Anda di halaman 1dari 17

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.

in)

CHAPTER 8

ROTORS MOUNTED ON FLEXIBLE BEARINGS


Bearings commonly used in heavy rotating machine play a significant role in the dynamic behaviour
of rotors. Of particular interest are the hydrodynamic bearings, which are self acting and capable of
carrying heavy loads. Because the thin film that separates the moving surfaces supports the rotor load,
these bearing acts like a spring and provide damping due to squeeze film effect. The stiffness and
damping properties of the oil film significantly alter the critical speeds and out-of-balance-response of
a rotor, lowering its critical speed by up to 25 % in practice. In addition, rotor instability occurs,
which is self excited vibration arising out of the bearing fluid film effects and this is an important
factor to be considered in the rotor design. In fluid film bearings, the hydrodynamic pressure is
generated between the bearing and journal surfaces by the motion of the journal, from which the
resultant dynamic bearing force can be derived. For small vibration about the steady state equilibrium
position of the journal, we can define linearized bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. In this
chapter, the fluid film bearing characteristics (coefficients) are discussed for short bearing
approximation. Natural whirl frequency and stability analyses are done for speed independent and
speed dependent bearing characteristics. Guyan condensation scheme is utilized to decrease the size of
system matrices in case of fourteen-element model.

8.1 Fluid Film Bearing Characterstics for Short Bearing Approximation


Fluid film bearing stiffness & damping coefficients, direct as well as cross-coupled, stiffness and
damping can be derived based on short bearing approximation (where pressure variation in the
circumferential direction is assumed to be negligible compared with that in the axial direction and
converse applies for long bearing approximation; Lee, 1993). The stiffness and damping coefficients
are functions of the eccentricity (load), the rotational speed and the temperature. If we evaluate the
linearized coefficients, assuming small changes in displacements and velocities from a steady state
equilibrium position as shown in Fig. 8.1, we may write the equilibrium equation as

f y
k yy
=
k zy
f z

k yz v c yy

k zz w czy

c yz v

czz w

(8.1)

where kij and cij are the stiffness and damping coefficients, with i representing the direction of force
and j representing the direction of displacement and velocity. The eight linearized stiffness and

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

damping coefficients depend on the steady state operating conditions of the journal, and in particular,
upon the rotational speed.

Figure 8.1 Locus of journal equilibrium position for short bearing (Lee, 1993)
For the short bearing, the dimensionless bearing stiffness and damping coefficients as a function of
the steady state eccentricity ratio of bearing, Kij =kijC/W, Cij =cijC/W, i, j = y, z, are given by Lee
(1993),

K yy =

K yz =

K zy =

)
(

(
)

) }

) }

4 2 + 32 + 2 2 + 2 16 2 4 Q ( )
;
1 2
4 2 + 32 + 2 2 + 2 16 2 4 Q ( )

(1 2 )

) }

2 2 2 2 2 16 2 4 Q ( )

(1

) }

K zz = 4 2 2 + 16 2 2 Q ( )

(8.2)

and

C yy =

C zz =

2 2 + 2 24 2 2 + 2 4 Q ( )

(1

(1 ){
2

) }

+ 2 2 8 2 Q ( )

(8.3)

where

Q ( ) =

{ (1 ) + 16 }
2

2 3/ 2

) }

C yz = C zy = 8 2 + 2 2 8 2 Q ( )

S=

361

N r

=
P C

DLN r
W

.
C

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

To determine the stiffness and bearing coefficients of a short bearing, we first determine the
Sommerfield number, S. Here W is the bearing radial load, D is the journal diameter, L is the length of
bearing, is the viscosity of lubricant at operating temperature (usually given in the unit of
centipoise, 1 cp = 1.0054(10)-3 Nsec/m2), = 2N the rotational speed of journal, N the number of
revolutions per second, and C is the radial clearance. The eccentricity of the journal center defined as,
= e/C, where e is the journal equilibrium eccentricity. We can then determine the eccentricity ratio
under steady state operating conditions by
2
(1 2 )
L
S =
D 2 (1 2 ) + 16 2
2

(8.4)

While determining the eccentricity ratio, an iteration procedure is required, as equation (8.4) is
transcendental in nature. A plot of S as a function of eccentricity for L/D=0.5 short bearing according
to equation (8.4) is given in Fig. 8.2.

