m1 + a22 m2 + a33m3

(101)

2
= m1 / k1 + m2 / k2 + m3 / k3 = 1/ 112 + 1/ 22
+ 1/ 332

(102)

2
1

2
2

2
3

11

where 11 , 22 and 33 are the natural frequencies of the system (i.e. roots of the polynomial in
equation (100)) when only mass m1 , m2 or m3 is present. In most cases the fundamental frequency

1 will be much lower than the other natural frequencies, so equation (4) may be approximated, in
general, to

185

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

2
1

2
11

2
22

(103)

332

Dunkerley first suggested this. Equation (103) always gives a value for fundamental frequency, which
is slightly lower than the true value, by virtue of the approximation involved.

Example 3.8 Find the fundamental critical speed of the rotor system shown in Figure3.32. Take EI =
2 MN.m2 for the shaft and mass moment of inertia of disc is negligible.

3m

1.5 m

Fixed end

80 kg

100 kg

Figure 3.32 An overhang rotor system


Solution:

F1

F2

l/2

(a) Case 1

l/2

(b) Case 2

Figure 3.33 Overhang rotor systems with a single disc

For Figure 3.33, we have

k11 =

3EI
;
l13

k22 =

3EI
l23

with l1 = l

186

and

l2 = l / 2

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

112 =

3EI
;
m1l13

2
22
=

3EI
m2l23

The system critical speed is given as

112 222

m1l13 m2l23
+
= 4.1625 10 4
3EI 3EI

= 49.014 rad/sec

or

(Fundamental frequency)

Exercise 3.7 Find the fundamental bending critical speed of the rotor system shown in Figure E3.7.
B1 and B2 are simply supported bearings and D1 and D2 are rigid discs. The shaft is made of steel with
modulus of rigidity E = 2.1 (10)11 N/m2 and uniform diameter d = 10 mm. The various shaft lengths
are as follows: B1D1 = 50 mm, D1D2 = 75 mm, and D2B2 = 50 mm. The mass of discs are: md1 = 4 kg
and md2 = 6 kg. Consider the shaft as massless and neglect the diametral mass moment of inertia of
both discs.

Figure E3.7

B1

B2
D1

D2

Finite element method is now very popular among all other methods for continuous and complex
rotor-bearing systems. In subsequent chapters we will discuss this method in detail.

187