Fig 8.2 Sommerfield number of short bearing as a function eccentricity ratio


From the given geometric parameters of bearing and its operating conditions the Sommerfield
number, S, can be obtained. From Figure 8.2 eccentricity ratio, , can be obtained for a particular
Sommerfield number. Once the eccentricity ratio is obtained the stiffness and damping coefficients
are obtained from equations (8.2) and (8.3). These are given (For L/D =0.5, bearing load, W =
1181.88 N, radial clearance, C = 0.00254 cm, and viscosity at operating temperature, = 0.0242 N
sec/m2) as a function of speed in Table 8.1 & in Figure 8.3 for direct and cross-coupled stiffness
coefficients and in Table 8.2 & in Figure 8.4 for direct and cross-coupled damping coefficients (these
values will be used for illustration in section 8.4).

362

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Table 8.1
Speed in
rpm

Stiffness coefficients variation with respect to rotational speed


Stiffness coefficients N/m2 (Direct and cross-coupled)
Kyy

Kyz

Kzy

Kzz

1000

3.936821e+09

6.809046e+08

1.623416e+08

7.643129e+07

2000

2.858729e+09

5.830242e+08

1.363980e+08

7.688122e+07

4000

2.105380e+09

5.503287e+08

1.401673e+08

9.913111e+07

6000

1.635817e+09

7.468616e+08

9.895919e+07

7.810302e+07

8000

1.410633e+09

7.170087e+08

9.035882e+07

7.855623e+07

10000

1.267522e+09

3.968864e+08

8.442852e+07

7.892672e+07

12000

1.151563e+09

3.798138e+08

7.929070e+07

7.929333e+07

14000

1.074176e+09

3.679887e+08

7.566316e+07

7.958118e+07

16000

9.898842e+08

3.546709e+08

7.149753e+07

7.994483e+07

19000

9.075716e+08

3.411792e+08

6.717485e+07

8.036354e+07

Table 8.2
Speed in
rpm

Damping coefficients variation with respect to rotational speed


Damping coefficients N sec/m2 (Direct and cross-coupled)
Cyy

Cyz = Czy

Czz

1000

9.771283e+06

7.665431e+05

1.325797e+05

2000

7.186395e+06

3.852731e+05

9.857461e+04

4000

1.943713e+06

3.343040e+05

8.823743e+04

6000

1.071831e+06

1.302347e+05

3.557666e+04

8000

7.507976e+05

9.817935e+04

2.902359e+04

10000

5.720564e+05

7.887238e+04

2.469650e+04

12000

7.565297e+05

6.599767e+04

2.176765e+04

14000

3.793448e+05

5.675179e+04

1.944188e+04

16000

3.201499e+05

7.985925e+04

1.786434e+04

19000

2.595662e+05

7.218133e+04

1.585703e+04

Fig 8.3 Stiffness coefficients variation with


respect to rotational speed

Fig. 8.4 Damping coefficients variation with


respect to rotational speed

363

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

8.2 FEM Formulation for Bearings


The classical linearized model with eight spring and damping coefficients is employed for the
modelling of bearings in the present work. In this model, the forces at each bearing are assumed to
obey the governing equations of the following form

c yy
c
zy

c yz b k yy
{q } + k
czz
zy

k yz b
{q } = { F b }
k zz

(8.5)

where {q b } = {v w} is the bearing displacement vector and cij and kij are the bearing and damping
T

coefficients, and {Fb} is the vector of bearing forces.

8.3 Natural Whirl Frequency and Stability Analysis


The bearing equations of motion (8.5) included in the equations of motion of the rotor substructure,
which include the rotary inertia, shear and gyroscopic effects. The resultant system equations of
motion then becomes

[M ]{q }+ ([C ] [G ]){q }+ ([K ] + [K ]){q } = {0}


s

(8.6)

where [Cb] and [Kb] are the bearing damping and stiffness matrices respectively. To determine the
whirl speeds and stability equation (8.6) can be rewritten as

[A]{h}+ [B]{h} = {0}

(8.7)

where
[ 0]

M s

,
[ A] =
M s C b G s

M s [ 0]
and
[B] =
[ 0]
K s

{q}
{h} =
{q}

(8.8)

The associated eigen value problem for equation (8.7) is sought from an assumed solution form as

{h} = {h0 } et

(8.9)

On substituting equation (8.9) into equation (8.7), we get


(8.10)

[ 0]

1
K s M s

}{

[I ]

{h } = 1 {h }
0
s 1
s 1
s

0
K [ C ] + K G

364

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

where = + j p is the complex eigen values and p is the natural whirl frequency. The real part of
the eigen value indicates the damping in the system at the given speed and it is associated with each
whirl speed. The parameter of logarithmic decrement, , is defined as

2
p

(8.11)

where represents the instability threshold when < 0. The response of a dynamic system is a decay
function, which involves the damping term. In order to get stable response the amplitude of vibration
should decay as time increases. This will happen if the damping index ( < 0) is negative. Eigen
values are of the form v = ip where p is the natural whirl frequency (speed dependent) and is
the damping. The logarithmic decrement is defined as

where

2
p

is negative stable

is positive

is positive unstable

is negative

> 0 stable

< 0 unstable

Campbell diagram can be drawn similar to gyroscopic couple effects. Here also forward and
backward whirls will occur. Stability can be checked by observing the sine of logarithmic decrement.
Eigen vectors will be complex.

Example 8.1 Obtain the assembled system equations of motion by the finite element method for
transverse vibrations of rotor-bearing system as shown in Figure 8.5. Consider shaft as continuous
system i.e. mass and stiffness is distributed continuously throughout the shaft. The shaft is of 1 m of
span and the diameter is 0.05 m with the mass density of 7800 kg/m3. The shaft is supported at ends
by flexible bearings as shown in Figure 8.5. Consider the motion in both the vertical and horizontal
planes. Discretise the shaft into one-element and show elemental equations for the shaft and bearings.
Take the following bearing properties:

365

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

For bearing A: kxx = 20 MN/m, kyy = 15 MN/m, kxy = -1.5 MN/m, kyx = 25 MN/m,
cxx = 200 kN-s/m, cxy = 150 kN-s/m, cyx = 140 kN-s/m, cyy = 400 kN-s/m,
and

for bearing B: kxx = 24 MN/m, kyy = 17 MN/m, kxy = -2.5 MN/m, kyx = 30 MN/m,
cxx = 210 kN-s/m, cxy = 160 kN-s/m, cyx = 135 kN-s/m, cyy = 380 kN-s/m.

shaft

bearings

Figure 8.5 A rotor mounted on flexible supports


Obtained the Campbell diagram to show critical speeds and stability thresholds.

Solution: EOM of the bearing at location 1 in Figure 8.5(b) can be written as

c1yy
1
c zx

1
c1yz u y1 k yy
+ 1
c1zz u z1 k zy

k 1yz u y1 f yb1
=
k 1zz u z1 f zb1

(A)

y
x

x
1

z
z
x
1
(a) A rotor-bearing system

(b) Beam element in two orthogonal planes

Figure 8.5 A uniform shaft mounted on flexible supports


EOM of the bearing at location 2 can be written as
2
c yy
2
c zx

2
c yz2 u y 2 k yy
+

2
c zz2 u z 2 k zy

k yz2 u y 2 f yb2
=
k zz2 u z 2 f zb2

366

(B)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Equations (A) and (B), can be expanded as


c1yy

0
c1zy

0 c1yz
0 0
0 c1zz

2
c yy

0
czy2

0 c 2yz
0 0
0 czz2

0 u y1 k 1yy

0 z1 0
+
0 u z1 k 1zy

0 y1 0

0 k 1yz
0 0
0 k 1zz

0 u y 2 k yy2

0 z 2 0
+
0 u z 2 k zy2

0 y 2 0

0 k yz2
0 0
0 k zz2

0 u y1 f yb1

0 z1 0
=
0 u z1 f zb1

0 y1 0

(C)

0 u y 2 f yb2

0 z 2 0
=
0 u z 2 f zb2

0 y 2 0

(D)

and

Combining equations (C) and (D), we get the EOM of bearings, as


c1yy

0
c1zy

0
0

0
0

0 c1yz
0 0

0
0

0 c1zz
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0
2
0 c yy
0 0
0 czy2
0 0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0 0
0 0
0 c yz2
0 0
0 czz2
0 0

0 u y1 k 1yy

0 z1 0
0 u z1 k 1zy

0 y1 0
+
0 u y 2 0


0 z 2 0

0 u z 2 0
0 y 2 0

0 k 1yz
0 0

0
0

0 k 1zz
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0
0 k yy2
0 0
0 k zy2
0 0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0 0
0 0
0 k yz2
0 0
0 k zz2
0 0

0 u y1 f yb1

0 z1 0
0 u z1 f zb1

0 y 1 0
=
0 u y 2 f yb2

0 z 2 0

0 u z 2 f zb2
0 y 2 0

EOM of the shaft element considering the single element as shown in Figure 8.5(b), is given as

0 54 13 0
0 uy1
156 22 0

4
0
0 13 3
0
0 z1

156 22 0
0
54 13 uz1


4
0
0
13 3 y1
AL

156 22 0
0 uy 2
420


4
0
0 z 2

156 22 uz 2

4 y 2
sym

367

(E)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

6
0
0 12 6
0
0 u y1 S y1
12


6
4
0
0 6 2
0
0 z1 M z1

0
0 12
6
0
0 12 6 u z1 S z1


0
6
4
0
0 6 2 y1 M y1
EI 0
+ 3

=
0 12 6 0
0 u y 2 S y 2
l 12 6 0

2
0
0 6 4
0
0 z 2 M z 2
6


0
0 12 6 0
0 12 6 u z 2 S z 2

0
6
2
0
0 6 4 y 2 M y 2
0

(F)

Combining equations (E) and (F), we get equations of motion of the rotor-bearing system, as
0 54 13 0
0 uy1 c1yy
156 22 0

4
0
0 13 3
0
0 z1 0

156 22 0
0
54 13 uz1 c1zy


4
0
0
13 3 y1 0
AL
+
156 22 0
0 uy 2 0
420

4
0
0 z 2 0

156 22 uz 2 0

4 y 2 0

(12 + k 1yy k ) 6

6
4

1
0
k zy k

0
0
EI
+ 3
l
12
6

6
2

0
0

0
0

0 c1yz

1
zz

0 c
0 0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0 c yy2

0 c yz2

2
zy

0 czz2
0 0

0
0

0
0

k 1yz k

12

12

(12 + k

12

(12 + k

1
zz

k)

0
2
yy

k ) 6

6
k

1
zy

6
2
yz

k /k

(12 + k

2
zz

k)

0 c
0 0

0 u y1

0 z1
0 u z1

0 y1

0 u y 2

0 z 2

0 u z 2
0 y 2

0
b
u y1 S y1 + f y1 0

0 M
z1
0
z1
6 u z1 S z1 + f zb1 0


2 y1 M y1 0
=
+

b
0 u y 2 S y 2 + f y 2 0

0 z 2 M z 2 0
u z 2 S + f b 0
z2
z2
6

M
y2
y2

4

(G)
In the right hand side the first vector represents reaction forces and moments and second vector is
corresponding to the external forces and moments. The reaction force vector will become zero.

[M ]{u} + [c]{u} + [k ]{u} = {0}

(H)

The standard form of the eigen value problem is

{h} = [D]{h}

(I)

368

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

where

[ D ] = 1
[ M ] [ c ]

1
[M ]

;
[ k ]

{u}
{h} =
{u}

(J)

Let

{h} = {h0 }e vt

(K)

Equation (I) becomes


v {h0 } = [ D ] {h0 }

(L)

8.4 Numerical Examples and Discussions


To demonstrate the application of finite element model, a typical rotor bearing system as illustrated in
Fig. 4.11 is analyzed to determine the whirl speeds and stability. The distributed rotor is modelled as
seven and fourteen element member and both the bearings are to be taken identical. The geometric
and physical data of these elements are same as of Example 4.4. The fluid film bearings are idealized
as a linear short bearing (L/D = 0.5) and are located at stations two and seven for the case of sevenelement model and three and thirteen for the case of fourteen-element model. The following two cases
of bearing characteristics are analyzed: (a) Speed independent bearing characteristics and (b) Speed
dependent bearing characteristics.
(a) Speed independent bearing characteristics. Bearing geometric and physical data are as follows:
diameter of the bearing, D = 2.54 cm, length of bearing, L = 1.27 cm, (i.e. L/D = 0.5), radial clearance,
C = 0.00254 cm, and viscosity at operating temperature, = 0.0242 N sec/m2. The direct as well as the
cross-coupled stiffness and damping coefficients are found at spin speed 4000 rpm. These are

369

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

K yyb = 2.1 109 N/m,

K yzb = 0.55 109 N/m, K zyb = 0.14 109 N/m, K zzb = 0.091 109 N/m

C yyb = 1.94 106 N sec/m, C yzb = C zyb = 0.33 106 N sec/m, C zzb = 0.081 106 N sec/m

These bearing characteristics are taken as constants for all other speeds of the rotor i.e. these values
are treated as speed independent characteristics of the bearing for illustration (but we could have take
bearing characteristics at any other spin speeds). In order to illustrate a Jeffcott rotor model (simply
supported massless shaft with a central disk) mounted on flexible identical bearings having direct and
cross-coupled stiffness coefficients (without damping) is analyzed. Critical speeds from the classical
closed form solutions (Rao, 1996; Appendix 8.1) and from the present analysis are tabulated in Table
8.3 for the comparison. It shows that the present code results are in excellent agreement with the
classical solutions.
Table 8.3 Comparisons of critical speeds from classical solutions and from the present analysis for
Jeffcott rotor model (simply supported massless shaft with a central disk) mounted on flexible
identical bearings
Critical speeds from the
Critical speeds from the
classical solutions*
present FEM code
(rad/sec)
(rad/sec) p(7)#
143.85
142.69
140.68

138.92

* (Appendix 8.1), # Values in parentheses denote the number of elements considered.

The whirl frequencies a function of spin speed and the corresponding logarithmic decrements, for the
rotor system shown in Figure 2.3, are tabulated in Table 8.4 for seven-element rotor model. The whirl
frequency map and stability are presented in Fig. 8.5. The letters F and B refers to forward and
backward whirl modes, respectively. The first four critical speeds in forward & backward direction
and logarithmic decrement are tabulated in Table 8.5 for seven and fourteen element models. It is
observed that third & fourth forward whirl mode and all the backward whirl modes are stable for
entire spin-speed envelope studied. Condensation scheme is performed in the case of fourteenelement rotor model. Here all the rotational degrees of freedoms except at lumped mass and bearing
stations taken as slave degrees of freedom (total no. stations = 15, , no. of DOF at each node = 4, total
no. of lumped stations = 4 (at stations 5, 7, 9 & 11), total no. of bearing stations = 2 (at stations 3 and
13), no. of rotational DOF at each node = 2, total no. slave degrees of freedom = (15-6)2 = 18, final
DOF = (154) (92) = 42, final order of eigen value problem = 242 = 84). The first four critical
speeds in forward & backward direction and logarithmic decrement are also tabulated in Table 8.5.
The results show that up to second mode agreement is excellent as compared to the without
condensation scheme, and for third & fourth mode agreement is quite good. The comparison of the

370

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

critical speeds when the rotor is mounted on fluid film bearings is made with the critical speeds when
the rotor is mounted on rigid bearings and is given in Table 8.6. The comparison shows that with the
bearing characteristics the natural whirl frequencies are decreased especially for higher modes.
Table 8.4 Natural whirl frequency and logarithmic decrement as function of spin speed of a rotorbearing system supported on speed independent bearings.
Spin speed
(rad/sec)

0
418.88

837.76

1047.2

1256.64

1675.52

2097.4

Natural whirl frequencies


(rad/sec)
Forward
Backward

Logarithmic decrement
Forward

Backward

115.68
432.75
693.90
883.11
117.28
436.48
697.1
889.49
119.64
443.57
697.29
901.00
120.85
447.37
697.39
907.43
122.08
451.21
697.49
917.02
127.56
458.94
697.69
927.29
127.07
466.63
697.89
940.40

0.0003
0.0165
0.3313
0.0765
-0.010
-0.007
0.330
0.0824
-0.011
-0.006
0.332
0.0809
-0.011
-0.006
0.3367
0.0802
-0.0121
-0.0056
0.335
0.0089
-0.0128
-0.0045
0.337
0.0792
-0.0136
-0.0034
0.341
0.079

0.0013
0.0010
0.3284
0.0022
0.0104
0.0252
0.3334
0.0001
0.0102
0.0244
0.3356
0.005
0.0099
0.0239
0.3337
0.00723
0.0096
0.02340
0.337
0.0797
0.0090
0.0224
0.339
0.0114
0.0084
0.0216
0.3422
0.01261

113.61
420.59
691.98
847.69
112.03
416.75
692.15
838.44
109.75
409.42
692.30
826.25
108.59
405.47
692.36
819.20
107.43
401.43
692.42
811.80
105.13
393.25
692.51
796.32
102.85
387.98
692.58
780.27

Fig. 8.5 Natural whirl frequency map and stability of rotorbearing system supported on speed
independent bearings.

371

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Table 8.5 Critical speeds & logarithmic decrement of a rotor system supported on speed independent bearings

Critical speeds (rad/sec) and (Logarithmic decrement )


P(7)
p(14)
Forward
Backward
Forward
Backward

Mode
No.

#p(14)
Forward
Backward

115.00
117.28
115.10
117.29
115.79
117.48
(0.00709)*
(0.0057)
(0.00709)
(0.0057)
(0.0060)
(0.00636)
2
436.63
417.02
436.63
416.44
435.87
415.28
(-0.0076)
(0.0252)
(-0.0076)
(0.0252)
(-0.0069)
(0.024)
3
697.25
692.40
693.56
691.44
691.35
688.27
(0.3319)
(0.3347)
(0.33054)
(0.33372)
(0.339)
(0.00685)
4
903.13
826.44
902.50
825.96
901.5
812.88
(0.0806)
(0.0058)
(0.08077)
(0.00485)
(0.08030
(0.00392)
* The values in the parenthesis are logarithmic decrements, # Values obtained from condensation scheme by
taking the 18 rotational degrees of freedom as slaves at all nodes except at lumped mass bearing nodes.

Table 8.6 Comparison of critical speeds for the rotors mounted on rigid bearings against the fluid film bearings.

Mode
No.

Critical speeds (rad/sec) Critical speeds (rad/sec) % decrease in


critical
speeds
with rigid bearings
with fluid film bearings
(for
forward
Forward
Backward
Forward
Backward
whirl)

1
2
3
4

116.44
441.83
871.73
1226.35

115.14
427.71
818.5
1135.5

115.00
436.63
697.25
903.13

117.28
417.02
692.40
826.44

1.25
1.19
11.02
26.35

(a) Speed dependent bearing characteristics: The direct as well as cross-coupled stiffness and
damping coefficients are considered as speed dependent. These are calculated from the equations (8.2)
and (8.3) as a function of speed and given in Table 8.1 and 8.2 (For L/D =0.5, bearing load, W =
1888.2 N, radial clearance, C = 0.00254 cm, and viscosity at operating temperature, = 0.0242 N
sec/m2). The natural whirl frequencies, as a function of spin speed is determined from the equation
(8.10) for rotor-bearing system as shown in Figure 2.3. These are tabulated along with the logarithmic
decrement at each spin speed in Table 8.7 for seven-element model and are shown in Fig 8.6. The first
four critical speeds and corresponding logarithmic decrement are tabulated in Table 8.8 for seven and
fourteen element models. It is observed that third & fourth forward whirl mode and all the backward
whirl except fourth modes are stable for entire spin-speed envelope studied. Condensation scheme is
performed in case of fourteen-element model. The selection of slaves and order of eigen value
problem is same as the case (a). Results show that up to second mode agreement is excellent as
compared to the without condensation scheme, and for third & fourth mode agreement is quite good.
At the lower speeds (below 2000 rpm) the natural whirl frequencies happens to be infinite. We would
not able to explain this behaviour.

372

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Fig 8.6 Whirl frequency map of rotorbearing system supported on speed dependent fluid film bearings.

Table 8.7 Natural whirl frequencies and logarithmic decrement as function of spin speed of a rotor
bearing system supported on speed dependent fluid film bearings.
Spin speed
Natural whirl frequencies
Logarithmic decrement
(rad/sec)
(rad/sec)

Forward
Backward
Forward
Backward
107.72

115.84
432.98
577.80
847.36
117.22
436.23
688.97
886.48
119.58
443.54
701.63
907.03
120.80
447.45
707.69
911.44
122.04
451.42
708.42.
918.57
123.28
455.39
711.33
925.42
125.79
463.33
717.10
938.74

418.88

837.76

1047.2

1256.64

1466.08

1887.96

113.23
423.15
573.03
*
111.93
416.23
685.16
838.27
109.69
409.17
700.24
826.74
109.69
405.28
705.60
820.17
109.69
401307
708.98
813.27
109.69
397.26
711.61
806.11
103.96
389.11
716.83
791.30

0.015402
0.002445
3.223702
0.003701
-0.00961
-0.00420
0.565563
0.097201
-0.01337
-0.01158
0.267101
0.076321
-0.01468
-0.01378
0.225162
0.075242
-0.01589
-0.01550
0.192820
0.076812
-0.01691
-0.01676
0.169752
0.078994
-0.01904
-0.01883
0.142446
0.087177

0.012393
0.012912
2.882490
*
0.012579
0.040687
0.530957
0.002730
0.012954
0.029706
0.258887
-0.005129
0.012999
0.028400
0.209098
-0.00795
0.013021
0.027825
0.177773
-0.009921
0.012911
0.02741
0.15542
-0.00110
0.012770
0.027341
0.128098
-0.011441

* Natural whirl frequency becomes infinity.

Table 8.8 Critical speeds & logarithmic decrement of a rotor system supported on speed dependent bearings

Mode
No.
1

Critical speeds (rad/sec) and ( Logarithmic decrement )


p(7)
p(14)
Forward

Backward

Forward

Backward

p(14
Forward
Backward

115.87

113.17

115.90

113.13

115.91

373

113.22

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

(0.01248)
436.82
(-0.0058)
698.07
(0.22574)
909.62
(0.0778)

2
3
4

(0.00113)
416.44
(0.049)
696.01
(0.31872)
827.50
(-0.0077)

(0.0123)
436.40
(-0.0056)
697.36
(0.22129)
905.96
(0.0701)

(0.00113)
416.30
(0.041)
695.53
(0.3042)
827.12
(-0.0072)

(0.0124)
436.44
(-0.0058)
697.34
(0.2249)
906.35
(0.0778)

(0.00114)
416.25
(0.04896)
692.62
(0.3177)
827.5
(-0.00783)

APPENDIX 8.1: Rotor mounted on flexible bearings


For a simple Jeffcott rotor mounted on flexible identical bearings (having direct and cross-coupled
stiffness coefficients with no damping) the frequency equation can be written as (Rao, 1996):

2
1, 2

12 + 22
2

2 22
2 2
1
+ 1 11 2
2

where

12 =
and

K1 =

K1
K
K
K
; 22 = 2 ; 1 = 12 ; 2 = 21
m
m
K1
K2

K 2 K zz (2 K yy + K ) 4 K zy K yz

(2 K zz + K )(2 K yy + K ) 4 K zy K yz

K 12 =

2 K zy K 2

(2 K zz + K )(2 K yy + K ) 4 K zy K yz

K2 =

K 21 =

K 2 K yy (2 K zz + K ) 4 K zy K yz

(2 K zz + K )(2 K yy + K ) 4 K zy K yz
2 K yz K 2

(2 K zz + K )(2 K yy + K ) 4 K zy K yz

Here the following parameters are chosen: Kyy = 2.1 109 N/m2 & Kzz = 0.091 109 N/m2are the
direct stiffness coefficients, respectively and Kyz = 0.55 109 N/m2 & Kzy = 0.14 109 N/m2are the
cross-coupled stiffness coefficients, respectively. These are obtained for short bearing (L/D = 0.5) at
spin speed = 4000 rpm (these are same as those for speed independent bearing). And K = (n)2m is
the stiffness of the simple Jeffcott rotor, n = 145.27 rad/sec (chosen from Table 2.2 for first mode) is
the rigid bearing critical speed and m = 241.2 kg (total mass of four disks) is mass of the central disk
mounted on the shaft. The length and the diameter of the shaft are 3.5 m and 0.00522 m, respectively.

REFERENCES
Lee C.-W., 1993, Vibration Analysis of Rotors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.
Rao, J. S., Rotor Dynamics, New Age International Publishers, Third Edition, 1996.

Exercise 8.1 A long rigid symmetric rotor is supported at ends by two identical bearings. Let the
shaft has the diameter of 0.2 m, the length of shaft is 1 m and the mass density of the shaft material

374

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

equal to 7800 kg/m3. The bearing dynamic characteristics are as follows: kxx = kyy = 1 kN/mm with
other stiffness and damping terms equal to zero. By considering the gyroscopic effect also, obtain
whirl natural frequencies of the system, if rotor is rotating at 10, 000 rpm.

Exercise 8.2 Find the critical speeds of the rotor bearing system shown in Figure E8.2. The shaft is
made of steel with Youngs modulus E = 2.1 (10)11 N/m2 and uniform diameter d = 10 mm. Treat the
shaft as flexible and massless. The mass of the disc is: md = 1 kg with negligible diamentral mass
moment of inertia. Bearings B1 and B2 are identical bearings and having the following properties: kyy
= 1.1 kN/m, kzz = 1.8 kN/m, kyz = 0.2 kN/m and kzy = 0.1 kN/m. The various shaft lengths are as
follows: B1D = 75 mm, and DB2 = 50 mm. Give the detailed steps involved in formulation of the
system equations.

X
Y
B1

B2

Z
Figure E8.2

Exercise 8.3 Obtain critical speeds of a rotor-bearing system as shown in Figure E8.2. The shaft is
made of steel with Youngs modulus E = 2.1 (10)11 N/m2, mass density of = 7800 kg/m3 and
uniform diameter d = 10 mm. Treat the shaft as flexible and having distributed mass. The mass of the
disc is: md = 1 kg with the diamentral mass moment of inertia Id = 0.02 kg-m2 and negligible polar
mass moment of inertia (i.e. gyroscopic effects neglected). Bearings B1 and B2 are identical bearings
and can be assumed as short bearing with L/D = 0.25, D = 10 mm and cr = 1 m. The kinetic
viscosity, , of the lubricant is 28 centi-Stokes at operating temperature ( 400 C ) and the specific
gravity is 0.87. Plot and use the short bearing dynamic parameters as given in Appendix 8.1. The
various shaft lengths are as follows: B1D = 75 mm, and DB2 = 50 mm. Give the detailed steps
involved in formulation of system equations.

Exercise 8.4 (a) Find the bending critical speed of the system shown in Figure E8.2 in which the disc
is made of solid steel with a diameter of 127 mm, and a thickness of 25.4 mm. The mass density of
the steel is 7800 kg/m3. The disc D is placed in the middle of a shaft and the total length of the steel
shaft between bearings is 508 mm, and its diameter is 12.7 mm. The bearings have equal flexibility in
all directions, the constant for either one of them being k = 175 N/m. (b) Solve the same problem as

375

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

part (a) except that the bearings have different vertical and horizontal flexibilities: khoz = 175 N/m and
khoz = 350 N/m for each of the bearings. Neglect the cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and the mass
of the shaft.

Exercise 8.5 Draw the first three modes, associated with the lowest three natural frequencies of a
flexible uniform shaft as hwon In Figure E8.5, with increasing support stiffness i.e.
(i) K = 0 (ii) 0 < K < (iii) K .

Figure E8.5

376